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STRENGTH OF MATERIALS

BY:
DIVINA R. GONZALES
Mechanics of Deformable Bodies
MECHANICS OF DEFORMABLE BODIES- Study
of the relationship between externally applied
loads and their internal effects on deformable
bodies.

RIGID BODY Bodies which neither change in shape and
size after the application of forces
FREE BODY DIAGRAM Sketch of the isolated body
showing all the forces acting on it.

THREE MAJOR DIVISIONS OF MECHANICS
Mechanics of Rigid Bodies Engineering Mechanics
Mechanics of Deformable Bodies Strength of Materials
Mechanics of Fluids Hydraulics
A
P
S =
Where:
S Uniform internal stress
P Axial force
A Uniform cross-sectional area
Perpendicular
Passing through the centroid
P
P
Compressive stress
Tensile stress
SIMPLE STRESS TENSILE STRESS AND COMPRESSIVE STRESS

STRESS unit strength of the body

Which bar is stronger A or B?

Assume that the given loads are the
maximum loads each can carry.

1000N 500N
A=50mm
2

A=20mm
2

BAR A BAR B
PROBLEMS ON SIMPLE STRESS
1.Determine the weight of the heaviest traffic
lighting system that can be carried by the two
wires shown if the allowable stress on wire AB is
90MPa and on wire AC is 110MPa given that the
cross sectional areas of wire AB is 50mm
2
and
that of AC is 80 mm
2
.

35
70
A
B C


3m
4m
3m
3m
3m 3m 3m
A
B
C
H
G
F
E
D
50KN
75KN
50KN
2. Determine the required cross sectional
areas of members BE, CD and CE of the given
truss shown, if the allowable stress in tension
is 120MPa while in compression is 105MPa. A
reduced allowable stress in compression is
given to reduce the danger of buckling.


3. An bronze rod is rigidly attached between a
aluminum rod and a steel rod as shown. Axial loads
are applied at the positions indicated. Find the
maximum value of P that will not exceed a stress in
steel of 140MPa, in aluminum of 90MPa or in bronze of
100MPa.

2P
P
3P
Bronze
A= 200mm
2

Aluminum
A= 500mm
2

Steel
A= 150mm
2

L alum= 3.5m
L br = 2m L st = 1.2m
4. Determine the weight of
the heaviest cylinder that
can be supported by the
structure shown if the
cross sectional area of the
cable is 120mm
2
and its
allowable stress is 80MPa.

A
C B
3m
9m
8m
R
55
200mm
A
600mm
B
5. The figure shows the landing gear of a light airplane.
Determine the compressive stress in strut AB caused by
the landing reaction R=30KN. Neglect the weights of the
members. The strut is a hollow tube, with 40mm outside
diameter and of uniform thickness of 7mm.




In the recently opened World Trade Center, a
showcase of designers work is being featured.
There is a center plate of which is just supported by
three bars. If the weight of the triangular plate is
500N, find the stress in each leg if its cross-sectional
section is 50mmx50mm.

5m
A
C
B
3m
9m
A
6m
3m
3m
4m
C
D
B
8m

The tripod shown supports
the total station which
weighs 10N. Find the
required diameter of the leg
if the maximum allowable
stress in each leg is 25MPa.

A
P
Ss =
Where:
Ss Shearing stress
P Force acting parallel to the area
A Surface area
P
P
Shearing
area parallel
to the load
SHEARING STRESS This arises whenever the
applied loads cause one section of the body to slide
past its adjacent section. The force acts parallel to
the area.
Rivet under Single
shear
LAP JOINT
t
Width
of plate
130mm
P
P
P
P
BUTT JOINT
t
MAIN
PLATE

t
SPLI
CE

P
P/2
t
SPLI
CE

P/2
Rivet under
Double Shear
TYPES OF SHEARING STRESS
2. DOUBLE SHEAR
1. SINGLE SHEAR
P
3. PUNCHING SHEAR
P
P P
SHEARED
AREA
SHEARED
AREA
4. INDUCED SHEAR
LAP JOINT
t
Width of
plate
130mm
P
P
P
P
ENLARGEMENT OF
THE RIVET HOLES
DIAMETER
t
OF THE PLATE

BEARING STRESS
Contact pressure exerted by one body upon another body. Also
know as end stress. The force acts perpendicular to the area.
PROBLEMS ON SHEARING STRESS AND BEARING
STRESS

A circular hole is to be punched out of a plate that has a
shear strength of 40ksi The working compressive
stress in the punch is 50ksi. Compute the maximum
thickness of a plate in which a hole 2.5in in diameter can
be punched. B) If the plate is 0.25in thick, determine
the smallest diameter that can be punched.


The lap joint is connected by three 20mm diameter
rivets. Assuming that the axial load P = 50KN is
distributed equally among the three rivets, find a) the
shearing stress in each rivet; b) bearing stress between
the plate and a rivet and c) the maximum average
tensile stress in each plate.

t=25mm
130mm


b
a
c
u
P
Determine the maximum force P that the top
chord can carry if the allow shearing stress is
50MPa, bearing stress is 60MPa and tensile
stress is 85MPa of the connection shown
a 200mm
b 120mm
c 40mm
d 75mm
u 30

A 25.6 mm diameter bolt having a diameter at the root of the
threads of 21.7mm is used to faster two timbers as shown. The
nut is tightened to cause a tensile force of 34KN in the bolt.
Determine the shearing stress developed in the head of the bolt
and the threads. Also determine the outside diameter of the
washer if the inside diameter is 30mm and the bearing stress is
limited to 0.9MPa.

15mm
17mm
The bracket is supported by inch
diameter pins at A and B (the pin at B fits in
the 45 slot in the bracket). Neglecting
friction, determine the shear stresses in the
pins, assuming single shear.
12in
45
A
B
36in
200lb
Compute the maximum force P that can be
applied to the foot pedal. The inch
diameter pin at B is in single shear, and its
working shear stress is 40000psi. The
cable attached at C has a diameter of 1/8
inch and a working normal stress of
20,000psi.
P
10
A
B
C
T
2
6
2
The figure shows a roof truss and the
detail of the connection at joint B.
Members BC and BE are angle sections
with thickness shown in the figure. The
working stresses are 70MPa for shear in
rivet and 140MPa for bearing stress due
to the rivets. How many 19-mm
diameter rivets are required to fasten the
said members to the gusset plate?
DETAIL OF JOINT B
P
BC

P
BE

10mm
GUSSET PLATE
75X75X6
75X75X13
96KN 200KN 96KN
A
D
C
E
B
H
G
F
4m 4m
4m
4m
6m
THIN WALLED CYLINDERS
LONGITUDINAL
JOINT
CIRCUMFERENTIAL
JOINT
t
D
S
NTIAL CIRCUMFERE

=
2

t
D
S
AL LONGITUDIN

=
4


1.A cylindrical tank 8m in diameter is 12m
high. If the tank is completely filled with
water, determine the required thickness of
tank plating if the allowable stress is
40MPa.

The tank shown in the figure
is fabricated from
Determine the minimum thickness of the
tank plating if the internal pressure is
1.5MPa and the allowable stress is
40MPa.
600mm
400mm
A large pipe called a penstock in hydraulic work is
1.5m in diameter. Here it is composed of wooden
staves bound together by steel hoops, each
300mm
2
in cross-sectional area, and is used to
conduct water from a reservoir to a power house.
If the maximum tensile stress permitted in the
hoops is 130MPa, what is the spacing between
hoops under a head of water of 30m?

A spiral-riveted penstock 1.5m in diameter is
made of steel plate 10mm thick. The pitch of the
spiral or helix is 3m. the spiral seam is a single-
riveted lap joint consisting of 20-mm diameter
rivets. Using SS=70Mpa and Sb=140MPa,
determine the spacing of the rivets along the
seam from a water pressure of 1.25MPa. Neglect
end thrust. What is the circumferential stress?

STRESS
STRAIN
Proportional limit
Elastic limit
Yield Point
Ultimate Strength
Rupture Strength
Actual Rupture
Strength
STRESS- STRAIN DIAGRAM
AE
PL
AXIAL
= o
o o S
L
o
c =
A
P
S =
STRAIN STRESS o o
The strength of the material is not only the criterion that
must be considered in designing a structure. The
stiffness of a material is frequently of equal importance.
Hookes Law states that up to the proportional limit, the
stress is proportional to strain. The constant of
proportionality based from experiment is the modulus of
elasticity.
During a stress-strain test, the unit
deformation at a stress of 35MPa was
observed to be 167x10
-6
m/m and at a
stress of 140MPa it was 667x10
-6
. If the
proportional limit was 200MPa, what is
the modulus of elasticity? Would these
results be valid if the proportional limit
were 150MPa? Explain.
2ft
3m
2ft
Bronze
E=12x10
6
psi
L=4ft
A= 0.25 in
2

A
C
Aluminum
E=10x10
6
psi
L=3ft
A= 0.75 in
2

D
P
2ft
B
The rigid bars AB
and CD are
supported by
pins at A and D.
The vertical rods
are made of
aluminum and
bronze.
Determine the
vertical
displacement of
the point where
the force P
=10kips is
applied. Neglect
the weight so the
member.
Bronze
4 ft
Steel
2 ft
Aluminum
3 ft
P
3P 4P
2P
A (in
2
) E (psi) S (psi)
Steel 0.75 30 x 10
6
20000
Bronze 1.00 12 x 10
6
18000
Aluminm 0.50 10 x 10
6
12000
The compound bar containing steel bronze and aluminum segments
carries the axial loads shown in the figure. The properties of the
segments and the working stresses are listed in the table. Determine the
maximum allowable value of P if the change in length of the entire bar is
limited to 0.08in and the working stresses are not to be exceeded.
A round bar of length L tapers uniformly
from a diameter D at one end to a smaller
diameter d at the other end. Determine the
elongation caused by an axial tensile load P
if E is its modulus of elasticity.
d D E
L P


=
t
o
4
The rigid bars shown are separated by a roller
at C and pinned at A and D. A steel rod at B
helps support the load of 50KN. Compute the
vertical displacement of the roller at C. Answer:
2.82mm
STEEL
E=200x10
6
N/m
2

L=3m
A= 300 mm
2

D
A
P= 30KN
B
C
The rigid bars AB and CD
are supported by pins at
A and D. The vertical
rods are made of
aluminum and bronze.
Determine the vertical
displacement of the
point where the force
P=10kips is applied.
Neglect the weights of
the member. Answer:
0.115 in
3ft
2ft
2 ft
2ft
Bronze
L=4ft
A=0.25in
2

E=12x10
6
ps
i
P
Aluminum
L=3ft
A=0.75in
2

E=10x10
6
psi
Static indeterminacy does not imply that
the problem cannot be solved; it simply
means that the solution cannot be obtained
from the equilibrium equations alone. A
statically indeterminate problem always
has geometric restrictions imposed on its
deformation.
STATICALLY INDETERMINATE MEMBERS
The mathematical expressions of these
restrictions, known as the compatibility
equations, provide us with the additional
equations needed to solve the problem (the term
compatibility refers to the geometric
compatibility between deformation and the
imposed constraints).
Because the source of the compatibility
equations is deformation, these equations
contain as unknowns either strains or
elongations. We can, however, use Hookes law
to express the deformation measures in terms of
stresses or forces. The equations of equilibrium
and compatibility can then be solved for the
unknown forces.
The figure shows a copper rod that is placed in an aluminum
sleeve. The rod is 0.005 inch longer than the sleeve. Find the
maximum safe load P that can be applied to the bearing plate,
using the following data: Answer: 60.3kips
0.005
copper
alum
Bearing plate
10 in
COPPER ALUMINUM
Area (in
2
) 2 3
E (psi) 17x10
6
10x10
6

S (ksi) 20 10
A reinforced concrete column 250mm in diameter is
designed to carry an axial compressive load of 400KN.
Using the allowable stress in concrete of S
conc
=6MPa and S
steel
= 120MPa, determine the required area of reinforcing
steel. Assume E
conc
=14GPa and E
steel
= 200GPa. Answer:
1320mm
2

Steel
240mm
Copper
160mm
Copper
160mm
A rigid block of mass M is supported by three
symmetrically spaced rods as shown. Each copper rod
has an area of 900mm
2
E
copper
=120GPa and the allowable
stress is 70MPa. The steel rod has an area of 1200mm
2
,
E
steel
=200GPa and allowable stress of 140MPa.
Determine the largest mass M which can be supported.
Answer: 22.3x103Kg
400KN
steel aluminum
steel 250mm
0.1mm

Before the 400KN load is applied, the rigid platform rests on two
steel bars each of cross-sectional area of 1200mm
2
, as shown.
The cross-sectional area of copper is 2400mm
2.
.

Compute the
stress in each rod after the 400KN load is applied. Neglect the
weight of the platform. E
steel
=200GPa E
aluminum
=70GPa.
The composite bar is firmly attached to unyielding supports.
Compute the stress in each material caused by the
application of the axial load P=50kips. b) If the maximum
allowable stress in each material is S
alum
=22psi and
S
steel
=40psi, find the maximum P that the structure can
support.

Aluminum
A=3.25 in
2

E=10x10
6
psi
Steel
A=5.5 in
2

E= 29x10
6
psi
12in
25in
P

Aluminum
Steel
A in mm
2
600 800
E in GPa 70 200
The rigid beam is supported by the two bars shown in a
horizontal position before the load P is applied. If P=200KN,
determine the stress in each rod after its application. B) Find
the vertical movement of P. c) If the allowable stress in
aluminum is 80MPa and steel is 120MPa, find the maximum
load P that the system can carry

P

3m
3m 3 m
L=4.5 m
L=6 m steel
aluminum
It is well known that changes in
temperature cause dimensional changes
in a body. An increase in temperature
results in expansion, whereas a
temperature decrease produces
contraction.
THERMAL STRESS
T E TS A =o
T L A =o o
The thermal deformation is:
Where o = coefficient of thermal expansion and AT=
change in temperature.

The thermal stress is:
PROBLEMS ON THERMAL
STRESS AND THERMAL
DEFOMATION
A steel rod with a cross-sectional area of
150mm
2
is stretched between two fixed
points. The tensile load at 20C is 5000N.
What will be the stress at -20C? At what
temperature will the stress be zero? o
steel
=
11.7x10-6/C and E=200GPa.
Answer=127MPa ; T= 34.2C
Two identical steel bars 500mm long support
the rigid beam shown. An aluminum bar is
placed exactly in between them, that is
0.1mm shorter. a) If the rigid beam is
weightless determine the change in
temperature for the middle bar to just touch
the beam. b) If the beam weighs 300KN, find
the stress in each bar. c) If the beam weighs
250KN, determine the stress in each bar
when the temperature raises 35C d) If the
beam weighs 320KN, determine the stress in
each bar when the temperature drops 25C.
steel aluminum
steel 500mm
0.1mm
Aluminum Steel
A in mm
2
2400 1200
o in x 10-
6
/C 23 11.7
E in GPa 70 200
The composite bar is firmly attached to unyielding supports.
The initial temperature is 80F when the load P = 20kips is
applied, compute the stress in when the temperature is
150F and when the temperature is 5F.

Aluminum
A=3.25 in
2

E=10x10
6
psi
o= 12.8x10
-6
/F
Steel
A=5.5 in
2

E= 29x10
6
psi
o= 12.8x10
-6
/F


12in
25in
P

Aluminum
Steel
A in mm
2
600 800
o in x 10-
6
/C 23 11.7
E in GPa 70 200
The rigid beam is supported by the two bars shown in a
horizontal position before the load P is applied. If
P=200KN, determine the stress in each rod after an
increase in temperature of 40C B) drop of 65C.

P

3m
3m 3 m
L=4.5 m
L=6 m steel
aluminum
It is a structure usually horizontal acted upon
by transverse loads (forces that acts
perpendicular to the plane containing the
longitudinal axis of the beam)
W N/m
W N/m
P

axis beam

axis beam
BEAMS
P
P
W N/m
P
W N/m
Beams supported such that the number of reacting
forces equals the number of available equations
static equilibrium conditions,

Simply Supported
Cantilever Beams
Beams with Overhang
Statically Determinate
W N/m
W
2
N/m
W
1
N/m
W N/m
W N/m
P F
Concentrated Loads
Uniformly Distributed

Triangular

Trapezoidal

Parabolic Loads




TYPES OF LOADS
Uniformly Varying Loads
Moving Loads
( )
left
y
F V

=
( ) ( )

= =
right left
M M M
The fundamental definitions of shear and
bending moments are expressed by

and
in which upward acting forces or loads cause positive
effects. The shearing force V should be computed only in
terms of the forces to the left of the section being
considered: the bending moment M may be computed in
terms of the forces to either the left or the right of the section
depending on which requires less arithmetical work.
dx
dv
w =
dx
dM
v =
Relations between load,
shear moment are given by:
= slope of the shear diagram
= slope of the moment diagram
( )
left
y
F V

=
( ) ( )

= =
right left
M M M
diagram load
A V V

+ =
1 2
daigram Shear
A M M

+ =
1 2
These relations are amplified to provide a
semi graphical method of computing shear
and moment which supplements the
equations
and


A summary of the principles presented suggests the
following procedure for the construction of shear and
moment diagrams
1. Compute the reactions

2. Compute the values of shear at the change of load
points using
3. Sketch the shear diagram, drawing the correct
shape and concavity of the shear diagram.

4. Locate the points of zero shear.

5. Compute values of bending moment at the change
of load points and the points of zero shear using
6. Sketch the moment diagram

PROPERTIES OF THE SHEAR DIAGRAM
1. At every change of loading we have to
investigate our shear.
2. For concentrated loads or reactions the left and
right portion of the point where they are acting must
be investigated
3. Whenever we have a concentrated load or
reaction there will always be a vertical line in the
shear diagram
4. The shear diagram is one degree higher than the
load diagram
Negatively
increasing load
Negatively
decreasing load
Positively
decreasing load
Positively
increasing load
Concavity of the circle corresponds to the
concavity of the shear diagram
Reference of the Concavity of the Shear Diagram

Note: When M=0 ( point of inflection) there is a
change of the concavity of the elastic curve of beam
PROPERTIES OF THE MOMENT DIAGRAM
1. For every change in shear diagram, the moment
must be investigate
2. Consider only the moment at any point and not the
left and the right portion of the point except when we
have a moment load or reaction
3. Analyze the point where the shear intersects the
reference line (V=0) since when shear is zero moment
is maximum or minimum
4. Vertical line will only be observed in the moment
diagram whenever we have a moment load or reaction
5. The concavity of the moment diagram depends upon
the load: if the load is downward, moment diagram is
downward
6. The moment diagram is one degree higher than the
shear diagram
DESIGN FOR FLEXURAL STRESS

1. A cantilever beam, 75mm wide by 200 mm
high and 6m long carries a load that varies
uniformly from zero at the free end to 1500
N/m at the wall. (a) Compute the magnitude
and location of the maximum flexural stress
(b) Determine the type and magnitude of the
stress in a fiber 25mm from the top of the
beam at section 2.5m from the free end.

5000N
1m 3m

3m
2000N/m
b
200mm
2. Determine the minimum width b
of the beam shown if the flexural
stress is not to exceed 10Mpa.
3. A 2 diameter bronze bar is used as a
simply supported beam 8ft long.
Determine the largest uniformly distributed
load, which can be, applied over the right
half of the beam if the flexural stress is
limited to go 10ksi?
4. A simply supported rectangular yacal
beam, 75mm wide by 150mm deep,
carries a uniformly distributed load of 2250
N / m over its entire length. What is the
maximum length of the beam if the flexural
stress is limited to 18 Mpa?

5. A simply supported beam 6m long is
composed of two C 200x28 channels riveted back
to back. What uniformly distributed load can be
carried, in addition to the weight of the beam,
without exceeding a flexural stress of 125 MN/m
2

if (a) the webs are vertical and (b) the webs are
horizontal. Refer to Appendix B for channel
properties.

6. A beam with a S380 x 74 section is
simply supported at the ends. It supports a
central concentrated load of 40 kN and a
uniformly distributed load of 15 kN/m over
its entire length, including the weight of the
beam. Determine the maximum length of
the beam if the flexural stress is not to
exceed 130 Mpa. Refer to Appendix B for
properties of S shapes.



7. A beam 15 m long is simply supported 2 m
from each end. It is a builtup made of four angle
bars 100x75x13, with long legs horizontal (see
Table B-6) welded to a flat bar 25mmx300mm as
shown in the figure. Determine the total
uniformly distributed load that can be carried
along its entire length without exceeding a
flexural stress of 120 MPa.

8. A beam with a W2360x33section
(see Table B-2) is used as a
cantilever beam 7.5 m long. Find the
maximum uniformly distributed load
which can be applied over the entire
length of the beam, in addition to the
weight of the beam, if the flexural
stress is not to exceed 140 MN / m
2


9. A 12-m beam simply supported at
the ends carries a uniformly distributed
load of 20kN / m over its entire length.
What is the lightest W shape beam that
will not exceed a flexural stress of
120MPa ? What is the actual stress in
the beam selected?




10. A simply supported steel beam 10m
long carries a uniformly distributed load of
18kn/m load over the entire length and a
central concentrated load of 25Kn.
Determine the lightest Wide flanged section
that can be used to support the load. What
is the actual resulting stress in the beam
selected.

11. A cantilever wooden beam is
composed of two segments with
rectangular cross sections. The width of
each section is 75mm but their depths
(150mm and 250mm) are different, as
shown in the figure. Determine the
maximum bending stress in each beam.
2m
1.5m
50KN
UNSYMMETRICAL SECTION DESIGN
FOR BENDING STRESS
The previous discussions are all about beams
symmetric with respect to the neutral axis. Because
flexural stress vary directly with distance from the
neutral axis of symmetric beams, which is the
centroidal axis, such beam sections are desirable
for materials that are equally strong in tension and
compression.
However, for materials relatively weak in tension and strong in
compression such as cast iron, it is desirable to use beams
that are unsymmetrical with respect to the neutral axis. With
such a cross section, the stronger fibers can be located at a
greater distance from the neutral axis than the weaker fibers.
The ideal treatment for such materials is to locate the
centroidal or neutral axis in such a position that the ratio of the
distances from it to the fivers in tension and in compression is
exactly the same as the ratio of the allowable stresses in
tension and in compression. The allowable stresses thus
reach their permitted values simultaneously.
1. A cast-iron beam carries a uniformly distributed load
on a simple span. Compute the flange width b of the
inverted T section so that the allowable stresses
f
b(tension)
=30MPa and f
b(compression)
=90MPa reach their
limits simultaneously.
y
c

y
t

120mm
20mm
NA
20mm
b
L
W N/m
2. Compute the maximum tensile and
compressive stresses developed in the
beam that is loaded and has the cross-
sectional properties shown.
30mm
25mm
125mm
4m 1m
10KN/m
8KN
100mm
3. Determine the maximum safe value of W that
can be carried by the beam shown if given the
following allowable stresses f
b(tension)
=60MPa and
f
b(compression)
=90MPa
6W KN
W W
2m 8m 2m
35mm
80mm
20mm 20mm
DESIGN FOR SHEARING STRESS
The vertical shear sets up numerically equal
shearing stresses on longitudinal and transverse
sections, which are determined from:

Ib
VQ
f
v
=
Q=AB in which A is the partial area of the cross
section above a line drawn through the point at which
the shearing stress is desired. Q=Ay is the static
moment about the NA of this area (or of the area below
this line).
Maximum shearing stresses occur at the
section of maximum V and usually at the NA.
For rectangular beams, the maximum shearing
stress is

bh
V
f Max
v
2
3
. =
.

1. Draw the shearing stress
distribution for a rectangular beam
75mmx200mm which is simply
supported on a 10m beam with a load
of 20KN/m over the entire length.

2. Determine the maximum and minimum
shearing stress in the web of the wide flange
section if V=120KN.

30mm
300mm
220mm
180mm
3. The distributed load shown is supported by a
box beam shown using four pieces of 50mm x
250mm plank of Molave timber. Determine the
maximum safe value of w that will not exceed a
flexural stress of 10 MPa or a shearing stress of
1MPa.

4. The distributed load shown is supported by a wide-
flange section W 360x45 of the given dimensions.
Determine the maximum safe w that will not exceed a
flexural stress of 140 MPa or a shearing stress of 75
MPa.

2m 4m
DESIGN FOR FLEXURE AND SHEAR

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