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A1yn Fanaupe

Hek-nuc1. Kak usexa1u rnynmx omuok, nepymux k


qa1anuumu nocnepc1nunu



Iaeauoe A. Uer-.ucm: Kar usoerami e.vnix ouuoor, eeovuux r qama.iui+ noc.eocmeu+: AHBHHHA
HABHHLEP; Mocrea; 2014
ISBN 978-5-9614-3455-2
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 2

Auuo1auun

are ca+ie +uoeoonimuie npoqeccuoua.i epe+ om epe+euu oonvcramm ouuoru.
Hu:eeo ue nonuueui, :e.oeer uecoeepueueu. Ho rar oimi e cumvauu, roeoa ueoo.iua,
rasa.oci oi, on.ouuocmi, +orem npueecmu r :e.oee:ecru+ repmea+, rar omo c.v:aemc v
.em:uroe, xupvpeoe, cnacame.e? H.u r nomepe ue+a.ix oeuee, rar e ousuece?
Uer-.ucm vuura.iui no ceoe npocmome u oeueeusue uucmpv+eum roumpo. rpumu:uix
norasame.e rarooeo oe.a u.u npoecca. Bueopumi eeo npocmo, no.isoeamic u+ vooouo, u, rar
norasieaem +upoeo onim, ou noseo.em cvuecmeeuuo corpamumi :uc.o ouuoor e ca+ix
pasuix cqepax rusuu.

A1yn Fanaupe
Hek-nuc1. Kak usexa1u rnynmx omuok, nepymux k
qa1anuumu nocnepc1nunu

Xaumepv, Xommu u Vo.repv


2009, 2010 by Atul Gawande
Hsanne na pyccxom xstxe, nepeno, o]opmnenne. OOO AHIHHHA
HAFHHBEP, 2014
3nexrponnoe nsanne. OOO Antnnna Hannmep, 2014


Rpepucnonue

nmnm omartcx co cnonm onoxamnnxom no mennnncxomy nncrnryry, xoropt ceuac
paoraer xnpyprom omero npo]nnx n Can-upannncxo. Mt paccxastnaem pyr pyry o
neotuntx cnyuaxx, xax +ro npnnxro y xnpypron. Onaxt xon nonean mne o napne, xoroporo
ocrannnn n nout X+nnoynna c xonoro-pesano pano. On tn na xocrmmnponanno neuepnnxe,
re nosnnxna mymnax ccopa, n n nrore ouyrnncx n ontnnne.
Cocroxnne ero tno cranntntm, one napent ne ncntrtnan, npocro tn ntxn n uro-ro
opmoran, opamaxct x xomane rpanmaronoron. Emy paspesann oexy n rmarentno ocmorpenn
nce reno. On tn cpene xomnnexnnn, necnn npnmepno 80 xr, a nect nnmnn xnpox
cocpeorounncx n onacrn xnnora. Hmenno ram tna pana axxyparnoe, c sanexmecx xpontm
ornepcrne pasmepom 5 cm, pacxptnmeecx xax pttx nacrt, ns xoropo xstuxom ropuan cantnnx
cnerno-ropununoro nnera. 3ro tn nmenno cantnnx ns pmmnnt, a ne xenronart cno
noxoxno xnpono rxann. Bpauam cneonano t pantme ornpannrt nannenra n onepannonnym,
urot nponepnrt, ne nonpexena nn pmmnna, n samnrt pany. Ho xon pemnn: nnuero
crpamnoro.
Ecnn t pana tna rxxeno, xnpypram t npnmnoct, ne memxax nn mnnyrt, muart napnx
na xaranxe n onepannonnym, mececrpam n cnemxe roronnrt xnpyprnuecxn nncrpymenr, a
anecresnonoram oropnartcx or ncropnn onesnn n ymart o onepannn. Ho pana xasanact
npauam nerxo, n onn pemnnn, uro y nnx eme ocrarouno npemenn. Hoxa roronnnn
onepannonnym, nannenr npoonxan nexart na nocnnxax n npnemnom noxoe rpanmaronornn.
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 3
Bpyr mececrpa samernna, uro on samonuan, ero cepnenenne yuacrnnoct, a rnasa
saxarnnnct. Kora ona noropmomnna napnx, on ne orpearnponan. Mececrpa nosnana na nomomt,
n ncxope n nomemenne cexannct cnennanncrt rpanmaronornuecxoro orenennx. Kponxnoe
annenne y nocrpaanmero onpeenxnoct c rpyom. Emy ncrannnn rpyxy n txarentnoe ropno n
crann narnerart nosyx n nerxne. Ononpemenno nnonnn ]nspacrnop n enann nepennnanne
xponn. Ho annenne ne nonnmanoct.
Tontxo renept npaun pocnnnct n onepannonnym, ronxax nnepen cex xaranxy; mececrpt
saerann, urot nororonnrt nncrpymenr x onepannn, anecresnonor oropnancx or urennx ncropnn
onesnn, a neuamn npau nnnn n xnnor nannenra nenym yrtnt anrncenrnxa. xon onnm
nnxennem cxantnenx ncxptn napnm pmmnym nonocrt or rpyno xnerxn o nynxa.
Hpnxnranne.
On nponen naxoneunnxom repmoxayrepa no noxoxno xnpono rxann, orenxx ee cnepxy
nnns, a sarem mexy pmmntmn mtmnamn yrnynncx n coennnrentnorxannym oonouxy
]acnnm. Hpoonxax norpyxartcx n pmmnym nonocrt, xon npyr ynnen, xax ns xnnora
nannenra ]onranom ptsnyna xpont.
Tontxo +roro ne xnarano!
Kpont tna noncmy. Hox nanaanmero nponnx n reno onee uem na 30 cm, nponn xoxy,
xnponym rxant, mtmnt, npomen mexy xnmxamn n nenee nosnonounnxa nonan rouno n aopry
rnannym aprepnm, nymym ns cepna.
uymt xaxax-ro, cxasan xon.
Ha nomomt npnmen nropo xnpypr, xoropomy yanoct nepexart aopry ntme rouxn
npoxona. Kpont nepecrana reut ecxonrpontno, n xnpypram yanoct naxonen cnpannrtcx c
cnryanne. Konnera xona samernn, uro raxoro panennx emy ne npnxonnoct nnert co npemen
nternamcxo nont.
3ameuanne oxasanoct nectma xcrarn, nocxontxy, xax yanoct nnocnecrnnn ysnart xony,
nropo yuacrnnx nnnnenra, nponsomemero na xocrmmnponanno neuepnnxe, tn oer n
conarcxym ]opmy, n y nero na noxce nncen mrtx-nox.
Hannenr eme necxontxo ne naxonncx mexy xnsntm n cmeprtm, no n xonne xonnon
ntxapaxancx, xorx, ncnomnnax o +rom cnyuae, xon ncera coxpymenno xauan ronono.
Cymecrnymr rtcxun cnryann, xora xonoro-pesanax pana moxer npenonecrn cmpnpns. Ho
n annom cnyuae pnraa npaue nce enana npannntno: onn nponsnenn rmarentnt ocmorp
nannenra, nocroxnno xonrponnponann yponent ero xponxnoro annennx, nyntc n uacrory
txannx, cnennn sa rem, naxonrcx nn ontno n cosnannn, enann nnyrpnnennte nnnnannx,
snonnnn n anx xponn nx roro, urot nm nororonnnn xpont nyxno rpynnt, a raxxe nnonnn
xarerep n mouerounnx, urot moua ecnpenxrcrnenno ntxonna ns oprannsma. Ho nnxomy ns
unenon xnpyprnuecxo pnrat ne npnmno n ronony nonnrepeconartcx nn y nannenra, nn y
npaue cxopo nomomn, xaxnm opyxnem tno naneceno panenne.
ne mor axe npenonoxnrt, uro y xoro-nnyt n Can-upannncxo ecrt mrtx-nox,
rontxo n mor cxasart xon.
Onaxt on paccxasan mne eme o onom nannenre, xoroporo onepnponann no nonoy paxa
xenyxa, y nero npyr nponsomna ocranonxa cepna
1
. xon ncnomnnaer, xax on nocmorpen na
+xpan monnropa n cnpocnn y anecresnonora: 3ro uro acncrona? Acncrona osnauaer nonnoe
npexpamenne cepeuno exrentnocrn. Ha xapnorpa]e ona ntrnxnr xax npxmax nnnnx, cnonno
monnrop ne noxnmuen x nannenry.

1
uamnnnx n nmx nannenra no npocte xona ne coomamrcx. Hpu+. aem .

Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 4
Anecresnonor ornernn Hanepnoe, nnnxa ns poserxn ntnana, nocxontxy nnxro ne mor
nonepnrt, uro cepne nannenra ocranonnnoct. Emy tno no 50, n on nponsnonn nneuarnenne
soponoro uenonexa. Onyxont y nero onapyxnnn cnyuano. Myxunna oparnncx x repanenry c
xanoo na xament, a norom eme noxanonancx na nsxory. He concem na nsxory emy xasanoct,
uro ee ntstnaer nnma, xoropax sacrpenaer n nnmenoe. Bpau norpeonan cenart
penrrenorpa]nm xenyxa c ncnontsonannem pacrnopa apnx rycro xnxocrn monounoro
nnera. Ananns noxasan, uro n nepxne uacrn xenyxa nannenra ecrt nonoopasonanne pasmepom c
mtmt, xoropoe nepnonuecxn ntstnano nenpoxonmocrt. Onyxont onapyxnnn nonpemx,
npnsnaxon ee pocra ne tno. Enncrnenntm ntxoom ocrananact racrp+xromnx, nnn nonnoe
yanenne xenyxa. Ha +ry onepannm otuno rpeyercx ne onee uertpex uacon.
Xnpyprnuecxax pnraa yxe cenana nononnny ena. Onyxont tna yanena. Hponem
nnxaxnx ne npennenoct. Bpaun xax pas conpannct noccranannnnart xenyouno-xnmeunt
rpaxr nannenra, xora monnrop noxasan ocranonxy cepna. Hxrt cexyn ymno na ro, urot
nponepnrt noxnmuenne npnopa x cern. Anecresnonor yenncx, uro n conno aprepnn nyntc ne
onpeenxercx. Cepne myxunnt ocranonnnoct.
xon copnan c nannenra crepnntnte can]erxn n npncrynnn x xomnpeccnonnomy cxarnm
rpyno xnerxn. Hpn xaxom naannnnannn ns ncxptro pmmno nonocrn noxastnannct
xnmxn. Mececrpa noana cnrnan o ocranonxe cepna.
B +rom mecre xon cenan naysy n cnpocnn menx, xax t x nocrynnn na ero mecre.
nauan ncxart npnunny. Acncrona nosnnxna no npemx ceptesno onepannn. Ho+romy
nepnoe, uro mne npnmno n ronony, +ro ontmax xpononorepx. Hyxno nnonrt ]nspacrnop n
cmorpert, re naunercx xponoreuenne.
Anecresnonor yman rax xe. Ho nepe xonom naxonnact ncxptrax pmmnax nonocrt
nannenra, n xponoreuennx ne tno, o uem on ryr xe coomnn anecresnonory.
Tor ne mor nonepnrt, ncnomnnan xon, n npoonxan rnepnrt, uro es ontmo
xpononorepn ne oomnoct. Ho ono orcyrcrnonano.
ne ncxnmunn npexpamennx noaun xncnopoa, no+romy npenoxnn nonnocrtm orxptrt
nenrnnt annapara. Kpome roro, nyxno tno cenart naoparopnt ananns xponn, urot
ncxnmunrt nmte anomannn.
xon nornepnn, uro onn ymann rax xe. Ho noaua xncnopoa oxasanact nopmantno.
uro xacaercx anannsa xponn, ro na +ro norpeonanoct t ne menee 20 mnnyr, a raxoro xonnuecrna
npemenn y pnrat ne tno.
Moxer, y nannenra cnyunncx nnenmoropaxc
2
? Ho coornercrnymmnx nnemnnx npnsnaxon ne
nanmanoct, a c nomomtm crerocxona npocnymnnanoct nnxenne nosyxa n npanom n nenom
nerxom.
Ocrananact rontxo nerounax +monnx. pemnn, uro crycrox xponn ocrnr cepna n
napymnn xponorox. 3ro cnyuaercx xpane pexo, no y onxonornuecxnx ontntx no npemx
ceptesno onepannn raxoro ncxnmuart nentsx. Hpn +rom cenart nx nannenra moxno ne rax yx
mnoro. urot cnona sanycrnrt cepne, nyxno art ontmym osy +nnne]pnna apenannna, no n
annom cnyuae +ro npx nn t nomorno.
xon cxasan, uro ero pnraa npnmna x raxomy xe ntnoy; 15 mnnyr nenpxmoro maccaxa
cepna nn x uemy ne npnnenn. Cnryannx xasanact esntxono. Cpen rex, xro npnmen na
nomomt, tn rnannt anecresnonor, xoropt naxonncx n onepannonno, xora ontnomy
anann napxos. Hocne ero yxoa nce mno cnonm uepeom, no xon nonaran, uro xro-ro nce-raxn

2
Cxonnenne nosyxa nnn rason n nnenpantno nonocrn. Hpu+. peo .

A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 5
conepmnn omnxy.
On cnpocnn y naxonnmerocx nce npemx n onepannonno anecresnonora, nce nn ror enan
xax otuno n re 15 mnnyr, xoropte npemecrnonann ocranonxe cepna.
Tor saymancx, a norom ncnomnnn, uro coepxanne xannx n xponn nannenra, cyx no
pesyntraram anannsa, oxasanoct nnsxnm, xorx nce ocrantnte noxasarenn tnn n nopme. H
anecresnonor pemnn nnecrn ontnomy xann, urot ncnpannrt cnryannm.
Kax xe x mor +ro ynycrnrt! Hnsxoe coepxanne xannx xnaccnuecxax npnunna ocranonxn
cepna. Ona ynomnnaercx no ncex yuennxax. Houemy x +ro npornxen! Hnsxn yponent xannx
moxer npnnecrn x ocranonxe cepna, no upesmepnoe ero xonnuecrno roxe upenaro nerantntm
ncxoom. Hmenno rax rocyapcrno npnnonr n ncnonnenne cmeprnte npnronopt npecrynnnxam.
Inannt anecresnonor nonpocnn narn ynaxonxy or nneennoro nannenry xannx. Ee namnn
n mycopno xopsnne, n ryr nce crano xcno. Anecresnonor no omnxe ncnontsonan ne ry
xonnenrpannm coepxanne xannx n 100 pas npentmano nopmy. pyrnmn cnonamn, on an
nannenry cmeprentnym osy.
Hpomno cnnmxom mnoro npemenn, urot nonxrt, moxno eme cnacrn ontnoro nnn ner. Ho c
+roro momenra nce yxe snann, uro nyxno npenpnnxrt. Myxunne cenann yxont nncynnna n
rnmxost, urot nonnsnrt yponent roxcnunocrn xannx. Onn onxnt tnn noecrnonart mnnyr
uepes 15, uro tno neonycrnmo onro. Ho+romy nannenry nnyrpnnenno nnenn xantnn n
cenann nnranxnnm antyrepona, nocxontxy +ro nexapcrno ecrnyer snaunrentno tcrpee.
Vponent xannx tcrpo naan, n n xonne xonnon cepne nannenra cnona sannoct.
Xnpyprnuecxax pnraa nepexnna raxo crpecc, uro ne tna ynepena, yacrcx nn e
onecrn onepannm o xonna. Bpaun n mececrpt ne rontxo uyrt ne ynnn nannenra, no axe ne
cpasy nonxnn, xax +ro cenann. Onepannm onn nce-raxn sanepmnnn, no xon, ntx ns
onepannonno, paccxasan pocrnennnxam o rom, uro cnyunnoct. H emy, n ero nannenry nonesno
myxunna ntsoponen, cnonno t n ne tno nponsomemero no npemx onepannn +nnsoa.

B ncropnxx, xoroptmn xnpyprn enxrcx pyr c pyrom, uacro ]nrypnpymr raxne
neoxnannocrn, xax mrtx-nox n Can-upannncxo nnn ocranonxa cepna, n cnryannxx, xora nce
xasanoct conepmenno nopmantntm. Kax npannno, n +rnx paccxasax cntmnrcx coxanenne o
ynymenntx nosmoxnocrxx nnn ocaa ns-sa xaxo-ro omnxn. Mt paccxastnaem o rom, xax
cnacaem xnsnn n xax nnora repnnm neyaun, es xoroptx nnxro ns npaue ne oxonrcx. 3ro
uacrt name paort. Mt xornm, urot y nac tno nce no xonrponem, onaxo paccxast xona
sacrannnn menx saymartcx na rem, uro mt ecrnnrentno moxem xonrponnponart, a uro ner.
B 1970-e rr. ]nnoco]t C+mment Ioponnn n Anacep Maxnnrap onynnxonann neontmoe
+cce o npnpoe uenoneuecxnx omnox. Ono nonanoct mne na rnasa, xora x eme rontxo ocnannan
npo]eccnm xnpypra, n c rex nop ne nepecram ymart na +ry remy. Ioponnn n Maxnnrap
ntrannct ornernrt na nonpoc, nouemy mt enaem omnxn n xaxono name npenasnauenne n +rom
mnpe. Ono ns npnunn, nasnanntx ]nnoco]amn, tna neoxonmax omnounocrt, nocxontxy
nexoropte ecrnnx, xoropte mt xornm conepmnrt, naxoxrcx sa npeenamn namnx
nosmoxnocre. axe ycnnennte camtmn conepmenntmn rexnonornxmn, namn ]nsnuecxne n
ymcrnennte cnoconocrn orpannuent. Fontmax uacrt +roro mnpa n Bcenenno naxonrcx n
yer naxonrtcx sa npeenamn namero nonnmannx n xonrponx.
Tem ne menee cymecrnymr c]ept, n xoroptx mt moxem xonrponnponart nce. Mt ymeem
crponrt neocxpet, npecxastnart cnexnte ypn, cnacart nmcxne xnsnn npn cepeuntx
npncrynax n noxentx panax. B raxnx c]epax, xax yxastnamr Ioponnn n Maxnnrap, y nac ecrt
no xpane mepe ne npnunnt, no xoroptm mt moxem conepmnrt omnxy.
Hepnax +ro neneenne. Mt moxem enart omnxn noromy, uro nayxa ne aer nam nonnoro
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 6
snannx o rom, xax ycrpoen mnp. Ecrt neocxpet, xoropte mt noxa ne snaem, xax nocrponrt.
Ecrt cnexnte ypn, xoropte mt ne ymeem npecxastnart, n ecrt nn]apxrt, xoropte mt ne
ymeem neunrt. Bropo npnunno namnx omnountx ecrnn ]nnoco]t nastnamr name
neymenne, xora snannx cymecrnymr, no mt ne moxem nx npannntno npnmennrt. Cxaxem, mt
nenpannntno crponm neocxpe, n on pymnrcx, nnn nponcxoxr cnexnte ypn, npnsnaxn
xoroptx mereoponorn ymypxmrcx npocmorpert. Haxonen, npaun satnamr cnpocnrt, uem tna
nanecena pana nannenry.
ymax o paccxasanntx xonom cnyuaxx xax o rpynocrxx, c xoroptmn mennnna
cranxnnaercx n nauane XXI n., x ne mor ne nopasnrtcx romy, nacxontxo nsmennnoct coornomenne
mexy neneennem n neymennem. Honyuaercx, uro na nporxxennn nce ncropnn nmcxnmn
xnsnxmn ynpannxer neneenne. 3ro cranonnrcx rem onee ouennntm, xora peut saxonr o
onesnxx. Mt mano snaem o nx npnunnax n o rom, uro nyxno enart, urot or nnx nsannrtcx.
Onaxo n nocnenne necxontxo ecxrnnern, npnuem nmenno na +rom orpesxe npemenn, nayxa
ypannxna coornomenne mexy nesnannem n neymennem.
Paccmorpnm nn]apxrt. Eme n cepenne 1950-x rr. npaun nmenn cmyrnoe npecrannenne o
rom, xax nx neunrt n npeynpexart. Mt ne snann, nanpnmep, o onacnocrn ntcoxoro xponxnoro
annennx, no axe ecnn t y nac tnn raxne snannx, ro mt ne mornn t nx npnmennrt. Hepnoe
esonacnoe nexapcrno nx neuennx rnneprensnn tno cosano n ncntrano rontxo n 1960-e rr. Mt
nnuero ne snann nn o ponn xonecrepnna, nn o renernxe, nn o npee xypennx nnn naere.
Fonee roro, xora y uenonexa nponcxonn nn]apxr, mt c rpyom cee npecrannxnn, uro c
nnm enart. anann nannenry oesonnnammee, nnora nponnctnann xncnopo n crporn
nocrentnt pexnm na mnorne neenn. Emy sanpemanoct axe nontsonartcx ymem, urot ne
narpysnrt ontnoe cepne. Ocrananoct rontxo monnrtcx n naexrtcx na uyo, urot nannenr
noxnnyn ontnnny n ocranmymcx uacrt xnsnn nponen oma xax nnnann-cepeunnx.
Ceronx, naoopor, y nac ecrt c ecxrox meroon, nosnonxmmnx ymentmnrt nepoxrnocrt
nn]apxra. Hanpnmep, xonrpont sa aprepnantntm annennem, nasnauenne crarnna nx
ymentmennx yponnx xonecrepnna n nocnannrentntx nponeccon, cnnxenne coepxannx rnmxost
n xponn, perynxpnte ]nsnuecxne ynpaxnennx, oxasanne nomomn npn orxase or xypennx, a ecnn
axe nocne ncero +roro cepne ne nepecraer onert, ro nannenra nanpannxmr x xapnonory nx
nonyuennx ononnnrentntx pexomenann. Ecnn y uenonexa cnyunncx nn]apxr, ro ceronx mt
moxem npnernyrt x nenomy pxy +]]exrnnntx meroon neuennx, xoropte ne rontxo cnacamr
xnsnt, no n ymentmamr npe, nanocnmt cepny onesntm. V nac ecrt menxamenrosnte
cpecrna pasnoxnponxn xoponapntx aprepn, ecrt annonnte xarerept, noccranannnnammne
xponorox, n ecrt xapnoxnpyprnx, nosnonxmmax oorn sanoxnponannte cocyt. Mt nonxnn,
uro n nexoroptx cnyuaxx nannenry ocrarouno nasnaunrt nocrentnt pexnm, xncnopo,
acnnpnn, crarnnt n rnnorensnnnte npenapart, n uepes napy ne ero moxno ntnncart omo,
nx nocrenennoro nosnpamennx x npnntunomy opasy xnsnn.
Ho ceuac mt cranxnnaemcx c nponemo nexomnerenrnocrn, nnn xomnerenrnocrn, ecnn
peut ner o npannntnom npnmenennn snann. Hs-sa onnnx nmemmnxcx napnanron axe
ontrnt xnnnnnncr ncntrtnaer rpynocrn npn nasnauennn neuennx nn]apxrnomy ontnomy.
Onxrt xe, nne sanncnmocrn or ntpannoro meroa npauy ne yaercx nsexart nponem n
ocnoxnenn. Hanpnmep, nponeennte nccneonannx noxastnamr, uro ncnontsonart annonnte
xarerept nmeer cmtcn ne nosnee uem uepes 90 mnnyr c momenra rocnnrannsannn ontnoro c
nn]apxrom. Ho nx ncreuennn nepoxrnocrt ero cnacennx pesxo naaer. 3ro osnauaer, uro sa
cunrante mnnyrt mennnncxax pnraa onxna nponecrn nce anannst nx xaxoro nannenra,
rocnnrannsnponannoro no nonoy one n rpyn; nocrannrt npannntnt narnos n cocrannrt
nnan neuennx; ocynrt ero c nannenrom n nonyunrt cornacne na npenaraemoe neuenne;
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 7
yenrtcx, uro y ontnoro ner anneprnn n pyrnx nponem mennnncxoro xapaxrepa, xoropte
neoxonmo yuecrt; nororonnrt pnray npaue n naoparopnm xarerepnsannn, ocrannrt rya
nannenra n nauart neuenne.
Kaxona nepoxrnocrt roro, uro otunax ontnnna cmoxer ynoxnrtcx n nonropa uaca? B
2006 r. ona cocrannxna menee 50 %.
3ror npnmep nentsx nasnart nernnnuntm. Taxoro poa neyaun otunoe xnnenne n
mennnne. Hccneonannx noxastnamr, uro ne menee 30 % ontntm c nncyntrom npaun nasnauamr
nenonnoe nnn nenpannntnoe neuenne. To xe xapaxrepno nx 45 % acrmarnxon n 60 % nannenron c
nnenmonne. Cenart nce npannntno saaua nemtcnnmo cnoxnocrn axe rora, xora uenonex
snaer, uro nyxno npenpnnxrt.
B reuenne xaxoro-ro npemenn x ntramct nonxrt npnunnt nanontmnx rpynocre n
crpeccon n mennnne. H eno ne n entrax, nosnnnn npannrentcrna, onacnocrn oxasartcx n cye
no onnnennm no npaueno omnxe nnn n pasopxax co crpaxontmn xomnannxmn, xorx n +ro
nrpaer cnom pont. Bnnonart nospocmax cnoxnocrt nayuntx npecrannenn n ro nanpxxenne,
xoropoe nosnnxaer, xora mt ntraemcx peannsonart oemannx nayxn. 3ro ne rontxo
amepnxancxax nponema. cranxnnancx c ne n n Enpone, n n Asnn, n n orartx crpanax, n n
entx. Fonee roro, x moemy ynnnennm, x onapyxnn, uro raxax cnryannx xapaxrepna ne rontxo
nx mennnnt.
Cnoxnocrt npo]eccnonantntx snann cymecrnenno nospocna n pasnnuntx c]epax
uenoneuecxo exrentnocrn, n, xax pesyntrar, nam crano rpynee peannsontnart +rn snannx. 3ro
nnno xorx t no romy, xax uacro nnacrn omnamrcx npn nosnnxnonennn crnxnntx ecrnn
yparanon nnn ropnao. 3a nocnenne uertpe roa na 36 % ntpocno xonnuecrno cyentx ncxon
npornn npoxypopon, conepmammnx npanonte omnxn. Hanonee uacrte cpen nnx npocrte
amnnncrparnnnte omnxn, nanpnmep neconmenne cpoxon paccmorpennx en, sannnunnanne
raex, a raxxe nenepnoe npnmenenne crare saxona. Bt cranxnnaerect c omnxamn n
xomntmrepntx nporpammax, nnnre nx n neyauax nnocrpanntx cnencnyx, n anxporcrne
anxon no cyrn, nese, re mt cranxnnaemcx c neoxonmocrtm onaart ntcoxnm macrepcrnom
ncnonnennx nnn ontmnm oemom snann.
Btpaorart npannntnoe ornomenne x noontm omnxam nam ne amr namn +monnn. Mt
moxem npocrnrt neneenne. Ecnn orcyrcrnyer cranapr roro, xax onxna ntnonnxrtcx
xonxpernax paora, ro mt payemcx axe romy, uro uenonex crapaercx. Onaxo, ecnn rpeyemte
snannx cymecrnymr, no tnn nenpannntno npnmenent, namemy nosmymennm ner rpannn. Kaxo
cmtcn mt nxnatnaem n cnona, xora ronopnm, uro nononnna ontntx c nn]apxrom nonpemx ne
nonyuamr mennnncxo nomomn? uro mt nmeem n nny, xora yrnepxaem, uro ne rpern
cmeprntx npnronopon ormenxmrcx ns-sa cyentx omnox? Bet necnyuano ]nnoco]t ann
+ro xareropnn omnox raxoe esxanocrnoe nasnanne uev+euue . Hpana, re, xoro +ro xacaercx,
nastnamr +ro no-pyromy ueooc+omp nnn axe xa.amuocmi .
Onaxo camn ncnonnnrenn (r. e. re, xro neunr ontntx, npnmenxer saxont, npocro
pearnpyer na nyxt nme) cunramr, uro npn raxom noxoe ne npnnnmaercx no nnnmanne ncx
cnoxnocrt ntnonnxemo paort. Kaxt ent pacrer oem roro, uem nyxno ynpannxrt, uro
npnxonrcx ncnpannxrt n uemy cneyer yunrtcx. Hpn raxo cnoxnocrn cnryannn omnxn
nosnnxamr or upesmepnoro crapannx, a ne or orcyrcrnnx raxonoro. Ho+romy n ontmnncrne
npo]eccn npnnxro ne naxastnart sa omnxn, a noompxrt nontmenne xnann]nxannn.
B cnyuaxx, paccxasanntx xonom, ynnnrentno ro, uro on onn ns nyumnx xnpypron,
xoroptx x snam n xoropt yxe onee 10 ner sannmaercx npaxrnuecxo xnpyprne. Hpn +rom mo
pyr ne ncxnmuenne. Ocnonnax nponema ne n namnx nnnnnyantntx cnoconocrxx. B
ontmnncrne onacre npo]eccnonantnax nororonxa crana nnrencnnnee, uem xora-nno. Hmn
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 8
rparxr rot, sannmaxct no 60, 70 n axe 80 uacon n neenm, ntcrpannax cnom asy snann n
naxannnnax ontr, npexe uem npncrynnrt x camocroxrentno npaxrnxe. H ne naxno, xro onn
npaun, npenoanarenn nyson, mpncrt nnn nnxenept. Hmn crpemxrcx x
camoconepmencrnonannm. Ceronx axe rpyno npecrannrt, nacxontxo eme moxno nontcnrt
npo]eccnonannsm. Tem ne menee omnxn conepmamrcx c npexne uacroro, necmorpx na ro uro
nnnnnyantnoe macrepcrno xaxoro cnennanncra pacrer.

Bor xaxo oxasanact cnryannx na nauano XXI n. Mt naxonnnn orpomnte snannx, mt
nnoxnnn nx n pyxn camtx opasonanntx, camtx oyuenntx n camtx rpyonmnntx
npecrannrene namero omecrna. C nomomtm +rnx snann onn ecrnnrentno conepmamr
nenoopasnmte nemn. Tem ne menee nonyuennte snannx uacro oxastnamrcx neynpannxemtmn.
Hmn npoonxamr conepmart omnxn, xoroptx moxno tno t nsexart. Hsnnmne ronopnrt,
uro onn emopannsymr n cosamr omymenne rmernocrn ycnnn, uero t +ro nn xacanoct
mennnnt, ]nnancon, nsneca nnn nnacrn. Hpn +rom mt nce uerue ocosnaem npnunny namnx
omnox: oem n cnoxnocrt nonyuenntx snann memamr nam npannntno, esonacno n naexno
nocnontsonartcx nx nnoamn. 3nannx, xora-ro anmne nam cnooy, npenparnnnct n name pemx.
3ro osnauaer, uro no nsexanne omnox nam nyxna nonax crparernx, xoropax
ononpemenno yunrtnaer n naxonnennt ontr, n nannune y nme onpeenenntx neocrarxon.
H raxax crparernx cymecrnyer, xorx, na nepnt nsrnx, ona moxer noxasartcx nsnnmne npocro,
axe npnmnrnnno rem, xro onrne rot norparnn na cosanne onee conepmenntx nantxon n
rexnonorn.
3ra crparernx nastnaercx uex-nncr.

Fnana 1
Rponeua ucknmuu1enuuo cnoxuoc1u

Hexoropoe npemx nasa n xypnane Annals of Thoracic Surgery npnnonncx cnyua,
onncannt cyxo nposo mennnncxo crartn. 3ro tn nacroxmn xommap, cnyunnmncx n
neontmom ancrpncxom ropoxe n Antnax. Oren c mareptm n rpexnerne ouxo ornpannnnct n
nec. Ha xaxo-ro momenr onn norepxnn ee ns nny, n +roro tno ocrarouno, urot ona
nponannnact no ne neontmoro npya. Ponrenn n oruaxnnn pocnnnct sa oueptm, no narn
ee yanoct na ne rontxo nocne nonyuaca noncxon. Onn nonxnn enouxy na nonepxnocrt,
ntramnnn na eper n crann ntnonnxrt nncrpyxnnn no noccranonnennm cepeuno n
txarentno exrentnocrn, nepeannte nm no coronomy rene]ony pnrao +xcrpenno
nomomn.
Cnacarenn npntnn uepes nocemt mnnyr nocne snonxa n nontrannct onennrt cocroxnne
enouxn. Ona nn na uro ne pearnponana. V nee ne tno nn xponxnoro annennx, nn nyntca, nn
npnsnaxon txannx. Temneparypa rena cocrannxna ncero 18,9 C. 3pauxn peenxa tnn
pacmnpent n ne pearnponann na cner, uro cnnerentcrnonano o npexpamennn mosrono
exrentnocrn. enouxa ymepna.
Onaxo npaun necmorpx nn na uro npoonxann peannmannonnte meponpnxrnx. Bepronerom
manentxym nannenrxy ocrannnn n nnxamym ontnnny, a ram cpasy nomecrnnn n
onepannonnym. Onn ns npaue npxmo na xaranxe npoonxan enart enouxe nenpxmo maccax
cepna. Xnpyprnuecxax pnraa, ne memxax, noxnmunna peenxa x annapary ncxyccrnennoro
txannx n ncxyccrnennoro cepna. nx +roro xnpypry npnmnoct cenart napes na xoxe n
naxono onacrn npano norn enouxn n ncrannrt ony ns cnnnxonontx rpyox rpomosxoro
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 9
annapara n epennym aprepnm nx saopa xponn, a nropym rpyxy n epennym neny nx
nosnpara xponn. Hep]ysnonor
3
nxnmunn nacoc, n nocne roro xax tnn ycranonnent napamerpt
xncnopoa, remneparypt n cxopocrn xponoroxa uepes cncremy, npospaunte rpyxn nanonnnnnct
xpacno xnxocrtm. Tontxo nocne +roro nenpxmo maccax tn npexpamen. C momenra ocranxn
enouxn n o momenra ee noxnmuennx x annaparam noepxannx xnsneexrentnocrn ona
ocrananact esxnsnenno n reuenne nonyropa uacon. uepes na uaca remneparypa rena peenxa
nontcnnact nourn na 10 C, n ee cepne sannoct nnont. Ono oxasanoct nepntm opranom
peenxa, nosnpamenntm x xnsnn.
uepes mecrt uacon remneparypa rena enouxn ocrnrna nopmt. Peannmaropt pemnnn
orxnmunrt mantmxy or annapara ncxyccrnennoro cepna n ocrannrt rontxo na annapare
ncxyccrnenno nenrnnxnnn, no nerxne oxasannct cnntno nonpexenntmn noo ns npya n
rneptmn uacrnnamn, n nosyx, noanaemt uepes txarentnym rpyxy, ne mor ocrnrart xponn.
Ho+romy peannmaropt noxnmunnn peenxa x pyro cncreme ncxyccrnennoro txannx,
nsnecrno xax cncrema +xcrpaxopnopantno mempanno oxcnrenannn. nx +roro xnpypram
npnmnoct ncxptrt mennnncxo +nexrponnno rpynym xnerxy enouxn n nnecrn
nenocpecrnenno n aopry n tmmeecx cepne rpyxn, nymne x +romy noprarnnnomy annapary n
or nero. Fepennte cocyt tnn noccranonnent, a napes n naxy samnr. Xnpyprnuecxax pnraa
ocrannna peenxa n nanary nnrencnnno repannn. Ipynax xnerxa enouxn ocrananact ncxptro.
Ee naxptnn crepnntno nnacrnxono nnenxo. Bect ent n ncm nout peannmaropt sannmannct
ocnooxennem nerxnx mantmxn or not n rneptx uacrnn c nomomtm nonoxonno-onrnuecxoro
ponxocxona. Ha cneymmne cyrxn nerxne manentxo nannenrxn tnn yxe noccranonnent
nacrontxo, uro enouxy moxno tno noxnmuart x annapary ncxyccrnenno nenrnnxnnn nerxnx,
nx uero ee cnona npnmnoct nepenesrn n onepannonnym, urot orxnmunrt or rpyox, ypart nce
npoxont n saxptrt rpynym xnerxy.
B reuenne nocneymmnx ne noccranonnnoct ]ynxnnonnponanne ncex opranon enouxn
neuent, nouxn, xnmeunnx. pyrnmn cnonamn, nce, xpome mosra. Tomorpa]nx noxasana, uro on
pacnyx. 3ro ronopnno o n]]ysnom nopaxennn, no meprntx son onapyxeno ne tno.
Peannmaropt npncrynnnn x eme onomy +rany onn npocnepnnnn ornepcrne n uepene enouxn,
nnenn uepes nero arunx, noxastnammn nnyrpnuepennoe annenne, n nauann noepxnnart ero
na onpeenennom yponne c nomomtm nnnnann n nexapcrn. Fonee neenn enouxa naxonnact n
xomarosnom cocroxnnn, a sarem nocrenenno crana npnxonrt n cex.
Cnauana ee spauxn nauann pearnponart na cner. 3arem noccranonnnoct camocroxrentnoe
txanne. H onaxt peenox ounyncx. uepes ne neenn nocne necuacrnoro cnyuax ona tna
ntnncana omo. Ee npanax nora n nenax pyxa ocranannct uacrnuno napannsonanntmn. Peut tna
samenenno n nnoxo aprnxynnponanno, no nnrencnnnoe amynaropnoe neuenne cenano cnoe
eno. K nxrn roam nce ]ynxnnn oprannsma enouxn nonnocrtm noccranonnnnct. unsnuecxne n
nenponornuecxne nccneonannx noxasann nopmy. Ona cnona tna raxo xe, xax nce ocrantnte
ern.
B ee ntsoponnennn nopasnrentno ne ro, uro uenonexa yanoct nepnyrt x xnsnn nocne nyx
uacon naxoxennx n cocroxnnn, xoropoe pantme nocnpnnnmanoct xax cmeprt, a ro, uro rpynna
nme n saypxno ontnnne cmorna ntnonnnrt raxym nenepoxrno cnoxnym saauy. Cnacrn
yronnennnxa ne raxoe npocroe eno, xax nnora noxastnamr no renennsopy. Hecxontxnx
naxarn na rpynym xnerxy n txannx por n por neocrarouno, urot uenonex c sanonnenntmn

3
Bpau, orneuammn sa ncxyccrnennoe xponoopamenne npn nponeennn onepann na orxptrom cepne n
xponenocntx cocyax. Hpu+. peo .

Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 10
noo nerxnmn n ocranonnnmnmcx cepnem saxamnxn n npnmen n cosnanne. urot cnacrn onoro
+roro peenxa, mnoxecrno nme onxnt tnn npannntno ntnonnnrt rtcxun meponpnxrn:
nocoennnrt rpyxn annapara cepne-nerxne rax, urot n cocyt ne nonann nystptxn
nosyxa, noepxnnart crepnntnocrt coennenn, ncxptro rpyno xnerxn n mosrono
xnxocrn, a raxxe oecneunnart paorocnoconocrt xanpnsntx axxymynxropntx arape n
annaparax noepxannx xnsneexrentnocrn. Pemenne xaxo ns +rnx saau eno nenpocroe.
Boanox nce nx nyxno tno ntnonnxrt n npannntnom nopxxe n nnuero ne satrt, a xpome
roro, ocrannrt nemnoro mecra nx nmnponnsannn.
Ha xaxoro cnacennoro estxannoro peenxa, npetnanmero xaxoe-ro npemx n noe,
npnxonrcx snaunrentno ontme ere, x xoroptm cyta oxasanact ne cront narocxnonno. H
ne rontxo noromy, uro nx xnsnennte nponecct cnnmxom yracnn, no eme n noromy, uro
mennnncxax rexnnxa ntmna ns crpox, peannmannonnax pnraa npoxnnna mennrentnocrt nnn
npocro xro-ro satn nomtrt pyxn, n nn]exnnx cenana cnoe eno. O raxnx cnyuaxx ne nnmer
xypnan Annals of Thoracic Surgery , no onn nponcxoxr noncemecrno, xorx nmxm rpyno cee
+ro npecrannrt.
Mne xaxercx, nac oypaunn nennnnnnnn. Orxptrne, cenannoe Anexcanpom unemnnrom n
1928 r., yenno uenoneuecrno n rom, uro orntne onesnn n rpanmt neunrt yer npocro.
ocrarouno ncero nnmt ranerxn nnn nnexnnn, urot nsannrtcx ne or ono onesnn, a cpasy
or necxontxnx. Hmxm noxasanoct, uro nennnnnnnn +]]exrnnen npn neuennn orpomnoro
xonnuecrna panee nensneunmtx nn]exnnonntx saonenann. H nouemy t ne noncxart
xaxo-nnyt nananen cpasy or necxontxnx nnon paxa? Hnn npnymart raxoe xe npocroe
cpecrno nx neuennx oxoron nnn npo]nnaxrnxn cepeuno-cocyncrtx saonenann n
nncyntron?
Onaxo mennnna ne nomna +rnm nyrem. uepes 100 ner nocne nenepoxrnoro orxptrnx
unemnnra ontmnncrno saonenann neunrcx ooconenno n c ontmnm rpyom. 3ro ornocnrcx
axe x nn]exnnxm, xoropte panee nsneunnannct nennnnnnnnom. Oxasanoct, uro na nero
pearnpymr ne nce mrammt axrepn, a re, xoropte nsnauantno pearnponann, co npemenem
ntpaorann x nemy pesncrenrnocrt. Ceronxmnne nn]exnnn rpeymr cnenn]nuecxoro neuennx,
nnora c npnmenennem cpasy necxontxnx raxrnx, yunrtnammnx nnnnnyantnym peaxnnm
orentntx mrammon na anrnnornxn, cocroxnne ontnoro n ro, xaxne cncremt oprannsma
nonepxent saonenannm. Conpemennax mennnna ceronx nyxaercx ne crontxo n
nennnnnnnne, cxontxo n annaparype, xoropax norpeonanact, urot nepnyrt x xnsnn uyrt ne
yronynmym enouxy. Mennnna npenpamaercx n ncxyccrno ynpannennx cnoxntmn cncremamn n
nponepxo roro, uro ceronx ecrnnrentno nonnacrno uenonexy.
B 9-m nsannn Mexynapono xnaccn]nxannn onesne, onynnxonannom Bcemnpno
oprannsanne spanooxpanennx, ]nrypnpyer cntme 13 000 pasnnuntx saonenann, cnnpomon n
rpanm. pyrnmn cnonamn, name reno moxer nonecrn nac onee uem 13 000 pasnnuntmn
cnocoamn. Ho nourn nx ncex +rnx neyron nayxa npenaraer ro, uro moxer nam nomout. Ecnn
mt ceronx ne onnaemcx nonnoro nsneuennx nannenra, ro moxem snaunrentno onerunrt ero
crpaannx. Ho nx xaxoro xonxpernoro saonenannx ncnontsymrcx cnon merot, xoropte nourn
ncera nentsx ornecrn x npocrtm. Knnnnnncrt n nacroxmee npemx nmemr n cnoem pacnopxxennn
npnmepno 6000 nexapcrn n 4000 neuentx n xnpyprnuecxnx nponeyp c xapaxrepntmn nx nnx
ocotmn rpeonannxmn, pncxamn n orpannuennxmn. H +roro cnnmxom mnoro, urot ne
omnartcx.
B paone Kenmop-cxnep n Focrone ecrt mynnnnnantnax xnnnnxa, xnnxmmaxcx ]nnnanom
moe ontnnnt. Cnono xnnnnxa npenonaraer uro-ro neontmoe, no +ro anexo ne rax. Ona
ocnonana n 1969 r. n ceronx nocnr nasnanne Iapnapcxn ananrap. 3ro neuenoe yupexenne
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 11
paccunrano na npeocrannenne nannenram nonnoro cnexrpa nonnxnnnnuecxnx ycnyr, xoropte
moryr norpeonartcx uenonexy na nporxxennn nce ero xnsnn. B reuenne mnornx ner cnoero
cymecrnonannx xnnnnxa crapanact trt nepno npnnnnny ynnnepcantnocrn, onaxo +ro
oxasanoct concem nenpocro. urot xnnnnxa ne orcrana or tcrporo pasnnrnx mennnnt, npn ne
tno nocrpoeno onee 20 xopnycon, n xoroptx rpyxrcx 600 oxropon n onee 1000 pyrnx
mepaornnxon, npecrannxmmnx 59 npo]eccn, ontmnncrno ns xoroptx ne cymecrnonann na
momenr orxptrnx xnnnnxn. Hpeoonenax na nxrom +raxe 50 m or nn]ra n cropony orenennx
ome xnpyprnn, x npoxoxy mnmo xanneron ome repannn, +noxpnnonornn, renernxn,
xnpyprnn nepxnnx xoneunocre, xnnnnuecxo naoparopnn, ne]ponornn, o]rantmonornn,
opronenn, panonornn n yponornn. A +ro ncero nnmt onn xopnop.
urot cnpannrtcx c nosnnxme cnoxnocrtm, mt crann nnonrt onee ysxym
cnennannsannm. Ho axe +ro ne ncera cnacaer. Onaxt n reuenne onoro rontxo nx, xora x
xoncyntrnponan n xannere ome xnpyprnn, xo mne oparnnnct npaun ns ponntnoro orenennx
c npocto nocmorpert 25-nernmm nannenrxy, xoropax xanonanact na ycnnnnammymcx ont n
npanom oxy, nontmennym remneparypy n romnory. Bce yxastnano na annennnnr, no cnryannx
ocnoxnxnact rem, uro xenmnna tna epemenna n enart xomntmrepnym romorpa]nm, urot
nponepnrt narnos, tno nentsx, rax xax +ro morno nanpenrt nnoy. Innexonor-onxonor
nonpocnn menx sarn n onepannonnym. Vanennax y xenmnnt onyxont xnunnxa oxasanact
meracrasom paxa noxenyouno xenest. Mo xonnera xoren, urot x nponepnn noxenyounym
nannenrxn n pemnn, cronr nn enart noncnm. Tepanenr ns cocene ontnnnt nosnonnn c
npocto oprannsonart rpancnoprnponxy na peannmonne ontno c omnpno paxono
onyxontm. Ona memana paore nouex n xnmeunnxa n conponoxanact xponoreuennem, xoropoe
npaun ne mornn xynnponart. Hama repanenrnuecxax cnyxa xorena, urot x ocmorpen 65-nernero
myxunny, crpaammero or raxo rxxeno ]opmt +m]nsemt, uro on orxasancx or onepannn na
epe ns-sa cnaocrn nerxnx. K romy xe nannenr sapasnncx rxxeno xnmeuno nn]exnne,
nepememe n ocrpt nneprnxynnr, npnuem onesnt nporpeccnponana, necmorpx na
rpexnennt xypc anrnnornxon, no+romy onepannx xasanact nensexno. Eme ono orenenne
npocnno nomout 52-nernemy naernxy c saonenannem xoponapntx cocyon, rnneprensne,
xponnuecxo noueuno neocrarounocrtm, nnymnrentntm oxnpennem n nncyntrom. Boanox
xo ncemy y +roro nannenra pasnnnact naxonax rptxa. Tepanenr npnrnaman x monoo n no ncex
pyrnx ornomennxx sopono enymxe, y xoropo, noxoxe, tn pexrantnt acnecc, rpeymmn
xnpyprnuecxoro nmemarentcrna.
Onnne cront cnoxntx n pasnoopasntx cnyuaen n reuenne onoro nx a y menx
oxasanoct mecrt nannenron c conepmenno pasntmn mennnncxnmn nponemamn n 26
ononnnrentntmn narnosamn ne moxer ne yenrt n rom, uro x sannmamct camo rpyno
paoro na cnere. Onaxo ntcoxax cnoxnocrt ceronx xapaxrepna npaxrnuecxn nx nmo
npo]eccnn. cnpocnn n perncrparype xnnnnxn Iapnapcxn ananrap, ne moryr nn onn
nocmorpert n xomntmrepe, c xaxnm xonnuecrnom pasnnuntx onesne npnxonrcx cranxnnartcx
xaxomy npauy n reuenne roa. Orner menx omenomnn: rontxo sa npemx amynaropnoro npnema,
r. e. es yuera ontnnuno npaxrnxn, xaxt repanenr exerono crannr 250 pasnnuntx
narnoson. K romy xe nannenrt crpaamr eme or 900 mennnncxnx nponem, xoropte nentsx ne
yunrtnart. Kaxt npau nponnctnaer o 300 pasnnuntx nexapcrn n aer nanpannennx na onee
uem 100 pasnnuntx naoparopntx anannson. Kpome roro, amynaropno oxastnamrcx nopxxa 40
mennnncxnx nponeyp or naxnnnannn o nanoxennx rnnca.
Hs ncex cnennanncron ocnonnax narpysxa naaer na repanenron. Onn cranxr n cpenem 371
nepnnunt narnos, ntxnnxmr eme 1010 pyrnx saonenann, nponnctnamr 627 npenaparon n
npenaramr 36 nnon amynaropnoro neuennx. Kora x ymam o rom, xaxnm oemom snann
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 12
onxen onaart repanenr, y menx naunnaercx rononnax ont. Hpnuem peut ner rontxo o
amynaropnom npneme. Hn]opmannonnax cncrema ne perncrpnponana pasnnunte nponemt, c
xoroptmn nmeer eno npau nocne rocnnrannsannn ontntx.
axe npn nccneonannn rontxo amynaropno paort crarncrnxa ne yunrtnaer ncex
nocrannenntx narnoson. uame ncero onn nonaamr n xareropnm Hpouee. B ent, na xoropt
npnxonrcx ontmax narpysxa, xora nmn n xopnope naunnamr nepnnnuart, moxer ne
oxasartcx npemenn na ro, urot npannntno nnecrn xo narnosa n asy anntx. Ho axe xora
npemx ecrt, npyr onapyxnnaemt, uro ro, uem oneer rno nannenr, ne yureno n xomntmrepno
cncreme.
Hporpammnoe oecneuenne, ncnontsyemoe nx neennx +nexrponntx mennnncxnx xapr
nannenra, otuno ne yunrtnaer onesnn n cocroxnnx, xoropte npaun nayunnnct
narnocrnponart n nocnenne rot. Onaxt x xoncyntrnponan nannenra c
ranrnnonenponacromo (pexn rnn onyxonn nanoueunnxa) n eme onoro ontnoro c
uyonnmntm renernuecxnm nacnecrnenntm saonenannem, nsnecrntm xax cnnpom Hn
upaymenn
4
, npn xoropom onyxonn moryr opasontnartcx no ncemy reny. Hn ono ns +rnx
saonenann ne tno nxnmueno n asy anntx nporpammt neennx +nexrponntx mennnncxnx
xapr, n mne ne ocrananoct nnuero pyroro, xpome xax nxnmunrt nx n xareropnm Hpoune
saonenannx. Hourn exeneentno yuente coomamr o naxntx naxoxax n renernxe n orxptrnn
ononnnrentntx nornnon paxa.
Cnoxnocrt mennnnt nospacraer rax tcrpo, uro sa ne ne ycnenamr yrnartcx
xomntmrepnte nporpammt. Onaxo ona ne rontxo sanncnr or mnport n oema snann, no n
npexnnxer ononnnrentnte rpeonannx x npaxrnuecxomy macrepcrny xnnnnnncron. Cnoxnocrt
+ro saaun nyume ncero nnna n ontnnne. H camtm xpxnm npnmepom moxer cnyxnrt nanara
nnrencnnno repannn, n xoropo ntxonnn nourn yronynmym enouxy.
Onaxo nnrencnnnax repannx ocrarouno pacnntnuart repmnn. Cnennanncrt
npenounramr nastnart cnom paory peannmanne, no n +ro ne npoxcnxer cyrn nponemt.
Tounee ncero oxastnaercx nemennnncxn repmnn xnsneoecneuenne. Ceronx uenonex moxer
ntxnrt, nonyunn raxne rpanmt, o xoroptx axe crpamno noymart: pasmosxenne rxane, oxorn,
rxxente xonrysnn, pasptn aoprt, npooenne npxmo xnmxn, omnpnt nn]apxr, rxxenax
nn]exnnx. Kaxoe-ro npemx nasa nce +rn neyrn npnnonnn x cmeprn. Tenept ontno uame ncero
ntxnnaer naroapx romy, uro n nanarax nnrencnnno repannn nmecro nonpexenntx opranon
naunnaer paorart annaparypa. Otuno nx +roro ncnontsyercx nent px npnopon: annapar
ncxyccrnenno nenrnnxnnn nerxnx, ocoenno no npemx rpaxeoromnn npn nneennn rpyxn n
cnyuae orxasa nerxnx; nnyrpnaoprantnt annonnt nacoc, ecnn caer cepne; annapar nx
remonannsa, xora nepecramr paorart nouxn. Ecnn ontno naxonrcx es cosnannx n ne moxer
ecrt camocroxrentno, ro emy n xenyox nnn xnmeunnx xnpyprnuecxnm nyrem nnoxrcx
cnnnxononte rpyxn nx ncxyccrnennoro nnrannx. Hpn cnntnom nonpexennn xnmeunnxa
pacrnop ns amnnoxncnor, xnpntx xncnor n rnmxost nnonrcx npxmo n xponorox.
Exenenno rontxo n CBA nourn 90 000 uenonex nomemamrcx n nanart nnrencnnno
repannn. B reuenne roa uepes nnx npoxonr o 5 mnn amepnxannen, a n reuenne cpene
uenoneuecxo xnsnn y xaxoro ns nac ecrt nepcnexrnna ynnert crexnxnnte crent nanart
nnrencnnno repannn nsnyrpn. Bnpora nosmoxnocre mennnnt ceronx sanncnr or
nosmoxnocre cncrem xnsneoecneuennx, ncnontsyemtx npn ntxaxnnannn neonomenntx

4
Hasnan n uecrt upeepnxa Hn n xose]a upaymenn-mnamero, amepnxancxnx npaue, xoropte onncann +ror
cnnpom. Hpu+. peo.

A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 13
ere n rpanmnponanntx nme, a raxxe ontntx, nepenecmnx nncyntrt n nn]apxrt, onepannn
na mosre, cepne, nerxnx nnn nenrpantntx cocyax. Hnrencnnnax repannx sannmaer samernoe
mecro n exrentnocrn ontnnn. 50 ner nasa ona nourn ne cymecrnonana, a ceronx n name
ontnnne ns 700 ontntx npnmepno 155 uenonex exenenno naxoxrcx n nanarax nnrencnnno
repannn. Otuno npetnanne n nnx ne npentmaer uertpe nx, a ntxnnaemocrt ocrnraer 86 %.
Homemenne n nanary nnrencnnno repannn n noxnmuenne ncex +rnx rpyox n nponoon eme
ne cmeprnt npnronop, onaxo +rn nn moryr trt camtmn onacntmn n name xnsnn.
15 ner nasa nspanntcxne yuente onynnxonann pesyntrart xpyrnocyrounoro nanmennx
sa nannenramn n nanare nnrencnnno repannn. Ftno onapyxeno, uro n cpenem c ontntm
conepmaercx 178 nnnnnyantntx ecrnn or nonyuennx nexapcrn o orxaunnannx xnxocrn
ns nerxnx, npn +rom xaxoe raxoe ecrnne conpxxeno c onpeenenntm pncxom. Hccneonanne
noxasano, uro mececrpt n npaun conepmamr omnxn n 1 % cnyuaen. A +ro osnauaer, uro na
xaxoro ontnoro npnxonrcx oxono nyx omnox exenenno. Hnrencnnnax repannx
onpantnaer cex nnmt n rom cnyuae, xora nontsa or nee mnoroxparno npentmaer nosmoxnt
npe. 3ro nenerxoe eno, net axe npetnanne n reuenne necxontxnx ne nexauero ontnoro
es cosnannx conpxxeno c pncxom. Her arpo]nx mtmn, xocrn repxmr maccy, noxnnxmrcx
nponexnn, n nenax opasymrcx rpomt. Bo nsexanne cyopor nyxno ntrxrnnart n xaxt ent
narpyxart xoneunocrn ontnoro, no xpane mepe na pasa n ent enart noxoxnte nnexnnn
nx pasxnxennx xponn, necxontxo pas n ent nonopaunnart nannenra n nocrenn, mtrt ero n
menxrt npocrtnn, ne orxnmuax rpyxn n nponoa, a raxxe na pasa n ent uncrnrt ontnomy
syt, urot pasmnoxenne mnxpoon n porono nonocrn ne npnneno x nocnanennm nerxnx. Hpn
nx ncxyccrnenno nenrnnxnnn, remonannse n neuennn orxptrtx pan rpynocrn rontxo
nospacramr.
nx npnmepa nostmem ncropnm onoro ns monx nannenron. V 3nronn e]nnnnno,
48-nernero nonrenx nnmysnna ns ropoa 3neperr, mrar Maccauycerc, xora on tn n mecrno
ontnnne, pasnnnoct xponoreuenne no npemx onepannn no yanennm rptxn n xamne n xenunom
nystpe. Xnpypry n xonne xonnon yanoct ocranonnrt xponoreuenne, no neuent ontnoro x +romy
npemenn yxe tna nopaxena, n n reuenne nnxamnx necxontxnx ne on ne mor ocranartcx n
ycnonnxx mecrno ontnnnt. npnnxn +roro nannenra, urot crannnsnponart ero cocroxnne n
noymart, uro enart antme. On npntn n name orenenne nnrencnnno repannn n nocxpecente,
npnmepno n nononnne nroporo. Ero cnyrannte remnte nonoct npnnnnnn x nornomy ny,
cocroxnne tno nnxopaountm, a nyntc ocrnran 114 yapon n mnnyry. Hs-sa ntcoxo
remneparypt, moxa n nnsxoro yponnx xncnopoa ontno tn n pey.
Hycrnre menx! xpnuan on, cptnax c cex nnxamy, xncnoponym macxy n nnrt,
xoroptmn tna nepenxsana pana na ero xnnore. Hycrnre menx!
Tonn, nce xopomo, ycnoxannana ero mececrpa. Mt ntraemcx ree nomout. Tt
naxonmtcx n ontnnne.
Fyyun uenonexom nnymnrentnoro renocnoxennx, myxunna orronxnyn ee n cropony n
nontrancx cnycrnrt norn c xponarn. Mt oannnn noauy xncnopoa, sa]nxcnponann ero pyxn n
nontrannct noronopnrt c nnm. On npyr ycran, nosnonnn nam cenart ananns xponn n npnnxn
anrnnornxn.
Hs nonyuenntx pesyntraron anannsa xponn crano xcno, uro neuent y 3nronn ne paoraer, a
coepxanne entx xponxntx renen pesxo nontmeno, uro cnnerentcrnonano o nannunn n
oprannsme nn]exnnn. Kpome roro, orcyrcrnne mouencnycxannx ronopnno o orxase nouex. B
nocneymmne necxontxo uacon y nannenra ynano xponxnoe annenne, txanne tno sarpyneno,
a ns cocroxnnx nepenosyxennx on nepemen n cocroxnne nourn nonnoro ecnamxrcrna.
Hocrenenno saryxana exrentnocrt ncex opranon, nxnmuax mosr.
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 14
nosnonnn ero cecrpe n pyrnm pocrnennnxam n onncan nm cnryannm. Cenare nce
nosmoxnoe, ornernna cecrpa.
Mt rax n nocrynnnn: nnenn nannenry nent mnpnn oesonnnammero, a n poronym
nonocrt txarentnym rpyxy. Eme ona cecrpa npnnonna ontnoro n uyncrno. uepes
nonepnyroe xnepxy npanoe sanxcrte ona ncrannna ronxym nxrncanrnmerponym nrny n xarerep n
panantnym aprepnm, a sarem nomnna nono x xoxe menxono nnrtm. Hocne +roro n neno
uacrn men myxunnt namna xpemnym neny n c nomomtm 25-canrnmerponoro xarerepa
nocoennnna nenrpantnym nnnnm. 3axpennn ero n yennmnct c nomomtm penrrenoncxoro
annapara, uro xonunx xarerepa naxonrcx ram, re nyxno, nnyrpn nenosno nonocrn nepe
nxoom n cepne, mececrpa nx nponeennx remonannsa nnena uepes npanym nepxnmm uacrt
rpyn nannenra onee roncrym rpyxy n noxnmununym neny, naxoxmymcx rnyoxo no
xnmunne.
txarentnym rpyxy mt nonenn x annapary ncxyccrnenno nenrnnxnnn nerxnx. Tenept
ontno enan 14 npnnynrentntx noxon n mnnyry n tman uncrtm xncnopoom. Mt
nontmann n nonnxann yponent noaun rasa o rex nop, noxa ne nonyunnn nyxnoe coepxanne
xncnopoa n yrnexncnoro rasa n ero xponn. C nomomtm nnyrpnaprepnantnoro xarerepa mt
nocroxnno orcnexnnann yponent xponxnoro annennx, n c nomomtm nexapcrnenntx cpecrn
ycranonnnn ro ero snauenne, xoropoe nac ycrpannano. Bnyrpnnennte nnnnannx enannct n
coornercrnnn c napamerpamn nenosnoro annennx, xoropoe orcnexnnaercx n xpemno nene.
Hoxnmununt ntno mt noxnmunnn x rpyxe annapara nx remonannsa, n pas n necxontxo
mnnyr nect oem xponn ontnoro ounmancx n +ro ncxyccrnenno nouxe n nnont nosnpamancx n
reno nannenra. Hocne onpeenenntx nacrpoex nam yanoct ycranonnrt xenaemt yponent xannx,
nxaponara n conn. Moxno noymart, uro n namnx pyxax ontno npenparnncx n otunym
mamnny.
Onaxo raxoe npecrannenne omnouno. Kasanoct, uro mt moxem pynnrt n y nac ecrt
necxontxo pyxoxrox nx ynpannennx. Ho rontxo npecrantre cee 18-xonecnt annapar,
crpemnrentno necymncx c ropt. Tontxo nx noepxannx nopmantnoro annennx n rene
nannenra neoxonmt nnrpt nnyrpnnenntx nnnnann n ontmoe xonnuecrno nexapcrn.
Benrnnxnnx nerxnx tna ycranonnena nourn na maxcnmym. Temneparypa rena ontnoro
nontcnnact o 40 C. C raxnmn saonenannxmn nnyrpennnx opranon, xax y e]nnnnno, menee
5 % nannenron nosnpamamrcx omo. Hmax omnxa moxer cnecrn +rn manct x nynm.
Hentx ecxrt ne cocroxnne ontnoro nocrenenno ynyumanoct. Ocnonno nponemo
ocrananoct cocroxnne ero neuenn, nonpexenno no npemx npetyme onepannn: rnannt ee
nporox tn pacceuen, n ns nero ntrexana xenut. Ona ornnuaercx exocrtm, nornomaer xnp ns
nnmn, no+romy ceaer ontnoro nsnyrpn. On tn cnnmxom cna, urot ntepxart onepannm
no ycrpanennm +roro e]exra. Ho+romy, xax rontxo mt crannnsnponann cocroxnne nannenra, ro
pemnnn nonpoonart xorx t npemenno pemnrt nponemy. Ho penrren-xonrponem mt
ycranonnnn nnacrnxont penax, neymn uepes pmmnym crenxy x mecry pasptna neuenounoro
nporoxa, urot pennponart ntrexammym xenut. Ee onapyxnnoct crontxo, uro npnmnoct
crannrt rpn penaxa: onn nnyrpn nporoxa n na pxom c nnm. Kax rontxo penax xenun tn
nanaxen, y ontnoro crana nonnxartcx remneparypa, norpenocrt n xncnopoe n nnnnannxx
ymentmnnact, a xponxnoe annenne npnmno n nopmy. Cocroxnne nannenra crano ynyumartcx.
Onaxo na 11- ent, xora mt yxe conpannct orxnmunrt ncxyccrnennym nenrnnxnnm nerxnx,
remneparypa pesxo nontcnnact, annenne ynano, a coepxanne xncnopoa n xponn nnont
ymentmnnoct. Ho reny ontnoro nomnn mypamxn, n y nero nauancx osno.
Mt ne mornn nonxrt, uro cnyunnoct. Ftno noxoxe na nponnxnonenne nn]exnnn, no nn
penrren, nn xomntmrepnax romorpa]nx ne cmornn ntxnnrt ee ncrounnx. axe xora mt crann
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 15
anart ontnomy xomnnexc ns uertpex anrnnornxon, remneparypa ocrananact ntcoxo. Bo
npemx onoro ns npncrynon nnxopaxn y nero nauanact mepnarentnax apnrmnx. Bxnmunncx
cnrnan rpenorn, n y xponarn nannenra oxasancx nent ecxrox npaue n cecrep. Bpaun
ncnontsonann e]npnnnxrop, n cepne ontnoro nepnynoct x otunomy pnrmy. Ham
norpeonanoct eme na nx, urot nonxrt, uro nomno ne rax. Mt paccmorpenn nosmoxnocrt
nponnxnonennx nn]exnnn n ony ns rpyox, no+romy samennnn nce nx na nonte, a crapte
ornpannnn n naoparopnm na ananns. uepes 48 uacon npnmnn pesyntrart. Hn]nnnponanntmn
oxasannct nce rpyxn. Bepoxrno, nonauany nn]exnnx nonana n ony ns nnx no npemx ee nnoa, a
norom uepes xponorox pacnpocrpannnact na pyrne. V ontnoro nontcnnact remneparypa, n on
cran cnaert.
Taxona peantnocrt nnrencnnno repannn: n nmo momenr mt moxem ne rontxo ntneunrt
nannenra, no n nanpenrt emy. Karerepnax nn]exnnx nacrontxo uacroe xnnenne, uro
paccmarpnnaercx xax pyrnnnoe ocnoxnenne. Kaxt ro n ontntx, nomemenntx n nanart
nnrencnnno repannn, nnonrcx o 5 mnn xarerepon, n nannonantnax crarncrnxa noxastnaer, uro
uepes 10 ne 4 % raxnx coennenn oxastnaercx sapaxenntmn. Karerepnax nn]exnnx
pasnnnaercx y 80 000 ontntx n CBA, n or 5 o 28 % cnyuaen nn]nnnponannx saxanunnamrcx
cmeprtm nannenra n sanncnmocrn or rxxecrn ero cocroxnnx na momenr nomemennx n nanary.
Te, xomy yaercx nepexnrt xarerepnym nn]exnnm, ntnyxent npononrt n nanare nnrencnnno
repannn na neenm ontme. A +ro rontxo onn ns nosmoxntx pncxon. uepes 10 ne nocne
ycranonxn mouenoro xarerepa y 4 % ontntx pasnnnaercx nn]exnnx mouenoro nystpx. uepes 10
ne nenrnnxnnn nerxnx y 6 % nannenron naunnaercx axrepnantnax nnenmonnx, n 4045 %
cnyuaen npnnoxmax x cmeprn. B nenom y nononnnt ontntx, nomemaemtx n nanary
nnrencnnno repannn, moryr pasnnrtcx ocnoxnennx, npn xoroptx nepoxrnocrt ntsoponnennx
cymecrnenno ymentmaercx.
Hpomna eme neenx, npexe uem e]nnnnno noccranonnncx nocne nn]exnnn nacrontxo,
uro ero moxno tno orxnmunrt or ncxyccrnenno nenrnnxnnn nerxnx, a o ero oxonuarentnoro
ntsoponnennx norpeonanoct na mecxna. Cnat n ncromennt, on norepxn cno nnmysnnnt
nsnec n ocrancx es oma. Emy npnmnoct nepeexart x cecrpe. e]nnnnno rax n xnner c
penaxno rpyxo, no xoropo orxonr xenut. conpamct cenart emy pexoncrpyxrnnnym
onepannm no noccranonnennm nporoxa neuenn, xora on nemnoro oxpenner. Hecmorpx nn na uro,
+ror nannenr ntxnn, rora xax mnornm n ero cnryannn +ro cenart ne yaercx.
H sect xpoercx rnannax saraxa conpemenno xnnnnuecxo mennnnt: urot cnacrn
rxxenoontnoro, nyxno ne rontxo onaart rpeyemtmn snannxmn, no n trt ynepenntm n rom,
uro nce 178 exenenntx ecrnn c nannenrom yyr ntnonnent esomnouno necmorpx na ro,
uro no nenonxrno npnunne snyunr rpenoxnt cnrnan annapara, ymnpaer nannenr na cocene
xponarn, a n +ro npemx mececrpa sarnxtnaer sa mnpmy n cnpamnnaer, ne moxer nn xro-nnyt
nomout ncxptrt ame rpynym xnerxy. Ona cnoxnocrt nanannnaercx na pyrym. H axe ysxax
cnennannsannx ne nosnonxer pemnrt ncex nponem. H uro xe nce-raxn enart?
Menxn-xnnnnnncrt ronopxr, uro nyxno nepexonrt or cnennannsannn x
cynepcnennannsannn. paccxasan ncropnm npetnannx e]nnnnno n nanare nnrencnnno
repannn rax, uro moxer nosnnxnyrt nneuarnenne, yro x naxonncx pxom c nnm xpyrnocyrouno.
Ha camom ene +rnm sannmancx peannmaronor (cnennanncr no nnrencnnno repannn). Fyyun
xnpyprom mnpoxoro npo]nnx, x cxnonen cunrart, uro mory cnpannrtcx c ontmnm xonnuecrnom
xnnnnuecxnx cnryann. Onaxo no mepe ycnoxnennx nnrencnnno repannn ornercrnennocrt
nocrenenno nepexonr x ouent ysxnm cnennanncram. B nocnenee ecxrnnerne npenoananne ee
ocnon nauanoct no ncex xpynntx amepnxancxnx n enponecxnx ropoax. Ceronx n nononnne
nanar nnrencnnno repannn paoramr ysxne cnennanncrt.
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 16
Hpo]eccnonannsm +ro manrpa conpemenno mennnnt. B nauane XX n. npaxrnxymmnm
npauom moxno tno crart, oxonunn cpenmm mxony n oryunnmnct onn ro na mennnncxom
]axyntrere. Onaxo x xonny cronernx nce npaun onxnt tnn nmert nnnom o ntcmem
mennnncxom opasonannn n or rpex o cemn ner sannmartcx npaxrnuecxo mennnno n
xonxperno onacrn nenarpnn, xnpyprnn, nenponornn n r. n. B nocnenne rot axe raxo
yponent nororonxn neocrarouen nx conpemenno mennnnt. Hocne necxontxnx ner
npaxrnuecxo paort monote oxropa npoonxamr yuey, or onoro roa o rpex ner ocnannax
raxne onacrn, xax nanapocxonnuecxax xnpyprnx, onesnn omena nemecrn y ere, nyuenax
narnocrnxa rpyn nnn peannmannx. Hocxontxy monoo npau ceronx ne rax yx n mn,
cocrnennym npaxrnxy emy yaercx orxptrt rontxo nocne 30 ner.
Mt xnnem n +noxy ysxo cnennannsannn xnnnnnncron, xoropte ne nepecramr
npaxrnxonartcx o rex nop, noxa ne ocrnrnyr conepmencrna. V nnx na npenmymecrna nepe
otuntmn cnennanncramn: onn nyume pasnpamrcx n cymecrnenntx eranxx n nyume
nororonnent nx pemennx cnoxntx saau n xonxperno c]epe. Onaxo n mennnne n
nexoroptx pyrnx onacrxx ecrt raxne yponnn cnoxnocrn, npn xoroptx axe cynepcnennanncrt
ne sacrpaxonant or exenenntx omnox.
Onaxo, noxany, nn n ono ns onacre ner raxo cnenn]nxn, xax n xnpyprnn. Bet
onepannonnym moxno paccmarpnnart xax nanary ouent arpeccnnno nnrencnnno repannn.
Anecresnonorn orneuamr rontxo sa oesonnnanne n cranntnocrt cocroxnnx ontnoro, no
npaxrnuecxn y xaxoro ns nnx ecrt onee ysxax cnennannsannx: ercxne anecresnonorn,
anecresnonorn-xapnonorn, axymept, nepoxnpyprn n mnorne pyrne. Ananornuntm opasom mt
ontme ne nontsyemcx ycnyramn npocro xnpyprnuecxnx cecrep. V nnx roxe cymecrnyer ysxax
cnennannsannx.
To xe camoe ornocnrcx n x xnpypram. Kora mt naunnaem myrnrt, uro ecrt xnpyprn
cnennanncrt no npanomy yxy n cnennanncrt no nenomy yxy, ro npexe ncero nyxno yenrtcx,
uro raxoro pasenennx n ecrnnrentnocrn ne cymecrnyer. oyuancx xax xnpypr mnpoxoro
npo]nnx, onaxo cnennanncrt raxoro poa coxpannnnct rontxo n centcxo rnynnxe. Ceronx
yxe nentsx ymert nce. pemnn cnennannsnponartcx na onxonornuecxnx ontntx, no axe +ra
xareropnx oxastnaercx cnnmxom mnpoxo. H xorx x enam nce, urot ne pacrepxrt omne
nantxn na cnyua upesntuantx ocroxrentcrn, mox cnennannsannx yanenne
snoxauecrnenntx onyxone c +noxpnnntx xenes.
Hnoom ysxo cnennannsannn, nosnnxme n nocnenne rot, crana onee ntcoxax
+]]exrnnnocrt n ycnemnocrt xnpyprnn. Ecnn pantme nponenr cmeprnocrn nsmepxncx
nysnauntmn uncnamn axe npn neontmnx onepannxx, a nopmo tno npoonxnrentnoe
noccranonnenne n nnnannnocrt nannenron, ro ceronx crann nopmo nnrentnte onepannn.
Ho axe npn ontmom xonnuecrne xnpyprnuecxnx nmemarentcrn, ntnonnxemtx ceronx (a
rontxo na onm onoro amepnxanna sa ncm xnsnt n cpenem npnxonrcx o cemn onepann, uro
aer o 50 mnn xnpyprnuecxnx onepann n ro), nponenr nerantntx ncxoon ocraercx ntcoxnm.
Exerono na xnpyprnuecxom crone ymnpaer o 150 000 uenonex, nnn n rpn pasa ontme, uem n
TH. Tem ne menee nccneonannx noxastnamr, uro no xpane mepe nononnny cmepre n
ocnoxnenn moxno tno t nsexart. 3nann y nac ocrarouno, onaxo, necmorpx na ntcoxn
yponent cnennannsannn n rnynny snann, uro-ro nocroxnno ynycxaercx ns nny, n nponcxoxr
omnxn.
Mennnna, nensnpax na ee nncrarentnte ycnexn, necnoona or uacrntx neyau, n
no+romy nosnnxaer nonpoc: uro enart, xora onoro npo]eccnonannsma neocrarouno? uro
enart, xora axe camax ysxax cnennannsannx ne pemaer ncex saau? Mt rontxo naunnaem
naxonrt ornert na +rn nonpoct, no, xax nn crpanno, onn npnxoxr ns ro c]ept, xoropax
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 17
nnxaxoro ornomennx x mennnne ne nmeer.

Fnana 2
Hek-nuc1

30 oxrxpx 1935 r. na a+popome nmenn parten Par n erone, mrar Orao, BBC CBA
npononnn xonxypc mexy annacrponrentntmn xomnannxmn sa npano cosart antnn
omapnponmnx nonoro noxonennx. Cocrnenno, ocooro xonxypca ne npenonaranoct. Bcex
xonxypenron sarmnna moent 299 cnxmmax anmmnnnenax nrnna xomnannn Boeing, c xoropo ne
mornn cpannnrtcx camonert xomnann Martin n Douglas. Fomonax narpysxa Boeing tna n nxrt
pas ontme, uem npocnnn noennte, on neran tcrpee npexnnx omapnponmnxon n nourn n na
pasa antme. Onn ns xypnanncron ns Cn+rna, ynnen camoner na cnonm ropoom no npemx
ncntrarentnoro nonera, nasnan ero Herammax xpenocrt, n +ro nposnnme rax n saxpennnoct sa
xptnaro mamnno. Hernte copennonannx, no mnennm noennoro ncropnxa unnnnna
Mennnxepa, cunrannct uncro ]opmantnocrtm. Boennte nnannponann saxasart ne menee 65
raxnx camoneron.
Heontmax ronna o]nnepon n npecrannrene xomnann nanmann, xax moent 299
ntpynnnana na nsnernym nonocy. Camoner tn nsxmen n nopaxan cnonmn pasmepamn. Hpn
pasmaxe xptna 31 m on nmen uertpe, a ne na moropa, xax +ro tno npnnxro. Camoner nspenen na
eronxe, nnanno nsmtn nnepx n pesxo napan ntcory 300 m. 3arem on samep, sanannncx na ono
xptno, ynan n nsopnancx. noe ns nxrn unenon +xnnaxa nornnn, nxnmuax nnnora maopa Hno+pa
Hnrepa Xnnna.
Paccneonanne noxasano, uro nnxaxnx mexannuecxnx nonomox ne tno. Kax ronopnnoct n
oruere, npnunno anapnn crana omnxa nnnora. 3ror camoner oxasancx namnoro cnoxnee
npetymnx, no+romy nerunxy neoxonmo tno cnenrt sa paoro uertpex moropon,
ronnnnom, ynpammnmcx maccn, saxptnxamn, +nexrpnuecxnmn rpnmmepamn, xoroptmn nyxno
ynpannxrt, urot oecneunrt ycrounnocrt mamnnt na pasntx cxopocrxx. Kpome roro, ecrt
nosymnt nnnr c anromarnuecxn nsmenxemtm marom npn nocroxnntx ooporax nnrarenx; nnnr
perynnpyercx c nomomtm rnpannnuecxnx ycrpocrn. 3anxrt ncem +rnm, Xnnn satn
pasnoxnponart ynpannenne pynxmn nanpannennx n ntcort. Kax ntpasnnnct xypnanncrt,
camoner cnnmxom cnoxen, urot na nem mor nerart onn uenonex. Boennte oxnnnn
noenrenem xonxypca nosymnoe cyno xomnannn Douglas, a Boeing uyrt ne oanxpornnact.
Tem ne menee noennte saxynnnn necxontxo ee camoneron nx nponepxn n peantntx
ycnonnxx. Mnorne +xcneprt no-npexnemy tnn yexent, uro mamnna yer nerart, no+romy
rpynna nerunxon-ncntrarene copanact nmecre, urot ntpaorart nnan ecrnn.
Hnrepecno n ro, uro onn pemnnn cenart, n ro, uero onn pemnnn ne enart. Hnnort ne
nocunrann nyxntm ynennunrt cpox rpennponxn nnnoron, neranmnx na moenn 299, noromy uro
rpyno tno npecrannrt onee nororonnennoro n npo]eccnonantnom ornomennn nerunxa, uem
maop Xnnn, xoropt n BBC pyxononn nerntmn ncntrannxmn. Bmecro +roro nerunxn
npenoxnnn rennantnym no cnoe npocrore nemt: onn cosann uex-nncr. Camo ero noxnnenne
ronopnno o rom, xax anexo nponnnynoct nosyxonnananne. B nepnte rot pasnnrnx annannn
nonxrt camoner n nosyx tno enom nanpxxenntm, no npx nn rpyntm. Herunxy ne npnmno
t n ronony ncnontsonart uex-nncr na nsnere, xax +ro ne npnxonr n ronony nonrenm, sannm
xoom ntesxammemy ns rapaxa. Onaxo ynpannenne nontm camonerom tno cnnmxom cnoxntm,
urot nonarartcx na namxrt onoro uenonexa, xaxnm t ontrntm on nn tn.
Herunxn-ncntrarenn cenann uex-nncr npocrtm, xparxnm n uerxnm. Ero nonpoct, na
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 18
xoropte nnnor onxen no+ranno orneuart npn nsnere, nonere, nocaxe n pynennn, ymemannct na
ono neontmo xaprouxe. Onn xacannct rex ecrnn, xoropte nerunxn ymenn xopomo enart.
Hyxno tno nponepnrt cnxrne camonera c ropmoson, noxasannx npnopon, saxptrne nepe n
nnnmmnnaropon, a raxxe paorocnoconocrt pyne ntcort n +ro nce necnoxno. He nyxno
ymart, uro raxo uex-nncr nycrxx, net c ero nneennem nerunxn nanerann nourn 3 mnn xm es
enno anapnn. Boennte n nrore npnopenn nourn 13 000 raxnx camoneron, nsnecrntx xax B-17.
Fnaroapx +ro mamnne BBC CBA no Bropo mnpono none nonyunnn pemammee
npenmymecrno n nosyxe, nosnonnnmee ocymecrnnxrt onycromnrentnte omapnponxn
reppnropnn nce nanncrcxo Iepmannn.
Mnoroe n name xnsnn ceronx nanomnnaer cnryannm c B-17. 3naunrentnax uacrt paort,
xoropym enamr nporpammncrt, ]nnanconte menexept, noxapnte, nonnnecxne, mpncrt n,
xoneuno, xnnnnnncrt, cnnmxom cnoxna nx roro, urot ee ntnonnxrt, nonaraxct rontxo na
namxrt. pyrnmn cnonamn, no mnornx c]epax camoner oxastnaercx nacrontxo cnoxntm, uro
nerart na nem nnxomy ne no cnny.
Tem ne menee conepmenno neouennno, uro raxax npocrax nemt, xax uex-nncr, moxer
oxasartcx cront nonesno. Koneuno, +ro nosnonxer npeornparnrt omnxn n cnyuan neocmorpa
axe xaracrpo]nuecxne no cnonm nocnecrnnxm. Ho mt nnxora ne nonepnm, uro namy nectma
cnoxnym paory moxno cnecrn x uex-nncram. Hanpnmep, pasnnunx mexy orentntmn ontntmn
namnoro snaunrentnee, uem mexy camoneramn. Hsyuenne 41 000 nannenron ns mrara
Hencnntnannx nosnonnno ntxnnrt, uro nm tno nocranneno 1224 pasnnuntx narnosa,
cnxsanntx c rpanmamn, xoropte cocrannnn 32 261 ynnxantnym xomnnannm. 3ro nce panno uro
conepmnrt nocaxy na 32 261 rnne camoneron. Cocrannxrt uex-nncrt nx xaxoro xonxpernoro
+rana neuennx n pamxax xaxoro narnosa eno nenosmoxnoe. H npaun cxenrnuecxn ornocxrcx x
romy, uro xycouex ymarn c naopom xpomeuntx xnaparnxon cmoxer ynyumnrt cnryannm.
Ho ecrt ncxpa naext na ro, uro n orentntx cnyuaxx raxo uex-nncr yer nonesen.
Pasne ne n ponn uex-nncra ntcrynamr sanncn cocroxnnx nannenra, xoropte neyrcx n ontnnnax?
3rn npnsnaxn onpeenxmr ero cocroxnne no uertpem ]nsnonornuecxnm noxasarenxm:
remneparypa rena, nyntc, xponxnoe annenne n uacrora txannx, xoropte nosnonxmr
mennnncxomy paornnxy nonyunrt omym xaprnny onesnn uenonexa. Orcyrcrnne onoro ns
+rnx napamerpon, xax noxastnaer npaxrnxa, upenaro nponemamn. Hpenonoxnm, rpn napamerpa
xaxyrcx nam nopmantntmn, nannenrxa ntrnxnr xopomo, n nt yxe cxnonxerect x romy, urot
cxasart Ona n nopxxe, moxno ornpannrt ee omo, no uerneprt cnnerentcrnyer o rom, uro y
xenmnnt ntcoxax remneparypa, nnsxoe xponxnoe annenne n uacrt nyntc, n ecnn nocnenn
napamerp ne yuecrt, uenonex moxer ymepert.
V xnnnnnncron ecrt nosmoxnocrt xonrponnponart paory xnsnenno naxntx ]ynxnn
oprannsma uenonexa, nocxontxy eme n nauane XX n. noxnnncx pryrnt repmomerp, a pyccxn
npau Hnxona Koporxon noxasan, xax ncnontsonart naynno manxer n crerocxon, urot
nonyunrt xonnuecrnennte napamerpt xponxnoro annennx. Xorx ncnontsonanne uertpex
noxasarene n conoxynnocrn aer onee rounym xaprnny cocroxnnx ontnoro, uem cyxenne
rontxo no onomy napamerpy, xnnnnnncrt nnxora ne perncrpnponann nx nce c ocrarouno
rounocrtm.
B cnoxno cnryannn +xcneprt cranxnnamrcx c nymx nponemamn. Bo-nepntx, +ro
neconepmencrno namxrn n nnnmannx uenonexa, ocoenno xora peut ner o pyrnnntx enax,
xoropte nerxo npornxert na ]one onee cnoxntx cotrn. (Ecnn y nannenra pnora, a ero
pocrnennnxn npncramr c nonpocom oxrop, ny uro c nnm?, ro ner nnuero ynnnrentnoro n
rom, uro npau sayer nsmepnrt nyntc.) Heconepmencrno namxrn n paccexnnocrt npnnoxr x
cnryannn, xoropym nnxenept nastnamr nce nnn nnuero: exnre nn nt n marasnn sa
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 19
nnrpenenramn nx omamnero ropra, roronnre nn nosymnoe cyno x nsnery nnn ocmarpnnaere
nannenra n ontnnne, ecnn nt ynycrnre xort onn xnmueno momenr, nce namn ycnnnx moryr
norn nacmapxy.
Eme ona rpynocrt nosnnxaer, xora nmn yronapnnamr cex ne conepmart xaxne-ro marn,
xorx npexpacno o nnx nomnxr. B cnoxntx nponeccax ecrt +rant, ne nmemmne ocooro snauennx.
Cxaxem, n camonere pynn ntcort ncera pasnoxnponant, n n ontmnncrne cnyuaen nponepxrt
+ro ne nmeer cmtcna. Bosmoxno, n cnoxno cnryannn nsmepenne ncex uertpex noxasarene y
ontnoro nosnonnr onapyxnrt uro-ro onacnoe ncero nnmt y onoro ns 50 nannenron. Hmn
cxaxyr: C +rnm nnxora ne tno nponem no onaxt nponema nce-raxn nosnnxner.
uex-nncr, noxoxe, cnacaer or raxnx neyau. On nanomnnaer nam o mnnnmantnom
xonnuecrne nyxntx maron n enaer nx narnxntmn. uex-nncrt ne rontxo ynpomamr nponepxy,
no n nnoxr crporym ncnnnnnny, npn xoropo nontmaercx nponsnonrentnocrt. Hmenno rax
nponcxonr c ocnonntmn noxasarenxmn xnsneexrentnocrn, xorx oxropa sect nonce nn npn
uem.
Pyrnnnax perncrpannx uertpex ocnonntx noxasarene crana nopmo n sanantx ontnnnax
rontxo n 1960-e rr., xora +ro eno onepnnn mececrpam. Onn crann ueprnrt rpa]nxn n
cocrannxrt rannnt, xoropte, no cyrn, npenparnnnct nx nnx n uex-nncrt. Homnmo ncero roro,
uro mececrpt onxnt tnn enart c nannenramn n reuenne ncero nx n noun (pasanart
nexapcrna, nepenxstnart pant, ntxnnxrt nponemt), uex-nncrt nosnonxnn nm trt
ynepenntmn n rom, uro xaxte mecrt uacon nnn uame, ecnn n +rom yer neoxonmocrt, onn ne
sayyr nsmepnrt nannenry nyntc, xponxnoe annenne, remneparypy n uacrory txannx nnn
rouno onpeennrt ero cocroxnne na onpeenennt momenr.
B ontmnncrne ontnnn c roro npemenn oannncx eme onn noxasarent ont, xoropax
onpeenxercx nannenrom no ecxrnanntno mxane. Kpome +roro, mececrpt camn nnenn
necxontxo nononneenn no yxoy sa nexaunmn ontntmn, nanpnmep rpa]nxn npnema nexapcrn
n neontmne sanncxn c nepeuncnennem roro, uro nyxno cenart nx xonxpernoro nannenra.
Hnxro ne nastnaer +ro uex-nncramn, no, no cyrn, onn raxontmn xnnxmrcx. 3ro nononneenne
xopomo noxasano cex n cecrpnncxom yxoe, no ne crano nonynxpntm y oxropon.
Ipa]nxn n uex-nncrt cxyunt yen mececrep, a ne npaue, xoropte n yunnnct ontme, n
npaxrnxonannct ontme, n nmemr ysxym cnennannsannm.
B 2001 r. cnennanncr no nnrencnnno repannn ns rocnnranx xonca Xonxnnca no nmenn
Hnrep Hpononocr pemnn ncnpoonart uex-nncr nx npaue. On ne ntrancx cocrannrt nonnt
cnncox roro, uro neoxonmo enart c ontntm n nanare nnrencnnno repannn n reuenne nx.
Hnrep cocrannn nepeuent roro, uro nyxno enart npn pemennn ncero ono ns coren saau ro,
xoropax uyrt ne cronna xnsnn 3nronn e]nnnnno, r. e. npn nn]nnnponannn nenrpantnoro
xarerepa.
Ha nncrxe otuno ymarn on oosnaunn marn, neoxonmte nx roro, urot nsexart
nn]nnnponannx npn xarerepnsannn ontnoro. Bpaun onxnt: 1) ntmtrt pyxn c mtnom; 2)
npomtrt xoxy nannenra xnoprexcnnnom; 3) crepnntntmn can]erxamn saxptrt nce reno
nannenra; 4) naert macxy, manouxy, crepnntnt xanar n nepuarxn; 5) nanoxnrt crepnntnym
nonxsxy, xax rontxo xanmnx nneena. 3arem nepenponepnrt ntnonnenne xaxoro nynxra. nx
raxo paort mnoro yma ne nyxno, nce +ro anno nsnecrno n nxonno n nporpammy oyuennx.
Ho+romy tno t rnyno cosanart uex-nncr nx cront ouennntx neme. Tem ne menee
Hpononocr npocnn mececrep n cnoe nanare nnrencnnno repannn n reuenne mecxna cnenrt sa
rem, xax noxnmuaercx xarerep, n sannctnart, cxontxo pas ntnonnxercx xaxt mar. Hpn
ocnyxnnannn onee uem rpern nannenron xorx t onn mar nponycxann.
uepes mecxn Hpononocr n ero rpynna yennn amnnncrpannm rocnnranx xonca
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 20
Xonxnnca npeocrannrt mececrpam npano ocranannnnart npaue n rex cnyuaxx, xora onn ne
ntnonnxmr onn ns +ranon, ormeuenntx na uex-nncre. Kpome roro, mececrpt onxnt tnn
exenenno nnrepeconartcx y npaue, xaxne rpyxn nyxno menxrt, urot onn ne ncnontsonannct
ontme, uem nonoxeno. 3ro tno nacroxme penonmnne. Pantme mececrpt no-pasnomy
yexann npaue ne enart omnox, naunnax c npocroro nanomnnannx (oxrop, nt ne satnn
naert macxy?) n saxanunnax onee pemnrentntmn mepamn (ona ns monx cecrep pemnna menx
otcxart, xora nocunrana, uro x nonoxnn na ontnoro neocrarouno mnoro crepnntntx
can]erox). Mnorne mececrpt comnenannct, cronr nn no menouam ncrynart n xon]ponrannm c
npauamn. (3auem yxptnart ontnomy norn, ecnn son nnonrcx uepes rpynym xnerxy?) Honte
npannna nce paccrannnn no cnonm mecram. Ecnn npaun uerxo ne ntnonnxnn nce, uro nonoxeno,
mececrpt mornn opamartcx sa nomomtm x amnnncrpannn.
Io cnycrx Hpononocr n ero xonnern pemnnn nponepnrt, x uemy npnnenn nonte npannna.
Pesyntrart oxasannct nacrontxo nopasnrentntmn, uro onn axe ne cpasy n nnx nonepnnn.
Xnpyprnuecxoe nn]nnnponanne no npemx 10-nennoro ncnontsonannx rpyox coxparnnoct c 11 %
npaxrnuecxn o nynx. Ipynna Hpononocra orcnexnnana ontntx eme n reuenne 15 mecxnen. Ho
ee pacueram nonyuanoct, uro rontxo n +rom orentno nsxrom rocnnrane tno npeornpameno 43
nn]exnnn, 8 cmepre n c+xonomneno $3 mnn.
Hpononocr npnnnex eme ontme xonner, n onn nce nmecre paspaorann n ncntrann
necxontxo nontx uex-nncron n nanarax nnrencnnno repannn rocnnranx xonca Xonxnnca. B
coornercrnnn c onnm ns nnx mececrpa onxna tna xaxte uertpe uaca nponepxrt nannune y
nannenra onentx cnmnromon, urot nonpemx anart emy oesonnnammne npenapart.
Bepoxrnocrt roro, uro on n reuenne nnrentnoro npemenn yer ncntrtnart ont, ne nonyuax
neuennx, coxparnnact c 41 o 3 %. Ipynna nponepnna +]]exrnnnocrt ncnontsonannx uex-nncron
nx nannenron, naxoxmnxcx na ncxyccrnenno nenrnnxnnn nerxnx, urot yenrtcx, ne
satnamr nn npaun ntnncart anrannnte npenapart, npeynpexammne nosnnxnonenne xsnt
xenyxa, n nonnmart nsrononte xponare xax mnnnmym na 30, urot ne onycrnrt nonaannx
cnmnt n txarentnym rpyxy. onx ontntx, ne nonyuanmnx onxnoro yxoa, coxparnnact c 70
o 4 %, a uncno saonenann nnenmonne ymentmnnoct na uerneprt. B rocnnrane ymepno na 21
uenonexa mentme, uem room pantme. Hccneonarenn npnmnn x ntnoy, uro onn rontxo ]axr
cocrannennx mececrpamn n npauamn uex-nncron, orpaxammnx nx ecrnnx n reuenne nx,
nontcnn +]]exrnnnocrt neuennx nacrontxo, uro npemx npetnannx ontntx n nanare
nnrencnnno repannn coxparnnoct nnoe.
Ho mnennm Hpononocra, uex-nncrt nrpann n ontnnnax ry xe pont, uro n n pyrnx c]epax
exrentnocrn, re onn npnmenxnnct, r. e. nosnonxnn ne nonarartcx rontxo na uenoneuecxym
namxrt n cnonnn x mnnnmymy xonnuecrno neoxonmtx maron. K cnoemy ynnnennm,
Hpononocr onapyxnn, uro axe ontrnt nepconan neocrarouno nonnmaer naxnocrt ncex mep
npeocropoxnocrn. Hpoanannsnponan paory pnra nnrencnnno repannn o nneennx
uex-nncron, on cenan ntno, uro nononnna npaue neoonennnaer naxnocrt nonyuennx
anrannntx npenaparon ontntmn, noxnmuenntmn x ncxyccrnenno nenrnnxnnn nerxnx.
Bneenne uex-nncron, no ero mnennm, nontmaer omn yponent yxoa sa ontntmn.
Haxoxn Hnrepa Hpononocra moryr noxasartcx nsnnmne npnmnrnnntmn. Ero camoro
xonnern xapaxrepnsymr xax necrxmero, rananrnnnoro n axe rennantnoro yuenoro. B
Vnnnepcnrere xonca Xonxnnca on samnrnn marncrepcxym n oxropcxym ncceprannn no
oprannsannn spanooxpanennx. Kpome roro, Hpononocr cnennannsnponancx n onacrn
peannmaronornn, anecresnonornn n nnrencnnno repannn. Onaxo cronno nn ncemy +romy
oyuartcx, urot nnepxrt uex-nncrt, nsnecrnte uenoneuecrny c nesanamxrntx npemen? He
ncxnmueno, uro cronno.
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 21
Hecmorpx na cront nnymnrentnte nepnte pesyntrart, nonyuennte npn nnepennn
uex-nncron, nocneonarenn +ro nnnnnarnnt naxonnnct c rpyom. Hpononocr nyremecrnonan no
crpane, snaxomx c uex-nncramn npaue, mececrep, corpynnxon crpaxontx xomnann,
paoroarene, r. e. ncex, xro mor t x nemy npncnymartcx. B cpenem Hpononocry npnxonnoct
ntcrynart n cemn pasntx ropoax exemecxuno. Ho ero nem npnnxnn anexo ne nce.
Hpnunn nx +roro tno necxontxo. Onnx npaue onxana cama nex uex-nncron. pyrne
oocnonanno comnenannct n anntx, nonyuenntx Hpononocrom. Ono eno npnmenxrt
uex-nncrt n rocnnrane xonca Xonxnnca, re orenenne nnrencnnno repannn xopomo
]nnancnpyercx, yxomnnexronano xapamn, a cam Hpononocr eraer no ncem nanaram n cmorpnr sa
rem, urot uex-nncrt npannntno npnmenxnnct. Ho yer nn paorart +ra nex n peantntx
ycnonnxx, xora n orenennxx nnrencnnno repannn, nepenonnenntx nannenramn, ne xnaraer
npaue n mececrep, y xoroptx y nnx ner nn npemenn, nn xenannx sanonnxrt eme ony ymaxxy?
Tem ne menee n 2003 r. Mennnncxax n ontnnunax acconnannx mrara Mnunran oparnnact
x Hpononocry c npocto nporecrnponart pont uex-nncron no ncex nanarax nnrencnnno repannn
mrara n ornomennn xarerepnsonanntx ontntx. Macmrat meponpnxrnx tnn raxont, uro
Hpononocr naxonen-ro nonyunn manc oxasart, uro ero uex-nncrt uero-ro croxr ne rontxo n
rennnuntx ycnonnxx.
nocernn ontnnny Cnna-Ipec n nenrpe erpora, xora +ror npoexr yxe men
necxontxo ner, n ynnen, c uem Hpononocr cronxnyncx na +ror pas. Fontnnna Cnna-Ipec
nent xomnnexc sann ns xpacnoro xnpnnua, pacnonoxennt cpen sapomenntx omon,
omenntx xonrop, pasnnuntx marasnnunxon n napnxmaxepcxnx. Hs +rnx sann cocronr
ropocxo paon Becr-Ca x mry or ynnnt 3r-Man Poy. Cnna-Ipec cranaprnax
ropocxax ontnnna. B ne paoramr 800 npaue, 700 mececrep n 2000 uenonex pyroro
mennnncxoro nepconana, ocnyxnnammnx neoraroe ropocxoe nacenenne. Fonee 250 000
ropoxan ne tnn sacrpaxonant, 300 000 nonyuann nocone or nnacre mrara. 3ro osnauano
nannune xponnuecxnx ]nnancontx nponem. V Cnna-Ipec onn tnn eme ne cront
ceptesntmn no cpannennm c pyrnmn ropocxnmn ontnnnamn. B camom nnoxom nonoxennn
naxonnact ncnxnarpnuecxax narnocrnuecxax ontnnna, n xoropo nxrax uacrt ontntx ne
morna nnarnrt sa neuenne. Onaxo mexy 2000 n 2003 rr. Cnna-Ipec n nocemt pyrnx
ontnnn erpora ntnyxent tnn coxparnrt na rpert cno nepconan, a nnacrxm mrara
npnmnoct ntennrt $50 mnn, urot npeornparnrt nx anxporcrno.
B ontnnne Cnna-Ipec nxrt nanar nnrencnnno repannn nx nspocntx n ona nx
ere. Xaccan Maxxn, saneymmn orenennem nnrencnnno repannn, paccxasan mne, nacxontxo
nnoxa cnryannx tna n 2004 r., xora Hpononocr n corpynnuecrne c ontnnuno acconnanne
oprannsonan necxontxo nourontx pacctnox n rene]onntx xon]epennn, urot nnepnrt
uex-nncrt nx ontntx c xarerepamn n nannenron, naxoxmnxcx na nenrnnxnnn nerxnx.
Hmtmn onnaena neynepennocrt, paccxastnan on. Mt norepxnn nononnny
corpynnxon, a ocranmnecx ne snann, onro nn nm ocranoct paorart.
Mnorne npaun noymtnann o rom, urot ynonnrtcx. Kpome roro, narpysxa na corpynnxon
ynennunnact ns-sa roro, uro nnacrn nnenn orpannuennx na npoonxnrentnocrt paoue cment.
Bor n raxo cnryannn Hpononocr cran nx yexart, uro nyxno narn npemx nx sanonnennx
uex-nncron.
Tom Hncxoponcxn, onn ns npaue, paoranmnx n orenennn nnrencnnno repannn,
npnsnancx mne, uro nepno ero peaxnne tno noome noxonunrt c ymaxno nonoxnro n
sannmartcx ontntmn.
npncoennnncx x rpynne npaue, xoropte n cemt yrpa conepmann oxo nannenron n
nanare nnrencnnno repannn xnpyprnuecxoro orenennx. B ne nexann 11 ontntx. uernepo c
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 22
ornecrpentntmn panennxmn (onn myxunna tn panen n rpyt, eme onomy nynx nonana n
xnnor, saen nouxy n neuent; noe tnn panent n mem n norepxnn cnoconocrt nnrartcx); nxrt
nannenron c nnyrpnmosrontm xpononsnnxnnem (rpoe n nospacre 79 ner n crapme; onn nonyunnn
rpanmt, ynan na necrnnne; eme onn nannenr cpenero nospacra nonyunn rpanmy ronont n neno
nncouno xocrn n pesyntrare yapon ryntm opynem; eme onn ontno tn paounm, xoropt c
ntcort nourn 7 m ynan c necrnnnt ronono nnns, ns-sa uero y nero pasnnncx napannu ncero rena
or men n nnxe). Kpome roro, n nanare nexann onxonornuecxn ontno, xoropomy yannnn uacrt
nerxoro, n nannenr, nepenecmn onepannm no nonoy anenpnsmt cocyon rononnoro mosra.
Bpaun n mececrpt meronuno oxonnn ontntx, no nx nce npemx xro-ro ornnexan: ro y
myxunnt, cocroxnne xoroporo cunranoct cranntntm, npyr cnona pasnnnoct xponoreuenne; eme
onn ontno, orxnmuennt or annapara ncxyccrnenno nenrnnxnnn nerxnx, cnona cran
ncntrtnart rpynocrn c txannem, n ero npnmnoct cnona noxnmunrt. Tpyno tno cee
npecrannrt, uro nmn, y xoroptx n rax ronona nyxna or ecxoneuntx nponem, xorenn xorx t
na mnnyry ornneutcx na raxym menout, xax uex-nncrt.
Tem ne menee onn cymecrnonann. nx onapyxnn, sanonnxx nonoxennte ymarn. uame
ncero nopxox n oxymenrax oecneunnann mececrpt. Kaxoe yrpo crapmax cecrpa npoxonna
uepes nanary c nnanmerom, urot ormernrt na nem, uro y ncex ontntx, noxnmuenntx x
ncxyccrnenno nenrnnxnnn nerxnx, nonxrt nsronontx xponare, uro nce nannenrt npnnnmamr
nponncannte nexapcrna n camr nasnauennte anannst. Bcxxn pas, xora npau nnonn xarerep n
nenrpantnym neny ontnoro, cecrpa nponepxna, cnepxn nn on cnon ecrnnx c uex-nncrom, n
ormeuana +ro n mennnncxo xapre. Hpocmarpnnax ontnnunte oxymenrt, x yenncx n rom, uro
mececrpt uecrno ntnonnxnn +ry oxsannocrt yxe onee rpex ner.
Hpononocr xnrpnn, naunnax cnom exrentnocrt. Bo npemx cnonx nepntx ece c
npecrannrenxmn ontnnuno amnnncrpannn on ne rpeonan, urot onn nnonnn oxsarentnte
uex-nncrt npn xarerepnsannn ontntx. Bmecro +roro Hpononocr npocnn nx conpart annte no
xnpyprnuecxnm nn]exnnxm. B nauane 2004 r. pyxononrenn ontnnn onapyxnnn, uro yponent
nn]nnnponannx ontntx, naxonnmnxcx n nanarax nnrencnnno repannn Mnunrana, tn ntme
cpenero no crpane, npnuem n orentntx neuentx yupexennxx ouent cymecrnenno. B
Cnna-Ipec nn]nnnponanne xarerepnsonanntx ontntx tno na 75 % ntme, uem n pyrnx
amepnxancxnx ontnnnax. B +ro npemx acconnannx mennnncxoro crpaxonannx Ionyo xpecr
n Ionyo mnr mrara Mnunran oxnnna o ntnnare npemn sa yuacrne n nporpamme
Hpononocra, n y uex-nncron cpasy noxnnnact npnnnexarentnax cropona.
B coornercrnnn c rax nastnaemo Kecroyncxo nnnnnarnno xaxax ontnnna nnonna
ononnnrentnym mrarnym ennnny menexepa npoexra, xoropt orneuan sa nnepenne
uex-nncron n nponeenne onn pas n na mecxna rene]onno xon]epennnn c Hpononocrom nx
ntxnnennx nponemntx onacre. Hpononocr nacroxn na rom, urot ns uncna pyxononrene
ontnnn nasnauancx onn uenonex, xoropt onxen tn pas n mecxn ncrpeuartcx c
corpynnxamn, ntcnymnnart nx xanot n nomorart n pemennn nosnnxammnx nponem.
Pyxononrenn ontnnn pearnponann na +rn nnnnnarnnt es xnno oxort, nocxontxy
npnntxnn conpart conemannx, na xoroptx pemannct nonpoct crparernn n mxera. Onn ne
xorenn nnnxart n nponemt ontntx n cunrann, uro +ro noome ne nx eno. Hnora
amnnncrparopt ornocnnnct x +ro nnnnnarnne npaxeno, no nx yuacrne n npoexre nosnonnno
onapyxnrt ynnnrentnte nemn. Oxasanoct, uro mtno c xnoprexcnnnom, neoxonmoe nx
npeynpexennx xnpyprnuecxoro nn]nnnponannx, npncyrcrnonano rontxo n xaxo rperte
peannmannonno nanare. 3ry nponemy morno pemnrt rontxo pyxonocrno. uepes necxontxo
neent n xaxom orenennn nnrencnnno repannn n Mnunrane naxonncx ocrarount sanac
mtna. Hepconan xanonancx nauantcrny, uro, xorx nce reno ontnoro no npemx xarerepnsannn
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 23
onxno trt onoxeno crepnntntmn can]erxamn n coornercrnnn c uex-nncramn, can]erxn
ontmoro pasmepa orcyrcrnonann. Pyxonocrno npnnxno coornercrnymmne mept. Ono yenno
xomnannm Arrow International, ntnycxammym mennnncxne pacxonte marepnant n
xnnxmmymcx onnm ns xpynnemnx n mnpe nsroronnrene xarerepon, npncrynnrt x ntnycxy
xomnnexron, n xoropte nxonnn t raxxe crepnntnte can]erxn n xnoprexcnnn.
B exape 2006 r. Kecroyncxax nnnnnarnna cymmnponana pesyntrart cnonx
nccneonann n cranme mnpoxo nsnecrno crarte, onynnxonanno New England Journal of
Medicine. 3a nepnte rpn mecxna peannsannn npoexra n nanarax nnrencnnno repannn n mrare
Mnunran uacrora nn]nnnponannx npn xarerepnsannn ontntx ymentmnnoct na 66 %, a ontnnna
Cnna-Ipec cnena ero x nynm. Hoxasarenn n mrare Mnunran oxasannct nyume, uem n 90 %
orenenn nnrencnnno repannn no crpane n nenom. 3a nepnte nonropa roa ecrnnx
Kecroyncxo nnnnnarnnt ontnnnt c+xonomnnn npnmepno $175 mnn na pacxoax n cnacnn
onee 500 xnsne. Ha ceronx +rn pesyntrart yepxnnamrcx yxe necxontxo ner. H nce +ro
naroapx nnmt +rnm ypanxnm uex-nncram.
Ouent xouercx ymart, uro +ror ycnex cnyuant. Bosmoxno, n crparernn
npeynpexennx xnpyprnuecxoro nn]nnnponannx ecrt neotunt +nemenr. B xonne xonnon,
uex-nncr xarerepnsannn ne cymen nomout npauam npeynpenrt pyrne rnnt ocnoxnenn,
xoropte moryr nosnnxnyrt, nanpnmep, npn nnenmoropaxce, xora n rpyt nannenra nnoxr
30-canrnmerponte nnacrnxonte xarerept, no nrna saxonr cnnmxom rnyoxo, nnn npn
xponoreuennn, xora pnercx cocy. uex-nncr npeynpexaer rontxo nn]nnnponanne. Ho n n +rom
xonxpernom cnyuae npau moxer ne npenpnnxrt ncex mep npeocropoxnocrn ne ntmtrt pyxn,
ne naert crepnntnte nepuarxn nnn crepnntnym xnpyprnuecxym oexy n r. n. n nmenno
no+romy n raxnx cnyuaxx uex-nncrt oxastnamrcx nanonee nonesntmn.
Hpnmepno n ro npemx, xora x ysnan o pesyntrarax Hpononocra, y menx cocroxncx pasronop
c Mapxycom Tentmanom cepeuno-cocyncrtm xnpyprom, onnm ns anropon oruera o cnacennn
uyrt ne yronynme manentxo enouxn. Cpen mnoxecrna erane, xoropte menx nopasnnn,
npexe ncero ynnnn ror ]axr, uro enouxy cnacnn ne n cnepxconpemennom mennnncxom nenrpe,
a n otuno nponnnnnantno ontnnne. Ona naxonrcx n manentxom ropoxe Knaren]ypr,
pacnonoxennom n ancrpncxnx Antnax. 3ro tno nnxamee neuenoe yupexenne or roro
npya, re uyrt ne yronyn peenox. cnpocnn Tentmana, xax nm yanoct cnpannrtcx c raxnm
cnoxntm cnyuaem.
On ornernn, uro x romy npemenn paoran n Knaren]ypre yxe mecrt ner. 3ra enouxa tna
ne nepntm nannenrom, xoroporo mecrnte npaun crapannct nepnyrt x xnsnn nocne ocranonxn
cepna n pesyntrare nepeoxnaxennx n yymtx. B ero ontnnny nocrynano or rpex o nxrn raxnx
ontntx n ro. B ocnonnom +ro tnn nmn, nonanmne no cnexnym nannny, ronynmne nnn
conepmnnmne nontrxy camoyncrna, npnnxn ontmym osy nexapcrn, nnn npocro
sanynnmnecx n sacnexenntx antnncxnx necax n norepxnmne cosnanne. o cnyuax c enouxo
nce crapannx corpynnxon ontnnnt no oxnnnennm nannenron oxastnannct nanpacntmn. V
ontmnncrna xeprn orcyrcrnonan nyntc, n onn x momenry nx onapyxennx cnnmxom onro ne
tmann. Onaxo n necxontxnx nannenrax, tn ynepen Tentman, xnsnt eme rennnnact, no on
nmecre co cnonmn xonneramn xaxt pas repnen neyauy.
Tentman nnnmarentno nsyunn nce ncropnn onesnn n npnmen x ntnoy, uro nanontmym
rpynocrt npecrannxna nororonxa ontnoro. nx ycnexa nyxno tno nmert narorone
annaparypy n nme xnpypron-rpanmaronoron, anecresnonoron-xapnonoron,
xapnoropaxantnoro xnpypra, corpynnxon nx nonnxenepno noepxxn, nep]ysnonora,
xnpyprnuecxnx mececrep, a raxxe npaue n mececrep, cnennanncron no peannmannn. Hourn no
ncex cnyuaxx xro-ro ns +roro cnncxa orcyrcrnonan.
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 24
Tentman otuno men cranaprntm xnpyprnuecxnm nyrem npnstnan ncex paorart
cooma. Ho +ro nn pasy ne nomorno. Ho+romy on n eme noe xonner pemnnn ecrnonart
no-pyromy n nororonnnn uex-nncrt.
Bpaun pasann nx nmxm, xorx t mano-mantcxn npnuacrntm x +romy nponeccy,
cnacarenxm, rene]onntm oneparopam n ontnnne, a raxxe ncex osnaxomnnn c eranxmn. B raxnx
cnyuaxx uex-nncr npennctnan cnacarenxm nn]opmnponart ontnnny o neoxonmocrn
noxnmuennx nannenra x ncxyccrnennomy cepny n nponeennx meponpnxrn no nontmennm
remneparypt rena. Kora +ro tno nosmoxno, onn onxnt tnn snonnrt n ontnnny eme o
npntrnx na mecro, urot ram mornn nororonnrtcx x npnemy ontnoro. Tene]onnt oneparop
oxsan tn osnonnrt ncex rex, xro sa +ro orneuan.
Hocne nnepennx uex-nncron nepnt ycnex npnmen n nne coxpanennx xnsnn rpexnerne
enouxe. Hourn cpasy nocne +roro Tentman nonyunn paory n ono ns nencxnx ontnnn.
Ocranmaxcx es nero pnraa onnact xax mnnnmym eme nyx ycnexon. B onom cnyuae uenonex
tn onapyxen samepsmnm nocne nontrxn camoyncrna, a n pyrom mart n ee 16-nernxx out
nonann n TH, npn xoropom mamnna nponna orpaxenne n ynana c optna n ropnym pexy.
Xenmnna cxonuanact cpasy, a enymxa sacrpxna n mamnne, sanonnxnmecx noo. Hpntnmne
cnacarenn xoncrarnponann y nee ocranonxy txannx n cepeuno exrentnocrn.
C +roro momenra nce paorann xax uact. Fontnnna tna ononemena o cnoxnom nannenre
eme o nauana cepeuno-nerouno peannmannn. Cxopax onesna enymxy sa necxontxo mnnyr.
Fpnraa xnpypron es npomenennx ocrannna ee n onepannonnym n noxnmunna x annapary
cepne-nerxne. Onn +ran nocneonarentno ntnonnxncx sa pyrnm. Fnaroapx romy, uro ncx
paora ntnonnxnact ncxnmunrentno tcrpo, y nocrpaanme noxnnncx manc.
Kora remneparypa rena enymxn nontcnnact, ee cepne cnona sannoct. B nanare
nnrencnnno repannn nce npemx, nonaonnmeecx oprannsmy nannenrxn nx noccranonnennx
]ynxnn oprannsma, ona naxonnact na ncxyccrnennom nenrnnnponannn nerxnx, npaun e enann
nnnnannx n nnonnn nnyrpnnenno pasnnunte nexapcrna. Ha cneymmn ent enymxy yxe
moxno tno orxnmunrt or annaparon.

Fnana 3
Koueu anoxu sopuero

uepes uertpe noxonennx nocne roro, xax tnn nsoperent uex-nncrt, oxasanoct, uro onn
moryr cnacrn axe ontrntx npo]eccnonanon or omnox npn ntnonnennn camtx pasnoopasntx
saau. uex-nncrt ]opmnponann cnoero poa xornnrnnnym cert, n xoropym nonaann nce omnxn
mosrono exrentnocrn, xapaxrepnte nx xaxoro uenonexa n oxcnxemte neocrarxamn
namxrn, nnnmannx n cocpeorouennocrn. Fnaroapx +romy nepe uenonexom orxptnnct mnpoxne
ononnnrentnte nosmoxnocrn.
Onaxo uex-nncrt ne ornnuannct ynnnepcantnocrtm, no+romy ocnonnax saaua
saxnmuanact n rom, urot onpeennrt, n xaxnx cnryannxx onn moryr trt nonesnt, a n xaxnx
ner.
na yuentx, nsyuanmnx npnpoy cnoxnocrn, Fpena Hnmmepman ns Hopxcxoro
ynnnepcnrera n Bonom Inoyepman ns Toponrcxoro ynnnepcnrera npenoxnnn pasnnuart rpn
rnna nponem, cymecrnymmnx n mnpe: npocrte, cnoxnte n cnepxcnoxnte. Onn ormeuann, uro
npocrte nponemt cxoxn c npnroronnennem ropra no penenry: nno pas nx +roro ocrarouno
nayunrtcx necxontxnm npnemam, no xora onn ocnoent, nepoxrnocrt ycnexa yer ouent ntcoxa.
Cnoxnte nponemt +ro, nanpnmep, sanycx paxert na Hyny. Hnora raxym saauy moxno
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 25
pasnrt na necxontxo npocrtx, no penenr nx pemennx ncera yer orcyrcrnonart. Vcnex uacro
xnnxercx xonnexrnnntm exnnem, nopo rpeymmnm necxontxnx xonnexrnnon, ornnuammnxcx
ysxo cnennannsanne. Heoxnannte rpynocrn ncrpeuamrcx onontno uacro. Ocoym naxnocrt
npnoperaer paspaorxa cpoxon n npnnnnnon xoopnnannn.
Cnepxcnoxnte nponemt cxoxn c nocnnrannem peenxa. Vsnan, xax moxno sanycrnrt
paxery na Hyny, nt moxere nonropnrt +ror nponecc npn sanycxe pyrnx paxer n axe
yconepmencrnonart ero, noromy uro ona paxera noxoxa na pyrym. Onaxo, xax ormeuamr +rn
yuente, raxo noxo x nocnnrannm peenxa ne ronrcx. Kaxt mantm ynnxanen. Xorx
nocnnranne onoro peenxa nosnonxer npnopecrn coornercrnymmn ontr, on rem ne menee
moxer oxasartcx ne+]]exrnnntm npn nocnnrannn pyroro peenxa, xoropt moxer norpeonart
conepmenno nnoro noxoa. H ryr ntxcnxercx ona ocoennocrt cnepxcnoxntx nponem:
pesyntrar nx pemennx onro ocraercx neonpeenenntm. Tem ne menee mt snaem, uro nocnnrart
peenxa moxno, xorx +ro n nenerxoe eno.
Paccyxax o nosmoxnocrn nsexart annaxaracrpo]t n 1935 r., nnn o npeynpexennn
xnpyprnuecxnx nn]exnn n 2003 r., nnn o nosnpamennn x xnsnn yronynmnx nme n namn nn, x
npnmen x ntnoy, uro no ncex cnyuaxx, necmorpx na nannune ononnnrentntx ]axropon, nnno
ncemy npocrte nponemt. B nepnom cnyuae nyxno tno oparnrt nnnmanne na ynpannenne
pynxmn ntcort n nanpannennx, no nropom oecneunnart crepnntnocrt, a n rpertem
nororonnrtcx x xoponapnomy mynrnponannm. Bce moxno tno t cnecrn x romy, uro nnxenept
nastnamr oxsarentntm pernamenrom, npecrannxmmnm coo naop ornocnrentno npocrtx
pemenn, saammnx cranaprt noneennx n nne uex-nncra.
Ham ocaxamr npocrte nponemt. B mennnne onn osnauamr, uro npau, nanpnmep, moxer
ne naert macxy, xora crannr ontnomy xarerep, nnn satrt, uro ono ns ecxrn npnunn
ocranonxn cepna moxer trt nepeosnponxa xannx. B mpnnuecxo npaxrnxe npocrte
nponemt ntpaxamrcx n necnoconocrn anoxara sanomnnrt rnannte nanpannennx nnnnn
samnrt xnnenra, yxnonxmmerocx or ynnart nanoron, nnn n neconmennn cpoxon paccmorpennx
en n cye. B paore nonnnnn +ro osnauaer neymenne npannntno o]opmnrt cnnerentcxne
noxasannx. Hanpnmep, ne npeynpenrt ouennna nponcmecrnnx o rom, uro cpen
npexnnenntx x onosnannm nnn moxer orcyrcrnonart noospenaemt nnn uro n uncne +rnx
nme naxonrcx uenonex, xoropt snaer cnnerenx n nnno. uex-nncrt moryr nsannrt or
omnox raxoro poa.
Onaxo snaunrentnym uacrt paort, xoropym ntnonnxmr nmn, npocro nasnart nentsx.
Vcranonxa xarerepa +ro nnmt ona ns 178 saau, ntnonnxemtx peannmannonno pnrao n
reuenne nx. H neyxenn ecrnnrentno moxno cocrannrt na xaxym saauy uex-nncrt n
cxpynynesno ntnonnxrt nce nynxrt? Peannsyemo nn +ro xorx t n mano crenenn?
Vnnnepcantntx anropnrmon yxoa sa ontntmn n nanare nnrencnnno repannn ne cymecrnyer.
nx +roro nyxen nent xonnexrnn pasnnuntx cnennanncron-xnnnnnncron, pemammnx
pasnnunte saaun, oycnonnennte xonxperno cnryanne. H +ro ne moxer npennctnartcx
oxsarentntm pernamenrom.
Kpome roro, nmn ornnuamrcx nnnnnyantnocrtm, nexapaxrepno, nanpnmep, nx paxer.
Her nn onoro nannenra, saonenmero nnenmonne, xoropt tn t rouno xonne pyroro
ontnoro. axe npn rex xe axrepnxx, rom xe xamne n otmxe, neocrarounocrn xncnopoa n
npn ncnontsonannn onnx rex xe anrnnornxon onn ontno nauner ntsopannnnart, a pyro
ner. Bpau ncera onxen trt roron x nenpecxasyemtm nonoporam, uro nnxax ne moxer trt
orpaxeno n uex-nncrax. B mennnne npncyrcrnyer nect cnexrp nponem npocrte, cnoxnte n
cnepxcnoxnte. Ho nepe xnnnnnncrom ncera yyr nosnnxart saaun, xoropte on oxsan
pemart nesamennrentno, satn npo sanonnenne ymar n ymax rontxo o ontnom.
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A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 26
pasmtmnxm o raxnx nonpocax yxe anno. xouy trt xopomnm oxropom nx cnonx
nannenron. nx +roro neoxonmo nonnmart, xora cronr x xomy-ro npncnymnnartcx, a xora
nyxno crporo cneonart nporoxony nnn enart uro-ro pyroe, rpeymmee rpynoro pemennx.
Hyxno sacrannrt nme ne conepmart xorx t rnyntx omnox, ocrannxx npn +rom mecro nx
manenpa, urot cnennanncr mor noxasart cnoe macrepcrno n paccynrentnocrt, a raxxe
cnoconocrt cnpannxrtcx c nenpennenntmn ocroxrentcrnamn, xoropte nosnnxamr nocroxnno.
nx npocrtx nponem nennocrt uex-nncron ne ntstnaer comnennx. Ho moryr nn onn
npeornparnrt neyauy, xora uenonex cranxnnaercx c neno conoxynnocrtm nponem or
npocrtx o cnepxcnoxntx?
Orner x namen cnyuano, npnuem n conepmenno neoxnannom mecre nx no ynnne.
Ftno xpxoe xnnapcxoe yrpo 2007 r. men na paory or napxonxn x rnannomy nxoy n
ontnnny, xora mne na rnasa nonanoct crpoxmeecx nx namero mennnncxoro nenrpa nonoe
sanne. Ha ror momenr ono npecrannxno coo cxener ns crantntx xoncrpyxnn,
ycrpemnnmncx nnepx na 11 +raxe. Ocron sannx sannman nent ropocxo xnapran, n
cosananoct nneuarnenne, uro on nosnnx na nycrtpe yxnantno n onouacte. croxn n cmorpen,
xax paoun na crpaxonounom noxce cnapnnan anxn na yponne uerneproro +raxa. H x saymancx:
orxya on n pyrne paoune snamr, uro nce enamr npannntno? Houemy onn ynepent, uro ncx
xoncrpyxnnx ne sanannrcx?
Kopnyc ne tn ocoenno ontmnm npnmepno na 150 onomecrntx nanar (nx roro, urot
mt mornn norom npenparnrt mnoromecrnte nanart n name ocnonno amne n onomecrnte n
pasmecrnrt ram 16 npexpacntx onepannonntx nanar, o xoroptx x anno meuran). pyrnmn
cnonamn, nnuero neotunoro. epxy napn, uro n npomnom roy no nce crpane nosnonnnct eme
onee ntcoxne sannx.
Ho n +ry crpoxy ornecrn x manentxnm roxe nentsx. Kax mne nosxe paccxasan menexep no
nennxnmocrn, nonoe sanne yer nnomatm nourn 40 000 xn. m, c rpemx nosemntmn +raxamn
n 11 na semne. Ero cronmocrt no xnmu onennnaercx n $360 mnn, a nx crponrentcrna
norpeyercx 3885 ronn crantntx xoncrpyxnn, nourn 11 000 xyomerpon erona, n nem yer
ycranonneno 19 xonnnnonepon, 16 nn]ron, ona rpanpnx n onn anapnnt +nexrporeneparop.
Crponrenxm npnercx ntnyrt onee 76 000 xyomerpon rpynra, ycranonnrt 77 xm noonponontx
rpy n nponoxnrt 144 xm +nexrpnuecxoro xaenx.
a, noyman x, raxax xoncrpyxnnx ne onxna ynacrt.
Kora mne tno 11 ner, x xnn n A]nnax, mrar Orao, n mne npnmno n ronony camomy
cenart xnnxnym nonxy. Mart ana mne $10, x cen na nenocnne n noexan n marasnn
crponrentntx ronapon na Pnunan-anenm. C nomomtm npnnernnnoro xypxnoro npoanna x
xynnn uertpe cocnonte omeuxn 20 cm mnpnno, 1,5 cm ronmnno n 1,20 m nnno. Kpome roro,
x onnarnn anxy mopnnxn, anxy naxa, xycox naxauno ymarn n xopoxy otuntx rnose.
Pasnoxnn nce +ro n rapaxe, x eme pas nepemepnn mon noxynxn. 3arem npnnn ne omeuxn x nym
oxonnnam, n mne noxasanoct, uro nepeo mno npexpacnax xnnxnax nonxa. Hocrannn ee, x nsxncx
sa mxypxy, norom noxptn ocxn mopnnxo n uepes xaxoe-ro npemx naxom. 3arem ornec nonxy
n cnom cnantnm n nocrannn na nee mryx mecrt xnnr. H ryr ncx xoncrpyxnnx nomarnynact n
sanannnact naox, xax nepepanmn rynxxa. ne cpenne omeuxn oromnn. nnn eme
necxontxo rnose n cnona nocrannn cnom camoentnym nonxy. Inosn x sannan no yrnom,
ymax, uro +ro nomoxer. He nomorno. B xonne xonnon x npnnn +ry ueprony mryxonnny npxmo x
crene. Hmenno rora x nonxn, uro raxoe xecrxocrt xoncrpyxnnn.
Bor x n cmorpen na +ro sanne, npecrannxx, xax ono cronr axe no npemx semnerpxcenn, n
ynnnxxct romy, uro paoune ynepent n npannntnocrn cnonx ecrnn. nonnman, uro n moem
nonpoce ecrt na +nemenra. Bo-nepntx, nouemy onn ynepent, uro onaamr npannntntmn
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 27
snannxmn? Bo-nroptx, nouemy onn ynepent, uro npannntno +rn snannx npnmenxmr?
Oe uacrn nonpoca ouent axe nenpocrt. Hpn npoexrnponannn sannx cnennanncram
nyxno yuecrt mnoxecrno ne cnxsanntx mexy coo ]axropon: ocoennocrn mecrnoro rpynra,
xenaemym ntcory orentnoro coopyxennx, npounocrt nmemmnxcx marepnanon, a raxxe
onpeennrt reomerpnm coopyxennx n mnoroe pyroe. 3arem, nonnomax ymaxnte nnant n
peantnocrt, onn ne moryr ne cronxnyrtcx c eme o

ntmnmn rpynocrxmn, ntcrpannax npannntnym


paory n nme, n rexnnxn, ntnonnxemym n npannntno nocneonarentnocrn, npn +rom ne
cxontnax pasymnym nnnnnarnny, xoropym nyxno npoxnnxrt n neoxnanntx cnryannxx.
Hecmorpx na rpynocrn, y crponrene nce nonyuaercx. Onn no ncemy mnpy nosnoxr
mnnnnont sann, xorx +ror nponecc c xaxtm room cranonnrcx nce cnoxnee. Fonee roro,
crponrentcrno neyr nepeonte paoune, xoropte nmym paory or sannannx cna o
monraxa +nexrponponoxn n nanarax nnrencnnno repannn ntnonnxmr rax xe, xax +ro enamr
npaun, yunrenx n pyrne npo]eccnonant, r. e. ne nosnonxx nmemnnartcx nocroponnnm.
npnmen x xo Cantnna, nnxenepy-npoexranry, paoranmemy n nonom xptne name
ontnnnt, n nonpocnn ero paccxasart, xax oprannsonana paora n crponrentcrne. Oxasanoct, uro
x oparnncx no npannntnomy apecy. Ero xomnannx McNamara/Salvia c nauana 1960-x rr.
yuacrnonana n crponrentcrne nourn ncex xpynntx ontnnn n Focrone. Kpome roro, ona
ntnonnxna monraxnte paort npn nosneennn ontmoro xonnuecrna rocrnnnn, ntcorntx
o]ncntx sann n xnntx. McNamara/Salvia ocymecrnnxna monrax npn pexoncrpyxnnn napxa
ueny+, nxnmuax cranon na 36 000 spnrene nx econtnoro xnya Boston Red Sox c ero
nsnecrno 12-merpono orpannunrentno creno no nasnannem 3enent moncrp. 3ra
xomnannx n ocnonnom cnennannsnpyercx na npoexrnponannn n nnxnnnpnnre ontmnx, cnoxntx
n uame ncero mnoro+raxntx sann n coopyxenn no nce crpane.
Camt ntcoxn neocxpe, nosnnrnyrt xo Cantnna, 80-+raxnax amnx n Maamn. Ha
Po-Anene, n Hponnence, ero xomnannx nocrponna ropront nenrp, na nosneenne xoroporo
ymno camoe ontmoe xonnuecrno crann na Bocrounom noepexte (nourn 24 000 ronn). Eme ona
yuacrnonana, noxany, n xpynnemem n mnpe xommepuecxom npoexre, nocrponn
cnoprnnno-pasnnexarentnt xomnnexc Meadowlands Xanadu n Hcr-Pesep]ope, mrar
Htm-xepcn, n xoropt nxonr omamnn cranon nx xoman no amepnxancxomy ]yrony New
York Giants n New York Jets, mystxantnt rearp na 3000 mecr, xpynnemn mnorosantnt
xnnorearp, a raxxe nepnt n crpane ntxnt xypopr no xptme. B reuenne nocnennx ner
xomnannx McNamara/Salvia nosnonna 5060 oexron n ro, uro coornercrnyer crponrentcrny
onoro ontmoro coopyxennx n neenm. H npn +rom nn ono ns nocrpoenntx em sann ne
nmeno axe namexon na opymenne.
Ho+romy x npnmen n o]nc Cantnna, pacnonoxennt n camom nenrpe Focrona, urot
ysnart, xax on oecneunnaer npannntnocrt npoexrnponannx n nosneennx sann. 61-nernn xo
Cantnna nourn ntc, y nero cnntnt ocroncxn axnenr n ouent oxonrentnax manepa omennx
(He nao cnemnrt, He xenaere nn uameuxy xo]e?), xoropym x ne oxnan or nnxenepa.
Cantnna paccxasan, uro nepntm oexrom, na xoroptm on paoran, tna xptma neontmoro
xptroro ptnxa.
xo rontxo uro nonyunn nnnom, men emy ncero 21- ro, n xnn on n Hcr-Kempnxe, a
+ro ne ro mecro, re nmxr cennrtcx npo]eccopa ns Iapnapcxoro ynnnepcnrera. Ero oren tn
cnecapem, a mart paorana na mxcoxomnnare. Ho xo xopomo yunncx n cran nepntm n cemte, xro
nonyunn ntcmee opasonanne. Vunncx on n Vnnnepcnrere Ta]rca, urot crart npauom, n nomnmo
+roro ynnexancx oprannuecxo xnmne.
Mne ronopnnn: Mt xornm, urot rt sanomnnn +rn ]opmynt. A x orneuan: 3auem
sanomnnart, ecnn moxno sarnxnyrt n yuennx? Tora onn cnpamnnann: Tt xouemt crart
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A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 28
npauom? Ecnn a, ro ree onxno trt nsnecrno, uro n mennnne nyxno sanomnnart nce. Ho mne
+ro xasanoct cmemntm. Kpome roro, x c rpyom sanomnnan ]opmynt n no+romy pemnn pocnrt
yuey.
Ho oxasanoct, uro Cantnna xopomo cnpannxercx co cnepxcnoxntmn saauamn. Mne on
ntrancx paccxasart, xax n yme pemaer xnaparnte ypannennx, no enncrnennoe, uro x nonxn, +ro
ro, uro n moem npncyrcrnnn uenonex nponsnec cnona xnaparnoe ypannenne c cnntntm
ocroncxnm axnenrom. Kpome roro, Cantnna npannnact cama nex cosnannx. B pesyntrare on
ntpan crponrentcrno, n xoropom tno uro-ro n or reopnn, n or npaxrnxn, n raxoe coueranne emy
ouent npannnoct. On nsyuan ocnont crarnxn n nnamnxn (Hy, +rn, xax on ntpasnncx, F =
ma ), a raxxe xnmnuecxne n ]nsnuecxne cnocrna crann, erona n rpynron.
Onaxo, xora xo nonyunn crenent axananpa n ycrponncx paorart n
apxnrexrypno-nnxenepnym xomnannm Sumner Shane, xoropax cnennannsnponanact na
npoexrnponannn roprontx nnomae, emy nnuero crponrt ne npnmnoct. Onnm ns npoexron tn
ropront nenrp n Texace, n Cantnna nopyunnn cnpoexrnponart xptmy. On npnmen x ntnoy, uro
emy, n omem, nonxrno, xax cnpoexrnponart npounym xptmy, ncnontsyx cneennx ns yuennxon
n crponrentntx nopm.
Cantnna eme n xonnexe snan, xax npoexrnponart sannx na ocnone crantntx xoncrpyxnn
anox n cna. A mecrnte nopmt rouno onpeenxnn npounocrt crantntx xoncrpyxnn, cnocrna
rpynra, cneronym narpysxy, conpornnnxemocrt nerpy n cecmocroxocrt. Or nero rpeonanoct
nepenecrn +rn noxasarenn n rexnnuecxoe saanne, n xoropom yunrtnannct pasmept sannx, ero
+raxnocrt, pacnonoxenne marasnnon n norpysountx nnomaox. Hoxa mt ronopnnn, xo pnconan
mne na ymare xonrypt sannx. On nauan c roro, uro nsopasnn npocro npxmoyrontnnx, a sarem
oosnaunn nnyrpennne crent, npoxot n ropronte sant. H nor pncynox cran operart
xonxpernxy.
Cnauana rt onpeenxemt cerxy, nomeuax mecra, re onxnt croxrt onopt xptmn,
noxcnnn on n xpecrnxamn namernn pacnonoxenne xononn. Hy a antme uncrax anrepa. Tt
paccunrtnaemt nec xptmn, ncxox ns ee pasmepon n ronmnnt, a sarem ecnn part nnny
nepexptrn, pannym 10 m, ro moxno paccunrart namerp n npounocrt xononn. 3arem rt
nponepxemt nonyuennte pesyntrart, urot yenrtcx, uro nnuero ne ynycrnn.
Bcemy +romy ero nayunnn n xonnexe, no xo onapyxnn, uro xpome +rnx snann
rpeyercx eme ouent mnoroe.
Tt nnaeemt reomerpnuecxo reopne, xoropax nocxastnaer nannyumee pemenne, no rt
ne snaemt, xaxoe pemenne yer nyumnm na npaxrnxe, cxasan on.
Hyxno tno yunrtnart eme n cronmocrt, o xoropo xo ne nmen nn manemero nonxrnx.
Kax oxasanoct, pasmept n rnn npenaraemtx marepnanon cymecrnenno menxnn cronmocrt
oexra. Kpome roro, cymecrnymr raxne nemn, xax +crernxa, noxenannx xnnenra, xoropomy ne
npannnnct xononnt, croxmne nocpen ropronoro sana nnn sacnonxmmne uro-nnyt.
Ecnn t nce pemann nnxenept, ro nce sannx tnn t npxmoyrontntmn xopoxamn,
npoonxan Cantnna.
Onaxo xaxoe coopyxenne (n ontmoe, n manentxoe) uem-nnyt a ornnuaercx or
npemecrnennnxa, n yuennx ne moxer npeycmorpert nce pemennx, xoropte moryr
norpeonartcx. Hosnee, xora xo cosan yxe cocrnennym xomnannm, on n ero corpynnxn
paspaartnann nnxenepno-monraxnym oxymenrannm nx ocroncxoro Mexynaponoro nenrpa
nosnecmymcx nnepx na 46 +raxe amnm ns crexna n erona, xoropym cnpoexrnponan
apxnrexrop unnnn xoncon. 3anne tno neotuntm nnnnnp, nnncannt n npxmoyrontnnx.
o +roro npn crponrentcrne neocxpeon raxne ]opmt ne npnmenxnnct.
C nnxenepno rouxn spennx, npoonxan noxcnennx Cantnna, nnnnnp ncera
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 29
npecrannxer nponemy. Xecrxocrt xnapara na 60 % ntme, uem xpyra, a npn cnntnom nerpe nnn
npn semnerpxcennn sanne onxno conpornnnxrtcx cxpyunnannm nnn nsrny.
Onaxo nepe nnmn tn nenpannntnt nnnnnp, no+romy nyxno tno nponsnecrn
nnxenepnte pacuert, coornercrnymmne +crernuecxomy nnennm apxnrexropa.
Hepnax xptma, xoropym npoexrnponan Cantnna, moxer, n tna npocro, no on ncntran
mnoro rpynocre. Kpome cronmocrn n +crernxn, emy rpeonanoct yuecrt sanpoct ncex
ocrantntx cnennanncron-npoexranron. Bce nnxenept no canrexnnxe n no +nexrpnxe,
nnxenept-mexannxn xorenn, urot nx rpyt, nponoxa n nenrnnxnnonnte xopoa npoxonnn
ram, re y xo tnn npeycmorpent onopt.
3anne +ro xax reno uenonexa, ronopnr on. V nero ecrt xoxa, ecrt cxener, ecrt
cocyt rpyt, ecrt oprant txannx nenrnnxnnx. Ecrt axe cnox nepnnax cncrema
nponoxa. Ceronx n npoexrnponannn yuacrnymr nmn 16 pasnnuntx cnennantnocre.
xo ocran npoexrnym oxymenrannm na crpoxmncx 120-merpont neocxpe n noxasan
mne ornannenne. Kaxomy nanpannennm crponrentcrna ornonncx orentnt pasen. Ftnn
pasent, nocnxmennte nn]ram n +cxanaropam, xommynnxannxm n nnxenepntm cncremam
(oronnenne, nenrnnxnnx, xonnnnonnponanne nosyxa), npornnonoxapntm neperopoxam,
eronntm n merannnuecxnm xoncrpyxnnxm, +nexrpnuecxnm cncremam, nepxm n oxnam, repmo n
nnarosamnre (nxnmuax rnponsonxnnm), a raxxe rpyo n uncrono orenxe, naroycrpocrny
(nxnmuax ptrte semnn, nnnnenym xanannsannm, rporyapt), r. e. oxymenrannx oxnartnana nce
nnnort o xonpontx noxptrn, nanma]rnoro nsana n optt c rptsynamn.
Heoxonmo cnecrn noenno ouent pasnte nemn n nsanmoynxsart nx, a nocne +roro
nonnornrt n peantnoe coopyxenne n xoopnnnponart ntnonnenne ncex onepann. Ha nepnt
nsrnx cnoxnocrn xaxyrcx nenpeoonnmtmn. Ho Cantnna cunraer, uro +ro nocnyxnno crnmynom
nx pasnnrnx nce orpacnn.
Onaxo na nporxxennn nourn nce conpemenno ncropnn, naunnax co Cpennx nexon, oma
nosnonnnct onontno npocro: nx +roro nannmann souero. On n om cnpoexrnpyer, n
nnxenepnoe oecneuenne cosacr, n cenaer nce xax nao, xax ronopnrcx, or xptntna o
nocnenero nenna. 3oune crponnn Horp-am, asnnnxy Cn. Herpa n sanne Kannronnx n CBA.
Ho x cepenne XX n. npo nnx yxe satnn. Mnoroopasne n cnoxnocrt crponrentno nnycrpnn
na ncex +ranax snaunrentno npenocxonnn nosmoxnocrn onoro uenonexa.
Hpn nepnom pasenennn rpya ns crponrentcrna ntennnnct apxnrexrypnoe n nnxenepnoe
npoexrnponanne. 3arem nocrenenno cnennannsannx eme ontme ynennunnact. C ono cropont,
tnn apxnrexropt, cpen xoroptx namernnact cnox cnennannsannx, a c pyro nnxenept co
ncem nx mnoroopasnem cnennantnocre. Crponrenn roxe ne cocrannxnn onoponym rpynny. B
nee nxonnn pasnte cnennanncrt or nponsnonrene amenntx xpanon o
cronxpon-xpacnoepenmnxon. 3ro orpacnt no mnorom nanomnnana mennnny co ncem ee
mnoroopasnem cnennanncron n cynepcnennanncron.
Ho cyrn, mennnna npoonxaer cymecrnonart n cncreme, cnoxnnmecx n +noxy sounx, n
xoropo no rnane nnpamnt cronr npau c nanxamn penenron, onepannonno n necxontxnmn
nmtmn, oxsanntmn cneonart ero yxasannxm no ncem, uro xacaercx yxoa sa ontntm: or
nocranonxn narnosa o neuennx. Mt ouent menenno npncnocannnaemcx x peantnocrn, n
xoropo yxo sa uenonexom o camoro nocnenero roa ero xnsnn ocymecrnnxmr npaun xax
mnnnmym 16 cnennantnocre, ne cunrax eme orpomnoro xonnuecrna mepaornnxon or
mececrep n ]entmepon o ]apmanenron n cnennanncron no yxoy sa ontntmn na omy. O
name nnoxo aanrannn cnnerentcrnymr ntcoxax crenent ynnponannx mennnncxnx ycnyr,
ontmoe xonnuecrno omnox n orcyrcrnne xoopnnannn.
B crponrentnom nsnece, noxcnnn Cantnna, raxne nemn nponcxonrt ne moryr.
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 30
Kaxnmn t cnoxntmn nn tnn nponemt, c xoroptmn on cronxnyncx npn npoexrnponannn
xptmn ropronoro nenrpa, Cantnna cpasy nonxn, uro ne nmeer npana na omnxy, xorx t noromy,
uro ontmoe xonnuecrno nme moxer nornnyrt, ecnn xptma ne ntepxnr cneronym narpysxy
n pyxner. Hentsx ncxnmuart n snaunrentnte ]nnanconte norepn, ecnn raxax omnxa yer
paccmarpnnartcx n cye. Ho xaxne t nn tnn npnunnt, apxnrexropt, nnxenept n crponrenn
yxe anno eme n nauane npomnoro nexa ntnyxent tnn npnsnart xonen +noxn souero n
orxasartcx or nero. Onn namnn pyro nyrt x romy, urot ntnonnxrt cnom paory es omnox.
urot noxasart, xaxo nyrt npomno crponrentcrno, Cantnna npenoxnn mne nocernrt onn
ns crpoxmnxcx oexron. On naxonncx nenoanexy or o]nca xomnannn, n o nero mt opannct
no conntmxy nemxom. 3anne Pyccxoro npnuana no oxonuannn crponrentcrna nonnmercx na
32 +raxa, n nem 65 000 xn. m o]ncno n xnno nnoman. Tontxo ero ocnonanne sannmano onee
8000 xn. m.
Xyoxecrnennoe pemenne npoexra tno nennxonenntm. Pyccxn npnuan nosnonncx ram,
re n cnoe npemx npnmnaprontnannct ropronte cya, xonnmne mexy Canxr-Herepyprom n
Focronom c rpysom xenesa, nentxn n napycnnt nx crponrentcrna xopane. Pxom nponsomno
Focroncxoe uaennrne
5
. Honoe sanne ns crexna n erona nosnonnoct na +ro ncropnuecxo
naepexno. B nem tn npeycmorpen 10-+raxnt arpnym. Kpome roro, coxpanxnnct ]acat
xpacntx xnpnnuntx 110-nernnx sann, npnnanexanmnx +noxe neoxnaccnnnsma.
Kora x npnmen na +xcxypcnm, Cantnna cxenrnuecxn ocmorpen mo ronyo nnxax ]npmt
Brooks Brothers n uepnte monte ornnxn, a norom samernn, uro, xora nemt na crponrentnym
nnomaxy, nyxno npannntno ntnpart oynt.
Bnyrpn craptx sann yxe snxna nycrora, n o 14-ro +raxa nosntmancx crantno cxener
nono amnn. Eme na uertpe +raxa na ne nosnocnncx crponrentnt xpan. Cnepxy mt,
nanepnoe, xasannct mypantxmn. Oox na erononosa, nx uero exypnte ocranonnnn
nnxenne, n necxontxo nyx c cepo xnxe, mt nomnn n pacnonoxennym na nepnom +raxe
npemennym xonropxy xomnannn J ohn Moriarty and Associates, xnnxnmymcx rennopxunxom
npoexra. Ha crpoxe ne tno nnxaxnx pacrxxex c pexnamo ]nntmon, nnxaxnx pxantx
xo]enapox n nnxaxo rpemxme mystxn. Focc ne xenan cnrapy n ne ntanan nammne xomant.
Bmecro +roro moxno tno ynnert npnmepno mecrt o]ncon, n xoroptx myxunnt n xenmnnt n
paoue oynn, xnncax n xenrtx xnnerax co cneroorpaxammnmn nonocxamn cnenn sa
xomntmrepamn nnn ronnnnnct y ontmoro crona, pxom c xoroptm na crene nncen +xpan, re mna
npesenrannx cnaon.
Mne ntann cnnmm crponrentnym xacxy, sacrannnn pacnncartcx n rpeonannxx no rexnnxe
esonacnocrn n npecrannnn nyxmerponomy, c cnntntm axnenrom npnanny unnny
O`Cannnnany, xoropt ntnonnxn ]ynxnnn npopaa. Cnono nauantnnx, xax mne cxasann, yxe
ntmno ns onxoa. O`Cannnnan paccxasan, uro y nero na crpoxe exenenno rpynrcx or 200 o
500 paounx, nxnmuax corpynnxon onee uem 60 xomnann-cynopxunxon. Oem rpeyemtx
snann n yponent cnoxnocrn, c xoroptm cranxnnancx O`Cannnnan, menx nopasnnn, n onn tnn
nnxax ne mentme rex, c xoroptmn mne npnxonnoct nmert eno n mennnne. Hpopa ntrancx
oxcnnrt mne, xax nmecre co cnonmn xonneramn onnaercx roro, urot paora nenact
npannntno n sanne nosnonnoct xax nonoxeno, c yuerom ncenosmoxntx nncrpyxnn, xorx on
mor ne nmert npecrannennx o nmancax xaxo onepannn. Ho x nonxn ero oxcnennx rontxo
rora, xora O`Cannnnan npnrnacnn menx n rnannt xon]epenn-san. B nem noxpyr enoro

5
Axnnx nporecra amepnxancxnx xononncron 16 exapx 1773 r. n orner na ecrnnx pnrancxoro npannrentcrna, n
pesyntrare xoropo n Focroncxo ranann tn ynnuroxen rpys uax, npnnanexanmn anrnncxo Ocr-Hncxo
xomnannn. Hpu+. peo .

A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 31
onantnoro crona tnn pasnemant pacneuarxn oxymenron, xoropte, x moemy ynnnennm,
oxasannct uex-nncramn.
Ha npano crene or nac, xax oxcnnn npnanen, nncen rpa]nx crponrentcrna. Kora x
npncmorpencx, ro onapyxnn, uro na nem nx xaxoro nx n nx xaxo crpoxn tnn pacnncant
crponrentnte saannx n cpoxn nx ntnonnennx, Tax, sannnxa erona na 15-m +raxe tna
nasnauena na 13-e uncno rexymero mecxna, a ocranxa crantntx xoncrpyxnn na 14-e n r. .
Ipa]nx sannman necxontxo crpannn. Hcnontsonancx ocot nnerono xo xpacntm
oosnauannct ocoo naxnte saannx, xoropte onxnt tnn ntnonnxrtcx n nepnym ouepet. Ho
oxonuannn xaxoro saannx pnranp cooman o +rom O`Cannnnany, xoropt ormeuan +ro n
xomntmrepno nporpamme ynpannennx npoexramn. Kaxym neenm npopa ntnemnnan nonym
pacneuarxy c yxasannem ouepeno ]ast paort. Hnora, ecnn n +rom tna neoxonmocrt,
pacneuarxn noxnnxnnct axe uame. Ipa]nx crponrentcrna, no cyrn, npecrannxn coo orpomnt
uex-nncr.
Hocxontxy xaxoe sanne nmeer cnon ocoennocrn, ro nx xaxoro coopyxennx uex-nncrt
paspaartnannct sanono. 3rnm sannmanact rpynna nme, npecrannxmmnx nce 16 crponrentntx
npo]eccn. Kro-ro ns xomnannn xo Cantnna oxsarentno nponepxn, n xaxom nopxxe
ocymecrnnxmrcx nxnmuennte n rpa]nx monraxnte paort. 3arem nect uex-nncr ornpannxnn
cynopxunxam n pyrnm nesanncnmtm +xcnepram, urot onn eme pas nponepnnn npannntnocrt
n nonnory +roro oxymenra.
Fontme ncero nopaxaer ro, xax nponoxrcx exenennte nponepxn, no npemx xoroptx
xonrponnpyercx xo crponrentcrna sannx n npnnnmamrcx mept x romy, urot snannx coren, a
moxer, axe rtcxu nme npnmenxnnct n nyxnom mecre, n nyxnoe npemx n onxntm opasom.
Ipa]nx crponrentcrna npoexra Pyccxn npnuan npeycmarpnnan nepexo or yponnx x
yponnm, n x mor peantno nx ynnert, xora Fepnn Pyax, neymn nnxenep-monraxnnx +roro
npoexra n xomnannn Cantnna, nsxncx noxasart mne crponnomaxy. onxen npnsnartcx, uro ne
ouent nmnm ntcory, no x naen crponrentnym xacxy n ornpannncx ncne sa Pyax mnmo mnra,
na xoropom tno nanncano Bnnmanne! Hocroponnnm nxo nocnpemen, mnmo pxano
apmarypt, no epenxnntm mocrxam, xoropte ncnontsonannct xax opoxxa, neymax nnyrpt
nocrpoxn. 3arem mt nomnn n opanxenym xanny nn]ra, nonsammero no cxenery sannx, n
nonxnnct na 14- +rax. Tam mt oxasannct na cepom eronnom nony nomemennx, y xoroporo noxa
eme ne tno cren. Ho nepnmerpy croxnn neprnxantnte crantnte onopt ntcoro 3,6 m. B nenrpe
tn maccnnnt eronnt ocron, a nnnsy nporexana cyernnnax ropocxax xnsnt.
Orcma nt cmoxere ynnert nce, nponsnec Pyax, npnrnamax menx npnnnsnrtcx x
camomy xpam.
sacrannn cex noorn nonnxe, xorx oxncx, uro ynay c rononoxpyxnrentno ntcort,
xora yy paccmarpnnart xpacort noepextx, o xoroptx c xapom ronopnn mo nponoxart.
Mne crano nyume, xora mt nonepnynnct cnnno x ropoy, n on noxasan mne merannnuecxne
onopt onanyxn n cmonrnponannte nx sannnxn nnnrt nepexptrnx cneymmero +raxa.
3arem, cxasan Pyax, cma npnyr paoune, xoropte nponeyr ornesamnrnym
opaorxy.
cnpocnn:
Hyxno nn samnmart merann or ornx?
Koneuno, ornernn on, net npn noxape on repxer xecrxocrt n rnercx, xax cnarerrn.
Hmenno no+romy opymnnnct sannx Bcemnpnoro ropronoro nenrpa.
Ho necrnnne mt cnycrnnnct +raxom nnxe. Tam x ynnen, xax nanocnrcx ornesamnrnt
marepnan. 3ro tna acecrocoepxamax cmect, or xoropo crantnte nepexptrnx cepenn n
naunnann xasartcx nymncrtmn.
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 32
Mt cnycrnnnct eme na napy +raxe, n Pyax mne noxasan, xax monrnpyercx xoxa sannx:
ntcoxne nanenn ns crexna n crann xpennnnct onramn x eronnomy nony c marom ne onee merpa.
uem nnxe mt cnycxannct, rem ontme cnoen tno cmonrnponano na sannn. Ona ns pnra
cynopxunxa coopyxana nnyrpennne neperopoxn. Cnecapn conpann noonpononte n
xanannsannonnte rpyt, a sa nnmn mna pnraa, ycranannnnanmax nenrnnxnnonnte xopoa.
Kora mt oxasannct na camtx nnxnnx +raxax, ram yxe nonnocrtm tna ntnonnena xnpnnunax
xnaxa, cenana +nexrponponoxa, nponeent rpyt n xoe-re tnn cmonrnponant axe
necrnnunte nepnna. Hanmart sa +rnm cnoxntm nponeccom tno ono yonontcrnne.
Ha nepxnnx +raxax x samernn xoe-uro nenpnrnxnoe axe nx moero nenpo]eccnonantnoro
nsrnxa. Heanno npomen oxt, n no crenam nenrpantno maxrt nnns crexana noa, conpaxct n
onom n rom xe mecre. Bosnnxano nneuarnenne, uro non sect tn naxnonen nnyrpt, xax crenxn
rapenxn, n x nonpocnn Pyax art mne oxcnennx na +ror cuer.
a, ornernn on, nnaentnt sannx oparnnn na +ro nnnmanne.
Hs ero paccxasa cneonano, uro nec eronno nenrpantno maxrt tn ouent ontmnm, a
cnocrna rpynra oxasannct xyxe pacuerntx, no+romy sanne ano ocaxy tcrpee, uem
npenonaranoct. Hpn +rom narpysxa crantntx xoncrpyxnn na xpax sannx ne ocrnrna
maxcnmyma, nocxontxy noxa eme ne tnn cmonrnponant 18 +raxe. Ho+romy, xax cunraer Pyax,
non cran sanannnartcx nnyrpt. Ho cronr rontxo ynennunrt narpysxy na xpax, xax on nnont nauner
ntpannnnartcx.
Menx ynnnno ne camo oxcnenne x ne snan, xax pacnennrt ero orner. Hopasnno ro, uro
nosnnxna cnryannx, xoropax ne tna npeycmorpena n uex-nncrax, a nmenno: naxnon nona
nepxnnx +raxe. Kax mnnnmym npnercx ynpart noy n xoppexrnponart cpoxn. axe ono +ro
moxer napymnrt rpa]nx ncero crponrentcrna. Fonee roro, cnennanncrt onxnt onpeennrt,
xnnxercx nn naxnon nona ceptesntm crponrentntm e]exrom. Mne xorenoct ysnart, xax onn
yyr pasnpartcx c +rnm nonpocom. Orxya nm tno snart, uro ncx nponema cnonrcx x ocaxe
sannx n ynennuenne narpysxn na xpax npnneer x ntpannnnannm nona? Pyax n orner na mon
nonpoct ornernn, uro nce moxer trt. 3ro tna no-nacroxmemy cnoxnax cnryannx.
Bepnynmnct nnont n xonropxy, x cnpocnn unnna O`Cannnnana, xax on n ero nmn neyr
cex n raxnx ocroxrentcrnax. Bet nepe crponrenxmn neocxpeon moryr nosnnxart rtcxun
raxnx nponem, xoropte ne tnn npeycmorpent n paspaoranno sanaronpemenno
oxymenrannn. B mennnne paspemenne raxnx cnryann ocrannxmr na ycmorpenne
coornercrnymmero cnennanncra, npnnnmax npn +rom no nnnmanne nce nmanct cocroxnnx
nannenra. B annom cnyuae cnennanncrom tn Pyax, n yt on n mennnncxo nanare, ero cnono
tno t pemammnm.
Onaxo y raxoro noxoa, xax nouepxnyn O`Cannnnan, ecrt neocrarox. nx ntcornoro
sannx, xax n nx ontnoro, rpeyercx ontmoe xonnuecrno +xcnepron, npecrannxmmnx 16
npo]eccn. B orcyrcrnne nacroxmero souero, r. e. cnennanncra, nx xoroporo ner cexperon n
onacrn crponrentcrna, onrne ocyxennx npocro xaracrpo]a. 3ro saxanunnaercx xaxo]onne
npornnopeunntx pemenn n neocmorpon. Bt nonyunre sanne, xoropoe ne saxouer croxrt
npxmo.
nx menx +ro nposnyuano xax camt nnoxo napnanr ns ncex nosmoxntx n mennnne.
Ho+romy x cnpocnn: Kax nt n +rnx cnyuaxx nocrynaere? Tora O`Cannnnan noxasan mne pyrne
oxymenrt, xoropte nncenn na npornnononoxno or rpa]nxa crponrentcrna crene n nastnannct
Ipa]nx oruernocrn. 3ro roxe tnn cnoero poa uex-nncrt, no onpeenxnn onn ne
crponrentnte, a ro++vuurauouuie saaun. Menexept npoexra cnpannxnnct c neoxnanntmn
n neonpeenenntmn cnryannxmn, nponepxx pesyntrart omennx +xcnepron mexy coo.
Hanpnmep, n ycranonnennt ent rpeonanoct ocynrt xonxpernt nponecc. 3xcneprt mornn
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 33
ntcxastnart cnoe nnunoe mnenne, no npn +rom oxsant tnn yunrtnart rouxy spennx ncex
pyrnx cnennanncron, ocyxart nnennanonte cnryannn n ntpaartnart pemennx na yymee.
Ecnn nentsx npennert nce nponemt, ro moxno xorx t npeycmorpert, re n xora onn moryr
nosnnxnyrt. Ho+romy annt uex-nncr onpeenxer, xro c xem, xora n no xaxomy nonoy onxen
noronopnrt xro onxen art nyxnym nn]opmannm o roro, xax naunercx ouepeno +ran
crponrentcrna.
Ipa]nx npeocrannennx nn]opmannn, nanpnmep, npeycmarpnnaer, uro o xonna mecxna
nocranmnxn, monraxnnxn n nnxenept no nn]ram onxnt nponepnrt cocroxnne xann,
nonnmammnxcx na 10- +rax. Kannt nn]ron conpamr n ncntrtnamr na sanoe-nsroronnrene.
Vcranannnnamr nx cnennanncrt, no saxasunx ncxonr ns roro, uro nponemt nce panno
nosnnxamr. Cunraercx, uro moxer uro-ro norn ne rax nnn oxaxercx neyurenntm. A uro
nnxomy ne nsnecrno. Taxona npnpoa cnoxnocrn. Ho rem ne menee npenonaraercx, uro ecnn
copart nyxntx nme n nosnonnrt nm xonnexrnnno, a ne nnnnnyantno ocynrt cnryannm,
ro onpeennrt n npeornparnrt nepoxrnte nponemt nnonne nosmoxno.
Hrax, rpa]nx ocyxenn nosnonxer cnennanncram ncrpeuartcx. Hocranmnxn onxnt
nnertcx c monraxnnxamn n nnxenepamn no nn]ram o 31-ro uncna, a o npornnonoxapno
samnre nyxno ronopnrt o 25-ro. 3a ne neenn o +roro ocyxanoct cocroxnne nona n
nenrpantno maxrt na nepxnnx +raxax, re conpaercx noa. B +ro ncrpeue yuacrnonann
nnxenept-monraxnnxn, xoncyntranr n nnaentnt sannx.
nnen, uro n coornercrnymmem xnaparnxe croxna ormerxa o ncnonnennn. 3aanne tno
ntnonneno. cnpocnn y Pyax, xax npoxonno ocyxenne. On ornernn, uro ouent xopomo. Bce
ncrpernnnct n ocynnn, uro moxno cenart. Bnaentnen n nocranmnxon yanoct yenrt, uro
uepes onpeenennoe npemx non yacrcx ntponnxrt. Pemnnn oprannsonart yopxy. Ipa]nx,
coornercrnenno, nsmennnn, nocne uero nce nocrannnn cnon nonncn.
Hepe nnnom nensnecrnocrn, xora ner ynepennocrn n rom, uro n cnoxntx cnryannxx nce
noer xax nao, crponrenn paccunrtnann na cnny xommynnxannn. Onn ne nepnnn n mypocrt
orentnoro uenonexa, yt on axe ontrntm nnxenepom, a npenounrann mypocrt xonnexrnna
n naexy na ro, uro necxontxo nap rnas moryr nyume ynnert nponemy n pemnrt, uro enart.
uenonexy cnocrnenno omnartcx. Ho xonnexrnn pexe onycxaer omnxn.
Paan Vonm, 30-nernn xoporxo crpnxennt napent n xenrom xnnere c orpaxarenxmn,
cnen n xonropxe nepe nymx ontmnmn nnocxnmn monnropamn. On oxcnnn, uro ero saaua
cnonrt nmecre nnant crponrentcrna, npeocrannxemte ncemn ocnonntmn cnennanncramn, n na
ocnone +ro nn]opmannn cosanart na xomntmrepe rpexmepnte no+raxnte ueprexn sannx.
Paan noxasan mne, xax camt nocnenn +rax ntrnxnr na +xpane, nx uero sarpysnn n
xomntmrep cnenn]nxannn, nonyuennte or enxrn cnennanncron: cnenn]nxannn monraxntx
+nemenron, cnenn]nxannn na nn]rt, canrexnnuecxne cnenn]nxannn n r. . On nponen nac no
ncemy sannm, n cosananoct nneuarnenne, yro mt ecrnnrentno nem no xopnopam. Ftnn
nnnt crent, nepn, npeoxpannrentnax apmarypa, n omem, nce. Fonee roro, moxno tno nnert
nponemt, nanpnmep mecra, re ne moxer nporn uenonex otuno xomnnexnnn. Paan noxasan
mne nporpammy Honcx necrtxonox (Clash Detective), xoropax yxastnaer na nce cnyuan
neconnaennx cnenn]nxann nnn nx npornnopeunx crponrentntm rpeonannxm.
Ecnn anxa npoxonr n rom mecre, re onxen xpennrtcx cnernntnnx, ro nporpamma ryr
xe na +xpane oxpamnnaer +ry anxy n pyro nner, paccxastnaer Paan. Hecrtxonox moxer
trt ouent mnoro, onaxt nx tno 2000. Ho noxasart, re nosnnxnn naxnaxn, rontxo
nonena. Cneyer eme or nnx nsannrtcx, a nx +roro nyxno, urot coornercrnymmne
cnennanncrt copannct n ocynnn cnryannm. Ho+romy npn cosannn rpa]nxa conemann
ncnontsymr n rom uncne pacctnxy cnennanncram +nexrponntx nncem. Ecrt eme ona nporpamma,
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 34
xoropax nastnaercx Hpoexrnt nenrp (ProjectCenter). C ee nomomtm nmo corpynnx, axe
npocro paoun, onapyxnn nponemy, moxer ornpannrt nnctmo no +nexrponno noure ncem
sannrepeconanntm croponam, orcnenrt cocroxnne en n yenrtcx, uro ecrt ormerxa o rom, uro
annym nponemy ocynnn coornercrnymmne cnennanncrt. Kora mt nepnynnct n o]nc
xomnannn McNamara/Salvia, Fepnn Pyax noxasan mne ono +nexrponnoe nnctmo, nonyuennoe nm
na rexyme neene. Paoun npnnoxnn x nnctmy ]ororpa]nm nyxranpono anxn, xoropym on
ntrancx saxpennrt. Fanxa ne ncranana na mecro, n rontxo na ns uertpex onron mornn norn n
ornepcrne. Paoun cnpamnnan, nce nn sect rax, xax nao. Pyax ornernn, uro raxoro ne onxno
trt, n onn nmecre pemnnn, uro +ry anxy cneyer npnnapnrt. Orner anromarnuecxn tn
pasocnan ncem, xro onxen tn nonncart coornercrnymmee paspemenne, nxnmuax nocranmnxa.
Kaxo cropone ananoct rpn nx, urot nornepnrt npannntnocrt npnnxroro pemennx. Hpn
+rom nce onxnt tnn nornepnrt, uro nponema ocyxanact, nocxontxy axe raxax
neontmax necrtxonxa moxer napymnrt omym nocneonarentnocrt onepann.
xo Cantnna eme pantme ronopnn mne, uro ocnonntm ocrnxennem crponrentno nayxn sa
nocnenne ecxrnnernx tno conepmencrnonanne xonrponx sa xommynnxannxmn. Ho rontxo
ceuac x nonxn cmtcn +rnx cnon.
Xenanne crponrene ncnontsonart ncenosmoxnte crparernn nx paspemennx pasnnuntx no
macmraam n ceptesnocrn nponem nneuarnxer. Poepr Maxnamapa, naprnep Cantnna, tn onnm
ns nnxenepon-npoexrnponmnxon npn crponrentcrne n nenrpe Manx+rrena sannx xomnannn
Citicorp (ceuac Citigroup) c xapaxrepno cxomenno xptme. Hnannponanoct nacrponrt eme
300 m na uertpex ysxnx xononnax ntcoro c enxrn+raxnt om n croxnmnx ne no yrnam
coopyxennx, a n cepenne xaxo ns ero cropon. nx npounocrn xononnt tnn cxpennent
cxptrtmn crxxxamn, cxoncrpynponanntmn neymnm nnxenepom npoexra Vnntxmom
Hemeccmpte. Konoccantnoe coopyxenne onxno tno napnrt na 53- ynnne. Onaxo
ncntrannx n a+ponnamnuecxo rpye noxasann, uro neocxpe rax ntcoxo nosntmancx na
ocrantntmn omamn n nenrpe ropoa, uro na nero ecrnonann nosymnte noroxn n
rypynenrnocrt, napamerpt xoroptx tnn ontme nsnecrnt annacrponrenxm, uem monraxnnxam.
Hnxro ne snan, na cxontxo merpon yer orxnonxrtcx coopyxenne no nosecrnnem nerpa.
H xax xe nocrynnnn crponrenn? Her, onn ne yxpennnn xoncrpyxnnm sannx
ononnnrentntmn crxxxamn n ne ymentmnnn ero pasmept. Bmecro +roro Maxnamapa npenoxnn
nnnonannonnoe pemenne, nsnecrnoe ceronx xax nnepnnonnt emn]ep. On npenoxnn
nonecnrt na npyxnnax eronnt nox necom 400 ronn, npnxpennn ero x nepexptrnm na 59-m
+raxe rax, urot, xora sanne no nosecrnnem nerpa yer orxnonxrtcx n ony cropony, nox
yer orxnonxrtcx n pyrym n ntpannnnart ero.
3ro tno necrxmee n +neranrnoe pemenne. Pesyntrart ncntrannx n a+ponnamnuecxo
rpye neontmo moenn neocxpea oxasannct ouent onaexnnammnmn. Tem ne menee
ocrananact nesnaunrentnax nepoxrnocrt omnounocrn pemennx, a raxxe neonpeenennocrt,
xapaxrepnax nx nmoro npoexra raxo cnoxnocrn. Crponrenn cnenn nepoxrnocrt norpemnocrn x
mnnnmymy, ncnontsyx xonnexrnnnoe pemenne n an xaxomy ntcxasartcx. Bnaenen sannx
ncrpernncx c apxnrexropom, cnennanncramn ns enapramenra no sannxm n coopyxennxm,
npoexrnponmnxamn n pyrnmn +xcnepramn. Onn nponepnnn nce 70 nynxron ocnonnoro uex-nncra,
a raxxe pacuert, cnxsannte c npnnxrtm pemennem, n npnmnn x ntnoy, uro coopyxenne
orneuaer ncem rpeonannxm. 3arem nonncann npoexr, cornacno xoropomy neocxpe n tn
nocrpoen.
Hyraer cama mtcnt o rom, uro mt paspemaem nosnonrt raxne cnoxnte nx
npoexrnponannx n crponrentcrna sannx n nenrpe ropoon, re npoxnnamr n paoramr ecxrxn
rtcxu nme. Bet +ro conpxxeno c nsnnmnnm pncxom n conepmenno nepasymno. Ho mt
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 35
nosnonxem noonoe crponrentcrno, nepx n cnoconocrt cnennanncron cnpannxrtcx co
cnoxnocrxmn raxoro poa. Onn, n cnom ouepet, snamr, uro nyxno ne crontxo onepxrt cnonm
nnnnnyantntm cnoconocrxm, cxontxo rmarentno conmart pernamenr. Hpo]eccnonant
nepxr naopy uex-nncron, nocxontxy naroapx nm nponecc pacnaaercx na npocrte +rant,
xoropte nentsx nponycrnrt n xoropte rapanrnpymr, uro nce cnennanncrt neperonopnnn mexy
coo n pemnnn nce cnoxnte nnn neoxnannte nponemt.
O`Cannnnan cxasan mne, uro n nx nsnece camax ontmax omnxa +ro orcyrcrnne
xommynnxannn.
B sannn xomnannn Citicorp, nanpnmep, npn pacuerax xoncrpyxnn, ncnontsyemtx nx
npnannx ycrounnocrn, ncxonnn ns roro, uro rnranrcxne crxxxn n ocnonannn sannx yyr
cnapntmn. Onaxo cnapxa crxxex eno ouent rpyoemxoe n noromy oporoe. unpma Bethlehem
Steel, nsxnmax nopx na nosneenne amnn, npenoxnna ncnontsonart onrt, xorx n +rom
cnyuae ymentmanact npounocrt coennennx xoncrpyxnn. Ho pacueram cnennanncron xomnannn
nonyuanoct, uro onronte coennennx nnonne noxoxr. Onaxo, xax nnocnecrnnn coomnn
exeneentnnx New Yorker , onn ne cornaconann cnon pacuert c Hemeccmpte. 3ror nynxr tn
nponymen.
Hentsx c ynepennocrtm cxasart, uro emy yanoct t n ro npemx pasrnxert nponemy. Ho n
1978 r., uepes ro nocne caun sannx, Hemeccmpte, orneuax na nonpoc cryenra
apxnrexrypno-crponrentnoro ]axyntrera Hpnncroncxoro ynnnepcnrera, onapyxnn n npoexre
nsmenenne, xoropoe npnneno x ]arantno omnxe: sanne morno ne ntepxart cxopocrt nerpa
cntme 110 xm/u n paspymnrtcx naunnax c 13-ro +raxa, a cyx no mereoponornuecxnm
nanmennxm, n Htm-Hopxe raxne nerpa cnyuamrcx ne pexe, uem pas n 55 ner. K +romy npemenn
sanne tno nonnocrtm saceneno. Hemeccmpte coomnn o omnxe ero nnaentnam n ropocxnm
nnacrxm. B ro nero, xora x ropoy npnnnxancx yparan 3nna, cnennantnax pnraa n
ocranonxe crpoxame cexpernocrn no nouam cnapnnana nxrncanrnmerponte crantnte
nnacrnnt noxpyr nenaexntx onron, n pesyntrare uero sanne tno cnaceno n c rex nop cronr
naexno.
Hponecc ncnontsonannx uex-nncron n crponrentno nnycrpnn noxasan, uro onn ne moryr
ntxnnrt ncex nponem. Onaxo +]]exrnnnocrt +roro meroa ntstnana nocxnmenne. B CBA
cymecrnyer nourn 5 mnn xommepuecxnx sann, nourn 100 mnn mano+raxntx omon n oxono
8 mnn xnntx ntcorox. Kaxt ro y nac crponrcx npnmepno 70 000 xommepuecxnx sann n
1 mnn xnntx omon. Onaxo crponrentnte omnxn, xoropte onpeenxmrcx xax uacrnunoe nnn
nonnoe opymenne ]ynxnnonnpymmero sannx, ncrpeuamrcx xpane pexo. Ocoenno +ro
xacaercx neocxpeon. Cornacno nccneonannm, nponeennomy n 2003 r. Vnnnepcnrerom mrara
Orao, n CBA nosnnxaer npnmepno 20 crponrentntx omnox exerono. 3ro nnuroxnax
nn]pa. Kax mne oxcnnn xo Cantnna, necmorpx na nospacrammym cnoxnocrt sann, x
xoroptm npexnnxmrcx nce onee xecrxne rpeonannx n uacrn cecmocroxocrn n
+nepro+]]exrnnnocrn, c roro npemenn, xora on nauan cnom xaptepy, cxopocrt crponrentcrna
ntpocna nrpoe. uex-nncrt paoramr.

Fnana 4
Hpen

Cymecrnyer onn nnrepecnt acnexr crparernn, xoropym crponrentnax nnycrpnx
npnmenxer, urot ne omnartcx n cnoxntx cnryannxx: ona naenxer nme nnacrtm. eno n rom,
uro, nocxontxy pncx conepmnrt npomax nennx, ontmnncrno cnennanncron nenrpannsymr nnacrt
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 36
n npncnannamr cee npano npnnnmart pemennx. Bet ocnonnax nent uex-nncron yxasart
nounnenntm, uro n xax onn onxnt enart. H ecrnnrentno, nepnt uex-nncr, xoropt mne
yanoct ynnert (on nncen na npano crene xonropxn O`Cannnnana), oxasancx nmenno raxnm. B
nncrpyxnnn o mentuamnx erane tnn onncant xonxpernte ecrnnx, xoropte onxnt
ntnonnxrt paoune, a raxxe yxastnannct cnryannn, xora npn nannunn npocrtx n pyrnnntx
nponem nm tno neoxonmo nepexonrt na oxsarentnt pernamenr.
Onaxo oxymenr na pyro crene xonropxn O`Cannnnana coornercrnonan conepmenno
nnomy ornomennm x nnacrn n x romy, uro onxno nponcxonrt, xora corpynnx cranxnnaercx co
cnoxntmn, necranaprntmn nponemamn. Hanpnmep, uro cneyer enart, xora na 14-m +raxe
crpoxmerocx 32-+raxnoro neocxpea nosnnxnn norennnantno onacnte nenpennennte
ocroxrentcrna. unnoco]nx n annom cnyuae raxona, uro nnacrt nepexonr or nenrpa x
nepn]epnn. Hmn na mecrax nonyuamr nosmoxnocrt aanrnponartcx c yuerom cnoero ontra n
npo]eccnonannsma. Tpeyercx rontxo, urot nce cooma ocynnn nponemy n nsxnn na cex
ornercrnennocrt sa ee pemenne. Hmenno +ro cpaartnaer.
Crparernx, neoxnanno oxasanmaxcx ouent emoxparnuno, ceronx npenparnnact n
cranaprnym, xax cxasan O`Cannnnan, n npnmenxercx axe npn nncnexnnn sann. Hponepxmmne
ne sannmamrcx nepecuerom nerpono narpysxn n ne pemamr, uro ncnontsonart nx coennennx
xoncrpyxnn cnapxy nnn onrt. nx roro urot pemnrt, nocrpoeno nn n coornercrnnn co
crponrentno oxymenranne raxoe coopyxenne, xax Pyccxn npnuan nnn nonoe xptno moe
ontnnnt, n npnrono nn ono nx ncnontsonannx, rpeyercx snaunrentno ontme snann, uem re,
xoroptmn moryr onaart nncnexropt. Ho+romy, xorx onn enamr nce nosmoxnoe, ocymecrnnxx
nasop sa crponrentcrnom, ncx nx paora n ocnonnom cnonrcx x romy, urot yenrtcx, nce nn
nponepxn ntnonnnnn crponrenn, xoropte norom nonnctnamr oxymenrt, yocronepxmmne
nocrpoxy coopyxennx n coornercrnnn c cymecrnymmnmn rpeonannxmn. Honyuaercx
pacnpeenenne nnacrn n ornercrnennocrn, xoropte cocpeorouent n pyxax nncnexropon.
Ho mnennm O`Cannnnana, n +rom ecrt cmtcn, nocxontxy onn cranxnnamrcx c ontmnm
uncnom nponem n rom cnyuae, ecnn xro-ro crponr cnonmn cnnamn nyxxomnarnym npncrpoxy,
uem xora peut ner o xpynntx oexrax. Ho+romy ocnonnoe nnnmanne nncnexropon nanpanneno
nmenno na necranaprnte npoexrt. Kpome roro, mne xaxercx, pyxonocrno nonnmaer, uro, ne
ntnycxax nnacrt ns cnonx pyx n onpeenenntx cnryannxx, ono conepmaer omnxy. ocrarouno
ncnomnnrt, uro naenan yparan Karpnna n Honom Opneane.
B mecrt uacon yrpa 29 anrycra 2005 r. yparan ntsnan ononsent n mecreuxe Hnaxemnn n
Honom Opneane. Hepnte coomennx o yape crnxnn tnn omanunno onaexnnammnmn. Ha
camom ene ntmnn ns crpox ntmxn corono cnxsn, a raxxe rene]onnte n +nexrpnuecxne nnnnn.
Iopo ocrancx es cnxsn. K cepenne nx amt, samnmanmne ropo, ne ntepxann.
3naunrentnax uacrt Honoro Opneana oxasanact no noo, oxasarentcrnom uemy cnyxnnn
renepenopraxn, no Maxn Fpayn, npexrop ueepantnoro arenrcrna no upesntuantm
cnryannxm (uAuC), nx nponrnopnponan n saxnnn na npecc-xon]epennnn, uro nce no xonrponem.
uAuC ncnontsonano nn]opmannm ns pasnnuntx ncrounnxon, no n camom Honom Opneane y
arenrcrna tn ncero onn npecrannrent. Emy yanoct nepntm xe neuepom onerert na
nepronere eperono oxpant nect ropo, n, ne nmex otuntx cpecrn cnxsn, on nanpannn oxna
no +nexrponno noure. Hanonenne tno noncmy, ronopnnoct n nnctme. Hpecrannrent
uAuC cam nnen nnanammne rpynt n cornn nme, cnacanmnxcx na xptmax omon. Hm tna
neoxonma nomomt. Ho ntcoxoe nauantcrno ne nontsonanoct +nexrponno nouro, n
coepxanne nnctma crano nsnecrno rontxo na cneymmn ent, xora n cenare nauannct
cnymannx.
K romy npemenn 80 % ropoa tno saronneno. Hpnmepno 20 000 exennen cnacannct na
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 37
ropocxom cranone. Eme crontxo xe uenonex namnn yexnme n sannn xon]epenn-nenrpa nm.
3pnecro Mopnanx. Ha nnayxe mocce N 10 cronnnnnct 5000 uenonex. Koro-ro ram ocrannnn
xomant cnacarene, a ns oext y nnx ocranoct rontxo ro, uro tno na nnx n momenr ecrnnx.
B ontnnnax ne tno +nexrpnuecrna, n nmn oxasannct n uyonnmnom nonoxennn. Hs-sa
nexnarxn nnmn n not nauanoct mapoepcrno. Honeenne nacenennx crano nexonrponnpyemtm.
Mnorouncnennte mecrnte unnonnnxn n axrnnncrt ntrannct cnxsartcx c nnacrxmn n
coomnrt o rom, uro n nepnym ouepet cronr npenpnnxrt, no narn xoro-nno tno
nenosmoxno. Kora naxonen yanoct osnonnrtcx o amnnncrpannn, ntxcnnnoct, uro nomomt
ne moxer trt npeocrannena nemenenno, nocxontxy nce rpeonannx nocrpaanmnx onxnt
trt nepeant no nncrannnxm. Tpannnonnax cncrema ynpannennx cpasy oxasanact
neperpyxenno. Tpeonanoct npnnxrt cnnmxom mnoro pemenn n ycnonnxx nexnarxn
nn]opmannn o rom, re xonxperno n xaxax nmenno nyxna nomomt.
Bnacrn ecrnonann no cnoemy otunomy manony. ent sa nem, necmorpx na exeuacno
yxymanmymcx cnryannm, ne crnxann cnopt o rom, xro onxen npeocrannxrt pecypct n
npnnnmart pemennx. ueepantnte oprant ne xorenn ennrtcx nnacrtm c npannrentcrnom mrara,
xoropoe, n cnom ouepet, ne roponnnoct nepeanart ee opranam mecrnoro camoynpannennx. H yx
rem onee nnxro ne xaxan naenxrt nonnomounxmn uacrnt cexrop.
B pesyntrare nonyunnact cmect anapxnn n opy+nnoncxo mpoxparnn. Hocnecrnnx tnn
xaracrpo]nuecxnmn. Ipysonnxn c nnrteno noo n npoyxramn nnrannx nnacrn ocranannnnann,
nanpannxnn xya nonano nnn noome ne nponycxann. Hocranxa rpyson nepno neoxonmocrn n
nx nnant ne nxonna. Hpntrne anroycon saepxnnanoct na necxontxo cyrox, a o]nnnantnte
sanpoct ocrnrnn mnnncrepcrna rpancnopra CBA rontxo rora, xora ecxrxn rtcxu nme yxe
noe cyrox xann +naxyannn. B +ro xe npemx concem pxom na cyxom yuacrxe semnn croxno 200
mexyropontx anroycon.
Fea tna ne n neocrarxe couyncrnnx y unnonnnxon ntcmero yponnx, a n nx nenonnmannn,
uro npn nosnnxnonennn ncxnmunrentno cnoxntx nponem nenrpantnax nnacrt onxna xax
moxno cxopee nepeanart uacrt cnonx nonnomoun opranam mecrnoro camoynpannennx. Bce
oxnann npntrnx cnn tcrporo pearnponannx, no npn raxo nenrpannsannn nnacrn tcrpte
pemennx nenosmoxnt.
Hosnee, orneuax na nonpoc o npnunnax orpomntx neyau, Maxn uepro]], mnnncrp
nnyrpenne esonacnocrn CBA, saxnnn, uro +ro tna yntrpaxaracrpo]a enxrt nan,
xoropt nentsx tno yuecrt n nnanax nnn noome npennert. Ha camom ene +ro npocro
xapaxrepncrnxa cnoxno cnryannn, rpeymmax nntx ecrnn or nce
amnnncrparnnno-ynpannenuecxo napanrmt, na xoropym onnpamrcx unnonnnxn.
Kax t +ro crpanno nn snyuano, no, no mnennm yuentx ns Bxont rocyapcrnennoro
ynpannennx nm. Kennen npn Iapnapcxom ynnnepcnrere, nyume ncex ocosnana cnoxnocrt
cnryannn xomnannx Wal-Mart. Kora renepantnoro npexropa +ro rnranrcxo roprono cern Hn
Cxorra cnpocnnn, uro conpaercx enart xomnannx, on ornernn: Bce, uro coornercrnyer
macmraam rparenn. H oannn: Mnorne ns nac conpamrcx npnnnmart pemennx onee
ntcoxoro yponnx, uem otuno. Hpnnnmare onrnmantnte pemennx, ocnontnaxct na nmemmecx
y nac oneparnnno nn]opmannn, n, uro naxnee ncero, camn ne enare omnox.
Hosnee onn ns pyxononrene, yuacrnonanmnx n +rom conemannn, samernn, uro
]opmynnponxa Cxorra cymena orpasnrt camoe rnannoe. 3ro pemenne tno oneeno o ncex
menexepon marasnnon n saano npannntnt ron romy, xax nmn onxnt pearnponart na
cnryannm. 126 marasnnon Wal-Mart tnn saxptrt no npnunne nonyuenntx nonpexenn nnn
orcyrcrnnx +nexrpnuecrna. 3naxynponant 20 000 corpynnxon n unenon nx ceme. Cnauana y
pyxonocrna xomnannn Wal-Mart tno xenanne ncem nm nomout, n uepes 48 uacon nononnny
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 38
nonyunnmnx nonpexennx marasnnon orxptnn nnont. Ho xora or corpynnxon xomnannn crana
nocrynart nn]opmannx, c nomomtm xoropo moxno tno cocrannrt npecrannenne o ncrnnntx
macmraax rparenn, xenanne nm nomout cmennnoct xenannem npnrn na ntpyuxy ncem
nocrpaanmnm.
ecrnyx no cnoe cocrnenno nnnnnarnne, menexept marasnnon Wal-Mart npncrynnnn
x pacnpeenennm cpen xnrene namnepcon, not, ercxoro nnrannx n nta. Ecnn uAuC noxa
eme ne snano, xax ocymecrnnxrt nocranxn, Wal-Mart crana ntanart n xpenr ncem xenammnm
npoyxrt nnrannx, cnantnte memxn, ryanernte npnnanexnocrn n no nosmoxnocrn
anapnno-cnacarentnoe oopyonanne, nanpnmep nocnnxn, nepenxn n canorn. Bce xpenrt
sannctnannct na nncrouxax ymarn. Ona nomomnnna menexepa cena na rpaxrop, nexana n
marasnn, xoropt nepe +rnm naxptna ecxrnmerponax nonna, ntnesna nce, uro morna, co cxnaon
n crana pasanart nmxm na napxonouno nnomaxe. Kora npaun mecrno ontnnnt cxasann,
uro y nnx ne xnaraer nexapcrn, xenmnna nepnynact, npopanact n naxonnmymcx n marasnne
anrexy n npnnesna nce neoxonmoe, sa uro nonyunna naroapnocrt cnoero pyxonocrna.
Ton-menexmenr xomnannn tn sanxr nocranonxo nene, nponepxo ncnonnennx n
noccranonnennem nnnn cnxsn npexe ncero c nomomtm cnonx corpynnxon, xoroptm, re +ro
tno nosmoxno, nomorann o]nnnantnte oprant. pyrnmn cnonamn, pyxononrenn Wal-Mart n
+ro cnoxno cnryannn nnxomy ne anann nnxaxnx yxasann, nocxontxy cnryannx tna cnnmxom
nenpecxasyemo n nocroxnno menxnact. Onn crpemnnnct x romy, urot nmn ne monuann. B
cocrane xomant cnacarene xomnannn Wal-Mart tn axe corpynnx Kpacnoro Kpecra.
(ueepantnoe npannrentcrno na npnrnamenne noyuacrnonart ornernno orxasom.) Komana raxxe
orxptna xpyrnocyrount xonn-nenrp nx cnonx corpynnxon. Cnauana n nem paorann nocemt
oneparopon, no cxopo, urot cnpannrtcx c narpysxo, nx xonnuecrno npnmnoct ynennunrt o 80.
Hocrenenno xomana onapyxnna, uro npn nannunn omnx nene n xenannn enart nce
nosmoxnoe nx oxasannx nomomn nocrpaanmnm, corpynnxn xomnannn Wal-Mart, xoopnnnpyx
cnon ycnnnx, cmornn narn conepmenno neotunte pemennx. Hanpnmep, oprannsonann n ropoe
rpn nepennxnte anrexn n paspaorann nnan no ntaue no ncex cnonx marasnnax ecnnarntx
nexapcrn ncem +naxynponanntm ns paonon, nocrpaanmnx or yparana, axe ecnn y nme ne
tno penenra; cosann nynxrt ntaun nannuntx no ncex marasnnax, naxoxmnxcx n sone
crnxnnoro ecrnnx; orxptnn npemennte nynxrt naxnnnannn nacenennx, urot npeynpenrt
onesnn, xoropte mornn pacnpocrpannrtcx n cnxsn c nanonennem. uro ocoenno naxno, yxe
uepes na nx nocne nepnoro yapa crnxnn norncrt xomnannn Wal-Mart ycnenn c nomomtm
rpaxropon nananrt ocranxy npoyxron nnrannx, not n anapnno-cnacarentnoro
oopyonannx, nonaax n ymnpammn ropo n oes opasonanmnxcx opoxntx npoox. Onn
cmornn cnanrt noo n npoyxramn nnrannx exennen n axe onon nannonantno rnapnn
na ent pantme, uem na cnene noxnnnnct ]eepantnte oprant. 3a nce npemx cnacarentno
onepannn xomnannx Wal-Mart cymena ocrannrt 2498 anro]ypronon c rpysamn nepno
neoxonmocrn n +naxyannonnte nenrpt. Cocrnennte noxeprnonannx xomnannn cocrannnn
$3,5 mnn.
Kax nosnee n renennsnonnom nnrepntm cxaxer Aapon Fpyccap, pyxononrent mecrno
amnnncrpannn oxpyra xe]]epcon, ecnn t amepnxancxoe npannrentcrno orpearnponano rax
xe, xax xomnannx Wal-Mart, nnxaxoro xpnsnca t ne tno.
Ha ocnone +ro cnryannn nexoropte nmn cenann nenpannntnte ntnot, xora crann
yrnepxart, uro uacrnt cexrop n cnoxntx cnryannxx npoxnnxer cex nyume, uem
rocyapcrnennt. Onaxo +ro ne rax. Ha xaxt nonoopneancxn Wal-Mart moxno narn
ecxrox xpynntx xomnann, xoropte nnxax cex ne npoxnnnn nepe nnnom raxo yrpost. 3ro
xacaercx n c]ept XKX, corpynnxn xoropo ne cmornn noccranonnrt rene]onnte n
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 39
+nexrpnuecxne nnnnn, n ne]rxnoro xomnnexca, y xoroporo ne oxasanoct sanacon ctpo ne]rn n
npoyxron ne]renepepaorxn na cnyua upesntuano cnryannn.
Iocunnonnnxam, nnpouem, yanoct nemano cenart. Hanpnmep, n nepnte nn xaracrpo]t
mecrnte nonnnecxne n noxapnte, ne nmex nyxnoro oopyonannx, monnnsonann no ncemy
mrary Hynsnana nnaentnen xarepon n cnacnn ns not n c xptm omon saronnennoro ropoa
onee 62 000 xnrene.
Her, rnannt ntno cnonrcx x romy, uro n +rnx nenepoxrno cnoxntx ycnonnxx, xora or
xaxoro n ocranonxe xpane neonpeenennocrn rpeonannct raxne snannx, xoroptmn ne moxer
onaart onn xonxpernt uenonex, a nmax xoopnnannx exrentnocrn ns onoro nenrpa
opeuena na neyauy, nmxm neoxonma cnooa, urot ecrnonart n aanrnponartcx. Onaxo
onn ne moryr npeycnert n onnouxy, nocxontxy +ro nopoxaer anapxnm. Bmecro +roro nm
neoxonmo cymecrnonart n necxontxo npornnopeunno cpee, coueramme cnooy c
nosmoxnocrt xoopnnnponart cnon ecrnnx n onpeenxrt cxopocrt nnxennx x nocrannenntm
omnm nenxm.
Hmenno ns +roro ncxonnn nmn, cnennannsnpymmnecx na nosneennn neocxpeon. Fonee
roro, nm yanoct nonnornrt cnom neonornm n npocrte uex-nncrt. Onn cenann naexnoe
ynpannenne cnoxntmn cnryannxmn cranaprno nponeypo, xoropax rpeonana
canancnponannoro couerannx nenoro pxa ]axropon: cnoot n ncnnnnnnt, macrepcrna n
nporoxontno rounocrn, cnennannsannn n xonnexrnnnoro rnopuecrna. urot uex-nncrt
coornercrnonann cnryannn, onn onxnt nmert ne nourn npornnononoxnte ]opmt: c ono
cropont, rapanrnponart peannsannm ncex, axe camtx rnyntx maron, a c pyro anart
nosmoxnocrt ocymecrnnxrt mnoxecrno xonrpontntx nponepox, mornnnpymmnx na ocyxenne
nponem, xoopnnannm ecrnn n npnnxrne na cex ornercrnennocrn. Hpn +rom nmn onxnt
onaart ocrarouno cnooo, urot nannyumnm opasom yunrtnart ncenosmoxnte nmanct n
nenpecxasyemte cnryannn.
Ananns cotrn, cnxsanntx c yparanom Karpnna n paoro crponrene, nosnonnn mne
npnrn x raxomy ymosaxnmuennm: n cnoxntx ycnonnxx uex-nncrt ne rontxo nonesnt, no n
xnnxmrcx sanorom ycnexa. Btnot enart roxe neoxonmo, no onn onxnt conponoxartcx n
axe ycnnnnartcx nponeypo.
Bsxn +ro sa ocnony, x cran naxonrt uex-nncrt noncmy: cpen ]yrontntx
npo]eccnonanon n axe na cnene. Onaxt x ycntman no pano ncropnm o rom, nouemy poxep
+nn Hn Por ynpxmo nacrannan na rom, urot n racrpontnte xonrpaxrt rpynnt Van Halen
nxnmuann nynxr, n coornercrnnn c xoroptm sa xynncamn onxna croxrt xopsnna c xapamentm
M&Ms, ns xoropo onxnt trt ypant aconmrno nce xon]ert xopnunenoro nnera.
Hentnonnenne +roro nynxra neno x ormene xonnepra n ntnnare mystxanram nonno
xomnencannn. Ho xpane mepe onaxt Van Halen ormennna na ocnonannn +roro nynxra
xonnepr n Konopao nocne roro, xax n cnoe rpnmepno Por onapyxnn necxontxo xopnunentx
xon]erox. H +ro tna ne npnxort xanpnsno snest, a ouent ymnt xo.
Kax oxcnxn Por n cnonx memyapax Cymacmemn or xapt (Crazy from the Heat),
rpynna Van Halen tna nepno, ntcrynanme c ontmnmn moy na rpertecoprntx nnomaxax. Ee
pexnnsnr onxnt tnn nosnrt enxrt ]yp c npnnenamn, rora xax otuno xnarano rpex. H
ncera nponcxonno mnoro rexnnuecxnx omnox: ro croxn ne ntepxnnann neca annaparypt, ro
nponannnanact xptma, ro nepn oxastnannct neocrarouno ontmnmn, urot nponecrn
pexnnsnr. Hpnnoxennx x xonrpaxry unrannct xax xnracxax rpamora ns-sa onnnx pasnnunoro
oopyonannx n rpeyemoro xonnuecrna paounx cnent. Ho+romy cnpxrannt re-nnyt
nocpen nepeunx nynxr 126 c rpeonannem nsxrt ncm xapament xopnunenoro nnera tn cnoero
poa neontmnm recrom. Kora noxanncr men sa cneny n onapyxnnan raxne xon]erxn, +ro
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 40
osnauano, uro nyxno nponecrn ononnnrentnym nponepxy ncero pexnnsnra, nocxontxy noont
neornx rapanrnponan n pyrne rexnnuecxne omnxn, saxanunnammnecx ontmnmn
nponemamn. B cnoem panopaccxase +nn Hn Por nouepxnnan, uro +ro anexo ne nycrxx.
Omnxn moryr npecrannxrt yrposy nx xnsnn mystxanron. Hanpnmep, n Konopao rpynna
onapyxnna, uro oprannsaropt xonnepra nponycrnnn nynxr, re nsnarannct rpeonannx x
npounocrn cnent, n no npemx ntcrynnennx ona morna t opymnrtcx.
+nn Hn Por nontsonancx uex-nncramn! ncxpnuan x.
osnaxomnn c moe reopne uex-nncron xon Aamc me]-nonapa n nnaennny
pecropana Rialto, onoro ns monx nmnmtx n Focrone. B nauane 1990-x xypnan Food and Wine
nxnmunn ee n ecxrxy nyumnx nonapon CBA, a n 1997-m ona nonyunna npemnm ]ona xemca
Fepa xax nyumn me]-nonap. 3ra narpaa cnoero poa Ocxap nx npecrannrene +ro
npo]eccnn. Rialto uacro nonaaer n pernnrn nyumnx amepnxancxnx pecropanon. Concem neanno
on oxasancx n cnncxe xypnana Esquire . xon npenounraer pernonantnym nrantxncxym xyxnm,
npnnnocx n nee uro-ro cnoe.
Aamc nonap-camoyuxa, nsyuana anrpononornm n Vnnnepcnrere Fpayna, no xynnnapntx
mxon nnxora ne oxanunnana. Ho, xax ronopnna cama xon, e ouent npannnoct roronnrt, n ona
crana paorart n pecropanax, ocnannax nce or pesxn nyxa o cnonx cocrnenntx cnocoon
npnroronnennx nm.
xon ocrnrna neotxnonenntx ntcor n pecropannom ene. Fonee roro, cmorna
coxpannrt +ror yponent n reuenne mnornx ner. Mne saxorenoct ysnart, xax e +ro yaercx.
nonnman, xax no ncem mnpe paoramr pecropant Burger Kings n Taco Bells: onn npnepxnnamrcx
crporo rexnonornn n roronxr necxontxo napnanron cranaprntx nm. Ho n npexpacntx
pecropanax xaxoe nmo +ro nponsneenne ncxyccrna. Tem ne menee onn onxnt ns roa n ro
ocnyxnnart na ntcouamem yponne or 100 o 300 nocernrene sa neuep. V menx ecrt reopnx,
oxcnxmmax, xax nmn ocrnramr raxoro yponnx, no x ne snam, nacxontxo ona cnpanennna.
Ho+romy Aamc npnrnacnna menx, urot nocmorpert na nce nponecct nsnyrpn.
B ony ns nxrnnn x nent neuep nponen n nnnno n ysxo xyxne pecropana Rialto,
nsrpomosxct na ntcoxn cryn. Tam napnna enonax cymaroxa, pasanannct xpnxn, n ono
cropone uro-ro xapnnoct na rpnne, a n pyro cntmanoct mnnenne ]pnrmpa. 3a nxrt uacon
Aamc n ee corpynnxn ocnyxnnn 150 uenonex. Tem neuepom onn roronnnn cyn ns xapentx
nomnopon c nocnamenntm nyxom n uecnoxom; noxpamennte uepnnnamn xantmapt, pannonn
c naunnxo ns saneuenno coneno rpecxn n xpaonom coyce; xapennym na rpnne cay c
rapnnpom ns xyxypyst, omamnnx nomnop n xpacnoro mapnnonannoro nepna; yrxy,
mapnnonannym n coenom coyce, antsamnuecxom yxcyce, ropunne, posmapnne n uecnoxe, n eme
rpn ecxrxa nxycnemnx nm.
Co cnoero cryna x nanman sa ntcouamnm npo]eccnonannsmom xynnnapon. Kaxt
nropo corpynnx, xax npannno, oxonunn xynnnapnym mxony, nmen ontr paort ne menee ecxrn
ner n cnom cnennannsannm. B pecropane tn cno nonap no ntneuxe, xapxe na rpnne nnn no
]pnrmpe, nonapa no ecepram n coycam, tnn comente. Hpecrantre nce +ro, n nt nonyunre
omym xaprnny. 3rn nmn roamn orraunnann cnoe macrepcrno. tn anex or nonnmannx ncex
ronxocre nx npo]eccnn. H xorx x xnpypr, menx axe nnsxo ne nonycrnnn x noxam. Honap no
maxaponntm nsennxm noxasan mne, xax npannntno pacnycxart cnnnounoe macno n xax na rnas
onpeenxrt roronnocrt nrantxncxnx xnenox, xora onn eme napxrcx, a Aamc
npoemoncrpnponana mne, xaxona no nennunne menorxa conn.
Hmn ceronx npenosnocxr xynnnapnoe ncxyccrno, a me]-nonapa +ro nacroxmne snest,
utn meenpt npnnnexamr mnoxecrno spnrene x renennsnonntm xynnnapntm noennxam. Ho,
xax x ynnen n Rialto, no rnane yrna tna ncnnnnnna, xoropym nnxora ne nocxnanxmr no
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 41
renennsopy.
Moxere ne comnenartcx +ra ncnnnnnna crponnact na uex-nncrax.
Cnauana men xynnnapnt penenr camt ocnonno uex-nncr, npnuem nx xaxoro nma
on cno. Bce penenrt tnn pacneuarant, ncrannent n npospaunte nnacrnxonte naxert n
pasnoxent no ncem paounm mecram. Aamc cnenna sa rem, urot corpynnxn ee pecropana
neyxocnnrentno pyxonocrnonannct penenramn. axe cee ona ronopnna, uro cneonart nm
neoxonmo, ecnn xouemt, urot ea ro or roa ne cranonnnact xyxe.
Oxono crona nx eceprntx nm ecrt ocxa oxnnenn. Ha ne nncxr, xax nx nastnaer
Aamc, xyxonnte samerxn ee +nexrponnte nnctma, n xoroptx ona ennrcx oneparnnntmn
nneuarnennxmn o nmax. Camoe nocnenee nnctmo arnponano npetymnm nem, es ecxrn
uac noun. B nem ronopnnoct, uro n xornert nyxno tno nonoxnrt ontme senenn n uecnoxa;
xyxypyse rpeonanoct npnart onee cnnnount nxyc; rapnnp cneonano ntxnatnart na
onantnte, a ne na xnaparnte rapenxn, a x rpnam oannrt nyx-manor, uecnox n mapcany. Btno
rnacnn: nontsyrect penenramn!
Ho nonapa ne nmxr nm cneonart. Ecnn nt 100 pas roronnre xyxypysnym xamy co
cnnnxamn, ro y nac noxnnxercx omymenne, uro nce yxe snaere nasyox. Bor ryr-ro, xax cunraer
Aamc, n nxpatnaercx omnxa.
Penenrt roxe menxmrcx. Bce, xoropte mne yanoct ynnert, tnn c pyxonncntmn
nomerxamn na nonxx, npnuem mnorne npnmeuannx +ro ynyumennx, npenaraemte
corpynnxamn. Hnora nsmenennx tnn nectma cymecrnenntmn.
Heanno nonapa crann roronnrt nonoe nmo pasenannt nent nocrep n xontxxe n
ptnom yntone c manentxnmn monnmcxamn n ncnancxo xonacxo uopnso. 3ro xoponnoe
nmo Aamc, xoropoe roronnrcx no penenry snamennro xynnn uan
6
. Onaxo, npexe uem
crannrt nmo n menm, Aamc sacrannxer nonapon npnroronnrt ero necxontxo pas nx npot, n
ncera nosnnxamr xaxne-nnyt nponemt. B coornercrnnn c penenrom nocrepa nyxno
pasenart, a norom cnerxa oxapnrt n onnnxonom macne. Ho pesyntrart, xax noxasana npaxrnxa,
ncera nonyuamrcx pasnte. uacro mxco nocrepa oxastnaercx ro ctptm, ro cnnmxom
nepeepxanntm. Coyc roxe enaercx na saxas, no ero npnroronnenne rpeyer ropaso ontme
npemenn, uem 810 mnnyr, xoropte roron xart nocernrent.
Ho+romy Aamc n na ee nonapa nsmennnn penenr. Onn pemnnn roronnrt coyc n onapnnart
nocrepa sapanee. Hponax roronxa noxasana, uro nmo cnoero nxyca ne repxer, no+romy penenr
nepenncann.
nx xaxoro xnnenra paspaartnancx cno uex-nncr, xoropt nocne npnema saxasa nyxno
tno pacneuarart na xyxne. B pacneuarxe coepxanact cneymmax nn]opmannx: saxasannte
nma; nomep cronnxa; nomep mecra sa cronnxom; npenourennx xnnenra, ntcxasannte n momenr
npnema saxasa nnn ormeuennte n ase anntx no npemx npexnnx nocemenn nnmente anneprnn
nnn ro, xax nyxno noxapnrt crex; nannune ocooro cnyuax, nanpnmep npasnonanne nx
poxennx nnn nnsnr naxno nepcont, x xoropo onxna ntrn, urot ee nonpnnercrnonart,
cama Aamc. Honap no coycam n xauecrne ononnnrentno narpysxn rpomxo saunrtnan
nocrynammne saxast.
Ipnt cpouno. Monapenna cpouno. Hoo oxnamr. Crex, xopomo npoxapennt,
es rnmrena, oxnamr.
Cpouno snaunr nyxno cpasy xe roronnrt. Oxnamr osnauaer nropoe nmo. Hoo

6
xynnx uan (19122004) neymax na amepnxancxom renennennn. Amepnxancxn me]-nonap, coanrop
xnnrn Ocnannax ncxyccrno ]pannyscxo xyxnn. Hpu+. peo.

Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 42
+ro nocrep. Crex nyxno npoxapnrt ouent xopomo, npn +rom y xnnenra anneprnx na rnmren
7
.
Honapa y nnnrt onxnt tnn nonropnrt saxas, urot nornepnrt, uro onn ero nonyunnn n
npannntno paccntmann.
Onn nonap nonropnn: Ipnt cpouno, monapenna cpouno.
Honap no mopenpoyxram: Hocrep oxnamr.
Honap na rpnne: Hpoxapennt crex, es rnmrena.
B mnpe crponrentcrna ne nce moxno cnecrn x xonxperntm penenram. Ho+romy n y xon
Aamc tnn cnon xommynnxannonnte uex-nncrt, nosnonxmmne yenrtcx, uro nmn
pacnosnamr neoxnannte nponemt n moryr nx pemart xonnexrnnno. B nxrt neuepa, sa nonuaca
o orxptrnx, corpynnxn cxoxrcx na xyxne na ronopymxy, urot ocynrt ncenosmoxnte
neoxnannocrn n paoune nponemt. B ror neuep, xora x tn n pecropane, peut mna o
xonnuecrne sapesepnnponanntx mecr, o nyx nsmenennxx, nnecenntx n menm, o rom, xax
pasennrt mexy coo oxsannocrn saonenmero corpynnxa, a raxxe o neuepnnxe c
nnpoxntmn no cnyuam 16-nernx 20 enouex, xoropte onastnamr n oemamr npntrt n camt
pasrap npasnnxa. Kaxomy npncyrcrnymmemy tno npeocranneno cnono, a norom nce crann
ocyxart paoune nnant na neuep.
Koneuno, +roro neocrarouno, urot nce npomno xax no macny. Bcera ecrt mnoxecrno
ncrounnxon neonpeenennocrn n neconepmencrna: tnaer, uro cyn no rapenxam pasnnnamr pano,
n on ycnenaer ocrtrt; n nepenenxy neonnnamr coyca, a pta na rpnne oxastnaercx cnnmxom
cyxo. Ho+romy y Aamc npeycmorpena xonrpontnax nponepxa na ntxoe nma. Kaxym
rapenxy nepe rem, xax ee ntnecyr n oeennt san, npocmarpnnaer cama xon nnn nonap no
coycam. Onn onxnt yocronepnrtcx, uro nmo ntrnxnr rax, xax nonoxeno, n coornercrnyer
saxasy. Kymante nyxno oxsarentno nonmxart, a n nexoroptx cnyuaxx axe nonpoonart uncro
noxxo.
cunran nma, xoropte nponocnnn mnmo menx. Ho xpane mepe 5 % tno nosnpameno.
Hanpnmep, nonap no coycam pemnn, uro xantmapt onxnt trt onee noxapncrtmn, n nepnyn
nx nonapy no xapxe.
Hecxontxo nosxe mne yanoct nonpoonart xoe-xaxne pesyntrart. Mne npnnecnn xapente
onnnxn, mnnn na rpnne, monoym xyxypysy c oamn n senent canar c mecrno ]epmt. Kpome
roro, menx yrocrnnn nocrepom. Fnma tnn npenocxont. ymen ns pecropana anexo sa
nonnout. tn ctr, a mo mosr ne norepxn paorocnoconocrt. axe sect, n onom ns camtx
neotuntx, ormeuenntx ntcoxnm macrepcrnom pecropanon, re xyxnx Aamc cxopee
ncxyccrno, uem nayxa, namnn npnmenenne uex-nncrt. C uem t x nn cranxnnancx, ncmy
npnxonn x onomy n romy xe saxnmuennm: ner nn ono c]ept exrentnocrn, nn ono
npo]eccnn, nxnmuax n mom cocrnennym, re uex-nncrt ne npnnocnnn t nontst.

Fnana 5
Repnan nonm1ka

B xonne 2006 r. mne nosnonnna ona ama c anrnncxnm axnenrom n xenencxnm nomepom
rene]ona. Ona cxasana, uro paoraer no Bcemnpno oprannsannn spanooxpanennx, n cnpocnna,
mory nn x napart rpynny nme nx pemennx ono neontmo nponemt. unnonnnxn +ro
oprannsannn conpann nn]opmannm, xoropax onxna tna oxasart, uro xonnuecrno

7
Inmren (nar. Gluten xne), nnn xnexonnna nonxrne, oennxmmee rpynny sanacammnx enxon,
onapyxenntx n cemenax snaxontx pacrenn, n ocoennocrn nmennnt, pxn, onca n xumenx. Hpu+. peo.

A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 43
xnpyprnuecxnx onepann no ncem mnpe rontxo pacrer, rora xax yxo sa nepenecmnmn nx
nannenramn yxymnncx nacrontxo, uro onepannonnoe nmemarentcrno crano onacntm. Ho+romy
onn xorenn paspaorart mexynaponym nporpammy no ymentmennm cmeprnocrn n ocnoxnenn
nocne xnpyprnuecxnx onepann.
Kaxercx, n orner x cnpocnn, xax onn conpamrcx +ro enart, na uro ama mne ornernna, uro
yer cosnano coornercrnymmee conemanne. Eme x saxoren ysnart, cxontxo na +ro nteneno
cpecrn, n, ycntman, uro peantntx ener ne yer, ornernn orxasom, cocnanmnct na sanxrocrt.
Ho ama snana, xax menx sanennrt. Ona cxasana, uro onn cunrann menx +xcneprom no
esonacnocrn xnpyprnuecxnx ontntx, no, xaxercx, omnnnct.
B nrore x cornacnncx oprannsonart raxoe conemanne.
Hpenmymecrnom corpynnuecrna c BO3 tn ocryn x orueram, xoropte npeocrannxmr nce
ee 193 crpant-yuacrnnnt. Hcnontsyx +rn annte, x n mox rpynna npnmnn x ntnoy, uro
corpynnxn BO3 tnn npant: xonnuecrno oneparnnntx nmemarentcrn n mnpe pesxo nospocno. K
2004 r. xnpyprn nponenn npnmepno 230 mnn xpynntx onepann n ro, r. e. na xaxtx 25 xnrene
nnanert npnxonnact ona onepannx. C rex nop +ra nn]pa, nepoxrnee ncero, ynennunnact. Oem
xnpyprnuecxo nomomn pacrer rax tcrpo, uro nnxro n ne samernn, xax xonnuecrno onepann
crano npentmart xonnuecrno poxenn, rontxo n nepnom cnyuae cmeprnocrt or 10 o 100 pas
ntme. Xorx ontmnncrno oneparnnntx nmemarentcrn npoxonr nopmantno, nn]pt noxastnamr,
uro xonnuecrno ocnoxnenn no npemx xnpyprnuecxnx onepann n ontnnuntx ycnonnxx nospocno
c 3 o 17 %. Xorx pasmept paspeson ymentmnnnct, a npemx nocneonepannonnoro noccranonnennx
coxparnnoct, pncxn nce panno ocramrcx na ntcoxom yponne. B ncem mnpe xax mnnnmym 7 mnn
uenonex n ro cranonxrcx nnnannamn, a 1 mnn nannenron ymnpaer. Hpnmepno crontxo xe nme
sanpamr manxpnx, ryepxynes n pyrne onesnn, rpannnonno npecrannxmmne nponemy nx
spanooxpanennx.
Anannsnpyx annte, x nonxn, nouemy BO3 oprannsannx, exrentnocrt xoropo
nanpannena na pemenne xpynnomacmrantx nponem spanooxpanennx, npyr sannrepeconanact
raxo, na nepnt nsrnx, ysxo n ntcoxorexnonornuno remo, xax xnpyprnuecxax nomomt.
Vnyumenne rnoantntx +xonomnuecxnx ycnonn n nocnenne ecxrnnernx npnneno x
ynennuennm npoonxnrentnocrn xnsnn nme n, xax cnecrnne, x ontmemy xonnuecrny
xnpyprnuecxnx onepann, npononmtx no noxasannxm, cnxsanntm c onacnocrtm nx xnsnn:
onxonornx, nepenomt n pyrne rpanmt, ocnoxnennx no npemx poon, cnoxnte npoxennte
e]exrt, noueunte xamnn n rptxn. Kpome roro, no ncem mnpe ocranoct npnmepno 2 mnp
uenonex, ocoenno n centcxo mecrnocrn, xoropte ne nmenn ocryna x oneparnnno nomomn n
ceuac crpemnrentno nononnxmr pxt ontntx, nyxammnxcx n onepannxx. Kax pesyntrar,
esonacnocrt n xauecrno xnpyprnuecxo nomomn noncemecrno npenparnnnct n orpomnym
nponemy.
Ho uro c +rnm moxno noenart? Pemart nponemt n xnpyprnn +ro concem ne ro, uro
pemart nponemt nonnomnennra. nyremecrnonan c rpynno BO3 xax xyparop mexynapono
nporpammt no opte c +ro onesntm n nnen, xax rpyno ocymecrnnrt naxnnnannm nacenennx.
Ho xnpyprnx namnoro cnoxnee. C nocneonepannonntmn ocnoxnennxmn rpyno oportcx axe n
pamxax ono ontnnnt, a ymart, uro moxno oxasart nosecrnne na nce onepannonnte n mnpe,
noome acypno. Hpn nannunn 25 000 pasnnuntx xnpyprnuecxnx nponeyp, naunnax or noncnn
mosra n saxanunnax amnyranne nantna na nore, nxnnnennem xapnocrnmynxropa, yanennem
cenesenxn nnn annennnnra n nepecaxo nouxn, rpyno axe npecrannrt, c uero moxno nauart.
yman, uro mne npnercx paorart c BO3 na conepmencrnonannem xaxo-ro ono
xnpyprnuecxo nponeypt, nanpnmep, xax mt +ro enann npn xarerepnsannn ontntx. Onaxo
+ro conepmenno necpannnmo c macmraom ntnemne nponemt.
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 44
B xnnape 2007 r. n mra-xnaprnpe BO3 n Xenene mt oprannsonann nyxnennym ncrpeuy
xnpypron, anecresnonoron, mececrep, +xcnepron no esonacnocrn n axe nannenron ns pasntx
crpan, urot pemnrt, uro moxno cenart. Mt npnrnacnnn xnnnnnncron ns nyumnx mennnncxnx
yupexenn Enpont, Kanat n Coennenntx Braron. Hpnexan rnannt xnpypr
Mexynaponoro xomnrera Kpacnoro Kpecra, xoropt ornpannxn pnrat npaue nx neuennx
ontntx n panentx exennen no ncemy mnpy or Comann o Hnonesnn. Cpen nac tn oren ns
3nmane, utx out saoxnynact n ontnnne npocro ns-sa neocrarxa xncnopoa. uem ontme x
cntman o neuantntx cnyuaxx, nponsomemnx n pasntx crpanax, rem onee cxenrnuecxn
ornocnncx x name saree. Kax moxno pemnrt raxoe xonnuecrno ncenosmoxntx nponem n camtx
pasntx mecrax nnanert?
Onn mennnncxn unnonnnx ner 40 c neontmnm, xnnmn na sanae Iant, n crpane,
xoropo ntpamnnanne xaxao-oon n otua sonora npnnecnn ornocnrentnoe nponneranne,
paccxasan, n xaxom cocroxnnn naxonrcx ero paonnax ontnnna. Hn onn xnpypr ne saxoren
ram ocrartcx, xoncrarnponan on. Iana crpaaer or yreuxn mosron, repxx cnonx
npo]eccnonanon, xoropte ornpannxmrcx ncxart nyume xnsnn sa pyexom. Inannpau cxasan, uro
y nero n ontnnne ocranoct ncero rpn repanenra, ne nmemmnx nnxaxo xnpyprnuecxo npaxrnxn.
Tem ne menee, xora npnnosxr ontnoro n xpnrnuecxom cocroxnnn c raxnmn cnmnromamn, xax,
nanpnmep, nocnepoonoe xponoreuenne, nnn pnora n nontmennax remneparypa npn annennnnre,
nnn pasptn nerxoro nocne anapnn na moronnxne, +rn neoyuennte oxropa enamr ro, uro
onxnt enart. Onn onepnpymr.
Inannpau paccxasan, uro emy camomy npnxonrcx sannmartcx aconmrno ncem on n
nenarp, n axymep, n xnpypr, n omem, macrep na nce pyxn. V nero ecrt yuennxn n cnpanounnxn
no xnpyprnn, a nomoraer emy accncrenr, xoropt eme rontxo yunrcx romy, xax enart anecresnm.
Fontnnna ocnamena rontxo camtm neoxonmtm oopyonannem, a xauecrno ocnyxnnannx
nannenron nectma nnsxoe. Hnora cnyuamrcx mennnncxne omnxn. Onaxo rnannpau cunraer,
uro nyume oxastnart xort xaxym-ro nomomt, uem noome nnuero ne enart.
Ha ncrpeue ntcrynnn pyccxn nonnxenep, xoropt snaunrentnym uacrt cnoe xnsnn
sannmancx nocranxamn n ocnyxnnannem mennnncxoro oopyonannx, npenasnauennoro nx
ontnnn n pasnnuntx uacrxx mnpa. On ronopnn o rom, uro nponemt onnaxono cnoxnt n n
entx, n n orartx crpanax; nenpannntnax +xcnnyarannx mennnncxoro oopyonannx
npnnonr x oxoram nnn x nopaxennm nannenron +nexrpnuecxnm roxom; nonte rexnonornn
ncnontsymrcx nenpannntno, noromy uro corpynnxn ne npoxoxr nyxnoro oyuennx; camoe
neoxonmoe nx noepxannx xnsnn oopyonanne moxer oxasartcx nepaorammnm nnn
neocrynntm n camt nyxnt momenr.
3aneymmn xnpyprnuecxnm orenennem xpynneme ontnnnt n Monronnn xanonancx na
nexnarxy oesonnnammnx nexapcrn. Ha ro xe camoe yxastnann npecrannrenn ns crpan Asnn,
A]pnxn n Fnnxnero Bocroxa. Hccneonarent ns Hono 3enannn nnrnponan yxacammym
crarncrnxy cmeprnocrn or neesonacno anecresnn n entx crpanax. Xorx n nexoroptx
a]pnxancxnx rocyapcrnax or nenpannntnoro oesonnnannx ymnpaer onn ontno ns 5000,
ecrt crpant, n xoroptx cmeprnocrt no +ro npnunne n ecxrxn pas ntme. B Toro, nanpnmep, +ror
noxasarent panen ono cmeprn na xaxtx 150 ontntx. Anecresnonor ns Hnnn cnxstnana
nponemt anecresnn c rem, uro xnpyprn ee neoonennnamr. B ee crpane, no mnennm +roro npaua,
x oesonnnannm ornocxrcx xax x uemy-ro nropocrenennomy, npnnnxax snauenne +ro
nponeypt, no+romy cryenrt mennnncxnx nyson ne nyr n anecresnonorn. B pesyntrare camym
cnoxnym uacrt xnpyprnuecxoro nmemarentcrna oesonnnanne onepxmr neoyuenntm
nmxm snaunrentno uame, uem nponeenne camo onepannn. 3ry osaouennocrt pasennna
mececrpa ns Hpnannn. Ona cxasana, uro mececrpam npnxonrcx paorart n eme onee cnoxntx
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 45
ycnonnxx. Hx uacro ne cunramr unenamn xnpyprnuecxo pnrat n ne nosnonxmr nm no yrposo
ynontnennx ocyxart na panntx nponemt xnpyprnn. H ee nnunt ontr, n ro, uro ona cntmana
or mececrep, paorammnx n pyrnx crpanax, rontxo nornepxamr cenannte em ntnot.
C ono cropont, nce ynepent n rom, uro xnpyprnuecxne onepannn, neoxonmte no
mnornm xnsnenntm noxasannxm, ouent naxnt n onxnt trt xax moxno ocrynnee. axe n
camtx nenaronpnxrntx ycnonnxx onn cnocont cnacrn uenonexy xnsnt. B ontmnncrne crpan
mnpa xonnuecrno xnpyprnuecxnx ocnoxnenn naxonrcx na ocrarouno nnsxom yponne: or 5 o
15 % nx onepann, npononmtx n ontnnuntx ycnonnxx.
Onaxo c npecrannennem o rom, uro raxo yponent ocnoxnenn xnnxercx npnemnemtm,
rpyno cornacnrtcx. 3a xaxtm nponenrom croxr mnnnnont ontntx, cranmnx nnnannamn nnn
ymepmnx. Hccneonannx, nponeennte n CBA, noxastnamr, uro rontxo n +ro crpane o
nononnnt xnpyprnuecxnx ocnoxnenn moxno tno t nsexart. Ho npnunn n nnnonnnxon
cnnmxom mnoro. Honxrno, uro nponema rpeyer pemennx, no uro enart, noxa nnxomy ne
nsnecrno.
Onn npenarann nnepnrt ontme yuentx nporpamm, onaxo +ra nex sacoxna na xopnm.
Ecnn raxne ocnoxnennx npecrannxmr coo nponemy no ncex crpanax n axe no ncex
ontnnnax, ro nnxaxym nporpammy oyuennx nentsx nnepnrt rax, urot tcrpo nonyunrt
nonoxnrentnte pesyntrart. nx +roro ner nn ener, nn nosmoxnocre.
Mt ocynnn pasnnunte napnanrt crnmynnponannx npaue, nanpnmep, onnary no
pesyntraram paort, xoropym neanno ontrntm nyrem crann nnepxrt n CBA. B coornercrnnn c
+rnmn nporpammamn xnnnnnncrt nonyuann nosnarpaxenne, ecnn oxastnann
xnann]nnnponannym nomomt nn]apxrntm ontntm n oecneunnann sa nnmn nanexamn yxo,
a n npornnnom cnyuae mrpa]onannct. Crparernx npnnecna cnon nnot, onaxo onn tnn
ocrarouno cxpomnt: npn ncnontsonannn camtx ontmnx no macmraam cxem onnart no
pesyntraram paort noxasarenn ynyumnnnct ncero or 2 o 4 %. Fonee roro, ouent rpyno copart
crarncrnxy, na ocnone xoropo ocymecrnnxnoct nosnarpaxenne. Hpnxonnoct ncnontsonart
annte, npeocrannxemte camnmn xnnnnnncramn. Kpome roro, neoxonmo ormernrt, uro
pesyntrart sanncenn or nepnonauantnoro cocroxnnx ontnoro. Hanpnmep, npn nannunn
nocneonepannonntx ocnoxnenn moxer cpasy nosnnxnyrt xenanne nnarnrt xnpypry mentme,
onaxo xonnuecrno ocnoxnenn n nepnym ouepet sanncnr or cocroxnnx ontnoro. Hporpammt
marepnantnoro crnmynnponannx oxasannct ouent opornmn, npenarann crynenuarym ]opmy
pacuera sapaorno nnart n mano uro anann n npaxrnuecxom nnane. Bnepxrt nx n rnoantnom
macmrae tno t eccmtcnenno, no+romy morno noxasartcx, uro nenecoopasnee ncero
c]opmynnponart n nsart no +rno BO3 nexn naop o]nnnantntx cranapron,
oecneunnammnx esonacnocrt xnpyprnuecxo nomomn. Otuno raxoe pemenne npnnnmamr na
ncrpeuax +xcneprt, net noonte pyxonocrna moryr oxnartnart pasnnunte c]ept or mep no
npeynpexennm nn]exnnn o nepcnexrnnntx ]opm oyuennx n corpynnuecrna n
onepannonno. Tax, moxno cosart Xenencxym xonnennnm no esonacno xnpyprnn, name
Xentcnnxcxoe cornamenne no npeynpexennm nanecennx nannenram nonpexenn n
onepannonno.
Onaxo cronr rontxo oxasartcx n ceptx eronntx nonanax sannx BO3, xora n nnx
nnxoro ner, xax ryr xe nosnnxamr comnennx n ornomennn raxoro nnana. Hepexox no
nosemnomy nepexoy ns onoro sannx BO3 n pyroe, x nnen nente mraenx ncenosmoxntx
200-crpannuntx pyxonocrn, nororonnenntx pyrnmn +xcneprntmn rpynnamn, xoropte
conpannct, urot pemart saaun no cnoemy npo]nnm. Eme ram nexann xyuxn pommp,
nocnxmenntx npeynpexennm manxpnn, neuennm BHu/CHH n opte c rpnnnom. Bce onn
tnn ynaxonant, urot ne ntnnnnct spx. Cranaprt rmarentno nponnctnamr nce nponeypt, n,
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 46
x ynepen, onn nectma npoymannt. Komy-ro, eccnopno, morno noxasartcx, uro cosart
mexynaponte cranaprt nosmoxno. Ho n ontmnncrne cnyuaen raxne pyxonocrna
pacnpocrpanxmrcx no ncemy mnpy nnmt n neontmnx xonnuecrnax, a na ontnnuntx xoxax n
Fanrxoxe, Fpassannne, Focrone n Fpncene mano uro menxercx.
cnpocnn y ono unnonnnnt BO3, ecrt nn n ee oprannsannn cnpanounnx no ycnemno
peannsannn nporpamm spanooxpanennx. Ona nocmorpena na menx rax, xax ponrenn cmorpxr na
manentxoro peenxa, xoropt neser n nacrt coauxe, urot nonxrt, xax ona naer. Bonpoc,
xoneuno, nnrepecnt, no neymecrnt.
Tem ne menee x npoonxnn cnon noncxn. cran cnpamnnart pasntx corpynnxon BO3, ecrt
nn y nnx npnmept roro, xax nmemarentcrno opranon spanooxpanennx anano nonoxnrentnte
pesyntrart.
Onn otuno npnnonnn raxne npnmept, xax naxnnnannx nacenennx or ocnt, xoropym
yanoct nonnocrtm ncxopennrt n 1979 r., nnn exrentnocrt oxropa xona Cnoy, xoropt no
npemx cnnpencrnonanme n Honone +nnemnn xonept n 1854 r. ycranonnn cnxst mexy
ncntmxo +ro onesnn n ynnuno xononxo, re nmn pann noy. Kora nauanact +nnemnx,
ro sa nepnte rpn nx ymepno 200 uenonex. Tpn uerneprn xnrene ropoa n nannxe exann. uepes
neenm ymepno eme 500 uenonex. B ro npemx nepnnn, uro raxoro poa onesnn nosyxamrcx
naxoxmnmncx n nosyxe mnasmamn. Cnoy ne nonepnn n reopnm nnoxoro nosyxa n cocrannn
xapry paona, re xnnn ymepmne. Tora n onapyxnnoct, uro cmeprnocrt nanonee nennxa oxono
onoro n roro xe ncrounnxa not xononxn na ynnne Fpo-crpnr n nononcxom paone Coxo.
Cnoy onpocnn ynrtx ropem pocrnennnxon o nx npnntuxax, cenan crarncrnuecxn ananns
ncex nosmoxntx ]axropon n npnmen x ntnoy, uro npnunno ncntmxn xonept crana rpxsnax
noa. (Kax norom ntxcnnnoct, xononxa tna ycranonnena pxom co crapo ntrpeno xmo.)
Cnoy sacrannn mecrnt coner cnxrt pyuxy c xononxn. Ona nepecrana paorart, onesnt
pacnpocrpanxrtcx, a on ycranonnn ocnonnte npannna nccneonannx ncntmex nn]exnnonntx
saonenann, xoropte yuente conmamr o cnx nop.
Kax mne yanoct samernrt, y ncex +rnx npnmepon ecrt neuro omee. Hponemt ycrpanxnnct
c nomomtm npocrtx mep: naxnnnannn nnn cnxrnn pyuxn c xononxn. Pesyntrart rmarentno
nsmepxnnct, n oxastnanoct, uro raxne nmemarentcrna nerxo nocnponsnecrn c ananornuntmn
pesyntraramn. B nsnece +ro nastnaercx ROI, nnn penraentnocrtm nnnecrnnn, a Apxnme
cunran npocro ptuarom.
ymax o rom, uro mept onxnt trt npocrt, nsmepxemt n nocnponsnonmt, x ncnomnnn
o onom ns monx nmnmtx nccneonann n onacrn spanooxpanennx. 3ro tna nporpamma,
npononmax n Haxncrane nenrpamn xonrponx n npo]nnaxrnxn saonenann n narornopnrentno
oprannsanne Haexa, urot ntxnnrt npnunnt ercxo cmeprnocrn n enemnx paonax
Kapaun. B rpymoax, ntpocmnx noxpyr +roro meranonnca, npoxnnano 4 mnn uenonex n ycnonnxx
camo ntcoxo cxyuennocrn n mnpe. Crounte not rexnn npxmo no ynnnam. Xponnuecxax
enocrt n rono npnnenn x romy, uro or 30 o 40 % ere neoeann. Hourn nce ncrounnxn
nnrteno not tnn sarpxsnent. Onn peenox ns xaxtx ecxrn ne oxnnan axe o nxrn ner.
Otuno npnunnamn cmeprn oxastnannct napex nnn ocrpax pecnnparopnax nn]exnnx.
Homnmo nenpnemnemtx cncrem noocnaxennx n xanannsannn cnom pont nrpana
nerpamornocrt, memanmax pacnpocrpanennm cannrapnoro npocnemennx. Koppynnnx,
nonnrnuecxax necranntnocrt n mpoxparnx npenxrcrnonann nnnecrnnnxm n mecrnym
npomtmnennocrt n cosannm paounx mecr, xoropte nosnonnnn t nacenennm ynyumnrt
ycnonnx npoxnnannx. Hnsxne mnponte nent na centxosnpoyxnnm ne nosnonxnn pasnnnart
centcxoe xosxcrno, n n noncxax paort cornn rtcxu uenonex exann or raxo xnsnn n ropoa,
uro rontxo ynennunnano nnornocrt nacenennx n nnx. B raxnx ocroxrentcrnax xasanoct, uro
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 47
nenosmoxno cnnsnrt ercxym cmeprnocrt, ecnn nennxom n nonnocrtm ne pecrpyxrypnponart
nnacrnte crpyxrypt n omecrno n nenom.
Ho y onoro monooro corpynnxa noxnnnact nex. Crnnen Hmn ntpoc n Omaxe, mrar
Hepacxa, re ero oren tn exanom ]axyntrera axymepcrna n rnnexonornn n Kperoncxom
ynnnepcnrere. Cam Crnnen yunncx n Rro-3ananom mennnncxom nenrpe Texaccxoro
ynnnepcnrera. Hmn nonyunn mecro n xomnannn CDC n sanxncx nsyuennem ncntmex
nn]exnnonntx saonenann n Rxno Kann]opnnn, onaxo, xora y +ro ]npmt orxptnact
naxancnx n Haxncrane, on ee nesamennrentno sanxn. B Kapaun Crnnen npnexan co cnoe
xeno-yunrentnnne n n xonne 1990-x rr. cran nynnxonart nccneonannx o nonoxennn en n
crpane.
B pasronope c nnm x cnpocnn, uro on ymaer o +rnx rpynocrxx. Crnnen ornernn: Ecnn t
n Kapaun tnn noonpono n xanannsannx, xax n Omaxe, ro mt mornn t pemnrt +rn nponemt.
Onaxo na raxne nn]pacrpyxrypnte npoexrt yxoxr ecxrnnernx. Ho+romy Crnnen saymancx
na pemennxmn, ne rpeymmnmn ntcoxnx rexnonorn. Ero npenoxenne oxasanoct nacrontxo
npocrtm, uro ne ntsnano y xonner nnxaxo peaxnnn, xpome cmexa. Pemennem tno
ncnontsonanne mtna.
Hmn ysnan, uro Procter & Gamble xpynnax xomnannx, nponsnoxmax tronym xnmnm,
xouer ncntrart axrepnnnnte cnocrna cnoero nonoro mtna Safeguard. Ho+romy, necmorpx na
cxenrnnnsm xonner, Crnnen yenn xomnannm ntennrt rpanr nx nsyuennx otunoro mtna n
mtna c rpnxnoxapanom, onaammero axrepnnnntmn cnocrnamn. Pas n neenm corpynnxn
oprannsannn Haexa pasnocnnn otunoe mtno n mtno Safeguard no 25 cnyuano ntpanntm
paonam rpymo. Onn npocnnn, urot nmn ncnontsonann ero n cneymmnx mecrn cnryannxx:
mtrte rena pas n ent, mtrte pyx nocne xaxoro cryna n nenenannx peenxa, nepe eo,
npnroronnennem nnmn nnn ee pasaue. Hocne uero corpynnxn conpann nn]opmannm o
ercxo saonenaemocrn n paonax, re pacnpocrpanxnoct mtno, n n 11 n xonrpontntx paonax,
xya ono ne ocrannxnoct.
Hmn n ero xomana onoxnnn o cnonx pesyntrarax n snamennro crarte, onynnxonanno
xypnanom Lancet n 2005 r. Cemtn n +xcnepnmenrantntx paonax n cpenem nonyuann 3,3 xycxa
mtna n neenm n reuenne roa. 3a +ro npemx saonenaemocrt nsenrepne y ere cnnsnnact na
52 % no cpannennm c xonrpontntmn rpynnamn, npnuem rnn mtna na +ry nn]py ne nnnxn. uncno
saonenmnx nnenmonne ymentmnnoct na 48 %, a sapasntmn xoxntmn onesnxmn na 35 %.
Pesyntrart nneuarnxnn. Hpnuem onn tnn nonyuent npn ro xe nerpamornocrn, ro xe nnmere
n cxyuennocrn, necmorpx na ro uro xnrenn +rnx paonon nnnn ry xe rpxsnym noy n mtnnct em.
Vnnnrentno, no camy xomnannm Procter & Gamble pesyntrart nccneonannx
pasouaponann. Hmn n ero xomana onapyxnnn, uro oannenne anrnaxrepnantnoro nemecrna
xaprnny saonenaemocrn ne menxer. Otunoe mtno oxasanoct ne menee +]]exrnnntm n n panno
crenenn cnacnrentntm.
Kax mne cxasan Hmn, eno ne crontxo n camom mtne, a n rom, uro ono menxno noneenne
nme. Corpynnxn oprannsannn Haexa ne rontxo pasanann Safeguard, no eme n anann
nncrpyxnnn nno n nne nncronox, nno nnuno, nepeuncnxx mecrt cnryann, xora uenonex
oxsan ncnontsonart mtno. 3ro tno naxntm ]axropom, anmnm raxo pesyntrar. Ecnn
nnnmarentno npncmorpertcx x nccneonannm, nponeennomy n Kapaun, ro moxno onapyxnrt
ynnnrentnym crarncrnxy, copannym no orentntm omoxosxcrnam xax n recrontx, rax n n
xonrpontntx paonax. Ha nauano +xcnepnmenra xaxax cemtx n cpenem rparnna n neenm no
na xycxa mtna. pyrnmn cnonamn, nmn n pantme nm nontsonannct.
Tora uro xe nsmennno +ro nccneonanne? Kax cxasan mne Hmn, na cnryannm nonnnxnn
ne nemn. Bo-nepntx, pasanaemoe mtno tno ecnnarntm. Xorx xnrenn +xcnepnmenrantntx
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 48
paonon ronopnnn, uro ono n rax cronno neoporo n ontmnncrno ceme nontsonanoct nm, mt
nce xe xorenn, urot nmn mtnnct xax moxno uame. Ho onn tnn ent n ne mornn cee +roro
nosnonnrt, a n xoe +xcnepnmenra +xonomnuecxn aptep tn cnxr. Bo-nroptx, uro ne menee
naxno, naroapx npoexry nmn crann ncnontsonart mtno onee cncremarnuecxn.
Hmn n ero xomana nccneonann, xax conmamr rpeonannx nnuno rnrnent xnrenn
Haxncrana, Fanrnaem n pyrnx crpan Rxno Asnn. Hm yanoct onapyxnrt, uro nourn nese
nmn momr pyxn nocne nocemennx ryanera. Hmn cunraer, uro crpemnenne x uncrore xapaxrepno
nx nce Rxno Asnn. axe xora ymtnantnnx anexo, pyxn momr n 80 % cnyuaen. Or raxo
nn]pt nocernrenn ryaneron n a+ponoprax onxnt cropert co crta. Onaxo, xax noxastnann
annte, mtrte ne tno +]]exrnnntm. uacro +ro enanoct cnnmxom nepexno nnn nmn mtnn
rontxo ony pyxy, a nopo nmecro not n mtna ncnontsonann sony nnn rpxst.
3xcnepnmenr c mtnom c +rnm noxonunn. unent xomant Hmn ocroxrentno yunnn
xaxoro uenonexa, xax nyxno mtrt pyxn. Onn oxcnxnn, uro neoxonmo onntno cmaunnart
oe pyxn, norom xopomo nx namtnnnart, a sarem rmarentno cnonacxnnart noo o rex nop, noxa
or mtna nnuero ne ocranercx, axe ecnn, xax ronopnnoct n onynnxonannom oruere, otuno
nmn ntrnpann pyxn o cnom oexy. Hepe npnroronnennem nnmn nnn xopmnennem peenxa
mano xro ymaer o mtrte pyx, ormeuan Hmn, no+romy nmecre c unenamn cnoe xomant
pasxcnxn nmxm, n xaxnx cnyuaxx nyxno nontsonartcx mtnom. Ono camo no cee yxe tno
naxntm ]axropom, npnuem npnxrntm xopomo naxno n mtnnnoct nyume, uem mtno rex copron,
xoropte otuno noxynann xnrenn, no+romy nmxm npannnoct nm nontsonartcx. B ornnune or
nexoroptx exrene spanooxpanennx, rpancnannonantntm xopnopannxm ecrnnrentno xouercx
snart mnenne norpenrene. Kpome roro, nmxm npannnoct nonyuart mtno. 3xcnepnmenraropt
npnxonnn c noapxom, a ne nx roro, urot norposnrt nm nantunxom. Bmecre c noapxom
anannct eme n conert, xoropte nosnonxnn ynyumnrt xnsnt n snaunrentno coxparnrt
saonenaemocrt.
Bcnomnnax +ror +xcnepnmenr, x npyr ocosnan, uro nccneonanne Hmn n ero xomant
tno n onnaxono crenenn cnxsano xax c mtnom, rax n c uex-nncramn. Ho+romy x saancx
nonpocom: moxno nn narn cront xe npocroe, emenoe n +]]exrnnnoe, xax mtno, pemenne
namnx xnpyprnuecxnx nponem? nceptes saymancx na rem, xax cenart uex-nncr, xoropt
yer npocr n n ro xe npemx +]]exrnnen npn pemennn mnoroopasntx nponem, c xoroptmn
cranxnnamrcx xnpyprn no ncem mnpe. ne tn ynepen, nosmoxno nn +ro, no necxontxo monx
xonner ornecnnct x npenoxenno mno nee c ontmnm +nrysnasmom, xora nonpoc cran
ocyxartcx na xenencxo ncrpeue.
Onn npncyrcrnymmn ncnomnnn o rom, uro n ercxo ontnnne oxpyra Konymnx ecrt
uex-nncr, c nomomtm xoroporo opmrcx c xnpyprnuecxnmn nn]exnnxmn. Hn]exnnx ono ns
nanonee uacrtx nocneonepannonntx ocnoxnenn y ere. Camt +]]exrnnnt cnoco ee
npeynpexennx, nomnmo anrncenrnxon, npannntnt noop anrnnornxon n nocnenne 60
mnnyr nepe xnpyprnuecxnm nmemarentcrnom.
Pemammnm ]axropom cranonnrcx npemx. Hocne roro xax cenan paspes, nnonrt
anrnnornxn yxe nosno. Ecnn art nx nannenry ontme uem sa uac o nauana onepannn, ro
ecrnne nexapcrn npexparnrcx pantme, uem nyxno. Kax noxasann nccneonannx, cnoenpemennoe
nneenne anrnnornxon nourn nanononnny ymentmaer pncx nn]nnnponannx. axe ecnn nnecrn
nx nnyrpnnenno sa 30 cexyn o xnpyprnuecxoro nmemarentcrna, ro onn ycnemr ocrnut rxane
o roro, xax cxantnent pacceuer xoxy.
Ho, xax npannno, +ror +ran nponycxaercx. B 2005 r. ercxax ontnnna oxpyra Konymnx
npononna nponepxy ncropn onesnn n onapyxnna, uro rpert nannenron, nocrynnnmnx c
annennnnrom, ne nonyunnn nyxntx anrnnornxon n nyxnoe npemx. Hexoroptm ontntm onn
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 49
nnonnnct cnnmxom pano, nexoroptm cnnmxom nosno, no tnn n raxne, xro ne nonyuan nx
noome.
3ro xasanoct nonno rnynocrtm. Heyxenn rpyno nnecrn nexapcrno? Hmomy menxy
nonxrno, uro c raxnmn npocremnmn saauamn emy npnxonrcx cranxnnartcx nocroxnno. Onaxo
ne nce rax npocro. Hpn rom mnoxecrne en, xoropte cnannnamrcx na npaue, xora nannenra
nesyr n onepannonnym, nmenno o raxnx nemax nnxro n ne ncnomnnaer. Anrnnornxn otuno
nnoxr anecresnonorn, no onn osaouent rem, urot ontno nocxopee n es nponem ycnyn. A
+ro nenpocro, xora n onepannonno, re nonno nesnaxomnen, rorontx nonsnrt cno cxantnent,
na xononom crone nexnr onaxennt noctmnnernn peenox, na rene xoroporo yxe ecrt
mpamt. Ecnn oannrt eme nosmoxnte nonomxn oopyonannx (uro +ro ram xpacnax namnouxa
mnraer?), nnn npncryn acrmt y ontnoro, nnn cnrnan na nexep xnpypra c npocto nosnonnrt
n orenenne peannmannn, ro o raxnx npocrtx nponeypax, xax nneenne anrnnornxon, moxno
nerxo satrt.
Pyxononrent xnpyprnuecxoro orenennx ontnnnt oxpyra Konymnx oxasancx ne rontxo
ercxnm xapnoxnpyprom, no n tnmnm nnnorom. On pemnn npnmennrt annannonnte merot n
xnpyprnn, nx uero paspaoran uex-nncr Bsner paspemam, re nepeuncnxnnct nce +rant,
npemecrnymmne xnpyprnuecxomy nmemarentcrny. B xaxo onepannonno tnn ycranonnent
nexnnonnte ocxn c npnxpennenntmn x nnm uex-nncramn, uro oxasanoct necnoxntm enom. B
nnx tno yxasano, uro mececrpa onxna ycrno nornepnrt xnpyprnuecxo pnrae, uro
ocrannen nyxnt ontno, n coomnrt, xaxax uacrt rena onepnpyercx. Otuno +rn nemn
nponepxer xnpyprnuecxax pnraa. Bropo nynxr npenonaran nponepxy nneennx anrnnornxon
(nnn npnnxrnx pemennx o nx nenyxnocrn, uro n orentntx cnyuaxx onycxaercx).
K +romy mano uro moxno oannrt. Ho sacrannrt xnpyprnuecxne pnrat paccrartcx co
cnonmn npnntuxamn n nepern na uex-nncrt, npnntxnyrt x nnm tno onontno cnoxno. Hapa
xnaparnxon c ormerxo o ntnonnennn camn no cee mano uro snaunr, no+romy pyxononrent
xnpyprnuecxoro orenennx ntcrynnn c nexnnxmn nepe cecrpamn, anecresnonoramn n xnpypramn,
oxcnxx ncrnnnt cmtcn uex-nncron. Kpome roro, on npnyman neuro neotunoe: nsroronnn
merannnuecxym nnpamnxy, na xoropo tno nanncano Bsner paspemam!, n ycranonnn ee
nepe cronom c nncrpymenramn. Hnpamnxa tna 15 cm n ntcory, r. e. ocrarouno ontmo,
urot npnxptrt cxantnenn. Mececrpt nonyunnn yxasanne ycranannnnart ee npn ntxnaxe
xnpyprnuecxnx nncrpymenron nepe onepanne. 3ro cnyxnno nanomnnannem o rom, uro nepe
xnpyprnuecxnm nmemarentcrnom nyxno sanonnnrt uex-nncr. Kpome roro, +ro tno snaxom, uro
xnpypr ne moxer nauart onepannm o roro, xax nonyunr paspemenne or mececrpt, xoropax
onxna tna cnxrt nnpamnxy. 3ro tno pannocnntno manentxomy xyntrypnomy cnnry. axe
neontmo uex-nncr nnnxn na pacnpeenenne nonnomoun.
Pyxononrent xnpyprnuecxoro orenennx nsmepnn nonyuennt +]]exr. uepes rpn mecxna
89 % nannenron c annennnnrom nonyuann nyxnte anrnnornxn n nyxnoe npemx. uepes ecxrt
mecxnen nn]pa ocrnrna 100 %. Hcnontsonanne uex-nncra nomno n npnntuxy, n crano nonxrno,
uro xnpyprnuecxax pnraa ne nauner onepannm, noxa nce +rant nororonxn ne ntnonnent.
3ro menx sannrpnronano, no monx comnenn ne pasnexno. a, ncnontsonanne uex-nncron n
+ro orentno nsxro ontnnne nosnonnno ycrpannrt nponemt c onnm acnexrom neuennx
ontntx. Mne axe xorenoct nepnrt, uro n pesyntrare nnepennx uex-nncron nn]nnnponanne
xnpyprnuecxnx ontntx snaunrentno ymentmnnoct. Onaxo nx cymecrnennoro cnnxennx
xonnuecrna nocneonepannonntx ocnoxnenn, xax mne xasanoct, neoxonm noxo,
oxnartnammn onee mnpoxn cnexrp nponem n xnpyprnn.
3arem ntcrynnn saneymmn xnpyprnuecxnm orenennem ontnnnt Toponrcxoro
ynnnepcnrera Pnuap Pesnnx, xoropt paccxasan, uro n ero orenennn n xauecrne +xcnepnmenra
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 50
nnepen uex-nncr, cocroxmn ns 21 nosnnnn n nosnonxmmn xonrponnponart mnpoxn xpyr
xnpyprnuecxnx nponem. B coornercrnnn c +rnm uex-nncrom nce unent xnpyprnuecxo pnrat
onxnt ycrno nornepxart pyr pyry, uro anrnnornxn nneent, xpont nx nepennnannx ecrt,
nce neoxonmte anannst ontnomy cenant, cnennantnte xnpyprnuecxne nncrpymenrt
nororonnent n r. n.
B uex-nncr raxxe nxonno paouee conemanne. Bcem unenam xnpyprnuecxo pnrat
npenaranoct ornoxnrt nce ena n npocro noronopnrt pyr pyrom nepe onepanne o rom,
cxontxo npenonoxnrentno npemenn ona onxna sanxrt, xaxax norepx xponn oxnaercx n ecrt nn
y ontnoro xaxne-nno nponemt, x xoroptm pnraa onxna trt rorona.
Pesnnx nnuero ne snan o paore npopaon n apxnrexropon, no nnrynrnnno crpemnncx x
raxnm pemennxm, xoropte nosnnxamr npn crponrentcrne ntcorntx sann. 3rn pemennx
coueramr xonrpontnte nponepxn ntnonnennx ncex saau nnmc omenne ncex corpynnxon pyr c
pyrom npn pemennn nponem upesntuano cnoxnocrn. Paorammn n rocnnrane xonca
Xonxnnca Maprnn Maxapn xnpypr, cnennannsnpymmncx na noxenyouno xenese, noxasan
nam cocroxmn ns 18 nynxron uex-nncr, xoropt on n 11 ero xonner n reuenne nxrn mecxnen
recrnpymr n xnpyprnuecxom orenennn. Ananornuntm opasom xann]opnncxne ontnnnt,
nxoxmne n spanooxpannrentnym cert Kaiser, nporecrnponann xnpyprnuecxn uex-nncr,
cocroxmn ns 30 nynxron n cosannt nemnoro pantme, uem uex-nncrt n Toponro n rocnnrane
xonca Xonxnnca. Bce uex-nncrt tnn nocrpoent no onomy omemy npnnnnny.
Hesanncnmo or crpant n xnpyprnn ecrt uertpe ocnonnte npnunnt cmeprnocrn:
nn]nnnponanne, xponoreuenne, omnxn anecresnn n ro, uro nastnaercx neoxnannte
ocroxrentcrna. nx npeynpexennx nepntx rpex nponem nayxa n ontr npenaramr nnonne
xonxpernte merot, xoroptmn, no namemy mnennm, mt nontsyemcx, a na camom ene +roro ne
nponcxonr. Taxoro poa neocmorpt neyr x npocrtm omnxam, xoroptx nerxo nsexart c
nomomtm uex-nncron. Ho+romy onn coepxar uerxo onncannte napnanrt npeynpexennx raxnx
omnox.
Ho uerneprax npnunna cmeprnocrn (neoxnannte ocroxrentcrna) eno conepmenno nnoe.
Ona nosnnxaer no npnunne ]ynamenrantno cnoxntx pncxon, cnxsanntx co ncxptrnem
uenoneuecxoro rena n nosecrnnem na nero. Hoxany, nce nccneonarenn nonnmamr, uro
nnxaxo uex-nncr ne moxer ncxnmunrt ncex neocrarxon n paore xnpypra. Ho+romy onn npnmnn
x ntnoy, uro camoe nyumee pemenne ornoxnrt nce ena n art nosmoxnocrt nmxm ocynrt
cnryannm rax, urot ncem nmecre npnroronnrtcx x pacnosnanannm n nnxnnannn ncex
norennnantno onacntx nx ontnoro ocnoxnenn.
Bosmoxno, raxoe pemenne xaxercx conepmenno ouennntm, no ono npecrannxer coo
snaunrentnt orxo or otuntx nponeyp nponeennx onepann. Tpannnonno xnpyprnx
paccmarpnnaercx xax nnnnnyantnax, a ne xonnexrnnnax paora. Xnpypr +ro nnpryos, xax,
nanpnmep, xonneprnpymmn nnanncr. Ecrt ocnonannx nx roro, urot nourn nect mnp
nontsonancx repmnnom onepannonnt rearp. Onepannonnax nanara +ro cnena nx xnpypra.
On cnonno oxastnaercx n cnere co]nron n paccunrtnaer, uro nce naxoxrcx na cnonx mecrax, a
nannenr cnnr n roron x onepannn.
Mt, xnpyprn, xornm nepnrt n ro, uro n camn pasnnnaemcx no mepe ycnoxnennx xnpyprnn n
ceronx onxnt paorart xonnexrnnno, a ne n onnouxy. Onaxo, xax t nenpnxrno +ro nn
snyuano, yuente nornepxamr ror ]axr, uro ne nce unent xnpyprnuecxoro xonnexrnna
onnaxono ocosnamr nce pncxn, c xoroptmn moxer cronxnyrtcx ontno, ne npecrannxmr cee
ncex nponem, x xoroptm onn onxnt trt sapanee roront, n nnora axe ne nonnmamr, no
xaxnm npnunnam nyxna onepannx. B onom crarncrnuecxom nccneonannn coomanoct, uro
onpoc 300 npaue n mececrep na ntxoe ns onepannonno noxasan, uro xaxt noctmo ns nnx
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 51
o onepannn axe ne npecrannxn, n xaxom mecre onxen tn trt cenan paspes.
Fpaan Cexcron, ncnxonor-nonarop ns rocnnranx xonca Xonxnnca, nponen necxontxo
nccneonann, yxastnammnx na ro, xax anexn mt or xonnexrnnntx ecrnn n xnpyprnn. B
onom nccneonannn on onpocnn onee 1000 uenonex ns uncna xnpyprnuecxoro nepconana n
pasntx crpanax CBA, Iepmannn, Hspanne, Hrannn n Bnenapnn. Pesyntrart noxasann, uro,
xorx 64 % xnpypron cunramr, uro xnpyprnx +ro xonnexrnnnax paora, c nnmn cornacnt 39 %
anecresnonoron, 10 % nx nomomnnxon n 28 % xnpyprnuecxnx cecrep. Hecnyuano Cexcron raxxe
onapyxnn, uro xaxt uerneprt xnpypr ynepen, uro mnamne unent xnpyprnuecxo pnrat
ne onxnt ocnapnnart pemennx crapmnx no onxnocrn.
Ome npnunno, memamme xonnexrnnno paore, xnnxmrcx, xax oxasanoct, ne
orentnte ncntmxn rnena n pasmaxnnammne cxantnenem xnpyprn, nanoxmne yxac na cnonx
xonner, xorx n raxne naxoxrcx. (Onn mo nmnmt npnmep. Hecxontxo ner nasa, xora x
npoxonn nepenororonxy, crapmn xnpypr npnmen n xpocrt, xora onn ns monx corpynnxon
saxoren osnaxomnrtcx c nnanom onepannn. On norpeonan, urot ror oromen or onepannonnoro
crona n croxn n cropone o rex nop, noxa nepe nnm ne nsnnnnrcx. Kora mo corpynnx
orxasancx, xnpypr nontrancx orcrpannrt ero or paort sa nenounnenne.) Hamnoro onee
mnpoxo pacnpocrpanenntm n onacntm oxasanoct noneenne ysxnx cnennanncron, ne xenanmnx
ntxonrt sa pamxn cnonx oxsannocre. 3ro ne mox nponema noxany, xymee, uro moryr
noymart nmn nepe nauanom onepannn, no npemx ntpynnnannx sanonnennoro naccaxnpamn
camonera na nsnernym nonocy nnn crponrentcrna 300-merponoro ntcornoro sannx. Ho n
mennnne mt cranxnnaemcx c +rnm noncemecrno. nnen raxoe axe n cnoe onepannonno.
B nexoroptx cnyuaxx xonnexrnnnsm neocrnxnm. B ycnonnxx upesntuano cnoxnocrn mt
ntnyxent nontsonartcx pasenennem rpya n yunrtnart nnnnnyantnt ontr xaxoro unena
xomant. Hanpnmep, n onepannonno ecrt xnpypr, accncrenr, onepannonnax cecrpa,
xnpyprnuecxax cecrpa, anecresnonor n r. n. Kaxt ns nnx moxer trt nenpensoenntm
macrepom cnoero ena. Hmenno +romy onn yuarcx, n na ocnoenne npo]eccnn yxoxr rot. Ho +rn
cnennanncrt nyxnt ne rontxo nx roro, urot esyxopnsnenno ntnonnxrt cnon oxsannocrn, no
n nx roro, urot ncx pnraa ocrnrana nannyumnx pesyntraron. nx +roro neoxonmo, urot
nn ono ecrnne ne nponannnoct n menn mexy npo]eccnxmn n urot ncx xomana
ocrananact xonnexrnnom axe npn nosnnxnonennn ouent cnoxntx cnryann.
Pantme x cunran, uro ocrnxenne raxoro yponnx xonnexrnnnsma npocro yaua. Hnora
nam yananoct npononrt cnoxnte onepannn, xora nce paorann, ne xanex cex, n ecrnonann
xax ennoe nenoe. Homnnrcx, y menx tn 80-nernn nannenr, xoropomy norpeonanact cpounax
onepannx. 3a neenm o +roro emy cenann onepannm na cepne, nocne xoropo on tcrpo
noccranannnnancx. Ho onaxt noutm ontno nouyncrnonan ocrpym ont n xnnore, xoropax x
yrpy crana npocro nentnocnmo. Menx nonpocnnn ero npoxoncyntrnponart. Hepeo mno
oxasancx nexamn n npocrpannn uenonex. Hyntc tn npnmepno 100 yapon n mnnyry n ouent
neponnt. Kponxnoe annenne naano. nomynan ero xnnor, n ontno uyrt ne ntnptrnyn ns
xponarn, nouyncrnonan npn moem naxarnn cnntnemym ont.
On nonnman, uro c nnm uro-ro cnyunnoct. Cosnanne ero ne tno sarymaneno, n myxunna
conepmenno ne ncntrtnan crpaxa.
uro mt onxnt enart? cnpocnn on cxnost crncnyrte syt.
ornernn, uro, no moemy mnennm, n ero pmmnym aopry nonan rpom. 3ro noxoxe na
nncyntr, rontxo nopaxaercx ne mosr, a oprant pmmno nonocrn. Hpn napymennom
xponoopamennn n ne naunnaercx ranrpena n nponcxonr pasptn xnmeunnxa. Fes
xnpyprnuecxoro nmemarentcrna cnacrn ontnoro n +rom cnyuae nenosmoxno. Hpnmepno nononnna
nannenron nocne onepannn ntxnnamr, n ecnn axe mo ontno nonaaer n nx uncno, ro nyxno
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 52
oxnart xaxnx-nnyt ocnoxnenn. Moxer norpeonartcx nenrnnxnnx nerxnx nnn
ncxyccrnennoe xopmnenne. Kpome roro, myxunna rontxo uro nepenec ceptesnym onepannm, tn
cna n anexo ne mn.
cnpocnn, xouer nn on onepnponartcx. Fontno ornernn a, no cxasan, uro cnauana x
onxen noronopnrt c ero xeno n ctnom. nosnonnn nm no rene]ony. Onn roxe cornacnnnct, n
rora x nosnonnn n xnpyprnuecxoe orenenne n oxcnnn cnryannm. Mne nemenenno
rpeonannct onepannonnax n xnpyprnuecxax pnraa. roron tn onepnponart re yrono n c
xem yrono.
Onepannonnym nam npeocrannnn n reuenne uaca, n xora nce copannct n nsxnnct sa
paory, noxnnnoct omymenne roro, uro na monx rnasax ]opmnpyercx nacroxmn xonnexrnn.
exypnt mepar xe npecrannncx ontnomy n xparxo oxcnnn xaxomy, uro nyxno
enart. Crnn, onepannonnt mepar, tn yxe n xanare n nepuarxax. Crapmn anecresnonor Xn
n ero accncrenr Top ocyxann mexy coo nnan onepannn n roronnnn coornercrnymmne
nexapcrna n nncrpymenr. Xoaxnm, accncrenr xnpypra, croxn oxono xarerepa-annona uonex n
nonno roronnocrn nnecrn ero n moueno nystpt ontnoro, xax rontxo ror sacner.
Bpemx paorano npornn nac. uem ontme ero nam rpeonanoct, rem ontmax uacrt
pmmnnt morna ormepert. uem ontme pmmnnt oromper, rem n onee cnoxnom nonoxennn
oxaxercx nannenr n rem mentme y nero mancon ntxnrt. 3ro nonnmann nce npncyrcrnymmne n
snann, uro nce pemnr cnyua. Hmn ne ncera ocosnamr nce rxxecrn cocroxnnx ontnoro, no n
+ror pas unent xnpyprnuecxo pnrat nponnxnnct cnoxnocrtm momenra. Onn paorann
tcrpo, meronuno n cornaconanno. Cnyua ecrnnrentno oxasancx anexo ne npocrtm, no y nac
noxnnnoct omymenne, uro nnuro nam nomemart ne cmoxer.
Fontno tn opontm uenonexom c xoporxo mee n nepasnnrtmn nerxnmn. Kora on
ycnyn, Xn c rpyom ncrannn emy txarentnym rpyxy. On nonpemx npeynpenn nac o rom, uro
nce npoer ne ouent rnaxo, no+romy xaxt tn roron x peannsannn sanacnoro nnana.
Harorone nexann nncrpymenrt, xoropte mornn norpeonartcx Xn n Topy. Kora Xoaxnm n x
nponsnenn ncxptrne, ro ynnenn, uro nocxoxmax ooounax xnmxa nouepnena or ranrpent ona
ormepna, no npooennx ne tno. ne rpern roncro xnmxn n ronxax xnmxa oxasannct n nopme.
Camo no cee +ro yxe tno nennoxo. V nponemt noxnnnnct rpannnt. Ho xora mt crann
yanxrt nocxoxmym xnmxy, oxasanoct, uro ocrantnax uacrt roncro xnmxn roxe nopaxena.
Tam, re ona onxna trt soponoro posonoro nnera, nnnennct remnte cnnmmnte nxrna.
Tpomt, xoropte sanoxnponann npnrox xponn uepes pmmnym aprepnm, nponnxnn n n menxne
cocyt, nymne x nncxoxme xnmxe. Mt ntnyxent tnn yannrt ncm roncrym xnmxy
nannenra a +ro 1 m 20 cm xnmeunnxa. Mt ntnenn cromy
8
napyxy n saxpennnn naxer nx
ntneennx coepxnmoro xnmeunnxa. Crnn sapanee npeynpenn xex, urot ror nmen narorone
perpaxrop, xoropt nam mor nonaonrtcx. Xoaxnm namexnyn mne, urot x cenan paspes
pmmno crenxn mnpe, n nocroxnno naxonncx pxom co mno, paorax c saxnmamn, orpesax n
sanxstnax nce, uro nyxno, no mepe roro xax nponnranact nama paora na cocyamn noxpyr
xnmeunnxa. Hsxsnnennx ontnoro xponorounnn, nocxontxy roxcnnt, opasymmnecx npn
ranrpene, memann cneprtnannm xponn. Ho Xn n Top nnonnn ocrarounoe xonnuecrno
]nspacrnopa, n annenne y ontnoro yxe tno nemnoro ntme, uem n nauane onepannn. Kora x
oparnn na +ro nnnmanne, ro nmen n nny, uro norpeyercx peannmannx. Xn ryr xe ornernn, uro
yxe o +rom nosaornncx n an coornercrnymmne nncrpyxnnn peannmaronory.

8
Croma (nar. stoma , mnox. stomata ) n xnpyprnn ncxyccrnennoe ornepcrne, cosammee coomenne mexy
nonocrtm nmoro oprana (nanpnmep, xnmeunnxa, rpaxen) n oxpyxamme cpeo. Hpu+. peo.

A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 53
Hocxontxy mt paorann xax ennt xonnexrnn, a ne xax orentnte cnennanncrt, myxunna
ntxnn. Ha onepannm nam norpeonanoct uyrt onee nyx uacon. Bce noxasarenn ontnoro tnn
cranntntmn, n necxontxo ne cnycrx on ntnncancx ns ontnnnt. Ero cemtx nonaroapnna
menx, no x ne mor npnnxrt ee naroapnocrn, net mt nce cpaorann npexpacno. Onepannx
ontme noxonna na cnm]onnm; mt ctrpann xpacnnym nemt, xoropax tna no cnny rontxo
opxecrpy.
mor t cxasart, uro +ro npoxnnenne xonnexrnnnsma mox sacnyra. Ho peantnte ero
npnunnt rax n ocramrcx nx menx saraxo. Hycrt +ro yer cnyuantm creuennem
ocroxrentcrn, npn xoroptx nce, xro tn na ror momenr cnooen, cmornn oennnrtcx c
nomomtm xaxo-ro nnyrpenne xnmnn. Xorx x uacro onepnponan c Xn, mne mecxnamn ne
npnxonnoct ncrpeuartcx c xeem n Crnnom, a Xoaxnma x nnen n roro pexe. B raxom cocrane
mt nnxora nmecre o +roro ne onepnponann. Ananornunte cnryannn ncrpeuamrcx onontno
uacro n xpynntx xnnnnxax. B moe ontnnne 42 onepannonnte, n xoroptx paoramr onee 1000
uenonex. V nac nocroxnno menxercx mrar mececrep, rexnnxon, accncrenron n repanenron. Hourn
nocroxnno n xaxo pnrae noxnnxercx nont uenonex. B pesyntrare yponent xonnexrnnnsma,
or xoroporo, uro nn ronopn, sanncnr ycnex n xnpyprnn, sapanee onpeennrt nenosmoxno. Onaxo
c camoro nepnoro momenra, xax rontxo nama mecrepxa crana paorart c +rnm ontntm, nce nomno
ncxnmunrentno rnaxo.
3ro noxoxe na camoe nacroxmee nesenne. Ho npenonoxnm, uro +ro ne rax. Hmenno na
raxym nosmoxnocrt yxastnamr uex-nncrt ns rocnnrane n Toponro, xonca Xonxnnca, a raxxe
nxoxmnx n cncremy Kaiser. Hmemmeecx n nnx rpeonanne, urot nce corpynnxn ocyxann
mexy coo xaxt orentnt cnyua xorx t sa mnnyry o nauana onepannn, xnnxercx ne uem
nntm, xax crparerne no ocrnxennm xonnexrnnnsma n paore. B uex-nncrax tn peannsonan
eme onn nynxr, c xoroptm x pantme ne cranxnnancx, ncx xnpyprnuecxax pnraa onxna tna
ornoxnrt na npemx nce ena n ysnart, xax sonyr xaxoro, xro yer yuacrnonart n onepannn.
B uex-nncre, xoropt npnmenxncx n rocnnrane xonca Xonxnnca, +ror nynxr tn nsnoxen
nanonee uerxo. o roro xax nauart onepannm n nono pnrae, n coornercrnnn c uex-nncrom
xaxt tn oxsan npecrannrtcx n nasnart, xaxym ]ynxnnm on ntnonnxer n +ro pnrae.
Menx sonyr Aryn Ianane, x neymn xnpypr; Menx sonyr xe Hay+pc, x xnpyprnuecxn
mepar; Menx sonyr Xn Cnon, x anecresnonor. Hpnmepno rax.
Mne +ro xasanoct nemnoro neecrecrnenntm, n x xoren nonxrt, mnoro nn cmtcna n raxo
nponeype. Ho oxasanoct, uro +ro rpeonanne nosnnxno conepmenno ne cnyuano. Hponeennte n
pasnnuntx onacrxx ncnxonornuecxne nccneonannx rontxo nornepnnn ro, uro n rax nexano na
nonepxnocrn: nmn, xoropte ne snamr pyr pyra no nmenn, ne moryr paorart cnaxenno.
Ho+romy Fpaan Cexcron, ncnxonor ns Vnnnepcnrera xonca Xonxnnca, noxasan, uro n xnpyprnn
nponcxonr ro xe camoe. Cexcron n ero corpynnxn oparnnnct x xnpyprnuecxnm pnraam na
ntxoe ns onepannonno ncero c nymx nonpocamn: Kax nt onennnaere yponent xommynnxannn
no npemx rontxo uro sanepmenno onepannn? n Kax sonyr ocrantntx unenon xomant?.
Oxasanoct, uro n nononnne cnyuaen nmn ne snann pyr pyra no nmenam. Ecnn onn snaxomnnnct,
ro yponent xommynnxannn no npemx onepannn snaunrentno nontmancx.
Hccneonarenn ns Vnnnepcnrera xonca Xonxnnca n pyrnx yupexenn raxxe
onapyxnnn, uro xora mececrpam amr nosmoxnocrt npecrannrtcx n saart cnon nonpoct o
nauana onepannn, ro onn uame onapyxnnamr nponemt n npenaramr nx pemenne. Vuente
nasnann +ro npoxnnenne axrnnnocrn. Ecnn y uenonexa n camom nauane ecrt nosmoxnocrt
osnyunrt cnom rouxy spennx, ro on axrnnnsnpyercx, nontmamrcx ero ornercrnennocrt n xenanne
ntcxasartcx.
Bce +rn nccneonannx nocnnn orpannuennt xapaxrep n crarncrnuecxn tnn
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 54
neyenrentnt. Tem ne menee npenapnrentnte pesyntrart ntrnxenn mnorooemammnmn. o
+roro nnxro ne onapyxnnan, uro xpome ontra n ysxo cnennannsannn n xnpyprnn ecrt n pyrne
cnocot nserart ocnoxnenn. H nor n rpex ropoax nesanncnmo pyr or pyra rpynnt yuentx
npnmennnn neotunte uex-nncrt, xoropte npnnenn x nonoxnrentntm pesyntraram.
B Vnnnepcnrere xonca Xonxnnca nccneonarenn cnennantno nponepxnn nnnxnne
uex-nncron na cnaxennocrt paort xnpyprnuecxnx pnra. Xenanne ncnontsonart nx n cnoe
paore ntpasnnn 11 xnpypron cemt xnpypron ome npaxrnxn, na nnacrnuecxnx xnpypra n na
nepoxnpypra. uepes rpn mecxna xonnuecrno unenon nx pnra, cunranmnx, uro onn paoramr
xax ouent cnaxennax xomana, ynennunnoct c 68 o 92 %.
B ontnnnax cncremt Kaiser n Rxno Kann]opnnn nccneonarenn nponepxnn cnon
uex-nncrt n reuenne mecrn mecxnen no npemx xaxo ns 3500 ntnonnenntx onepann. 3a +rn
nonroa onenxa cnaxennocrn paort n xonnexrnnax nontcnnact c xopome o ntammecx.
Vonnernopennocrt corpynnxon paoro nonxnact na 19 %, a rexyuecrt mnamero nepconana n
onepannonntx (r. e. xonnuecrno exerono ynontnxnmnxcx no cocrnennomy xenannm)
coxparnnact c 23 o 7 %. Kpome roro, uex-nncrt nosnonxnn ntxnnxrt ecrnnx, rpannuamne c
omnountmn. B onom cnyuae ocyxenne, npemecrnonanmee onepannn, nosnonnno
onapyxnrt cpen amnyn c anrnnornxamn amnyny c xnopnom narpnx. Ecnn t raxoe nexapcrno
ncnontsonann, +ro morno t npnnecrn x nerantnomy ncxoy. Ftn eme onn cnyua, xora
uex-nncr nosnonnn ntxnnrt omnxy n oxymenrax. Fontnoro ocrannnn xxot nx ropaxoromnn,
npn xoropo nponsnonrcx ncxptrne nnenpantno nonocrn uepes rpynym xnerxy, rora xax na
camom ene nannenr nyxancx ncero nnmt n ropaxocxonnn, r. e. nneocxonnuecxo nponeype,
npn xoropo ntnonnxercx nnmt neontmo paspes.
B Toponro nccneonarenn camn nanmann sa onepannxmn, urot onpeennrt
+]]exrnnnocrt ncnontsonannx uex-nncron. Onn nponepxnn nx npnmenenne rontxo no npemx 18
xnpyprnuecxnx nmemarentcrn, no n 10 ns nnx uex-nncrt nosnonnnn onapyxnrt snaunrentnte
nponemt nnn neopaorxn. B onom cnyuae ontnomy ne nnenn anrnnornxn, a n pyrom ne
tno ynepennocrn n nannunn sanaca xponn. Eme n necxontxnx +nnsoax npaun ne yunn nexoropte
ocoennocrn ontntx, xoropte, xax mne xasanoct, uex-nncrt ntxnnrt ne moryr.
Vuente coomann o onom cnyuae, xora nponsnonnact aomnnantnax onepannx npn
cnnnantno anecresnn. Hpn raxnx nponeypax ontno onxen coomart o noxnnennn axe
nesnaunrentno onn, osnauamme neoxonmocrt nneennx ononnnrentntx oesonnnammnx.
Onaxo xonxperno +ror nannenr crpaan or nenponornuecxoro saonenannx n ne mor ronopnrt.
Omancx on c nomomtm xecron. Otuno pyxn nannenron ]nxcnpymr, urot onn cnyuano ne
xocnynnct crepnntntx can]erox, xnpypra nnn onepannonnoro nonx, onaxo n annom
xonxpernom cnyuae cranaprnax nponeypa morna npnnecrn x ceptesno nponeme, pasopartcx c
xoropo pnrae yanoct rontxo nepe camtm xnpyprnuecxnm nmemarentcrnom. 3ro nponsomno
rora, xora xnpypr nomen n onepannonnym, naen xanar n nepuarxn n noomen x
onepannonnomy crony. Fnaroapx uex-nncry on ne cpasy nsxncx sa nanner, a cnauana ocynn c
npncyrcrnymmnmn nnan onepannn. B oruere ns Toponro npnnonrcx sannct +roro pasronopa.
Xnpypr cnpocnn, ecrt nn xaxne-nnyt ocoennocrn anecresnn. Anecresnonor ornernn, uro
rontxo nsaprpnx ontnoro, nmex n nny ero necnoconocrt pasronapnnart. Xnpypr nexoropoe
npemx noyman, a norom cxasan, uro +ro moxer nomemart nponepxe nenponornuecxo ]ynxnnn
nannenra. Anecresnonor c nnm cornacnncx n oannn, uro on yxe oronopnncx c ontntm o rom,
uro ror yer noanart cnrnant c nomomtm pyx. Xnpypr pemnn nx ne ]nxcnponart, n
anecresnonor cornacno xnnnyn ronono. Fpnraa npnymana, xax ocrannrt pyxn nannenra
cnoontmn, no ne nosnonnrt emy npnxacartcx x crepnntntm can]erxamn nnn sanesart no nnx
pyxamn.
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 55
Anecresnonor cxasan, uro eme ero saornr xonnuecrno nme n onepannonno, nocxontxy
mym n xoxenne moryr nomemart omennm c nannenrom. Xnpypr n orner norpeonan or ncex
rnmnnt, n nponema ncuesna.
Hn ono ns +rnx nccneonann ne tno ocrarouno nonntm, urot yenrt, uro c
nomomtm xnpyprnuecxnx uex-nncron moxno ocrnut ro nenn, xoropym crannna BO3: onrtcx
nsmepnmoro, neopororo n snaunrentnoro coxpamennx omero uncna xnpyprnuecxnx
ocnoxnenn. Tem ne menee x xonny xenencxo xon]epennnn mt oronopnnnct, uro uex-nncrt,
nomorammne nontcnrt esonacnocrt xnpyprnuecxoro nmemarentcrna, cronr nporecrnponart xax
moxno onee mnpoxo.
Paouax rpynna nonyunna pasnnunte napnanrt uex-nncron c nentm cnecrn nx x onomy. B
oomennom nncre tno rpn, xax nx nastnamr n annannn, nayst, no npemx xoroptx
xnpyprnuecxax pnraa onxna ocranonnrtcx n nponecrn rpeyemym uex-nncrom nponepxy, nocne
uero npoonxnrt paory. Ona naysa tna nepe rem, xax ontnomy ayr napxos, nropax nocne
anecresnn, no o roro, xax xnpypr cenaer napes, n rpertx n xonne onepannn, npexe uem
nannenra ntnesyr ns onepannonno. unent paoue rpynnt pasennnn mnoxecrno recron na
anneprnm, anrnnornxn, nponepxy paort oopyonannx nx anecresnn n r. n. no rpynnam c
yuerom nays, a xpome roro, oannnn ononnnrentnte nnt nponepox, xoropte, no nx mnennm,
mornn ynyumnrt neuenne ontntx. Onn npeycmorpenn nosmoxnocrt ocyxennx, no npemx
xoroporo xaxt unen pnrat, naxoxmncx n onepannonno, onxen omartcx co cnonmn
xonneramn n nonnmart, uro ero mnenne roxe yunrtnaercx npn ocyxennn naxnemnx momenron
nnana onepannn n nosmoxntx nponem.
Mt npnnxnn pemenne nponecrn nnnornoe nccneonanne uex-nncron, oecneunnammnx
esonacnocrt onepann n ontnnnax pasntx crpan mnpa, xoroptm BO3 ntennna cpecrna na
raxo +xcnepnmenr. orneccx x +romy c nocroprom n +nrysnasmom. Kora x nepnyncx omo n
Focron, ro ryr xe npncrynnn x onpoonannm uex-nncron n cnoe onepannonno. paccxasan
mececrpam n anecresnonoram o rom, uro mne crano nsnecrno n Xenene.
A ne nonpoonart nn nam nnepnrt +rn uex-nncrt? npenoxnn x, nocxontxy onn
oecneunnamr xonrpont ncero or nponepxn oopyonannx n nneennx anrnnornxon o
oxsarentnoro ocyxennx paounx nonpocon.
Mon xonnern cnauana ouent ynnnnnct, a norom cornacno saxnnann rononamn, n x oxasancx
saunnarenem eme onoro +xcnepnmenra.
nepean uex-nncr xnpyprnuecxo cecrpe n n nonpocnn ee nmecre c namn n nyxnoe npemx
ocymecrnnrt nponepxy n coornercrnnn c nepntm pasenom. uerneprt uaca cnycrx mt onxnt
tnn art ontnomy omn napxos, n n +ror momenr x nanomnnn o uex-nncre.
yxe nce nponepnna, ornernna n n noxasana mne ymaxxy.
Bce nynxrt n ne tnn ormeuent xax ntnonnennte.
e nospasnn:
3ro onxna trt ne ymaxxa, a ycrnax xonnexrnnnax nponepxa.
A re o +rom ronopnrcx? cnpocnna ona.
nponepnn, n ecrnnrentno, o +rom n uex-nncre ne tno nn cnona.
Bce panno, ana nponeem ycrnym nponepxy, nacrannan x.
n noxana nneuamn n crana saunrtnart uex-nncr. Onaxo nexoropte nnt nponepxn tnn
nponncant ouent neuerxo. Ftno nenonxrno, nyxno nn e nornepnrt ro, uro nce pnrae
nsnecrno o anneprnuecxnx peaxnnxx ontnoro, nnn ro, uro y nero raxne peaxnnn ecrt. C xaxo
mnnyro name neoymenne rontxo pocno, n axe nannenr cran epsart na onepannonnom crone.
Bce n nopxxe? cnpocnna n, n x ornernn yrnepnrentno, noconeronan e ne
nonnonartcx.
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 56
Ho moe nerepnenne roxe pocno. uex-nncr oxasancx cnnmxom nnnntm n nennxrno
nanncanntm. Hocne onpeenennoro nynxra nosnnxno omymenne, uro mt concem satnn o
nexamem na crone ontnom.
K xonny nx mt nepecrann nontsonartcx uex-nncrom. 3ra nex ne cpaorana ne rontxo n
nenom mnpe, no n n ono orentno nsxro onepannonno.

Fnana 6
Oapuka uek-nuc1on

Cnycrx nexoropoe npemx nocne +ro neyauno nontrxn x cenan ro, uro onxen tn
cenart c camoro nauana: ornpannncx n nnnorexy n namen necxontxo crare o rom, xax
paspaartnamrcx uex-nncrt n annannn. Onn ncnontsonannct npn ocymecrnnennn npoexron,
otuno rpeymmnx mecxnt paort, n coornercrnonann macmraam saaun. B xnpyprnn snauenne
nmenn axe mnnyrt. Hponema npemenn xasanact cymecrnenntm npenxrcrnnem. Onaxo n
annannn ]axrop npemenn roxe nmen snauenne n pemancx c nomomtm uex-nncron, paspaoranntx
nx nerunxon.
Cpen crare, xoropte x namen, ona npnnanexana nepy ann+nx Fypmana, paoranmero n
Cn+rne, mrar Bamnnrron, na xomnannm Boeing. emy nosnonnn. On oxasancx
nerunxom-nerepanom, xoropt nocnenne na ecxrnnernx paspaartnan uex-nncrt nx nnnoron
n npnopnte nanenn nx ncex camoneron xomnannn Boeing, naunnax c moenn 747400. Concem
neanno Fypman tn onnm ns rexnnuecxnx pyxononrene rpynnt, npoexrnponanme
npnopnym nanent camonera moenn 787 Dreamliner, nxnmuax cncremt ynpannennx nonerom n
oropaxennx nn]opmannn, a raxxe uex-nncrt. On tn onnm ns xpannrene roro, uro moxno
nasnart nerno ]nnoco]ne Boeing. Bnyrpn nmoro camonera xomnannn Boeing nonnomaercx
nexax reopnx, n coornercrnnn c xoropo +xnnax ero nnnornpyer. Ona nopasymenaer nepeuent
nponeyp, xoropte nerunxn ntnonnxmr npyunym; onepannn, xoropte onn onepxmr
xomntmrepam, a raxxe peaxnnm nnnoron na upesntuante cnryannn. Bpx nn naercx
xro-nnyt, xro nyume +na Fypmana moxer nonnornrt +ry reopnm n npaxrnxy. On npxmo
noromox rex nerunxon, xoropte nnepnte paspaorann uex-nncrt nx omapnponmnxa B-17 rpn
uerneprn nexa nasa. 3a onrym cnyxy Fypman yuacrnonan n paccneonannn rtcxu anapn nnn
upesntuantx cnryann n paspaoran reopnm npeornpamennx omnox nnnoron.
On nmesno cornacnncx co mno ncrpernrtcx, no+romy onnm ocennnm nem x yxe exan n
apenonanno mamnne no mocce cpen none n mra-xnaprnpy xomnannn Boeing,
pacnonoxennym n npnropoe Cn+rna. 3ro tn xnapran, cocroxmn ns otuntx npnsemncrtx
npxmoyrontntx o]ncntx sann, uem-ro nanomnnammnx cryenuecxn ropoox ne ouent
oraroro ynnnepcnrera, ecnn ne cunrart nernoro nonx n anrapon sa nnm. Fypman ncrpernn menx na
nocry oxpant. On oxasancx no-noennomy norxnyrtm 51-nernnm uenonexom; na nem tnn
cnoprnnnoro noxpox pmxn n oxc]opcxax pyamxa c ornoxntm nopornnxom. B raxom nne
Fypman ontme noxonn na npo]eccopa rexnnuecxoro nysa, uem na corpynnxa xomnannn. Mt
onro mnn no eronno opoxxe x sannm 3-800, xoropoe tno raxnm xe npocrtm n
]ynxnnonantntm, xax n ero nasnanne. K ntntno nnrpnne, re tnn ntcrannent noxenrenmne
]ororpa]nn nerunxon n cepepncrtx nerntx xomnnesonax, noxoxe, nnxro ne npnxacancx c
1960-x rr. Oren nerntx ncntrann ocnemancx ]nyopecnenrntmn namnamn n tn sacrannen
cepo-ronytmn xynxamn. Mt cenn na na ns nnx nocpen xon]epenn-sana es oxon. V crent
nexann cronxn cnpanounnxon c uex-nncramn US Airways, Delta, United n pyrnx annaxomnann.
Fypman noxasan mne onn ns cnpanounnxon. 3ro tn cxpennennt cnnpantm npnmepno
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 57
200-crpannunt xypnan c ontmnm xonnuecrnom xenrtx saxnaox. uex-nncr, ncnontsyemt n
annannn, nperepnen snaunrentnte nsmenennx c rex nop, xax noxnnncx neontmo nepeuent,
xacammncx pynennx, nsnera n npnsemnennx. H mne ocranoct rontxo raart, ecrnnrentno nn
ceronx nerunxn nontsymrcx raxnmn orpomntmn pyxonocrnamn. Ho, npoonxax nncrart
xypnan, x nonxn, uro n nem coepxnrcx ne onn, a nenoe mnoxecrno uex-nncron. Kaxt ns nnx,
xacanmncx orentno cnryannn, tn na ynnnenne xparxnm n cocroxn ncero ns necxontxnx
crpox, naneuaranntx xpynntm, nerxo unraemtm mpn]rom. Ho copannte nmecre uex-nncrt
oxnartnann orpomnoe xonnuecrno nerntx cnenapnen.
Cnauana mnn uex-nncrt, xoropte nerunxn nastnamr nopmantntmn, nnn cranaprntmn,
+ro pyrnnnte nponepxn, exenenno ncnontsyemte npn nnnornponannn nosymntx cyon. Ftnn
nponepxn, xoropte nyxno npononrt nepe sanycxom nnrarene, nepe orxoom camonera or
renerpana, o ntpynnnannx na nsnernym nonocy n r. n. B nenom +rn uex-nncrt sannmann ncero
rpn crpannnt. Ocrantnax uacrt pyxonocrna cocroxna ns nenopmantntx uex-nncron,
oxnartnammnx nce mtcnnmte upesntuante cnryannn, n xoropte moxer nonacrt nnnor:
satmnenne xannt, nxnmuenne pasnnuntx anapnntx cnrnanon, optn panocnxsn, ntxo ns
crpox anronnnora, orxas nnrarene n mnoroe pyroe. B pyxonocrne paccmarpnnamrcx cnryannn,
c xoroptmn nerunx moxer nn pasy ne cronxnyrtcx sa ncm xaptepy. Onaxo uex-nncrt
cymecrnonann na cnyua neoxonmocrn.
Fypman noxasan mne uex-nncr, paspaorannt nx roro, urot nnnor snan, uro enart,
xora no npemx nonera saropaercx namnouxa, ononemammax o nennorno saxptro nepn
nepenero rpysonoro orcexa. Taxax cnryannx ncxnmunrentno onacna. On paccxasan mne, xax n
1989 r. nosnnxna nmenno +ra nponema. Koporxoe samtxanne npnneno x romy, uro y Boeing-747
orxptncx samox na nepn rpysonoro orcexa, xora camoner xomnannn United Airlines ntnonnxn
pec ns Iononyny n nonosenancxn Oxnen, nmex 337 naccaxnpon na opry. Camoner napan
ntcory onee 7000 m. Ha raxo ntcore nennorno saxptrax nept rpysonoro orcexa npecrannxer
coo ouent ontmym onacnocrt. Ecnn ona orxpoercx cnntnee, ro nponsoer yreuxa nosyxa, n
pasnnna mexy annennem nnyrpn n cnapyxn camonera npnneer x romy, uro tnaer c xptmxo
yrtnxn c rasnponanno noo, ecnn ee cnntno norpxcrn. Ha pece ns Iononyny nept nmxa
ntpnano nourn cpasy. Bmecre c ne ntnerenn necxontxo nnnmmnnaropon nepxne nanyt n nxrt
pxon xpecen n nsnec-xnacce. B mope ntnano enxrt naccaxnpon. Ocrantntx cnacnn pemnn
esonacnocrn. Ony ns crmapecc uyrt ne ntpocnno ns camonera, no ee nonpemx cxnarnn sa
notxxy onn ns naccaxnpon n npnsemnnn n necxontxnx canrnmerpax or nosnnxme tpt.
V +xnnaxa ne tno npemenn, urot npeynpenrt xaracrpo]y. C momenra pasrepmernsannn
n o momenra, xora nornnn enxrt naccaxnpon, npomno ncero nonropt cexynt. Hocne +roro
cnyuax xomnannx Boeing cnpoexrnponana nonym +nexrpnuecxym cncremy nx rpysontx nmxon,
no, nocxontxy nn onn samox ne moxer paorart esorxasno, tno ycranonneno eme necxontxo
sanacntx. Hpn ntxoe ns crpox xorx t onoro samxa saropaercx namnouxa, cnrnannsnpymmax o
norepe nmxom repmernunocrn, n y +xnnaxa ocraercx ontme npemenn, urot cpearnponart na
cnryannm. Hnaue ronopx, y nerunxon noxnnnact nosmoxnocrt npeornparnrt anapnm. Hmenno
nx raxo cnryannn npeycmorpen uex-nncr.
Kora samox ntxonr ns crpox, noxcnxer Fypman, +xnnax ne onxen sannmartcx
neptm nnn naexrtcx na ro, uro pyrne samxn ne noneyr. Or nerunxon rpeyercx ntponnxrt
nnyrpennee n saoprnoe annenne. uem nnxe ono yer n canone, rem mentme nepoxrnocrt roro,
uro nmx ntpner napyxy.
B camonerax npeycmorpen npocro cnoco cnnxennx annennx sa 30 cexyn c nomomtm
anapnnoro ptuara. Tem ne menee +ro ocrarouno nponemarnunoe pemenne. Bo-nepntx, pesxoe
naenne annennx n canone nenaronpnxrno cxastnaercx na naccaxnpax. V nnx noxnnxercx ont n
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 58
ymax. Xyxe ncero mnaennam, y xoroptx encraxnena rpya eme neopasnnra n ne moxer
aanrnponartcx x nsmenennm annennx. Bo-nroptx, pasrepmernsannx camonera na ntcore or 6000
o 9000 m pannocnntna romy, xax ecnn t naccaxnpt cpasy oxasannct na nepmnne 3nepecra: n
nosyxe cnnmxom mano xncnopoa nx roro, urot reno n mosr uenonexa ]ynxnnonnponann
nopmantno.
3ror pec xomnannn United Airlines co nce xcnocrtm noxasan, uro moxer cnyunrtcx npn
pasrepmernsannn nepn rpysonoro nmxa. Hocne roro xax annenne ntponnxnoct, +xnnax n
naccaxnpt cronxnynnct eme c ono nponemo nexnarxo xncnopoa. Onacnocrt trt
nrxnyrtmn n opasonanmymcx tpy pasmepom 3 4,5 m mnnonana. Bce tnn n cocroxnnn
oronnnyrtcx or nee na necxontxo merpon. Onaxo remneparypa n canone pesxo ynana, a npn
nexnarxe xncnopoa nosnnxaer yrposa norepn cosnannx. B canone n xanne nnnoron cpaartnamr
arunxn, n ntnaamr xncnoponte macxn. Onaxo noaua nosyxa na camonerax paccunrana
ncero na ecxrt mnnyr. Fonee roro, xncnopo moxer ne noanartcx, xax +ro cnyunnoct no npemx
roro snocuacrnoro peca.
Foprono camonncen coxpannn neperonopt +xnnaxa nocne roro, xax ntpnano nept nmxa.

HEPBIH HHHOT: uro +ro tno?
BTOPOH HHHOT: He snam.

Herunxn coomnnn ncneruepam, uro na camonere uro-ro ne n nopxxe. uepes ne cexynt
annenne n xanne n yponent xncnopoa nonnsnnnct.

BTOPOH HHHOT: en, naent macxy!
HEPBIH HHHOT: Haenam.
BTOPOH HHHOT: Henrp ynpannennx noneramn Iononyny, nt xornre, urot mt ornepnynn
nneno?
PAHO: Henrp ynpannennx noneramn, nornepxam!
BTOPOH HHHOT: Haunnaem pasnopor.
HEPBIH HHHOT: Kncnopoa ner.
FOPTHHXEHEP: uro x onxen cenart?
uEH-TO IOHOC: [Henensypnax pant.]
BTOPOH HHHOT: Tt n nopxxe?
HEPBIH HHHOT: a.
BTOPOH HHHOT: K ree nocrynaer xncnopo? V nac noome ner xncnopoa.
FOPTHHXEHEP: V menx roxe ner xncnopoa.

Kax noxasano paccneonanne, no npemx nsptnno pasrepmernsannn nonpennnct rpyxn
noaun xncnopoa. Tontxo no cuacrnnno cnyuanocrn +xnnaxy yanoct cnnsnrt camoner o
ntcort c ocrarountm coepxannem xncnopoa, a sarem nnont nsxrt xypc na Iononyny. Bce 18
unenon +xnnaxa n 328 ocranmnxcx n xnntx naccaxnpon narononyuno npnsemnnnnct.
Vpox nx nnnoron oxasancx nonce neonosnauntm. Ecnn camoner nernr na ntcore 9000 m n
saropaercx namnouxa pasrepmernsannn nepn rpysonoro orcexa, ro pemenne ntponnxrt annenne
nnyrpn n cnapyxn camonera npannntnoe, no npn +rom ocrannxrt +xnnax n naccaxnpon es
xncnopoa nectma nexenarentno. Bmecro +roro, xax noxcnnn Fypman, nyume tcrpo, no ne repxx
xonrponx na nonerom, cnycrnrtcx o ntcort npnmepno 2450 xm. 3ect yxe moxno esonacno
ntnycrnrt ns camonera nnmnn nosyx, nocxontxy coepxannx n nem xncnopoa yxe ocrarouno
nx txannx. (K npnmepy, +ro ntcora, na xoropo naxonrcx ropo Acnen n mrare Konopao.) K
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 59
romy xe ntptnannx nepn, xoropoe nponsomno n camonere United Airlines, ne nponsoer.
B uex-nncre na cnyua pasrepmernsannn rpysonoro nmxa xax pas npeycmorpent raxne
mept. Fypman paccxasan, xax rmarentno onn npopaorant nx roro, urot +xnnax mor nmn
nocnontsonartcx n anapnno cnryannn. Bce uex-nncrt xomnannn Boeing, a raxnx ona ntnycxaer
o 100 mryx n ro, rmarentno cnoxrcx n ennoe nenoe. Ipynna oecneuennx noneron no
pyxonocrnom Fypmana nacroxmax ]apnxa no nponsnocrny uex-nncron, n paorammne n ne
+xcneprt ro sa room naxannnnann ontr, urot cenart nx +]]exrnnntmn.
Ho mnennm Fypmana, ecrt xopomne uex-nncrt n nnoxne. Hnoxne nanncant pacnntnuaro n
nerouno. Onn cnnmxom nnnnt, nx rpyno npnmenxrt, n nontst or nnx mano. Hx paspaartnamr
xannernte paornnxn, xoropte nonxrnx ne nmemr o rex cnryannxx, n xoroptx +rn uex-nncrt
nyxno npnmenxrt. Onn paccmarpnnamr yymnx nontsonarene xax ne ouent ymntx nme,
xoroptm nyxno nce pacronxontnart. Taxne paspaorunxn ne crontxo axrnnnponann nnrennexr
+xnnaxa, cxontxo nonnocrtm ero orxnmuann.
Xopomne uex-nncrt, naoopor, ornnuamrcx ontmo rounocrtm. Onn +]]exrnnnt,
xonxpernt n npocrt n ncnontsonannn axe n cnoxno cnryannn. B nnx ne enaercx nontrxa
nepeuncnnrt nce uex-nncrt ne ymemr nnnornponart camoner. B nnx nepeuncnxmrcx rontxo
nanonee naxnte ecrnnx, xoropte moxer nponycrnrt axe ontrnt nnnor. Xopomne
uex-nncrt npexe ncero ornnuamrcx npaxrnunocrtm.
Kax nouepxnyn Fypman, ]ynxnnonantnocrt uex-nncron orpannuena. Onn moryr nanomnnrt
+xcnepram o rom, xax ynpannxrt cnoxntm nponeccom nnn nacrponrt cnoxnym mamnny,
nosnonnrt uerue pacnpeennrt npnopnrert n crnmynnponart xonnexrnnnte ecrnnx nme. Ho
camn no cee uex-nncrt ne moryr nnxoro npnnynrt x nx ntnonnennm.
, nanpnmep, ne mory cee npecrannrt, uro, xora n xanne nnnoron saropaercx namnouxa,
npeynpexammax o pasrepmernsannn rpysonoro nmxa, nerunx cpasy xe nncrnnxrnnno xnaraercx
sa uex-nncr. Bet o +roro yxe tno mnoro noxntx cpaartnann. Honer npoxonr nopmantno,
nnxaxoro nnmnero myma ne cntmno. Bsptna roxe ner. Bce n nopxxe, rontxo namnouxa mnraer.
Ho net nasemnte cnyxt yxe nponepnnn nepe nsnerom nept n nponem ne onapyxnnn.
Kpome roro, rontxo onn ns 500 000 pecon saxanunnaercx anapne. 3naunr, nepntm enom
nerunx nponepnr, ner nn cox n cnrnannsannn, a yx norom nauner ntxcnxrt, ne nomno nn
uro-nnyt ne rax.
Tem ne menee nnnort opamamrcx x uex-nncram no nym npnunnam. Bo-nepntx, onn
npnyuent +ro enart. Haunnax c nerno mxont nm ronopxr, uro uenoneuecxax namxrt n cyxennx
neconepmennt n uro nx xnsnt sanncnr or nonnmannx +roro ]axra. Bo-nroptx, uex-nncrt
oxasann cnom nontsy onn paoramr. Onaxo nerunxon yuar romy, uro, xorx nponeypam nyxno
onepxrt ontme, uem cnonm nncrnnxram, nentsx cneno nonnnonartcx +romy npannny. uex-nncrt,
ncnontsyemte n annannn, ornmt ne neantnt. Cpen nnx onapyxnnannct raxne, xoropte
mornn nnecrn n sanyxenne, tnn neuerxnmn nnn coepxann omnxn. Tem ne menee nerunxn ne
repxmr nept n uex-nncrt n, cranxnnaxct c anapnntmn cnryannxmn, nensmenno x nnm
opamamrcx.
Hanpnmep, pacneuarxa pasronopon n xanne nnnoron peca United Airlines, cneonanmero ns
Iononyny, noxasana, nacxontxo nnnort nepnt nponncanntm nponeypam. Ocroxrentcrna tnn
yxacntmn. Ho canony nerann onomxn. Croxn nenepoxrnt mym. Cepna nerunxon, nanepnoe,
cnntno cryuann. 3xnnaxy nyxno tno epxart n none spennx mnoxecrno neme. Homnmo
nponemt c noaue xncnopoa onapyxnnoct, uro onomxn ]msenxxa nonann n nnrarent N 3
na npanom xptne, n on sarnox. uacrt onomxon nonana n nnrarent N 4 n ntsnana n nem noxap.
3axptnxn oxasannct nonpexenntmn. Cnxmne n xanne nerunxn ne snann, uro rnopnrcx n
camonere sa nx cnnnamn. Cnauana onn pemnnn, uro n canone nsopnanact oma. 3xnnax ne nmen
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 60
npecrannennx o macmrae nonpexenn n o rom, moxer nn nponsorn eme onn nsptn. Tem ne
menee nerunxn sarnymnnn nonpexennte nnrarenn, ononecrnnn o +rom nenrp ynpannennx
noneramn, cnycrnnnct na esonacnym ntcory, onpeennnn, nacxontxo manenpenntm ocrancx
camoner, pasopannct, xaxne anapnnte cnrnant na npnopno nanenn onn moryr nrnopnponart,
a xaxne ner, n crann pemart, nocanrt nn nanep na noy n oxeane nnn nepnyrtcx n Iononyny.
3ra anapnx noxasana, uemy ontme nepxr nerunxn nponeypam nnn cnonm nncrnnxram.
Hrax, xax xe onn nocrynnnn? Oparnnnct x uex-nncram.

HEPBIH HHHOT: Xouemt, urot x saunran uex-nncr?
FOPTHHXEHEP: a. ero npnroronnn. Coomn o roronnocrn.
HEPBIH HHHOT: Ioron.

Hpecroxno mnoroe cenart, n nerunxn onxnt tnn pemnrt, xaxne nponeypt nyxno
ntnonnnrt n nepnym ouepet. B coornercrnnn c npenncannxmn onn cnauana cnnsnnnct,
esonacno sarnymnnn nonpexennte nnrarenn, nponepnnn nosmoxnocrt nocaxn camonera,
necmorpx na nonpexenne xptna, a sarem cnnnn ronnnno, urot onerunrt camoner, nocne uero
narononyuno nepnynnct n Iononyny.
Hnnort ne omnnnct, onepnnmnct uex-nncram. H +ro nponsomno naroapx raxnm nmxm,
xax Fypman, xoropt snaer, xax enart xopomne uex-nncrt nmecro nnoxnx. Hamnm
xnpyprnuecxnm uex-nncram eme anexo o nerntx.
Hpn nx paspaorxe, xax cunraer Fypman, neoxonmo npnnxrt necxontxo xnmuentx
pemenn. Bo-nepntx, nyxno npeycmorpert momenr, xora +xnnax onxen oparnrtcx x
uex-nncry, ecnn, xoneuno, +ro neouennno. Hanpnmep, xora saropenact cnrnantnax namnouxa nnn
sarnox nnrarent, neoxonmo npnnxrt pemenne ornocnrentno roro, xaxnmn uex-nncramn
nontsonartcx: CEHAH-HOTBEPH nnn HPOuTH-CEHAH. B coornercrnnn c
uex-nncramn nepnoro rnna +xnnax enaer cnom paory no namxrn, cornacno cnoemy ontry. Ho
mepe ee ntnonnennx nerunxn enamr nayst, urot cnepnrtcx c xonrpontntm cnncxom n
nornepnrt, uro ne orcrynamr or nero. Hontsyxct uex-nncramn nroporo rnna, nmn, nanpornn,
ntnonnxmr ro, uro nanncano. 3ro cnoero poa penenr. Ho+romy npn paspaorxe uex-nncron c
nynx n nepnym ouepet neoxonmo pemnrt, xaxo nx rnn noxonr x anno cnryannn nyume
ncero.
uex-nncr ne moxer trt nnnntm. Ho nenncanomy npannny n nero nxonr or nxrn o
enxrn nynxron, uro coornercrnyer oemy oneparnnno namxrn uenonexa. Fypman cunraer, uro
or +roro rpeonannx moxno nemnoro orcrynart.
Bce sanncnr or xonrexcra, ronopnr on. B onnx cnyuaxx y nac ecrt rontxo 20 cexyn, a
n pyrnx necxontxo mnnyr. Ho uepes 60 nnn 90 cexyn nocne nauana ncnontsonannx uex-nncr
naunnaer ornnexart nnnoron or pyrnx ecrnn, n onn ero yxopaunnamr, nponycxax
orentnte +rant.
B cnxsn c +rnm nepeunn ecrnn onxnt ocranartcx xparxnmn n nxnmuart ro, uro Fypman
nastnaer nynxramn-ynnamn. 3ro marn, ne ntnonnxrt xoropte ouent onacno, no o xoroptx
rem ne menee satnamr. (annte o rom, xaxne ecrnnx nmemr ocoym naxnocrt, no uacro
nponycxamrcx, ouent nenxrcx n annannn, no ne ncera ocrynnt.)
uopmynnponxn onxnt trt npocrtmn n rountmn, npoonxaer Fypman. Kpome roro,
nyxno ncnontsonart npnntunt npo]eccnonantnt xstx. axe ro, xax ntrnxnr uex-nncr,
nmeer snauenne. B neane on onxen pacnonarartcx na ono crpannne, no ne paccennart
nnnmanne n ne ornnexart onnnem nnera. nx ntenennx rexcra nyume ncnontsonart nponncnte
n crpounte yxnt.
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 61
(Fypman nacrontxo nnnmarentno x +romy ornocnrcx, uro axe pexomenyer nontsonartcx
raxnmn mpn]ramn, xax, nanpnmep, Helvetica.)
B xaxom-ro cmtcne mt co ncem +rnm cranxnnannct npn paspaorxe uex-nncron nx
xnpyprnn. Koneuno, onn rpeymr opaorxn, a nnnnte xonrpontnte cnncxn onxnt trt uerue
n ne nnonrt n sanyxenne. Ha mo nsrnx, mt moxem tcrpo opaorart namn uex-nncrt. Ho y
Fypmana tn eme nynxrnx, na xoropom on nacrannan. Hpn nce rmarentnocrn n reopernuecxom
ocmtcnennn uex-nncra ero oxsarentno nyxno ncntrart n peantno ocranonxe, xoropax ncera
nemnoro cnoxnee, uem moxno cee npecrannrt. Hepnte napnanrt ncera paxymrcx, no+romy
neoxonmo nonxrt, no xaxo npnunne +ro nponcxonr, nnecrn nsmenennx n npoonxart
ncntrannx o rex nop, noxa uex-nncr ne nauner paorart esyxopnsnenno.
ocrnut +roro n xnpyprnn ouent rpyno, samernn x.
B annannn roxe nenpocro, ornernn Fypman. Bt ne moxere no npemx nonera orxptrt
rpysono nmx, urot nocmorpert, xax +xnnax nauner cex necrn n raxnx ocroxrentcrnax.
Ho nx +roro npnymant rpenaxept, n on npenoxnn mne nocnontsonartcx onnm ns nnx.
crapancx ne ntrnxert mantunxom, xoroporo nsxnn n xanny camonera, n ornernn, uro
tno t sopono. Bcxope mt nomnn n croxnmee nenoanexy sanne uepes xasanmymcx otuno
merannnuecxym nept. Bnyrpn naxonnact noxoxax na xopoxy xancyna, noxonnmaxcx na
maccnnntx rnpannnuecxnx onopax. Kora ona onycrnnact o namero yponnx, a onopt ymnn
nnyrpt nona, mt oxasannct na cnoero poa nnar]opme. Fypman nponycrnn menx nnepe, n x
oxasancx nnyrpn nacroxme xannt Boeing 777-200ER. On nosnonnn mne ycecrtcx n
xomannpcxoe xpecno, a cam cen cnpana or menx, noxasan, xax nyxno sacrernyrt pement
esonacnocrn. Ha crexno xannt tnn ntneent rpn uepntx nnasmenntx +xpana, xoropte
sacnernnnct, xora nx nxnmunn nomomnnx.
Kaxo a+ponopr xornre? cnpocnn Fypman.
B ase anntx oxasannct nourn nce a+ponoprt mnpa. ntpan a+ponopr Taxoma n Cn+rne,
re npnsemnnncx naxanyne. Heoxnanno na +xpane noxnnnact nsnernax nonoca. Menx +ro
nneuarnnno. Camoner croxn y ntxoa ns sannx a+ponopra. Hepeo mno esnnn xaxne-ro nmn c
araxntmn renexxamn. Bann x mor nnert camonert, xoropte ntpynnnann or pyrnx ntxoon x
nsnerno nonoce.
Fypman noxasan mne, xax ocymecrnnxercx nponepxa camonera. Cnena or menx n crenxe tna
nnma, o xoropo x mor orxnyrtcx n nmoe npemx. Tam nexan cnpanounnx c uex-nncramn. Ho +ro
tna ncero nnmt ymaxnax xonnx. Hnnort otuno ncnontsymr +nexrponnte nncrt, xoropte
noxnnxmrcx na nenrpantno xonconn. On noxasan, xax nyxno nontsonartcx uex-nncrom, cunrtnax
ero c +xpana.
Kncnopo! nponsnec Fypman n noxasan, re nyxno nponepxrt noauy xncnopoa.
Hponepeno nonnocrtm, onxen tn ornernrt x.
Hpnopt! ycntman x, n on noxasan, re x onxen cunrtnart xypc n ntcory nonera.
Hpn nepnonauantno nponepxe xannt nyxno tno yrounnrt ncero uertpe npenonerntx
+nemenra, a nepe nycxom nnrarene nponepnrt eme mecrt nynxron, a raxxe nornepnrt, uro
mt c Fypmanom n xauecrne nepnoro n nroporo nnnora ocynnn pynenne n nsner camonera.
Fypman npomen uepes nce +rn +rant nmecre co mno.
Kax x nonxn, on nnannponan ocymecrnnrt nopmantnt nsner, ncnontsyx nonocy 16L, c
onpeenenno cxopocrtm conepmnrt cranaprnt pasnopor n nsxrt xypc na mro-nocrox,
nocrenenno nanpax ntcory 6000 m. Eme Fypman ronopnn uro-ro naxnoe o nacrpoxe pano, a
norom paccxasan xoe-uro o nnrarenxx. Ecnn npn nsnere onn orxaxyr, ro nyxno cpasy orxnmunrt
+nexrpnuecrno, noxa mt eme naxonmcx na semne, nnn npoonxart naop ntcort, ecnn paoraer
xorx t onn nnrarent. B cnyuae ecnn oa nnrarenx orxaxyr, cneyer ncxart nnxamee
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 62
yonoe mecro nx nocaxn. rnyoxomtcnenno xnnan.
Ecrt nponemt? cnpocnn mo conponoxammn.
Hnxax ner! onoxnn x.
Fypman nxnmunn nnrarenn, n xorx ]axrnuecxn onn orcyrcrnonann, mt ycntmann nx pen n
ntnyxent tnn ronopnrt rpomue, urot cntmart pyr pyra. Hepe pynennem mt
ocymecrnnnn eme ony nponepxy ns nxrn nynxron: nyxen nn anrnoneennrent n opaoran nn
nm camoner, ycranonnent nn anromarnuecxne ropmosa, ocymecrnnena nn nponepxa npnopon,
ypano nn nasemnoe oopyonanne n ne nxnmuena nn cneronax anapnnax cnrnannsannx.
Tpn uex-nncra nourn ne ornxnn npemenn: y nac ymno ne onee 30 cexyn na xaxt n
npnmepno mnnyra na ocyxenne. Fypman samernn, uro xparxocrt sect ne cnyuana. Mnoro
uacon tno norpaueno na nanmenne sa noneennem nerunxon na rpenaxepax c xponomerpaxem
ncex ecrnn, nx orpaorxo n cneennem o camtx neoxonmtx.
Kora Fypman nonnocrtm yenncx n rom, uro mt roront x nsnery, ro cran mne noxastnart,
xax ntpynnrt or renerpana. Xornre neptre, xornre ner, no n +rom pece x yy nepntm nnnorom.
Fypman npnxasan orxart mne oenmn noramn neant ropmosa. nouyncrnonan ronuox, n camoner
noxarnncx nnepe. xonrponnponan nanpannenne ero nnxennx pyxoxrxo, xoropax naxonnact
cnena or menx. Ecnn orxart ee or cex, camoner nonopaunnan nnpano, a ecnn norxnyrt na cex ro
nneno. Cxopocrt perynnponanact neantm rasa n rpemx ptuaramn na nenrpantno xonconn.
Honauany x nyrancx no ncem, xax ntxnt, no x momenry, xora camoner ocrnr
nsnerno-nocaouno nonoct, yxe ycnoxonncx. nepexnmunncx na nerpant, nymx noramn
naannn na neant ropmosa n cran xart name ouepen na nsner. Fypman ntnen na +xpan
uex-nncr Hponepxa nepe nsnerom.
3axptnxn! nponsnec on.
Btnyment! ornernn x.
Hocrenenno nce +ro npenpamanoct n necenym nrpy. Mt nonyunnn yneomnenne ns
xomanno-ncneruepcxoro nynxra, uro nam paspemen nsner. ornycrnn ropmosa, n Fypman
noxasan, xax naxart na neant rasa. Mt crann nanpart cxopocrt na nsnerno nonoce. Cnauana
xasanoct, uro camoner nnxercx menenno, no norom noxnnnoct omymenne cxopocrn. naxnman
na neann nonopora pynx nnpano n nneno, urot yepxartcx na nenrpantno nnnnn
nsnerno-nocaouno nonoct. 3arem no nocxasxe Fypmana norxnyn na cex mrypnan, n y menx
nosnnxno omymenne, uro mt oropnannct or semnn. ne snam, uro ram nponcxonno n rpenaxepe,
no omymenne tno ouent peantntm.
Mt nonxnnct o onaxon. nnen, xax nnnsy ocranancx ropo. Mt menenno napann
ntcory 6000 m, n n +ror momenr samnrana namnouxa pasrepmernsannn nepn rpysonoro nmxa.
satn o rom, uro +ro tno cnennantntm nynxrom rpennponxn. Ha +xpane noxnnnnct nepnte ne
crpoxn uex-nncra. Ho x cxnarnn ymaxnt cnpanounnx, urot nmert npecrannenne oo ncem
cnncxe cpasy.
Mne yanoct samernrt, uro +ro tn uex-nncr rnna HPOuTH CEHAH, n xoropom tno
ncero cemt crpox. Ha crpannne oxcnxnoct, uro nept rpysonoro nmxa orxptnact, rax xax tna
nnoxo saxpennena, n nyxno ymentmnrt pncx ee ntptnannx napyxy.
nonnman, uro +ro ncero nnmt rpenaxep, no cepne nauano nrtcx tcrpee. uex-nncr
rpeyer nocrenenno cnnxart annenne n xanne. B ecrnnrentnocrn crpoxa rnacnr: BBO
AHHIX H 3AATuHKA BICOTI. Fypman noxasan mne, re na nanenn na ronono
naxonrcx perynxrop annennx. Hpenncanne rnacnno, uro nyxno ero norxnyrt n ycranonnrt
annenne, coornercrnymmee ntcore 2450 m. ntnonnnn nce rpeonannx.
3arem uex-nncr norpeonan onycrnrt camoner na camym nnsxym esonacnym ntcory nnn na
ntcory 2450 m, ecnn ona ntme. oran mrypnan or cex, urot onycrnrt noc camonera. Fypman
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 63
nocxasan, na xaxo arunx nyxno opamart nnnmanne, n uepes napy mnnyr mt oxasannct na
ntcore 2450 m. Hocne +roro uex-nncr norpeonan nxnmunrt anromarnxy nx ynpannennx
nosymntmn xnananamn nnn 30 cexyn naxnmart na xnonxy npyunym, urot cpocnrt nnmnee
annenne. ntnonnnn +ro. H camoner ne nsopnancx! Mt tnn cnacent. Mne saxorenoct
xnonnyrt Fypmana no nneuy n cxasart: Herart +ro rax npocro.
Onaxo cymecrnymr ecrnnx, xoropte nnxax ne orpaxamrcx n uex-nncre. Hanpnmep,
nyxno yneomnrt ncneruepon o anapnno cnryannn na opry, nponn]opmnponart o +rom
oprnpononnxon, pemnrt, xaxo nnxamn a+ponopr nanonee esonacen nx nocaxn, a raxxe
nponepnrt, uro cnyunnoct c neptm rpysonoro orcexa. Mne nn pasy ne npnxonnoct enart
nnuero noonoro. Xorx nce +rn onepannn ouent naxnt, ontr noxastnaer, uro
npo]eccnonantnte nnnort npaxrnuecxn nnxora ne enamr n nnx omnox, no+romy nx ne cronr
nxnmuart n uex-nncrt. Fonee roro, no mnennm Fypmana, nxnmuenne +rnx ecrnn tno t
omnxo.
Kax npannno, xonrpontnax ]ynxnnx uex-nncron, paspaoranntx nx cnoxntx nanpannenn
paort, nocnpnnnmaercx nenepno. Mentme ncero onn cnyxar nncrpyxnnxmn, onpeenxmmnmn,
xax ntnonnxrt re nnn nnte ecrnnx, yt ro crponrentcrno ntcorntx sann nnn ntno
camonera ns anapnno cnryannn. uex-nncrt +ro tcrpte n +]]exrnnnte nncrpymenrt,
nosnonxmmne monnnsonart nect ontr npo]eccnonanon. Onn +xonomxr npemx, xora ero
ocoenno ne xnaraer, n cnacamr rtcxun n rtcxun xnsne.
Eme onn cnyua, n xoropom ]nrypnponan uex-nncr. Hnnnenr nponsomen 17 xnnapx
2008 r., xora Boeing-777 annaxomnannn British Airways, pec 38, noneran x a+ponopry Xnrpoy,
Honon, cneyx ns Hexnna. Bosymnoe cyno naxonnoct n nosyxe nourn 11 uacon, a na ero
opry tno 152 naccaxnpa. Bpemx rontxo uro nepenannno sa nonent. Onaxa tnn ronxnmn n
pexnmn. Bnnmocrt cocrannxna nourn 10 xm. yn cnat nerep. Ftno +10 C. o +roro momenra
na opry nnuero ocoennoro ne nponcxonno.
Kora o a+ponopra ocrananoct 3,5 xm, na ntcore ncero 240 m na xnntmn omamn (a
camoner onxen tn cnerxa cnnsnrt neprnxantnym cxopocrt), nnrarenn orxasann. Cnauana
norepxn momnocrt npant, a norom nent. Hocaxo ynpannxn nropo nnnor, no, cxontxo on nn
crapancx ynennunrt rxry, emy +ro ne yananoct. Heoxnanno n camonere nosnnxna nonnax
rnmnna.
Herunx nontrancx nepenecrn camoner n pexnm nnannponannx n yepxart ero na xypce, no
mamnna tcrpo repxna ropnsonrantnym cxopocrt, npenparnnmnct n naammn c nea xament
necom 160 ronn. Fpnrancxne cnennanncrt no paccneonannm nosymntx nponcmecrnn
nnocnecrnnn ycranonxr, uro camoner naan co cxopocrtm 7 m/c. Kax noxasann pacuert, n momenr
xacannx c semne, n 500 m or nocaouno nonoct, on nnrancx co cxopocrtm 200 xm/u.
Tontxo no cuacrnnno cnyuanocrn nn n camonere, nn na semne nnxro ne norn. Bosymnoe
cyno ena ne saeno xptmn nnscroxmnx omon. Haccaxnpt anromonne, nnranmnxcx no
opore, nyme no nepnmerpy a+popoma Xnrpoy, nnenn npnnnxammncx camoner n yxe
nauann npomartcx c xnsntm. Ho cnyuanomy connaennm n ono ns raxnx mamnn exan
pnrancxn npemtep-mnnncrp Iopon Fpayn, conpanmncx ornpannrtcx na nnunom camonere n
cno nepnt nnsnr n Knra. Kax nnocnecrnnn paccxastnan xoppecnonenry rasert Daily Mirror
nomomnnx npemtepa, camoner naxonncx nnsxo-nnsxo, ncero n necxontxnx merpax or xptmn
name mamnnt.
Bosymnoe cyno nepenereno uepes opory n c rpoxorom npnsemnnnoct na nopocmn
rpano nyr. Hepenxx croxa or yapa cnoxnnact. Hpanax ocnonnax croxa orennnact or
]msenxxa, a ee nepenne xoneca ornannnnct, yapnnnct n npanym xnocronym uacrt ]msenxxa n
nponnn canon mexy 29-m n 30-m pxamn xpecen. Henax croxa nomna n xptno. Honropt ronnt
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 64
annannonnoro ronnnna crann ntnnnartcx na semnm. Ouennnt nnenn ncntmxn, no nouemy-ro
ronnnno ne saropenoct. Camoner, xoneuno, paspymnncx, no naroapx romy, uro yap tn
cmxruen 300-merpontm cxontxennem, naccaxnpt npaxrnuecxn ne nocrpaann. Iocnnrannsannx
norpeonanact ncero ecxrxy nme. Camo ceptesno rpanmo oxasancx nepenom norn.
Cneonarenn ns orena no paccneonannm annannonntx nponcmecrnn npntnn na mecro
npnmepno uepes uac n nontrannct noccranonnrt xaprnny cnyunnmerocx. B nx oruerax, nepnt ns
xoroptx tn onynnxonan uepes mecxn, a nropo uepes rpn mecxna nocne anapnn, cxnosnno
neoymenne. Onn pasopann na menxne xycouxn n nnrarenn, n ronnnnnym cncremy, n
camonncnt, no nce oxasanoct n nopme. annte ronopnnn o rom, uro n nnrarenn nepecrano
nocrynart nyxnoe xonnuecrno ronnnna, onaxo nccneonanne ronnnnno cncremt c nomomtm
crexnononoxonnoro sona-opocxona ne ntxnnno nnxaxnx e]exron. Hponepxa xnananon n
cncremt ynpannennx noaue ronnnna roxe ne ycranonnna n nx paore nnxaxnx coen. B
ronnnnntx axax ne tno onapyxeno nnxaxnx uacrnn, cnocontx sanoxnponart
ronnnnonponot.
Tora cnennanncrt crann nsyuart camo ronnnno. 3ro tno otunoe annannonnoe ronnnno
rnna A-1. Onaxo cneonarenn saymannct: mapmpyr npoxonr sa uepro Cenepnoro nonxpnoro
xpyra, n ne morno nn nonyunrtcx rax, uro ronnnno cnauana samepsno, ntsnan anapnm, a norom
nnont pacraxno? Ha rpannne mexy Knraem n Monronne, re nponeraer mapmpyr, remneparypa n
cepenne snmt ocrnraer 64 C, a mexy Vpanom n Cxannnanne oxonr o 75 C. nx
nonxpntx noneron +ro nnonne otunoe xnnenne. Xorx annannonnoe ronnnno A-1 samepsaer npn
remneparype 46 C, +ra nponema cunranact pemenno, noromy uro na camonerax, ncnontsyemtx
na cenepntx mapmpyrax, ecrt cncrema samnrt or +xcrpemantno nnsxnx remneparyp, a nnnort
nocroxnno xonrponnpymr remneparypy ronnnna. Honxpnte mapmpyrt nx xommepuecxnx pecon
tnn orxptrt n xnnape 2001 r., n sa +ro npemx rtcxun camoneron nocnontsonannct nmn eso
ncxxnx nponem. Ha +rom pece British Airways, xax noxastnamr annte, remneparypa ronnnna ne
onycxanact nnxe 34 C, uro ntme rouxn samepsannx. Fonee roro, xora nnrarenn norepxnn
momnocrt, camoner naxonncx ne re-nnyt na Vpanom, a na nonere x Honony, re tno
cymecrnenno rennee.
Tem ne menee cneonarenn crann nce ontme cxnonxrtcx x romy, uro mapmpyr +roro peca
ctrpan onpeenennym pont, n axe ntnnnynn cnom reopnm. Annannonnoe ronnnno, xax
npannno, coepxnr n cee nesnaunrentnoe xonnuecrno nnarn. Bo npemx nonera npn
orpnnarentntx remneparypax ona otuno samepsaer n nnanaer n ronnnne n nne cycnensnn ns
xpoxorntx nexntx xpncrannon. Onn nnxora ne paccmarpnnannct xax npecrannxmmne
ceptesnym nponemy. Onaxo, moxer trt, no npemx nnrentnoro nonxpnoro nepenera
nepememnnannx ronnnna ne nponcxonr n xpncrannt nta ycnenamr ocecrt n opasonart napocr
n xaxom-nnyt mecre ronnnnnoro axa. 3arem npn xparxonpemennom ycxopennn, nanpnmep, npn
npnnnxennn x a+ponopry, pesxoe ynennuenne noaun ronnnna moxer npnnecrn x romy, uro
nexno napocr oropnercx n sanoxnpyer cncremy noaun ronnnna.
V cnennanncron ne tno ocrarounoro xonnuecrna anntx n noepxxy +ro nen. 3ro xax
ecnn t satxammncx ontno cran yrnepxart, uro nce monexynt xncnopoa
cxonnenrpnponannct n pyrom xonne xomnart, ocrannn ero ymnpart no cne, uro, n npnnnnne,
nosmoxno, no manonepoxrno. Tem ne menee tnn nponeent ncntrannx, npn xoroptx noa npn
orpnnarentntx remneparypax nnptcxnnanact nenocpecrnenno n ronnnnnym cncremy. Oxasanoct,
uro opasymmnecx npn +rom xpncrannt nta moryr nepexptrt noauy ronnnna.
uepes nocemt mecxnen nocne anapnn raxoe oxcnenne ocrananoct enncrnenno
npanonoontm. Kaxt crpemnncx npenpnnxrt xort uro-nnyt, urot raxne
annaxaracrpo]t n yymem ne nponcxonnn. Ha ror cnyua, ecnn raxoe oxcnenne tno
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 65
nepntm, nerunxam npn nnrentntx nepenerax npenaranoct conepmart onpeenennte manenpt,
urot ne onycxart nosnnxnonennx noono nponemt. Kora cnnxaercx momnocrt nnrarenx,
nnnor nncrnnxrnnno xouer ynennunrt ooport. Ho ecnn xpncrannnxn nta yxe opasonannct, ro
ycnnenne npnroxa ronnnna rontxo onerunr ncactnanne xpncrannon n ronnnnnym cncremy.
Ho+romy nerunxam npenoxnnn conepmenno npornnononoxnoe cannrt ooport, urot
rennoomennnxn ycnenn ocrarouno noorpert ronnnno. Ha ro, urot n rpyonponoe pacraxn
ne, norpeymrcx cexynt, n nponema ncuesner. Cnennanncram xasanoct, uro pasraxa xpoercx
nmenno n +rom.
B cenrxpe 2008 r. ueepantnoe ynpannenne rpaxancxo annannn CBA ntnycrnno
noponym nncrpyxnnm, nxnmunn n nee necxontxo nontx mannnynxnn, xoropte nnnort,
cneymmne nonxpntmn mapmpyramn, onxnt tnn ntnonnxrt n cnyuae opasonannx nta,
urot noccranonnrt paorocnoconocrt nnrarene. Herunxn no ncem mnpe onxnt tnn
osnaxomnrtcx c +rnmn mannnynxnnxmn n reuenne 30 ne n nnepnrt nx n npaxrnxy noneron.
Camoe naxnoe n paccxasanno ncropnn ro, uro onn ntnonnnnn +ro npenncanne.
To, xax +ro tno cenano, npnuem c nomomtm uex-nncron, nectma noyunrentno. Ho
ymart nyxno npexe ncero o rom, uro nponcxonr n nmo npo]eccnonantno c]epe nocne
xpynnomacmrano xaracrpo]t. Haunem c roro, uro mt pexo anannsnpyem namn omnxn. Hn n
mennnne, nn n npenoanannn, nn n mpncnpyennnn, nn n mnpe ]nnancon, nn npaxrnuecxn n
nmo nno c]epe exrentnocrn npo omnxn ne ronopxr n nonocrxx. 3a onnm rnnom omnox
moryr nocneonart rtcxun pyrnx, no, nocxontxy onn xacamrcx orentntx nnn, nnxro nceptes nx
ne nsyuaer.
Hnora, npana, orentnte neyaun nonepramrcx nccneonannm, n mt yunmcx nyume
ntnonnxrt cnom paory. Ho uro npn +rom nponcxonr? Hpnunnt omnox moryr trt ncxptrt na
cemnnape, crart remo crartn n npo]eccnonantnom xypnane nnn axe nonacrt n yuennx. B
neantnom cnyuae mt nsaem roncrennte pyxonocrna nnn nnmem cranaprt. Ho ono eno
cxasart, a pyroe cenart. Hnora na nnepenne nsmenenn yxoxr rot.
B xoe onoro ns mennnncxnx nccneonann, nocnxmenntx nsyuennm 9 nontx cnocoon
neuennx, onapyxnnoct, nanpnmep, uro npn nnenmoxoxxono nn]exnnn naxnnnannx samnmaer ne
rontxo ere, no n nspocntx or pasnnuntx pecnnparopntx saonenann, xnnxmmnxcx uacro
npnunno cmeprnocrn. B coomennn ronopnnoct, uro n CBA npauy rpeyercx n cpenem 17 .em ,
urot oxnarnrt nontm nnom neuennx xorx t nononnny cnonx nannenron.
Taxne +xcneprt, xax +n Fypman, cunramr, uro npnunna noonoro sanastnannx otuno
ne n nenn nnn n nexenannn nnepxrt nonoe. Hamnoro uame ona saxnmuaercx n rom, uro
coornercrnymmne snannx ne nepeamrcx n npocro, ocrynno n cncremarnsnponanno ]opme.
Ecnn t n annannn nmn sannmannct rontxo rem, uro nsanann mnorocrpannunte mnnerenn no
xaxomy nonomy cnyuam, xoropt mor t yrpoxart esonacnocrn noneron, ro +ro moxno tno
t cpannnrt c nannno ns nourn 700 000 mennnncxnx crare, xaxt ro opymnnammnxcx na
xnnnnnncron. C raxnm oemom nn]opmannn cnpannrtcx conepmenno nenosmoxno.
B annannn nce naoopor. Kora +xcneprt, paccneonanmne xaracrpo]y, onynnxonann cno
oemnt n nopont oruer, uro uacro tnaer n n mennnne, nacran uepe raxnx
cnennanncron, xax Fypman n ero rpynna, xoropte ncnontsonann +ry nn]opmannm na npaxrnxe.
Onn paspaorann nsmenennx x cranaprntm uex-nncram nx nnnoron nonxpntx mapmpyron, nx
uero nsyunnn n xnaccn]nnnponann nce annte, neoxonmte nerunxam nx roro, urot nonxrt,
uro crano npnunno nnoxo paort nnrarene ne nnn uro-nno pyroe. 3arem rpynna
Fypmana orpaorana uex-nncrt nmecre c nerunxamn na rpenaxepax, namna nponemt, pemnna nx
n nnont nporecrnponana xonrpontnte cnncxn.
V rpynnt xomnannn Boeing na +ry paory ymno oxono nyx neent. Horom uex-nncrt tnn
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 66
pasocnant ncem annanepenosunxam, nnaenmnm camoneramn Boeing-777. Hexoropte crann
nontsonartcx nmn es nsmenenn, no n ontmnncrne xomnann nx noxoppexrnponann, urot
uex-nncrt nyume coornocnnnct c cymecrnymmnmn nnyrpennnmn npenncannxmn. (Taxne
nsmenennx cranonxrcx npemerom xpocrntx non, xora npn oennennn annaxomnann
pemaercx nonpoc, utnmn uex-nncramn yyr n antnemem nontsonartcx nnnort.) B reuenne
mecxna nocne ntnycxa nontx uex-nncron onn nonaamr x nnnoram nnn nnoxrcx n nx
xomntmrept, n nerunxn naunnamr nmn nontsonartcx.
Orxya mt o +rom snaem? Ham +ro ononnnno nsnecrno xorx t noromy, uro 26 noxpx
2008 r. ananornunax anapnx uyrt ne nonropnnact. Ha +ror pas pec ns Banxax n Arnanry
ntnonnxna xomnannx Delta Air Lines, a na opry tno 247 uenonex. Camoner naxonncx na
ntcore 12 000 m na ropoom Iper-uonc, mrar Monrana, xora nponsomno camonponsnontnoe
ymentmenne momnocrn npanoro nnrarenx N 2. pyrnmn cnonamn, on orxasan. antnemee
paccneonanne noxaxer, uro ronnnnnax cncrema sannact ntom, r. e. reopnx c ero
nosnnxnonennem oxasanact npannntno. Komnannx Boeing nnecna orentnte rexnnuecxne
nsmenennx n xoncrpyxnnm camonera, enanmne raxym anapnm nenosmoxno, onaxo n annt
momenr orxas onoro nnrarenx, a norennnantno axe nyx, na raxo ntcore na ropamn
Monrant mor nmert xaracrpo]nuecxne nocnecrnnx.
Onaxo nepnt n nropo nnnort snann, uro nyxno enart. Onn ocrann coornercrnymmne
uex-nncrt n crann ntnonnxrt nce, uro n nnx nanncano. Tax xax nm yanoct noccranonnrt paory
nnrarene, ro xnsnn 247 uenonex tnn cnacent. Bce npomno rnaxo, n naccaxnpt nnuero ne
samernnn.
Hmenno o raxo cnryannn n xnpyprnn x n meuran.

Fnana 7
Tec1uponauue

Bepnynmnct n Focron, x nocrannn nepe cnoe rpynno saauy cenart uex-nncrt n
xnpyprnn onee +]]exrnnntmn. Mt ntrannct nocnontsonartcx ypoxamn, nonyuenntmn n
annannn. Cenann uex-nncr onee xoporxnm n uerxnm, a raxxe uame crann npnepxnnartcx
]opmara CEHAH HOTBEPH, a ne HPOuTH CEHAH, urot nmn nonyunnn
ontme cnoot npn ntnonnennn cnonx oxsannocre n rem ne menee n xpnrnuecxne momenrt
mornn ocranonnrtcx n nponepnrt, ne nponyment nn xaxne-ro naxnte marn. B nrore uex-nncr
yanoct snaunrentno ynyumnrt.
3arem mt npncrynnnn x recrnponannm. nx +roro ncnontsonann xon]epenn-san n mxone
spanooxpanennx, re x npononn nccneonannx. Mt nonoxnnn na cron accncrenrxy, xoropax
nsopaxana nannenrxy. 3arem pasnnunte nmn nrpann pont xnpypron, accncrenron xnpypra,
xnpyprnuecxnx n onepannonntx cecrep n anecresnonora.
Ho axe n camom nauane mt cronxnynnct c nponemamn. Hanpnmep, xro onxen oxnnxrt
naysy n naunnart ntnonnenne uex-nncra? urot no npemx onepannn npnnneut x cee nnnmanne
unenon pnrat, neoxonm anropnrer, xoroptm otuno onaaer xnpypr. Mne noymanoct, uro,
moxer trt, cronr nauart nmenno c nero, no x ryr xe orpocnn +ry nem. B annannn ecrt
npannno, cornacno xoropomy nerunx, nnnornpymmn camoner, ne naunnaer paory c uex-nncrom.
Fonee roro, on oxnnxer ncem o pacnpeenennn ornercrnennocrn, n c +roro momenra xaxt
unen +xnnaxa, a ne rontxo xomannp nosymnoro cyna, orneuaer sa narononyune nonera n
nmeer npano ronoca napanne c pyrnmn. Mon xonnern saxnnnn, uro nx rorantnoro nsmenennx
uex-nncron n xnpyprnn neoxonmo pacnpeenxrt ornercrnennocrt n npeocrannxrt ncem npano
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 67
saanart nonpoct, no+romy mt nosnoxnnn +ry oxsannocrt na xnpyprnuecxym cecrpy.
onxnt nn cecrpt crannrt ormerxn npn ntnonnennn xaxoro nynxra? Mt pemnnn, uro
neoxsarentno. Hpn +ro nponeype sanncn moxno ne enart. Mt crpemnnnct cosart
ocranonxy nx xonnexrnnnoro ocyxennx, urot xaxt nmen npecrannenne o rom, uro
nyxno n uro moxno cenart n xonxperno cnryannn.
Kaxax crpoxa uex-nncra rpeonana namero nnnmannx. Mt xponomerpnponann xaxt
yaunt xonrpontnt cnncox no nacrenntm uacam. Mt cunrann, uro xaxax ns rpex nays
nepe anecresne, nepe rem xax xnpypr cenaer paspes n npexe uem xnpyprnuecxax pnraa
noxnner onepannonnym ne onxna sannmart ontme 60 cexyn. Ecnn mt xornm, urot namnm
uex-nncrom nontsonannct n xecrxnx ycnonnxx onepannonno, nam nyxno onrtcx tcrporo ero
ntnonnennx. nx +roro mt coxparnnn necxontxo, xax nam xasanoct, ne nmemmnx ocoo
naxnocrn crpox.
3ra uacrt paort oxasanact nanonee rpyno, nocxontxy ncera cymecrnyer npornnopeune
mexy xparxocrtm n +]]exrnnnocrtm. Ecnn yannrt ns uex-nncra cnnmxom mnoro nynxron,
xauecrno neuennx ontntx ne ynyumnrcx, a yxymnrcx. Ecnn xe on yer uepecuyp nnnntm, ro
na ero ntnonnenne yer yxonrt nemano npemenn. Fonee roro, nnora nynxr, nmemmn
pemammee snauenne nx onoro cnennanncra, pyromy ne xaxercx cront naxntm. Becno 2007 r.
mt, na +ror pas n Honone, nonropno cosnann xon]epennnm no +rno BO3, urot paccmorpert
+rn nonpoct. Kax n oxnanoct, ocnonnte arannn pasropennct no nonoy roro, uro nxnmuart n
uex-nncr, a uro ne nxnmuart.
Hccneonannx, nponeennte n Enpone n Amepnxe, noxasann, uro npn npoonxnrentntx
onepannxx moxno snaunrentno ymentmnrt pncx nosnnxnonennx y nannenron rpomosa nen
nnxnnx xoneunocre (nonaanne rpoma n nerxne upenaro nerantntm ncxoom), ecnn
ncnontsonart neontmne ost npenaparon, pasxnxammnx xpont, nanpnmep renapnn, nnn
naenart na norn ontntm xomnpeccnonnte uynxn. Onaxo nccneonarenn ns Knrax n Hnnn
comnenannct n neoxonmocrn +ro mept, noromy uro y nacenennx +rnx crpan rpomos
ncrpeuaercx snaunrentno pexe, uem na 3anae, n npaxrnuecxn ne npnnonr x cmeprentntm
cnyuaxm. Fonee roro, n crpanax c nnsxnm n co cpennm oxoom ontnte ns-sa neocrarxa
cpecrn ne moryr cee nosnonnrt xynnrt renapnn nnn xomnpeccnonnte uynxn. axe neontmax
omnxa n osnponxe xponopasxnxnrenx, onymennax neontrntm npauom, moxer npnnecrn x
ceptesntm nocnecrnnxm. Ho+romy +ror nynxr pemnnn ncxnmunrt.
Ftnn paccmorpent neuantno nsnecrnte cnyuan nosropannx n onepannonno, roxe
npecrannxmmne coo nponemy. nx npnxnrannx n xnpyprnn ncnontsyercx ntcoxonontrnoe
oopyonanne, nanpnmep repmoxayrep, xoropt nnora ncxpnr, a pxom moxer naxonrtcx
ntcoxoxonnenrpnponannt xncnopo. Ho+romy n xnpyprnuecxnx orenennxx no ncemy mnpy
ncera ecrt pncx nosropannx. Hoxapt raxoro poa ouent crpamnt, rax xax nannune xncnopoa
enaer ropmunm nmo marepnan, naxoxmncx nonnsocrn, xnpyprnuecxne can]erxn n axe
txarentnte rpyxn, ncrannennte ontnomy n roprant. Onaxo noxapt n onepannonntx moxno
nonnocrtm npeornparnrt. Ecnn xnpyprnuecxax pnraa npeynpenr yreuxy xncnopoa nnn
cnnsnr xonnenrpannm +roro rasa o camo nnsxo onycrnmo nennunnt, a raxxe cneer x
mnnnmymy ynorpenenne cnnprocoepxamnx anrncenrnxon n ncxnmunr nonaanne xncnopoa n
onepannonnoe none, ro nosropannx ne nponsoer. axe neontmax npenapnrentnax nororonxa
cnocona nsannrt nannenron or nosmoxntx rpanm npn noxape, ecnn nce unent xnpyprnuecxo
pnrat snamr, re naxoxrcx xnanant, nepexptnammne xncnopo, xnonxa rpenoxno
cnrnannsannn n ornerymnrenn. 3rn ecrnnx nerxo nxnmunrt n uex-nncr.
Onaxo no cpannennm c raxnmn npnunnamn cmeprnocrn n xnpyprnn, xax nn]nnnponanne,
xponoreuenne n neyaunax anecresnx, nosropannx ncrpeuamrcx onontno pexo. Ha ecxrxn
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 68
mnnnnonon onepann, nponsnonmtx n CBA exerono, npnxonrcx rontxo 100 cnyuaen
nosnnxnonennx noxapon n onepannonntx, ns xoroptx nnmt nexoropte saxanunnamrcx cmeprtm
nannenron. nx cpannennx: xnpyprnuecxne nn]exnnn npaun nnocxr no npemx 300 000 onepann, n
pesyntrare uero 8000 ontntx ymnpaer. Mt ymeem namnoro nyume npeynpexart noxapt, uem
nn]exnnn. Hocxontxy nponepxn, neoxonmte nx nonnoro ncxnmuennx noxapon n
onepannonntx, cymecrnenno ynnnxmr uex-nncr, npaun npnmnn x ntnoy, uro moxno oornct
es +roro nynxra.
Hponecc npnnxrnx raxnx pemenn nocnn cnyuant xapaxrep. Hanpnmep, xnpyprn moryr
nepenyrart nannenra nnn onepnponart ne ry uacrt ero rena, no +ro nectma pexne xnnennx,
onaxo nponepxn na npemer ncxnmuennx raxnx npocueron ne sannmamr mnoro npemenn n yxe
npnnxrt n necxontxnx crpanax, nxnmuax CBA. Taxne nonnmmne cnyuan ncera ntstnamr
nontmennoe nnnmanne omecrna, no+romy mt ocrannnn n uex-nncre +ror nynxr.
Hponepxn na npeynpexenne xommynnxannonntx omnox, nanpornn, nocnpnnnmannct xax
cpecrno npeynpexennx ouent mnpoxoro cnexrpa neyau. Onaxo nam noxo, npn xoropom
nce unent pnrat onxnt tnn npecrannxrtcx pyr pyry n ocyxart ocoennocrn xaxoro
cnyuax, tn npnsnan ne+]]exrnnntm. A nor ynyumenne conmecrno paort nmeno nacrontxo
ontmoe snauenne, uro mt pemnnn ocrannrt nce +rn mept n uex-nncre n nonpoonart npnmennrt
nx na npaxrnxe.
Hocne name nononcxo xon]epennnn tno nponeeno necxontxo orpannuenntx pasontx
ncntrann. nx +roro n Honone mt nonpocnnn ony rpynny nponepnrt uex-nncr n recronom
pexnme n paccxasart nam o cnonx nneuarnennxx, a sarem c raxo xe npocto oparnnnct x
pnrae ns Ionxonra. Hocne xaxo ycnemno nponepxn uex-nncr cranonnncx nyume n nyume. B
xaxo-ro momenr y nac nosnnxno nneuarnenne, uro mt cenann nce, uro mornn. V nac tn
uex-nncr, roront x rnpaxnponannm.
Hroront uex-nncr, cosannt no +rno BO3, npeycmarpnnan n conoxynnocrn 19
xonrpontntx nponepox. Cemt ns nnx npemecrnonann anecresnn. unent pnrat onxnt tnn
nenrn]nnnponart ontnoro (nnn nornepnrt ero nnunocrt y onepennoro nnna), nponepnrt
nannune cornacnx na nponeenne nponeyp, npannntnocrt mecra, nameuennoro nx onepannn, n
ycranonxy na ontnom nyntcoxcnmerpa (npnopa nx nsmepennx yponnx xncnopoa). Horom npaun
onxnt tnn nponepnrt nannune y ontnoro anneprnn na nexapcrna, yuecrt nosmoxnocrt
nosnnxnonennx nponem c txannem, npecrannxmmnx rnannym cnoxnocrt npn anecresnn, a
raxxe paorocnoconocrt neoxonmoro oopyonannx n roronnocrt nme ero npnmennrt. B
nocnenmm ouepet nponepxercx nepoxrnoe xonnuecrno norepn xponn ne onee 0,5 n nx
nspocnoro (nnn +xnnnanenr nx peenxa), nannune sanacon xponn, nexapcrn nx nnyrpnnennoro
nneennx n coornercrnymmero oopyonannx.
Hocne anecresnn, no nepe rem xax enart paspes, npononrcx eme cemt nponepox. Bce
unent pnrat onxnt npecrannrtcx pyr pyry, nasnan cnoe nmx n pont n pnrae, a norom
yocronepnrtcx, uro nepe nnmn nyxnt ontno, n yrounnrt rnn xnpyprnuecxoro
nmemarentcrna (c yxasannem coornercrnymme cropont rena npano nnn neno). 3arem unenam
xnpyprnuecxo pnrat neoxonmo nponepnrt, xaxne anrnnornxn cneyer nnecrn nannenry n
nyxnoe npemx, nnn yenrtcx n rom, uro n nnx ner neoxonmocrn, a raxxe ecrt nn n nannunn
penrrenoncxne cnnmxn, neoxonmte nx onepannn. 3arem xonnexrnnno unent pnrat onxnt
ocynrt nce ocnonnte momenrt onepannn neoxonmoe na nee npemx, npenonaraemym
xpononorepm, a raxxe nce pyrne nonpoct, xoropte onn couryr nyxntm oronopnrt.
Anecresnonorn otuno ocyxamr nnan anecresnn, a mececrpt cmorpxr, ncx nn annaparypa na
mecre, nponepxmr crepnntnocrt nncrpymenron n ntcxastnamr cnoe mnenne no nonoy roro, uro
nx ontme ncero ecnoxonr n ontnom.
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 69
Haxonen, n xonne onepannn, nepe rem xax nannenra ntxarxr ns onepannonno, npononrcx
eme nxrt nponepox. Xnpyprnuecxax cecrpa saunrtnaer ncnyx, xax sanncana nponeennax
nponeypa, n nponepxer mapxnponxy ncex opasnon rxane, ornpannxemtx x naronoroanaromy.
3arem npononrcx pennsnx ncex nrn, ryox n nncrpymenron, a raxxe yxastnaercx, tnn nn
nenonaxn n paore oopyonannx, urot cnennanncrt ycnenn ncnpannrt ero o cneymme
onepannn. Hocne +roro nce unent pnrat conmecrno ocyxamr ecrnnx, npenpnnnmaemte
nx cxopeme peannnrannn nannenra nocne xnpyprnuecxoro nmemarentcrna, n yexamrcx n
rom, uro ncx nn]opmannx copana n sa]nxcnponana.
Koneuno, onepannn rpeymr ne 19 nponepox, a ropaso ontme. Ho, xax n n crponrentcrne,
mt crapannct cnecrn nce cnoxnoe x npocromy, cenan nx maxcnmantno xonxperntmn, urot ne
nponycrnrt nn ono menoun (nasnauenne anrnnornxon, nosmoxnocrt pasnnrnx anneprnn,
ocranxa ne roro nannenra), a raxxe nnenn necxontxo xommynnxannonntx nponepox, urot
cosart armoc]epy xonnexrnnnsma, n xoropo unenam xomant nerue onennrt nce norennnantnte
nponemt n nmanct. Ho xpane mepe rax mt nonauany ymann. Ho cpaoraer nn +ro n nosnonnr
nn cnnsnrt xonnuecrno cnyuaen nanecennx npea nannenry? Bonpoc croxn nmenno rax. urot
narn na nero orner, mt pemnnn nccneonart nnnxnne uex-nncron, oecneunnammnx esonacnym
xnpyprnm, na neuenne nannenron n noctmn ontnnnax pasntx crpan mnpa. 3roro nnonne xnarnno,
urot nonyunrt yenrentnte pesyntrart, coxpannn rpynny n npexnem cocrane n ynoxnnmnct n
cxpomnt mxer, npeocrannennt BO3. Mt nonyunnn mnoxecrno saxnox na yuacrne n
+xcnepnmenre. Orop nponsnonncx c yuerom cneymmnx rpeonann.
Bo-nepntx, pyxononrenn ontnnnt onxnt tnn nnaert anrnncxnm xstxom. Koneuno,
mt mornn t nepenecrn uex-nncr, no y nac ne tno pecypcon, urot exenenno omartcx na
care c pyxononrenxmn noctmn ontnnn na pasntx xstxax. Bo-nroptx, mecra nponeennx
+xcnepnmenra onxnt tnn trt esonacntmn nx nocemennx. Mt, nanpnmep, nonyunnn ouent
+monnonantnym saxnxy or saneymmero xnpyprnuecxnm orenennem ono npaxcxo ontnnnt.
Ftno t ouent nnrepecno onpoonart uex-nncr n raxom mecre, no noneprart onacnocrn nme n
sone noenntx ecrnn mt cunrann nepasymntm. B-rpertnx, x xoren, urot n +xcnepnmenre
yuacrnonann ontnnnt ns pasntx no narococroxnnm crpan. 3ro ntsnano nexoropoe
npornnoecrnne n mra-xnaprnpe BO3, nocxontxy conepmenno nonxrno, uro ocnonnax saaua
oprannsannn nomorart enemnm crpanam na nnanere, a onnara copa nn]opmannn n orartx
crpanax ymentmnr ]nnancnponanne crpan c onee nnsxnm yponnem xnsnn. Onaxo x snam, n
xaxom cocroxnnn naxonrcx xnpyprnx n n centcxnx paonax Hnnn, n n Iapnapcxo
mennnncxo mxone, npnuem nnre ne oxonrcx es nocneonepannonntx ocnoxnenn. Ecnn
uex-nncr cpaoraer n crpanax c ntcoxnm yponnem oxoon, ro +ro moxer yenrt onee ente
crpant narn cpecrna nx ero nnepennx. Ho+romy mt pemnnn npnnnmart saxnxn na nponeenne
+xcnepnmenra or orartx rocyapcrn, ecnn nx ontnnnt cornacxrcx nsxrt nce nnn nourn nce
pacxot na cex. Haxonen, n-uerneprtx, ontnnnt onxnt tnn ntpasnrt cnoe cornacne na ro,
uro nccneonarenn yyr noxastnart peantnte annte o nocneonepannonntx ocnoxnennxx,
cmeprnocrn n cncremntx omnxax n xnpyprnuecxo nomomn o n nocne nnepennx uex-nncron.
Cornacnrtcx na +ro ontnnnam tno onontno rpyno. B ontmnncrne ns nnx, axe
pacnonoxenntx n oraremnx crpanax, raxo crarncrnxn ne nenoct. Hoxnnenne peantntx
anntx morno t ntsnart neonosnaunym peaxnnm. Tem ne menee mt oropann nocemt ontnnn
ns pasntx crpan, xenammnx yuacrnonart n +xcnepnmenre.
uertpe ntpannte namn ontnnnt ornocnnnct x neymnm mennnncxnm nenrpam mnpa:
Mennnncxn nenrp npn Bamnnrroncxom ynnnepcnrere n Cn+rne, ontnnna omero npo]nnx n
Toponro, Kanaa, ontnnna Cnxro Mapnn n Honone n Oxnencxax ropocxax ontnnna
xpynnemax n Hono 3enannn. uertpe ocrantnte ontnnnt ornnuannct ntcoxo narpysxo n
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 70
tnn pacnonoxent n crpanax c nnsxnm n cpennm oxoom: Inannax ]nnnnnnncxax ontnnna n
Mannne, xoropax no pasmepam nnoe npentmana camte orarte ontnnnt, c xoroptmn mt
paorann; rocnnrant nm. npnnna Xamst n cronnne Hopannn Ammane (nont, nocrpoennt
rocyapcrnom mennnncxn nenrp, n ocnonnom ocnyxnnammn npntnammnx n crpany
exennen); rocnnrant Cnxroro Cre]ana n Htm-enn ropocxax narornopnrentnax ontnnna;
paonnax ontnnna Cnxroro upannncxa n ransanncxom ropoe H]axapa enncrnennax
ontnnna, ocnyxnnammax centcxoe nacenenne, pannoe nourn 1 mnn uenonex.
Hanepnoe, tno nourn neneno oennxrt nx nccneonannx raxne pasnte ontnnnt. B
orartx crpanax na spanooxpanenne ntenxmrcx rtcxun onnapon na onoro uenonexa n ro,
rora xax n Hnnn, na unnnnnnnax n n Bocrouno A]pnxe nn]pa pacxoon ncero nnmt
nyxsnaunax. Hanpnmep, mxer Mennnncxoro nenrpa npn Bamnnrroncxom ynnnepcnrere
npentmaer $1 mnp, uro n na pasa ontme, uem nce pacxot na spanooxpanenne raxo crpant,
xax Tansannx. Vponent xnpyprnuecxo nomomn n namnx noctmn ontnnnax aconmrno pasnt.
Ha onom xonne cnexrpa naxoxrcx ontnnnt c camo conpemenno rexnnxo, nosnonxmme
poornsnponart npocrar+xromnm nnn npononrt onepannn no nepecaxe neuenn, nomnmo
orpomnoro xonnuecrna nnanontx onepann, conpxxenntx c nesnaunrentntm pncxom. K nnm
ornocxrcx, nanpnmep, yanenne rptxn, noncnx rpyn nnn ncrannenne rpyox n ymn ere nx
ntmtnannx nn]exnnn. Ha pyrom xonne cnexrpa ontnnnt, n xoroptx ne xnaraer corpynnxon
n pecypcon axe nx nponeennx neornoxntx onepann, raxnx xax cpounte cnyuan xecapena
ceuennx npn yrpose xnsnn poxennnt nnn neuenne cnoxntx rpanm. axe xora n ontnnnax
ntnonnxmrcx onn n re xe onepannn yanenne annennnnra n monouno xenest, ncranxa
crepxnx npn nepenome epa, onn onnaxont rontxo no nasnannm. B entx ontnnnax ne
xnaraer oopyonannx, xnpyprnuecxnm pnraam ne ncera xnaraer xnann]nxannn, a nannenron
otuno ocrannxmr n nectma sanymennom cocroxnnn, nanpnmep, c raxnmn narnosamn, xax
npooenne annennxca, npaxrnuecxn neonepaentnt pax rpyn y xenmnn nnn nepenom
epenno xocrn, xoropt noanox oxastnaercx nn]nnnponanntm.
Tem ne menee mt npncrynnnn x paore c namnmn nocemtm yupexennxmn. Bet name
nentm tno ne cpannnrt orentnte mennnncxne yupexennx, a yenrtcx n nonesnocrn
nnepxemoro uex-nncra. Mt nanxnn nx xaxo ontnnnt mecrntx nayuntx xoopnnaropon n
nayunnn nx meroam copa rouno nn]opmannn o cmeprnocrn n nocneonepannonntx
ocnoxnennxx. Mt tnn xoncepnarnnnt n rom, uro xacaercx yuera. Ocnoxnennx onxnt tnn
trt rxxentmn nnenmonnx nnn nn]apxr, xponoreuenne, rpeymmee nonropno onepannn nnn
nnnnannx 2 n xponn, saoxymenrnponannoe nn]nnnponanne pant n r. . Hpnuem xoopnnaropy
tno neoxonmo trt cnnerenem +roro nponcmecrnnx, a ne ysnanart nn]opmannm ns pyrnx
ncrounnxon.
Mt conpann annte no uertpem onepannonntm n xaxom mennnncxom yupexennn n
reuenne rpex mecxnen o nnepennx uex-nncra, a sarem anannsnponann cxemt neuennx, xoropte
nonyuann ontnte n pasnnuntx ontnnnax mnpa. Pesyntrart oxasannct neyremnrentntmn.
Hs nourn 400 000 nannenron, xoroptx mt orcnexnnann, y 400 nosnnxnn ocnoxnennx nocne
onepann; 56 ns nnx ymepnn. Hpnmepno nononnna nponem nosnnxna ns-sa nn]nnnponannx. B
xaxom uerneprom cnyuae tnn onyment rexnnuecxne con, n norpeonanact nropnunax
onepannx nx npexpamennx xponoreuennx nnn ncnpannennx omnxn. Omn yponent
xnpyprnuecxnx ocnoxnenn xoneancx or 6 o 21 %. Heoxonmo ormernrt, uro na onm
nsyuaemtx namn onepannonntx npnxonnnct camte cnoxnte ontnnunte cnyuan. Bo npemx
npocrtx onepann xnpyprnuecxnx omnox conepmaercx mentme. Enncrnennoe, n uem mt
yennnct, +ro ro, uro nne sanncnmocrn or mecra nponeennx xnpyprnuecxoe nmemarentcrno
ncera conpxxeno c pncxom n onacnocrtm.
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 71
Kax n oxnanoct, mt onapyxnnn, uro noncmy ecrt mnoxecrno nosmoxnocre nx
antnemero conepmencrnonannx xnpyprnn. Hn n ono ontnnne ne tno cranaprno
nponeypt nororonxn x onepannxm, upenartm ontmo xpononorepe, xax ne tno n rpannnn
npononrt xoporxne paoune conemannx o xnpyprnuecxoro nmemarentcrna, urot ocynrt
cocroxnne ontnoro. Mt nponepnnn +]]exrnnnocrt mecrn ecrnn, nanpannenntx na
nontmenne esonacnocrn onepann: cnoenpemennoe nneenne anrnnornxon, ncnontsonanne
ncnpannoro nyntcoxcnmerpa, ]opmantnax onenxa pncxa npn nneennn txarentno rpyxn,
ycrnoe nornepxenne nnunocrn ontnoro n onepannn, n xoropo on nyxaercx, nororonxa
annaparypt nx nepennnannx xponn npn onepannxx, upenartx ontmo xpononorepe, n,
naxonen, nonnax nnnenrapnsannx ramnonon nocne onepannn. 3ro asyunte ncrnnt, xoropte
moxno cpannnrt c pasnoxnponxo pyne ntcort nepe nsnerom. Tem ne menee mt noncmy
onapyxnnann omnxn. Camte nyumne cnennanncrt nponycxamr onn ns +rnx +ranon n 6 %
cnyuaen, r. e. npn onepnponannn onoro ns 16 ontntx. Hesanncnmo or crpant n ontnnnax ne
ntnonnxercx xorx t ono ns +rnx rpeonann npn onepnponannn nyx ns xaxtx rpex ontntx.
Bor nacxontxo esanaepno oxastnaercx xnpyprnuecxax nomomt no ncem mnpe.
Haunnax c necnt 2008 r. n nnnorntx ontnnnax cran nnepxrtcx nam nyxmnnyrnt
xnpyprnuecxn uex-nncr, cocroxmn ns 19 nynxron. Mt xopomo nonnmann, uro neocrarouno
sanannrt nce onepannonnte uex-nncramn. Heoxonmo, urot pyxononrenn mennnncxnx
yupexenn tnn sannrepeconant no nnepennn +ro xonnennnn n oprannsontnann npesenrannn
ne rontxo nx xnpypron, no n nx anecresnonoron, mececrep n pyroro xnpyprnuecxoro
nepconana.
Mt osnaxomnnn ontnnnt c anntmn o nx omnxax, urot onn xopomo npecrannxnn, o
xaxnx nponemax ner peut. Ftnn nepeant cnat, ntnonnennte n nporpamme PowerPoint, n
necxontxo nneocmxeron n ]opmare YouTube. B onom paccxastnanoct, xax ncnontsonart
uex-nncr Fesonacnax xnpyprnx, a n pyrom, onee pasnnexarentnom, xax ne nao ero
ncnontsonart n xax nerxo moxno nce cnecrn rontxo x ]opmantno cropone. Mt raxxe npocnnn
ontnnunym amnnncrpannm nonauany nnepnrt uex-nncr rontxo n ono onepannonno,
xenarentno n ro, re onepnpyer cam rnannt xnpypr c nyumnmn anecresnonoramn n
mececrpamn. Hanepnxxa axe y nnx onapyxarcx neouert, xoropte uex-nncr nomoxer
npeornparnrt. Kaxax ontnnna onxna tna cama onpeenxrt nopxox xonrpontntx nonpocon
n nx ]opmynnponxy n coornercrnnn co cnoe npaxrnxo n npnnxro repmnnonorne. B
nexoroptx cnyuaxx uex-nncrt nyxno tno nepenecrn na pyrne xstxn. Px xnnnnx saxnnn o rom,
uro onn nyxamrcx n ononnnrentntx nponepxax. nx nexoroptx ontnnn nnepenne
uex-nncron tno pannosnauno nnepennm cncremntx nsmenenn, nanpnmep ynennuennm sanacon
anrnnornxon n onepannonno. Mt xorenn, urot nepnte rpynnt, nontsymmnecx uex-nncramn,
mornn nnocnrt n nnx neoxonmte nsmenennx, n noromy sanacnnct repnennem nx roro, urot
ntnonnnrt +ry paory n ne sarynrt naunnanne.
Hcnontsonanne uex-nncra npenonaraer onpeenennte nsmenennx n pacnpeenennn
pyxonoxmnx ]ynxnn n ornercrnennocrn, a raxxe npecrannenn o xauecrne neuennx. Fontnnnt
onxnt tnn +ro npnsnart. Mt naexnnct, uro nnepenne uex-nncron yer nponcxonrt onee
rnaxo, ecnn cnauana nx +]]exrnnnocrt onennr pyxonocrno.
n unent moe rpynnt nocroxnno tnn n pasesax, nocemax nnnornte ontnnnt na
pasntx +ranax nnepennx n nnx uex-nncron. Mne nnxora pantme ne npnxonnoct nnert raxnx
pasnnun n ocranonxe nponeennx xnpyprnuecxnx onepann. Konrpacrt oxasannct axe onee
ypyuammnmn, uem x npenonaran, a nanason nponem, c xoroptmn npnxonnoct cranxnnartcx,
tn neotuano mnpox.
B Tansannn ontnnna naxonnact onee uem n 300 xm no rpynronxe or cronnnt crpant
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 72
ropoa ap-+c-Canam. B ceson oxe ona oxastnaercx orpesanno or ocrantnoro mnpa, n rya
nentsx ocrannrt menxamenrt n anecrernxn, npnuem nnora +ro nnrcx n reuenne necxontxnx
neent. Tam rtcxun ontntx, nyxammnxcx n xnpyprnuecxo nomomn, a n ontnnne rontxo nxrt
xnpypron n uertpe anecresnonora, nn y onoro ns xoroptx ner mennnncxoro opasonannx.
Kpont n anx xponn npeocrannxmr pocrnennnxn ontnoro, a xora ee ne xnaraer, unent
xnpyprnuecxo pnrat saxartnamr cnon pyxana. Onn eperyr sanact anecrernxon, nontsyxct n
ocnonnom cnnnantno anecresne neennem oesonnnammnx nexapcrn npxmo n
cnnnnomosrono xanan. Hcnontsyx raxo nn napxosa, xnpyprn moryr nponsnonrt raxne
onepannn, enart xoropte mne ne npnmno t n ronony. Onn ne ntpactnamr n nonropno
crepnnnsymr cnon xnpyprnuecxne nepuarxn, ncnontsyx nx o rex nop, noxa n nnx ne noxnxrcx
tpt, n axe camn roronxr xnpyprnuecxne nnrt. Kaxt neuep no npemx nepeptna
anecresnonorn n mececrpt caxrcx sa crapt epenxnnt cron n naunnamr napesart nnrt ns
mapnn nx sanrpamne onepannn.
B enn narornopnrentnax ontnnna naxonrcx ne n cront nnauennom cocroxnnn, xax n
Tansannn nnn n nnncxo rnynnxe. 3ry ontnnny nyume cnaxamr, y npaue ecrt
npo]eccnonantnoe opasonanne, no xonnuecrno nme, xoroptm onn onxnt oxastnart
xnpyprnuecxym nomomt n +rom ropoe c 12 mnn xnrene, naxonrcx sa npeenamn uenoneuecxoro
nonnmannx. B ontnnne paoramr 7 anecresnonoron-npo]eccnonanon, no nm npnxonrcx
exerono yuacrnonart n 20 000 onepann. urot npecrannrt nennunny narpysxn na nnx, nyxno
cxasart, uro n nnnornom rocnnrane n Hono 3enannn nx ntnonnennx raxoro xonnuecrna
onepann paoramr 92 anecresnonora. Ho, necmorpx na nexnarxy oopyonannx, orxnmuenne
+nexrpnuecrna, nnnnte cnncxn ouepennxon n 14-uacono paoun ent, n enn, nanpnmep, x
cntman or xnpypron mentme xano, uem n Amepnxe.
Pasnnunx npoxnnxnnct ne rontxo n rom, n orartx nnn entx crpanax naxonnnct
ontnnnt, no n n yponne ocnamennocrn xaxo ns nnx. Hanpnmep, nxnmuennax n name
nccneonanne nononcxax ontnnna Cnxro Mapnn npecrannxer coo nent xomnnexc sann
ns xnpnnua n enoro xamnx, nocrpoenntx onee nonyropa nexon nasa n paone Hannrron.
3ect n 1928 r. Anexcanp unemnnr orxptn nennnnnnnn. B neannee npemx no pyxonocrnom
ntammerocx xnpypra nopa apsn, apona enx+ma, ontnnna crana mnpontm nnepom n
paspaorxe manonnnasnnno xnpyprnn n xnpyprnuecxo poororexnnxn. Fontnnna Cnxro
Mapnn npexpacno oopyonannoe yupexenne. Ono ocnyxnnaer xax npecrannrene
nononcxo nnacrno n +xonomnuecxo +nnrt (n ne ponnnct npnnn Vnntxm n npnnn Iappn, a
nnep xoncepnaropon +nn K+mepon neunn cnoero ctna-nnnanna), rax n npocrtx nme.
Fontnnna ocraercx rocyapcrnenntm yupexennem, nounnxmmnmcx Hannonantno cnyxe
spanooxpanennx, n neunr ncex ecnnarno, nesanncnmo or connantnoro craryca ontnoro.
Hpox no ncem 16 onepannonntm ontnnnt Cnxro Mapnn, x oparnn nnnmanne na ro, uro
onn no ncem noxoxn na re, n xoroptx mne ononnoct paorart n Focrone,
ntcoxorexnonornunte n conpemennte. Onaxo xnpyprnuecxne nponeypt, xasanoct, ornnuannct
na xaxom +rane. Hanpnmep, ontnte nonyuann napxos sa npeenamn onepannonno, a yxe norom
nx rya nnosnnn na renexxax. 3ro osnauano, uro nepnym uacrt uex-nncra nyxno tno menxrt.
Mececrpt, nomorammne anecresnonory n xnpypry, ne nocnnn macox. nx menx +ro ntrnxeno
xax cnxrorarcrno, xorx onxen npnsnartcx, uro nnxro ne oxasan neoxonmocrt nomennx macox
nnnamn, ne naxoxmnmncx n nenocpecrnenno nnsocrn or onepannonnoro nonx. Hourn nce
repmnnt, xoroptmn nontsonannct xnpyprnuecxne pnrat, tnn mne nesnaxomt. Bpoe t mt
nce omannct na anrnncxom, no x uacro ne tn ynepen, npannntno nn nonnmam ro, o uem onn
ronopxr.
B Hopannn paouax ocranonxa tna ononpemenno n ysnanaemo, n nesnaxomo, no
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 73
nocnpnnnmanact necxontxo no-nnomy. Onepannonnte n Ammane emoncrpnpymr onee
+xonomnt noxo, nocxontxy +ro noxa eme pasnnnammaxcx crpana. Oopyonanne yxe crapoe n
nsnomennoe, no ecrt nce, uro neoxonmo xnpypry, n yxo sa ontntmn, nnnmo, onxen trt
ouent xopomnm. ncrpernn onoro xnpypra-npaxna. On yunncx n paoran n Farae o rex nop,
noxa crpana ne nneprnact n xaoc nocne amepnxancxoro nropxennx n 2003 r. 3ro sacrannno ero
exart c cemte ns Hpaxa, ocrannn n om, n nce naxonnennx, n paory. B nocnenne rot cnoero
npannennx Caam Xycen saornncx o mennnne, n ee yponent n Farae tn onnm ns camtx
ntcoxnx na Fnnxnem Bocroxe. Ho, no mnennm moero nonoro snaxomoro, renept mecro Hpaxa
sanxna Hopannx, n on pa, uro oxasancx n +ro crpane. ysnan, uro n Hopannm na neuenne
xaxt ro npntnaer o 200 000 nnocrpannen, uro npnnocnr crpane o $1 mnp oxoa.
Enncrnennoe, uero x ne mor nonxrt, +ro xax xecrxoe pasenenne no nonam nnnennpyercx n
onepannonno. Homnm, xax x cnen pxom c pecropanom n ent npntrnx n nsyuan npoxoxnx.
Myxunnt n xenmnnt, noxoxe, cymecrnonann pasentno. Fontmnncrno xenmnn nocnnn nnarxn.
nosnaxomnncx c onnm xnpyprom-opnnaropom, xoropomy tno no 30. Bo npemx
xomannponxn on cran monm conponoxammnm. Mt axe nmecre xax-ro cxonnn n xnno. Or nero
x ysnan, uro y nero yxe na roa tna enymxa, cryenrxa ntnycxnoro xypca.
nonnrepeconancx, cxontxo npomno npemenn, noxa on nnepnte ynnen ee nonoct. B orner x
ycntman, uro +roro eme ne tno. ne nonepnn, no napent cran yexart menx, uro nnen ncero
na ee noxona n snaer, uro ona pmnerxa. Ho axe mexy ntcoxoopasonanntmn napamn,
xoropte yxe noneprnnct sananomy nnnxnnm, ornomennx n Hopannn ocranannct nmenno
raxnmn.
B onepannonntx nce xnpyprn tnn myxunnamn, a ontmnncrno mececrep xenmnnamn.
Cpen anecresnonoron myxunn n xenmnn tno npnmepno noponny. Vunrtnax mecrnym
nepapxnm, x cran comnenartcx, uro uex-nncr, npenonaranmn xonnexrnnnym paory, sect
noome nmeer cmtcn. Xenmnnt axe n onepannonntx ocranannct n xnxaax. Fontmnncrno ns
nnx ne cmenn axe nocmorpert myxunne n rnasa. Ho ncxope x nonxn, uro nce ropaso npome, uem
xaxercx. Hpn neoxonmocrn nepconan ncera tn roron orpocnrt ]opmantnocrn. Homnnrcx, x
npncyrcrnonan na onepannn no nonoy yanennx xenunoro nystpx, xora xnpypr cnyuano
ncnauxan nepuarxy, nonpannxx cner na onepannonntm cronom. On +roro ne samernn, no
mececrpa ynnena n no-apacxn nonpocnna ero nomenxrt nepuarxn (no xpane mepe mne rax
nepenenn). Xnpypr ypxnyn n orner, uro nce nopmantno, no mececrpa crana nacrannart n co
cnonamn He rnynnre! nce xe yenna ero cmennrt nepuarxn.
Hpn ncex pasnnunxx mexy +rnmn nocemtm ontnnnamn menx nopasnno ro, uro nese nmn
uyncrnonann cex n onepannonno ouent cnoono. Pas eno omno o onepannn, snaunr, na
crone nexnr nannenr, xoropt onepxer nam cnoe reno n paccunrtnaer, uro nt ne cenaere emy
nnuero nnoxoro. A noxpyr nac ecrt nmn, roronte paorart nmecre, emoncrpnpyx cnoe
macrepcrno n crpemxct onpanart onepne ontnoro.
Bpemenamn nnepenne uex-nncra ananoct nenerxo. Tenept yxe rpyno tno nam. B
Mannne, nanpnmep, na xaxte uertpe onepannn npnxonnact ncero ona mececrpa, nocxontxy
xnann]nnnponannte mececrpt c xopomnm opasonannem mornn nerxo narn paory n CBA nnn
Kanae. Cryenrt-menxn, xoropte sannmann +rn mecra, uyncrnonann cex eme ouent
neynepenno n ne mornn orneuart sa ntnonnenne uex-nncra, no+romy nam npnmnoct npocnrt o
+rom anecresnonoron. B Fpnrannn corpynnxn ne snann, xax nm npnnecrn n coornercrnne c
nontmn rpeonannxmn nemnoro neotunym npaxrnxy anecresnn.
Kpome roro, nentsx satnart o xpnno oyuennx. Kaxnm t npocrtm n xonxperntm nn tn
uex-nncr, ecnn uenonex npnntx oxonrtcx es nero, ro emy rpyno nepecrpannartcx. Hpn +rom
nnnctnart nont oxymenr n cnoxnnmymcx npaxrnxy nopo tnaer nenerxo. Hnora pnraa
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 74
satnana orpaorart uacrt uex-nncra, ocoenno xacammymcx nponepxn, xoropax npononrcx
nocne onepannn, nepe rem xax ontnoro ntxartnamr ns onepannonno, a n x ocrantntm
nynxram ornocnnact nepexno. Ho +ro nponcxonno ne noromy, uro uex-nncr cam no cee
cnoxen. Tpynocrn na camom ene nmemr connantnte npnunnt. Hmxm ouent nenerxo sacrannrt
cex ronopnrt. Hanpnmep, ecnn mececrpa onapyxnna, uro ontno ne nonyunn anrnnornxn, e
rpyno ocranonnrt ncex unenon xnpyprnuecxo pnrat n yenrt n neoxonmocrn nx
nneennx. B onepannonno xaxt neer cex no-cnoemy, n ocoenno +ro xacaercx xnpypron.
Kro-ro monunr, xro-ro nmnr noronopnrt, a xro-ro uenonex nacrpoennx. Ouent nemnornm
xnpypram tno nonxrno, xax nm aanrnponart cnoe noneenne n omartcx c pyrnmn unenamn
pnrat, axe co cryenramn meyunnnm, urot ocyxenne nnana onepannn n cnxsanntx c
+rnm nonpocon crano npnntuntm sanxrnem.
Hacuer neoxonmocrn npecrannxrtcx c yxasannem cnonx ]ynxnn n camom nauane
onepannonnoro nx mnennx pasennnnct. Or enn o Cn+rna mececrpt tnn ncxnmunrentno
naroapnt sa raxo nynxr n uex-nncre, no xnpypron on n ocnonnom paspaxan. Tem ne menee
ontmnncrno +ro rpeonanne conmano.
Fontmnncrno, no ne nce. Bo mnornx yronxax semnoro mapa nac npocro ne nycxann n
onepannonnte n ronopnnn, uro uex-nncr nycrax rpara npemenn. B nexoroptx mecrax
ontnnunoe nauantcrno ntnyxeno tno ntsnart na xonep camtx crponrnntx n norpeonart or
nnx nnepennx uex-nncron. Onaxo raxne merot mornn npnnecrn x romy, uro nmn crann t
npornnnrtcx +romy c eme ontme cnno. Mt npocnnn, urot pyxonocrno npecrannxno
uex-nncr npocro xax nncrpymenr, xoropt nosnonnr ynyumnrt pesyntrart paort. B xonne
xonnon, npornnnnxn uex-nncra mornn t oxasartcx npant, n on cran t eme onnm npnmepom
roro, uro xouercx xax nyume, a nonyuaercx xax ncera.
Hecmorpx na ouarn conpornnnennx, uepes mecxn namnx ycnnn uex-nncr esonacno
xnpyprnn cran nnepxrtcx, n nmn nauann ncnontsonart ero no ncex onepannonntx, xoropte mt
anannsnponann. Mt npoonxann conpart crarncrnxy, a x nepnyncx omo, urot oxnart
pesyntraron.
Menx rpenoxnna cyta npoexra. Mt nnannponann paccmorpert nn]opmannm rontxo sa
xoporxn nepno npnmepno sa rpn mecxna nocne nnepennx uex-nncra na xaxom nnnornom
oexre. B raxom cnyuae nmte nsmenennx, xoropte mt nanmann, moxno tno cunrart
pesyntrarom nnepennx uex-nncra, a ne onrocpountx n cranntntx renennn n
spanooxpanennn n mennnne. ne tn ynepen n rom, uro npnmenenne uex-nncra acr
pesyntrart sa cront xoporxn nepno. Xnpyprnuecxne pnrat eme ne npnntxnn x nemy.
Bosmoxno, mt nm ann cnnmxom mano npemenn, urot nce sayunrt. Menx nonnonano n ro, yyr
nn pesyntrart omyrnmtmn. Bet mt ne anann ontnnnam nonoro oopyonannx, ne pacmnpxnn
mrar n ne ynennunnann nx xnnnnuecxne pecypct. Fente ontnnnt rax n ocranannct entmn, n
nac nonnonano, ynyumarcx nn pesyntrart paort, ecnn, no cyrn, nce ocrananoct no-npexnemy.
Mt npeocrannnn ontnnnam nnmt nncr ymarn c 19 nynxramn n noxasann, xax nm nontsonartcx.
Mt mnoro cenann nx roro, urot uex-nncr tn xparxnm n npocrtm. A npyr on cnnmxom
xparxn n cnnmxom npocro, es nyxntx erane? Moxer, nam ne cronno npncnymnnartcx x
annannonntm rypy?
o nac crann oxonrt onaexnnammne cneennx. B Honone npn samene xonena na
ncxyccrnennt cycran pnraa onoro xnpypra, xoropt tn camtm xptm namnm xpnrnxom,
naroapx uex-nncry eme o nauana onepannn npnmna x ntnoy, uro nmemmncx npores no
pasmepam ne noxonr ontnomy, a nyxnoro pasmepa n ontnnne ne tno. Hocne +roro xnpypr
cpasy npenparnncx n croponnnxa uex-nncra.
B Hnnn, xax nam crano nsnecrno, uex-nncr, ncnontsyemt xnpyprnuecxnm orenennem,
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 75
nosnonnn ntxnnrt cncremnym neuenym omnxy. Otunax nponeypa npenonarana nneenne
anrnnornxon n ramype, pacnonoxennom nepe onepnoxom, nepe rpancnoprnponxo ontnoro
na onepannm. Onaxo uex-nncr sacrannn xnnnnnncron npnsnart, uro uacrte napymennx paouero
rpa]nxa npnnonnn x romy, uro ecrnne anrnnornxon npexpamanoct saonro o onepannn.
Ho+romy corpynnxn ontnnnt npnnenn cnom nponeypy n coornercrnne c uex-nncrom n crann
nnonrt anrnnornxn yxe n onepannonno.
B Cn+rne mox snaxomax, cranmax xnpyprom n Mennnncxom nenrpe npn Bamnnrroncxom
ynnnepcnrere, paccxasana mne, xax nerxo uex-nncr nnncancx n npaxrnxy ntnonnennx onepann.
nonnrepeconancx, yanoct nn naroapx ero nnepennm npeynpenrt omnxn. Ona ornernna, uro
c nomomtm uex-nncra tnn ntxnnent neocrarxn, cnxsannte c nneennem anrnnornxon n
paoro oopyonannx, a raxxe mnorne pyrne. Ho, uro onee naxno, uex-nncr nosnonnn
monnnsonart ycnnnx pnrat n re momenrt, xora nosnnxann nponemt, raxne xax
xponoreuenne nnn rexnnuecxne rpynocrn no npemx onepannn. Mt npocro crann nyume
paorart nmecre xax ona xomana, oannna mox snaxomax.
3rn ncropnn ncennnn n menx naexy.
B oxrxpe 2008 r. noxnnnnct nepnte pesyntrart. osanencx nymx nomomnnxamn
opnnaropamn xnpyprnuecxoro orenennx, xoropte crann paorart nmecre co mno. Anexc Xenc
na ro ornoxnn cnon sanxrnx, urot yuacrnonart n namem nccneonannn, oxnartnanmem nocemt
ontnnn, n copart nce annte noenno. Tom V+sep norparnn na roa na cosanne uex-nncron
no nporpamme BO3. On orneuan sa nponepxy crarncrnuecxnx anntx. Ftnmn xapnoxnpypr
Vnntxm Fepn n rpern pas nponepxn nce, uro onn enann. Onaxt neuepom nce npnmnn xo mne.
Bt onxnt +ro nnert, cxasan Anexc.
On pasnoxnn nepeo mno crarncrnuecxne pacneuarxn n cran oxcnxrt snauenne rannn.
Hroronte pesyntrart noxasann, uro uacrora ceptesntx nocneonepannonntx ocnoxnenn nocne
nneennx uex-nncra ymentmnnact na 36 %, a cmeprnocrt na 47 %. Pesyntrart snaunrentno
npensomnn namn camte cmente oxnannx. uncno nn]exnn coxparnnoct nourn nnoe, a
xonnuecrno nonropntx onepann, ntsnanntx orxptnmnmcx xponoreuennem nnn rexnnuecxnmn
omnxamn npn npexne onepannn, ymentmnnoct na ony uerneprt. B nenom n rpynne nourn ns
4000 ontntx y 435 mornn nosnnxnyrt ceptesnte ocnoxnennx, ecnn nontsonartcx name
npexne crarncrnxo. Onaxo ocnoxnennx tnn rontxo y 277 uenonex. Hpnmenenne uex-nncra
nosnonnno ne nanecrn npe 150 nannenram n 27 ns nnx cnacrn xnsnt.
Bt ymaere, uro x nauan or paocrn rannenart xnry, erart no xomnare n xpnuart
Cpaorano! Cpaorano!? Hnuero noonoro. ouent sanepnnnuan n cran ncxart omnxn,
nponemt n nce ro, uro morno ncxasnrt pesyntrar n nyumym cropony.
Hpenonoxnm, ynyumenne cnryannn oxcnxercx ne nnepennem uex-nncron, a pyrnmn
npnunnamn. Bpyr xnpyprn crann enart mentme cpountx n pyrnx pncxonanntx onepann no
nropo nononnne nccneonannx, n nmenno no+romy pesyntrart oxasannct raxnmn xopomnmn.
Anexc nepnyncx n nce nepecunran. Her, omnxn ne tno. Haoopor, n nepno ncnontsonannx
uex-nncron tno nponsneeno axe ontme cpountx onepann, npnuem camtx pasntx rnnon
axymepcxo-rnnexonornuecxnx, ropaxantntx, opronenuecxnx n aomnnantntx.
Hpenonoxnm, uro +ro rax nastnaemt xoropncxn +]]exr, r. e. nonyuennte namn
pesyntrart ecrt cnecrnne ne ncnontsonannx uex-nncra, a nontmennoro nnrepeca x nponeme.
Bet na xaxo nxro onepannn n onepannonno ]nsnuecxn npncyrcrnonan xro-nnyt ns
nccneonarene, urot conpart nn]opmannm. He ncxnmueno, uro xauecrno neuennx nontcnnoct
nmenno ns-sa +roro. Hpana, nccneonarenn nouepxnnamr, uro onn tnn n onepannonno c
camoro nauana +xcnepnmenra, no pesyntrart ynyumnnnct rontxo rora, xora n npaxrnxy tn
nnepen uex-nncr. Fonee roro, orentno orcnexnnannct re onepannn, na xoroptx npncyrcrnonann
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 76
nanmarenn, n re, na xoroptx nx ne tno. Hocne roro xax Anexc nepenponepnn annte,
pesyntrart ne nsmennnnct onn nneuarnxnn n oonx cnyuaxx.
Hpenonoxnm, nnepenne uex-nncra oxasano nonoxnrentnoe nnnxnne rontxo n orentntx
ontnnnax, cxaxem, n entx crpanax. Onaxo raxax nex ne nornepnnact. B uertpex
ontnnnax, pacnonoxenntx n crpanax c ntcoxnm yponnem oxoa, xnpyprnuecxnx ocnoxnenn
ecrnnrentno tno nemnoro, no n +ro xonnuecrno ymentmnnoct na rpert nocne nnepennx
uex-nncra, uro roxe npecrannxer coo cymecrnennoe nonnxenne.
Ipynna osnaxomnna menx c pesyntraramn +xcnepnmenra no xaxo ontnnne orentno, n
oxasanoct, uro nese nnepenne uex-nncra npnneno x cymecrnennomy cnnxennm xonnuecrna
xnpyprnuecxnx ocnoxnenn. B cemn ontnnnax ns noctmn ymentmenne ntpaxanoct
nysnauntmn nn]pamn n nponenrax.
uex-nncr ne cran nycrtm snyxom.
B xnnape 2009 r. New England Journal of Medicine onynnxonan pesyntrart namero
nccneonannx n pasene Cpouno n nomep. Ho cnyxn o pesyntrarax ncnontsonannx uex-nncron
crann pacnpocrpanxrtcx eme pantme nocne roro, xax +rn pesyntrart nonyunnn nnnornte
oexrt. B namnnrroncxnx ontnnnax ysnann o rom, uero mt ocrnrnn n Cn+rne, n camn nauann
nnepxrt uex-nncrt. Bcxope onn crann corpynnuart co crpaxonmnxamn, xomnanne Boeing n
ryepnaropom, urot nnepxrt uex-nncrt no ncemy mrary n conpart noponym nn]opmannm.
B Bennxopnrannn pyxononrent xnpyprnuecxoro orenennx ontnnnt Cnxro Mapnn nop
apsn rem npemenem tn nasnauen mnnncrpom spanooxpanennx. Kora on n pnrancxn
npecrannrent n BO3 c+p Hnam onantcon (onn ns nnnnnaropon +roro xnpyprnuecxoro
npoexra) osnaxomnnnct c pesyntraramn, onn nauann xamnannm no nnepennm uex-nncron no nce
crpane.
Peaxnnx xnpypron tna neonosnauno. Xorx sanonnenne uex-nncra ne ornnmano npemenn,
a nexoropte ontnnnt axe coomnnn o ero +xonomnn, mnorne oxnnct, uro spx norparxr
necxontxo paronenntx mnnyr. Ftnn n raxne xnpyprn, xoropte yrnepxann, uro npenaraemte
namn pesyntrart neocrarouno oocnonannt. H +ro npana. B namnx noctmn ontnnnax mt
nanmann ynyumennx no uacrn nneennx anrnnornxon, ymentmammnx nn]nnnponanne,
xonrponx sa noaue xncnopoa no npemx onepann, nenrn]nxannn ontnoro n npeynpexennx
omnountx nponeyp o roro, xax cenan paspes. Ho +rn ynyumennx ne oxcnxmr npnunn, no
xoroptm crano mentme raxnx ocnoxnenn, xax, nanpnmep, xponoreuennx. Mt npenonarann, uro
xnmuenym pont ctrpano ynyumenne ornomenn n xonnexrnne. 3ro nornepnnn roueunte
onpoct unenon xnpyprnuecxnx pnra, ntxoxmnx ns onepannonno. Hocne nnepennx
uex-nncron onapyxnnoct coornercrnne mexy yponnem xonnexrnnnsma n xnpyprnuecxo pnrae
n orcyrcrnnem npea nx ontnoro uem cnaxennee rpynnact xomana, rem mentme tno
xnpyprnuecxnx ocnoxnenn.
Hoxany, nanonee noxasarentntmn oxasannct paccxast camnx corpynnxon. Fonee 250
xnpypron, anecresnonoron, mececrep n pyrnx mepaornnxnxon anonnmno sanonnxnn anxert
cnycrx rpn mecxna nocne nnepennx uex-nncra. Cnauana nourn nce tnn nacrpoent nectma
cxenrnuecxn. Ho x xonny recronoro nepnoa 80 % onpomenntx coomnnn, uro uex-nncr nerxo
ncnontsonart, on ne ornnmaer mnoro npemenn n enaer xnpyprnuecxoe neuenne onee
esonacntm. Hs ncex onpomenntx 78 % coomnnn, uro ecrnnrentno ncnontsonann uex-nncr,
uro nosnonnno nsexart xnpyprnuecxnx omnox.
Tem ne menee onpeenennt cxenrnnnsm ocranancx. Bet 20 % cunrann, uro uex-nncr
cnoxen, ornnmaer mnoro npemenn n ne aer nnxaxnx pesyntraron.
3arem mt saann corpynnxam eme onn nonpoc: Ecnn t nam enann onepannm, ro nt
xorenn t, urot npaun nocnontsonannct uex-nncrom?
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 77
Vrnepnrentno ornernnn 93 % onpomenntx.

Fnana 8
Fepo anoxu uek-nuc1on

uex-nncrt orxptnamr nepe namn nonte nosmoxnocrn ne rontxo n mennnne, no n n
pyrnx onacrxx. axe camtm ontrntm ns nac npnnecer nontsy nonnmanne roro, n uem
xopenxrcx omnxn n neyaun n re npnronrcx ononnnrentnt xonrpont. Ho yem nn mt ero
ocymecrnnxrt? Ioront nn mt x ocosnannm +ro nen? Bonpoc noxa ocraercx orxptrtm.
Bostmem uex-nncr nx esonacno xnpyprnn. Ecnn xro-ro cosacr nexapcrno, cnoconoe
npeornpamart nocneonepannonnte ocnoxnennx xorx t npnnnsnrentno c ro xe
+]]exrnnnocrtm, c xaxo +ro enaer uex-nncr, ro mt cpasy xe ynnnm renepexnamy co snesamn
cpene pyxn, npenosnocxmnmn ocronncrna nonoro npenapara. oxropam yyr npenarart
ecnnarnte yxnnt n pecropane rontxo sa ro, urot onn nauann +ro nexapcrno nponnctnart. Ero
naunyr nccneonart n pamxax rocyapcrnenntx nporpamm. Konxypenrt ycrpemxrcx cosanart
nonte n onee conepmennte napnanrt raxoro nexapcrna. Ecnn t uex-nncr tn mennnncxnm
annaparom, mt t oprannsonann na nero cnpoc, ycrpannax ero npaxrnuecxym emoncrpannm na
xnpyprnuecxnx xon]epennnxx. Tora xnpyprn crann t yexart cnoe pyxonocrno n
neoxonmocrn npnopecrn npnop, nocxontxy nentsx nrnopnponart nosmoxnocrt nontmennx
xauecrna mennnncxo nomomn.
Hmenno +ro nponsomno, xora n XXI n. noxnnnnct raxne samanunnte xnpyprnuecxne
poort annapart c ncrannnonntm ynpannennem cronmocrtm $1,7 mnn, npnsnannte
pacmnpnrt nosmoxnocrn xnpyprnn npn nanapocxonnuecxnx onepannxx, onerunrt
mannnynnponanne nnyrpn rena nannenra n coxparnrt xonnuecrno ocnoxnenn. Onaxo ecnn
cpannnnart c otuno nanapocxonne, ro poort cymecrnenno nontmamr ceecronmocrt
onepann n oxasann cnom +]]exrnnnocrt ncero n necxontxnx rnnax xnpyprnuecxnx
nmemarentcrn. Tem ne menee ontnnnt n CBA n pyrnx crpanax rparxr na nnx mnnnnapt
onnapon.
A uro nponcxonno c uex-nncrom? Hpo nero roxe ne satnn. C momenra nynnxannn
pesyntraron nnepennx uex-nncra BO3 no oecneuennm esonacno xnpyprnn onee ecxrxa
crpan, nxnmuax Ancrpannm, Fpasnnnm, Kanay, Kocra-Pnxy, 3xnaop, upannnm, Hpnannm,
Hopannm, Honym 3enannm, unnnnnnnt, Hcnannm n Bennxopnrannm, o]nnnantno saxnnnn
o ncnontsonannn pasnnuntx napnanron uex-nncron n cnonx ontnnnax. B nexoroptx crpanax
ononnnrentno conpaercx crarncrnxa, nosnonxmmax cynrt, nacxontxo ycnemno nponsomno
nnepenne. B CBA ontnnunte acconnannn 20 mraron saxnnnn o cnoem xenannn
npncoennnrtcx x +ro xamnannn. K xonny 2009 r. npnmepno 10 % amepnxancxnx ontnnn nno
nnepnnn uex-nncr, nno npenpnnxnn marn n +rom nanpannennn. B pyrnx crpanax raxomy
npnmepy nocneonann onee 2000 ontnnn.
3ro nce noxnonnxno. Onaxo mt, npaun, tnn eme anexn or roro, urot nponnxnyrtcx
+ro nee. uex-nncr oxasancx n namnx onepannonntx naroapx annennm nno nsnne, nno
cnepxy. Ero nnepxnn no nnnnnarnne unnonnnxon, xoroptx xnpyprn ne cunramr cnonmn
pystxmn, nnn xe ornercrnenntx sa esonacnocrt n ontnnnax nnn, xoropte roxe ne n ontmom
nouere. B onpeenenntx cnyuaxx uex-nncr npnnocnn rnannt xnpypr, uro memano ocosnannomy
nnepennm nononneennx n enano ero nectma ]opmantntm. Ero paccmarpnnann xax ncrounnx
paspaxennx n nocxrarentcrno na nnunte npana npaua. Bor mo ontno, nor mox onepannonnax,
n moe nnunoe eno, xax x enam onepannm, ecnn x sa nee necy ornercrnennocrt. A xro +rn nmn,
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 78
xoropte yxastnamr mne, xax x onxen ntnonnxrt cnom paory?
C pyro cropont, ecnn xnpypr pemaer ncnontsonart uex-nncr, ro xaxax pasnnna, enaer on
+ro no yexennm nnn cxpenx cepne? Inannoe, urot nontsonancx.
Ho na camom ene nce nmeer snauenne. Hnxro ne crannn nentm sacrannrt nme npocro
crannrt ranouxn n xnaparnxax. Inannoe tno cosart xyntrypy xonnexrnnno paort n
yxpennrt ncnnnnnny. H ecnn mt nomem, xaxne nepe namn orxptnamrcx nepcnexrnnt, ro
nyxmnnyrnt uex-nncr BO3 craner rontxo nauanom. 3ro ynnnepcantnoe cpecrno, ne
rpeymmee nnuero, xpome nepeunx xonrpontntx nonpocon, nomoxer ntxnnrt px nponem,
xapaxrepntx nx ontmnncrna onepann, n ncnontsymmne ero xnpyprn yyr cnocont ocrnut
namnoro ontmero. Mt cmoxem nnepnrt, nanpnmep, cnennannsnponannte uex-nncrt nx
+nonporesnponannx rasoepennoro cycrana, onepann na noxenyouno xenese,
pexoncrpyxnnn aoprt npn anenpnsme, a raxxe nccneonart namn ocnonnte meronxn na npemer
npeynpexennx omnox c nomomtm ononnnrentnoro xonrponx. Mt moxem paspaorart axe
uex-nncrt nx upesntuantx ocroxrentcrn, raxnx, xaxne tnamr n annannn. Cxaxem, uex-nncr,
neoxonmt npn ocranonxe cepna, xax n cnyuae, o xoropom mne nonean mo pyr xon, xora
npaun satnn, uro npnunno moxer trt nepeosnponxa xannx.
3a npeenamn onepannonno npaun ntnonnxmr cornn, a moxer trt, axe rtcxun
pasnnuntx nponeyp, xoropte ne menee onacnt, uem omnxn xnpypron. Bostmem, x npnmepy,
neuenne raxnx onesne, xax nn]apxr mnoxapa, nncyntr, nepeosnponxa napxornxon,
nnenmonnx, noueunax neocrarounocrt n anonnexcnuecxn yap. Moxno nasnart eme mnoxecrno
cnryann, xoropte nnmt nnemne xaxyrcx npocrtmn. K nnm ornocnrcx, onycrnm, ocneonanne
ontnoro, xanymmerocx na onn n ronone nnn n rpyn, a raxxe na npemer ntxnnennx ysenxon n
nerxnx nnn ynnornenn n monouno xenese. Bce +rn nponeypt cnxsant c pncxom,
neonpeenennocrtm n cnoxnocrtm n no +rnm npnunnam moryr trt nxnmuent n uex-nncr xax
uacrt noncenenno npaxrnxn npn oxasannn mennnncxo nomomn. Xopomne uex-nncrt moryr
crart cront xe nonesntmn npauam n mececrpam, xax xopomne crerocxont (nnnxnne xoroptx na
xauecrno neuennx ontntx, n ornnune or uex-nncron, nnxora ne nponepxnoct). Fes ornera noxa
ocraercx ouent rpynt nonpoc: cmoxer nn mennnncxax xyntrypa nocnontsonartcx
orxptnammnmncx nosmoxnocrxmn?
B xnnre Fnrna sa xocmoc (The Right Stuff)
9
Tom Byn] paccxastnaer o namnx nepntx
acrponanrax n npecxastnaer saxar xyntrypt nerunxon-ncntrarene 1950-x rr., onnnernopennem
xoropo tn uapnts Herep. Paora tna nenepoxrno onacno, a camn nerunxn-ncntrarenn
npenpamannct n ynpannxemte npnarxn mamnn. uerneprt nerunxon-ncntrarene nornana. Or
nnx rpeonannct xonnenrpannx, ornara, ym n cnoconocrt x nmnponnsannn, uro n cocrannxno
nyxnym nemt. Onaxo no mepe pacmnpennx snann o rom, xax xonrponnponart pncxn
nnnornponannx, r. e. no mepe nnepennx n ycnoxnennx uex-nncron n rpenaxepon onacnocrt
paort nerunxon-ncntrarene ymentmnnact, n nepnocrenennoe snauenne npnopenn raxne
nonxrnx, xax esonacnocrt n opoconecrnocrt. Ononpemenno ncues n snesnt craryc
nerunxa-ncntrarenx.
uro-ro noxoxee nponcxonr n n mennnne. V nac noxnnnnct cpecrna nx ntnonnennx
ouent cnoxno n onacno paort n onacrn xnpyprnn, neornoxno mennnncxo nomomn n
peannmannn, npnuem namnoro onee +]]exrnnnte, uem mt mornn cee npecrannrt. Onaxo
nonte nosmoxnocrn menxmr ncm rpannnonnym xyntrypy n mennnne, xoropax n cnoxntx

9
Byn] T. Fnrna sa xocmoc. CH.: Am]opa, 2006. B pyrom nepenoe na pyccxn nasnanne xnnrn Hyxnax
nemt. Hpu+. peo.

A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 79
cnryannxx ncxana ntxo n epsocrn npo]eccnonana, r. e. n sect nnont noxnnxercx nyxnax
nemt. uex-nncrt n cranaprnte onepannonnte meronxn paccmarpnnamrcx xax neuro
conepmenno +romy npornnononoxnoe n y mnornx ntstnamr ymennte repsannx.
Ftno t nenpannntno npenonarart, uro uex-nncrt cenamr nenyxntmn cmenocrt, ym n
nmnponnsannm. nx +roro mennnna cnnmxom cnoxna n necranaprna: xopomne xnnnnnncrt
oxsant trt epsxnmn. Ho npn +rom mt onxnt npnsnart rem ne menee neoxonmocrt
nounnennx onpeenenntm npannnam.
3ro xacaercx ne rontxo mennnnt. Pernamenrannx no mnornx c]epax orxptnaer
ononnnrentnte nosmoxnocrn n nmecre c rem ne moxer ne ntstnart conpornnnenne. He rax
anno x eceonan c Monnmem Hapaem, ynpannxmmnm naprnepom xomnannn Pabrai Investment
Funds ns Hpnnna, mrar Kann]opnnx. On onn ns rpex snaxomtx mne nnnecropon, xoropte
pemnnn nosanmcrnonart uex-nncrt, ncnontsyemte n annannn n mennnne, n pacnpocrpannrt nx
na cnom exrentnocrt. Bce rpoe xnnxmrcx xpynntmn nnnecropamn. Hnnecrnnnonnt nopr]ent
Hapax onennnaercx n $500 mnn. Ia Cnaep nosrnannxer ]on Aquamarine Capital Management n
Hmpnxe, n ynpannennn xoroporo naxonrcx $70 mnn. Tpern nnnecrop noxenan ocrartcx
nensnecrntm n ne nasnan pasmept xannrana, ynpannxemoro ]onom, no on ornocnrcx x
xpynnemnm ]onam mnpa n onennnaercx n mnnnnapt onnapon. Bce rpoe cunramr cex
cronmocrntmn nnnecropamn, cxynammnmn neoonenennte axnnn. Onn ne sannmamrcx
xparxocpountmn cenxamn, a neyr ceptesnte nccneonannx n conepmamr ntronte cenxn na
onrocpouno ocnone, nanpnmep crpemxrcx cxynnrt axnnn Coca-Cola eme o roro, xax ocrantnte
nomyr, uro +ro yer Coca-Cola.
Hapa oxcnnn, uro nxonr n ero paory. B reuenne nocnennx 15 ner on enaer ono nnn
na nnnecrnponannx n xnapran. Tpeyercx nnnmarentno nsyunrt o 10 npocnexron, urot
npnnxrt oxonuarentnoe pemenne o noxynxe naxera axnn. Hocxasxo x pemennm moxer trt
uro yrono pexnama na ynnne, rasernax crartx o nennxnmocrn n Fpasnnnn nnn cnyuano
oxasanmncx no pyxamn xypnan o ropnopyno npomtmnennocrn. Hapa mnoro unraer, n y
nero mnpoxn xpyrosop. On moxer pasnnunrt necx pnnnnanron n xyue nanosa n npannntno
onennrt norennnan eme rontxo napoxammerocx nsneca.
Hapa paccmarpnnaer cornn nosmoxnocre, no nocne npenapnrentnoro anannsa
ontmnncrno ns nnx orpactnaer. Hpnmepno pas n neenm emy na rnasa nonaaercx uro-nnyt
mnorooemammee, or uero y nero yuamaercx nyntc. Hapa ne moxer nonepnrt, uro pyrne ne
opamamr na +rn axnnn nnxaxoro nnnmannx. On naunnaer ymart, uro na nnx moxno sapaorart
ecxrxn n axe cornn mnnnnonon onnapon, ecnn ne enart omnox.
uenonexa oonenaer xanocrt, cxasan Hapa.
In Cnaep nasnan +ro omymenne xoxannom nx mosra. Hepononorn onapyxnnn, uro
nepcnexrnna sapaorart entrn crnmynnpyer re xe camte npnmnrnnnte nenrpt yonontcrnnx,
uro n napxornxn. Hmenno n +ror momenr raxne ceptesnte nnnecropt, xax Hapa, xorxr
cneonart xaxo-ro cncreme, no+romy crapamrcx nponecrn ecnpncrpacrnt ananns, urot
nsexart xax nsnnmnero +nrysnasma, rax n nenyxno nannxn. nx +roro onn nsyuamr
]nnanconte oruert xomnann, anannsnpymr nx oxsarentcrna n pncxn, a raxxe amr
+xcneprnym onenxy pemennxm pyxonocrna, conocrannxmr nx c ecrnnxmn xonxypenron, enamr
npornos ptnxa, na xoropom paoramr +rn xomnannn, n crpemxrcx onpeennrt nennunny
nepoxrno npntnn n crenent esonacnocrn noxynxn axnn.
Cnxrtm noxponnrenem cronmocrntx nnnecropon xnnxercx Voppen Fa]]err, camt
ycnemnt ]nnancncr n ncropnn n onn ns nyx camtx orartx nme na 3emne axe nocne rex
ytrxon, xoropte on nonec no npemx xpnsnca 2008 r. Hapa nsyuaer nce cenxn, xoropte
conepmaer xomnannx Fa]]erra, xax yaunte, rax n neyaunte, n unraer nce xnnrn, nocnxmennte
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 80
+ro reme. On axe norparnn $650 000 na narornopnrentnom ayxnnone, urot rontxo
noyxnnart nmecre c Fa]]errom.
Hocne yxnna cronmocrtm $650 000, cunraer Hapa, on moxer nastnart Fa]]erra npocro
no nmenn. V Voppena n ronone ncera ecrt uex-nncr, no xoropomy on nponepxer xaxym cnom
norennnantnym nnnecrnnnm. Cam Hapa roxe npnepxnnaercx raxo raxrnxn c momenra
cosannx cnoero ]ona. On ncnnnnnnnponan n ne xaneer npemenn na ananns xaxo xomnannn
axe rora, xora raxo nponecc sarxrnnaercx na necxontxo neent. 3ror mero nomoraer emy
sapaartnart entrn, no ne nsannxer or omnox, nnora npocro xaracrpo]nuecxnx. Onn ne
osnauamr, uro Hapa repxer entrn na saxnmuenntx cenxax nnn na orxase or npntntntx
cenox. Or raxnx omnox yepeutcx nentsx, nocxontxy nnnecrnnnn ncera conpxxent c pncxom.
Hapa cunraer omnxamn re cnyuan, xora on nenpannntno onennn pncxn nnn cenan nenepnt
ananns. Bcnomnnax, on ronopnr, uro nnora ne yunrtnan yponent saonxennocrn xomnann, r. e.
ro, cxontxo y nnx peantntx axrnnon n nacxontxo pncxonannt nx onrn. Xorx raxax nn]opmannx
tna, Hapa ne yocyxnnancx ee rmarentno npopaorart.
B ontmnncrne cnyuaen, cunraer on, omnxn nosnnxamr noromy, uro cnocnr xptmy.
Hapa 45-nernn tnmn nnxenep. On poom ns Hnnn, re n ycnonnxx ntcoxo
xonxypennnn ouent rpyno nonyunrt opasonanne. B xonne xonnon ero npnnxnn n Vnnnepcnrer
Knemcona, xoropt naxonrcx n Rxno Kaponnne, n ram Hapa nonyunn npo]eccnm nnxenepa.
Hocne +roro on paoran n rexnonornuecxnx xomnannxx unxaro n Kann]opnnn. Hpexe uem
sanxrtcx nnnecrnnnxmn, Hapa cosan ycnemnym xomnannm, paoranmym n c]epe
nn]opmannonntx rexnonorn. o +rom ynomnnam, urot noxasart, uro on ymeer ocrarouno
rpesno onennnart cnryannm n ne conasnxercx tcrptm ooramennem. Onaxo, necmorpx na ncm
oexrnnnocrt, c xoropo Hapa ntrancx noorn x norennnantno nnnecrnnnn, on npyr
onapyxnn, uro mosr naunnaer paorart npornn nero, ormeuax ro, uro nsnauantno npnnnexno x
cenxe, n ne opamax nnnmannx na ee orpnnarentnte cropont.
Ho mnennm Hapax, nosnnxaer conasn, n uenonex naunnaer cpesart yrnt. Hnn, xora na
ptnxe npeonaaer menexn rpen, nponcxonr oparnoe nosnnxaer crpax. uenonex nnnr,
xax noxpyr nero nmn repxmr npntnt, n naunnaer nepeonennnart onacnocrt.
Hapa npnsnaercx, uro nnora omnxn nosnnxamr ns-sa ontmo cnoxnocrn saaun.
Oocnonannoe pemenne rpeyer raxoro xonnuecrna pasnnuntx nccneonann xomnannn no
raxomy xonnuecrny nanpannenn, uro xptmy cnocnr ne rontxo or nosmoxno npntnn. ne
Voppen, npnsnancx on, n mo xo+]]nnnenr IQ ne panen 300, xax y nero. Hapam tn nyxen
mero, ocrynnt nx otunoro uenonexa, no+romy on cosan uex-nncr na ymare.
Voppeny roxe ne memano t nm nocnontsonartcx, noromy uro, xax samernn Hapa, n
Fa]]err conepmaer nonropxmmnecx omnxn. Hmenno onn nanoxr na mtcnt, uro peantnoro
uex-nncra y nero ner.
Hrax, Hapa cocrannn nepeuent omnox, xoropte conepmann Fa]]err n pyrne
nnnecropt, a raxxe on cam. B nrore nx oxasanoct necxontxo ecxrxon. urot nsexart omnox,
Hapa cosan nepeuent xonrpontntx nponepox, xoroptx napanoct nourn 70. Ona nponepxa
nosnnxna nx roro, urot ne nonropxrt omnxy, cenannym onaxt xomnanne Fa]]erra
Berkshire Hathaway, xora ona n nauane 2000 r. npnopena xomnannm Cort Furniture, xoropax
naxonnact n mrare Bnprnnnx n sannmanact npoxarom meenn. Ho cpannennm c npetymnm
ecxrnnernem ee npntnn snaunrentno ntpocnn. uapnts Mynrep, mnoronernn nnnecrnnnonnt
naprnep Fa]]erra, yneponan n ro, uro pyxononrenn Cort Furniture nouyncrnonann xaxo-ro
naxnt cnnr n amepnxancxo +xonomnxe. Onaxo enonax cpea cranonnnact nce onee
nenpecxasyemo, n xomnannn onxnt tnn pacrn nnn cneprtnart cnom exrentnocrt onee
ntcoxnmn remnamn, uem pantme. Ho+romy onn npenounrann ne noxynart, a apenonart o]ncnte
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 81
nnoman n, xax nomernn Mynrep, part meent nanpoxar. Komnannx Cort Furniture cymena
nocnontsonartcx cnoxnnmecx cnryanne. Bo ncem ocrantnom ona roxe ntrnxena
npnnnexarentno: xopomne ]nnanconte noxasarenn, nennxonennt menexmenr n r. n. Ho+romy
Mynrep, ne saymtnaxct, ee xynnn. Ho +ro pemenne oxasanoct omnountm. On ne yuen ror ]axr,
uro n reuenne rpex npemecrnymmnx ner ncm npntnt e oecneunnann nnrepner-xomnannn,
ym pasnnrnx xoroptx npnmencx na xonen 1990-x. Cort Furniture ntanana meent nanpoxar
cornxm ]npm, xoropte npyr npexparnnn npononrt nnarexn, xora ym saxonunncx.
Mynrep n Fa]]err sapanee snann, uro nystpt nnrepner-xomnann nonner,
paccxastnaer Hapa, or nnx nnuero nentsx tno yranrt. Ho onn ynycrnnn ro, nacxontxo Cort
Furniture sanncena or raxnx xomnann. Mynrep nnocnecrnnn nasnan +ry cenxy
maxpo+xonomnuecxo omnxo.
Kax norom npnsnanannct pyxononrenn Cort Furniture cnonm axnnonepam, npntnt
xomnannn na xaxoe-ro npemx coxparnnact nourn o nynx. Ho+romy Hapa nxnmunn n cno
uex-nncr raxo nynxr: npn anannse exrentnocrn xomnannn ne saytre nponepnrt, xax nonnnxer
na ee npntnt naronpnxrnax n nenaronpnxrnax +xonomnuecxax cnryannx. Onn anonnmnt
nnnecrop nasonem ero Kyx roxe paspaoran ananornunt uex-nncr. Ho Kyx tn onee
nynxryantntm n nepeuncnnn nce omnxn, xoropte ncrpeuamrcx na pasnnuntx +ranax
nnnecrnnnonnoro nponecca: no npemx nccneonannx ptnxa, npnnxrnx pemennx, ero ntnonnennx n
axe nocne roro, xax nnnecrnnnx yxe ocymecrnnena n ner monnropnnr nosmoxntx nponem. B
nrore Kyxy yanoct paspaorart onee noponte uex-nncrt, nosnonxmmne nserart omnox
naroapx romy, uro nect nponecc tn pasenen na +rant, mexy xoroptmn npeycmarpnnannct
nayst nx nponeennx xonrpontntx nponepox.
Hanpnmep, y Kyxa tn uex-nncr rpertero nx, xora on nmecre co cnoe nnnecrnnnonno
xomano ocymecrnnxn nponepxy na rpern ent paccmorpennx nnnecrnnnn. B coornercrnnn c
uex-nncrom n +ror momenr neoxonmo osnaxomnrtcx c ]nnancontmn noxasarenxmn xomnannn, n
xoropym ocymecrnnxercx nnnecrnponanne, sa nocnenne 10 ner, nxnmuax orentnte crartn
oruernocrn n nannune nnyrpennnx saxonomepnocre. Kyx cunraer, uro moxno cnpxrart cam
oruer, no mexy orueramn nnuero ne cnpxuemt.
Ona ns nponepox, nanpnmep, rpeyer, urot unent rpynnt snaxomnnnct c xommenrapnxmn
x oruery o nnxennn enexntx cpecrn. Eme ona nponepxa rpeyer nornepxennx onenxn
ynpannenuecxnx pncxon. Bo npemx rperte nponepxn anannsnpyercx, coornercrnyer nn nnxenne
enexntx cpecrn anntm o nsepxxax n noxasarenxm pocra oxoon.
Kyx cunraer, uro +ro ocnona ocnon, n npocro ynnnrentno, nouemy nmn ne nponoxr raxnx
nponepox. Bostmem cnryannm c xomnanne Enron. Moxno tno nonxrt, uro c ne ne cronr nmert
ena, ncero nnmt nponepnn ee ]nnanconym oruernocrt.
Kyx paccxasan mne o ono nnnecrnnnn, xoropax, na nepnt nsrnx, oemana ontmym
npntnt. Cront nenepoxrnym, uro, xax ronopnrcx, xptmy cnocnno nanpout. Ho oxasanoct, uro
pyxononrenn xomnannn, paccxastnax norennnantntm nnnecropam o rom, nacxontxo
npnnnexarenen nx nsnec, nornxontxy pacnpoanann nce npnnanexanmne nm axnnn. Komnannx
yxe mna na no, a re noxynarenn, xoropte roront tnn oxasartcx n +ro noxe, ne nmenn o nx
ecrnnxx nn manemero npecrannennx. Ho Kyx nnen n uex-nncr rpertero nx rpeonanne,
sacrannxmmee ero rpynny unrart ro, uro naneuarano menxnm mpn]rom o oxsarentnom
pacxptrnn nn]opmannn no axnnxm. 49 pas ns 50 +ro nnuero ne aer, no na ce pas cpaorano.
uex-nncr ne ronopnr, uro nyxno enart, oxcnxer Kyx, +ro ne ]opmyna. On npocro
nomoraer cnennanncram trt maxcnmantno ymntmn na xaxom +rane, rapanrnpyx, uro ananns
nyxno nn]opmannn nponeen n nyxnoe npemx, pemennx npnnnmamrcx oocnonanno, a xaxt
corpynnx snaer, uro or nero rpeyercx.
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 82
Hannune xopomero uex-nncra, no mnennm Kyxa, rapanrnpyer npnnxrne camtx nyumnx
pemenn, na xoropte rontxo cnocoen uenonex. A n pesyntrare re, xro nx ncnontsyer, ncera
cmoryr nsnnexart nontsy ns xonmnxrypt ptnxa.
cnpocnn, ne sannmaercx nn on camoomanom.
Moxer trt, cxasan Kyx. On yxe mnoro snan o uex-nncrax n ornernn mne, ncnontsyx
npnmept ns xnpyprnn. Kora xnpyprn ncnontsymr nponepxn, urot ne satrt nomtrt pyxn
nnn ocynrt c unenamn pnrat npecroxmym onepannm, nm yaercx ynyumnrt pesyntrart
axe es nontmennx yponnx macrepcrna. To xe camoe nponcxonr n onacrn ]nnancon, xora mt
ncnontsyem uex-nncrt.
Kyx ne nanancx n xonxpernxy, nocxontxy ero ]on ne pasrnamaer, xax onn enamr
npntnt. On nnmt cxasan, uro nnepenne uex-nncron yxe ano xopomne pesyntrart. Kyx nauan
nx ncnontsonart n nauane 2008 r., n rontxo +ro xax mnnnmym nosnonnno nepexnrt
npnnnxammncx ]nnancont xpnsnc es ocotx nocnecrnn. Ho mnennm pyrnx
cnennanncron, ]on Kyxa noxasan pesyntrart, snaunrentno npentmammne noxasarenn
xonxypenron. Kyx ynepen n rom, uro onn orxptnn nepe nnm n ero cnennanncramn
ononnnrentnte nosmoxnocrn: nx rpy cran onee +]]exrnnntm.
Kora ]on Kyxa nnepnte nnen uex-nncr, ro emy xasanoct, uro +ra mepa samennr paory
cnennanncron, paspaartnammnx nnnecrnnnonnte pemennx. Ho on tn roron sannarnrt +ry
neny, nocxontxy nosmoxnocrt ymentmennx omnox tna ouennno. ecrnnrentno,
ncnontsonanne uex-nncron ynennunnano omee npemx anannsa, no, x ynnnennm Kyxa, xonnuecrno
nnnecrnnn, xoropte nm yananoct npoanannsnponart sa ro xe npemx, ntpocno.
Kyx coomnn, uro o nnepennx uex-nncra nnora rpeonannct neenn n nponeenne
necxontxnx conemann, urot nonxrt, nacxontxo ceptesno nyxno ornocnrtcx x npenonaraemo
nnnecrnnnn cronr nn ocrannrt +ry nem nnn npoonxnrt ee onee rnyoxoe nsyuenne. 3ror
nponecc ne perynnponancx n nocnn cnyuant xapaxrep. Kora nmn rparxr na nsyuenne
nn]opmannn ontme mecxna, onn xorxr, urot tna xorx t xaxax-ro oraua. Hocne nnepennx
uex-nncra Kyx n ero rpynna yennnct, uro xonrpont rpertero nx nosnonxer +]]exrnnno
orenxrt nepcnexrnnnte xomnannn, utn axnnn rpeymr antnemero anannsa, or rex, xoropte
moxno ne paccmarpnnart. Hponecc cran onee rpyoemxnm, no npn +rom ycxopnncx moxno tno
cpasy npnnnmart pemennx n nnrartcx antme.
Hapa n nmpnxcxn nnnecrop Cnaep onapyxnnn ror xe +]]exr. Cnaep otuno
npneran x ycnyram nnnecrnnnonnoro anannrnxa, no renept n +rom ne tno neoxonmocrn.
Hapa ncnontsyer uex-nncr npnmepno ro, sa xoropt npntnt ero ]ona ntpocna onee uem na
100 %. Koneuno, +ror pesyntrar nentsx oxcnnrt rontxo nnepennem uex-nncra. Ho on
nosnonxer, xax onapyxnn Hapa, snaunrentno tcrpee n onee oocnonanno npnnnmart
pemennx no nnnecrnnnxm. Kora n xonne 2008 r. ptnox nepexnnan cna, a axnnonept n nannxe
nsannxnnct or axnn, xonnuecrno nosmoxntx cenox pesxo ynennunnoct. 3a onn nnmt xnapran
Hapa cmor nponecrn nccneonanne onee cornn xomnann n oannn n nopr]ent cnoero ]ona
nent ecxrox. Fes uex-nncra, cunraer Hapa, on ne cmor t ntnonnnrt raxo oem
anannrnuecxo paort npn raxom yponne naexnocrn. Ioom nosxe ero nnnecrnnnn nospocnn na
160 %, n on ne cenan nn ono omnxn.
B +rnx paccxasax ]nnancncron menx ynnnxer ne crontxo ro, uro uex-nncrt moryr paorart
n ]nnancax ne xyxe, uem n mennnne. Fontme ncero menx nopasnno ro, uro npnmepy nnnecropon
nourn nnxro ne saxoren cneonart. B ]nnancax nce crpemxrcx x nsnneuennm npntnn, n ecnn
xro-ro naunnaer npeycnenart, ro ocrantnte c xanocrtm ronontx rnen napactnamrcx na nero,
ntraxct nonxrt, xax emy +ro yanoct. Hmax nex, neymax xorx t x manememy ynennuennm
npntnn, yt ro nnnecrnponanne n nnrepner-xomnannn nnn noxynxa rpanme nnoreuntx ymar,
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 83
nourn mrnonenno epercx na noopyxenne orpomntm xonnuecrnom nnnecropon. Tax tno co ncemn
nexmn, xpome uex-nncra.
cnpocnn Kyxa, nacxontxo pyrne nnrepecymrcx rem, uro on enan n nocnenne na roa.
Tor ornernn, uro nnrepec tn nyneno. Xorx +ro ne concem rax: nmn nnrepeconannct rem, uro
Kyx noxynaer n xax, no cronno rontxo emy nponsnecrn uex-nncr, xax coecennxn ncuesann.
axe n ero cocrnenno ]npme nnepenne uex-nncra mno c rpyom. Hpnxonnoct cranxnnartcx c
conpornnnennem nourn xaxoro corpynnxa. Tontxo uepes mecxnt nmn naunnann nponnxartcx
nonesnocrtm uex-nncra. o ceronxmnero nx naprnept Kyxa ne nonnmamr nce nennocrn +roro
meroa n ne ncnontsymr uex-nncr npn ntpaorxe pemenn, xpome rex cnyuaen, xora n +rom
nponecce npnnnmaer yuacrne on cam. Vnnnrentno ro, uro pyrnm nnnecropam ne saxorenoct
axe nonpoonart nnepnrt uex-nncr. Hexoropte saanann nonpoct, no o ena ne omno nn y
xoro.
Bepoxrno, conpornnnenne uex-nncry +ro ecrecrnennax peaxnnx. Hecxontxo ner nasa
nsnecrnt ncnxonor xe]] Cmapr, xoropt n ro npemx paoran n Knepmonrcxom ynnnepcnrere,
ntnonnnn ouent noxasarentnym nccneonarentcxym paory. On nsyunn exrentnocrt 51
nenuypnoro xannranncra, r. e. nme, xoropte conepmamr ntcoxopncxonannte
mnoromnnnnonnte nnnecrnnnn n sapoxammncx nsnec. Hx paora nectma ornnuaercx or
exrentnocrn ]nnancontx menexepon rnna Hapax, Kyxa nnn Cnaepa, xoropte nnnecrnpymr
cpecrna n ycrounnte xomnannn c ]nnancono n nno oruernocrtm, xoropym moxno nerxo
npoanannsnponart. Benuypnte xannranncrt nmemr eno c nonycymacmemnmn nsoperarenxmn,
xoropte sannctnamr cnon nen na xnouxax ymarn nnn cosamr ena paorammn nporornn. Ho
nmenno rax naunnannct xomnannn Google n Apple, no+romy ocnonnax meura nenuypntx
xannranncron pasrnxert n npnopecrn uro-ro noxoxee.
Te, xro ymnee, nsyuamr ro, xax raxne nmn npnnnmamr cnon camte rpynte pemennx
anart naunnammnm npenpnnnmarenxm entrn nnn ner. Moxer noxasartcx, uro saaua cnonrcx
x romy, urot onennrt, nacxontxo xopoma ra nnn nnax nex, no cenart +ro nerpyno. Ocnonnax
nponema narn npenpnnnmarenx, xoropt nonnornr nem, cmoxer noonry paorart, cosacr
xomany ennomtmnennnxon, npeooneer nce npenont, pemnr rexnnuecxne n nnunocrnte
nponemt n ocranercx npeanntm eny n reuenne mnornx ner, no npn +rom ne yer nn na uro
ornnexartcx n ne coer c yma. Taxne nmn ncrpeuamrcx pexo, no+romy nx ouent rpyno narn.
Cmapr onapyxnn nonmxnnt pasnnuntx cnocoon, c nomomtm xoroptx nenuypntm
xannranncram yaercx +ro cenart. Ho cyrn, peut ner o crnne mtmnennx. Onnx nnnecropon
Cmapr ornec x xareropnn ncxyccrnonet. Onn onennnamr npenpnnnmarene nourn c nepnoro
nsrnxa, xax ncxyccrnonet xauecrno xnnonncn. Hm rpeyercx nnrynnnx, nomnoxennax na
mnoronernn ontr. pyrym xareropnm nnnecropon cocrannnn ryxn, xoropte noonry
conpamr nn]opmannm o rex, n xoro xorxr nnoxnrt cnon cpecrna, ncnontsyx nx +roro
nnrepntmnponanne, nnsnrt na oexrt, pexomenannn n r. n. 3arem onn nocrynamr rax, xax nm
nocxaxer nnyrpennn ronoc. Kax cxasan Cmapry onn raxo nnnecrop, npononm xomnnexcnym
nponepxy, urot nonyunrt oexrnnnoe npecrannenne.
Kareropnx npoxypopt ornocnrcx x npenpnnnmarenxm c npncrpacrnem, saanax nm
nponoxannonnte nonpoct, urot ntxnnrt, xaxnmn snannxmn onn nnaemr n xax moryr nonecrn
cex n nenpennenntx ocroxrentcrnax. Hoxnonnnxn cxopee oxaxnnamr, a ne onennnamr
npenpnnnmarene. Tepmnnaropt paccmarpnnamr nmoe naunnanne xax opeuennoe na nponan,
no+romy npocro noxynamr ro, uro cunramr npexpacno nee, ynontnxmr npenpnnnmarenx, ecnn
cunramr ero nexomnerenrntm, n naxoxr emy sameny.
Cymecrnymr nnnecropt, xoroptx Cmapr nastnaer xannrant nosymntx cyon. Onn
nontsymrcx n cnoem noxoe uex-nncramn. Hccneyx npomnte omnxn n nsnnexax ypoxn ns
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 84
uyxnx npomaxon, raxne nnnecropt ncnontsymr xonrpontnte nponepxn xax uacrt paouero
nponecca, crapamrcx conmart ncnnnnnny n ne nponycxart nn onoro +rana axe n rex
cnyuaxx, xora nnrynrnnno cenxa ntrnxnr nepcnexrnnno.
3arem Cmapr paccmorpen ycnemnocrt nenuypntx cnennanncron no npemenn. Tenept
unrarent cam moxer ornernrt na nonpoc, xaxax xareropnx ]nnancncron paoraer onee
+]]exrnnno. Koneuno, xannrant nosymntx cyon. Te ns nnx, xro ncnontsyer uex-nncrt,
ynontnxmr cnonx crapmnx menexepon no npnunne nexomnerenrnocrn nnn omnox npn
nsnauantno onenxe npoexra n 10 % cnyuaen. V ocrantntx nepoxrnocrt ynontnennx panna
npnmepno 50 %.
V xannranon nosymntx cyon oxonocrt roxe ntme, y nnx ona ocrnraer 80 %, rora
xax y ocrantntx ne npentmaer 35 %. Hme, ornocxmnxcx x pyrnm xareropnxm, nentsx nasnart
nonntmn neyaunnxamn nce-raxn ontr roxe nmeer snauenne. Onaxo re, xro ncnontsyer ero n
couerannn c uex-nncramn, onnamrcx onee ntcoxnx pesyntraron.
Camtm nnrepecntm orxptrnem crano ro, uro, necmorpx na nce neocrarxn, ontmnncrno
nnnecropon ornocxrcx x xareropnxm ncxyccrnonet nnn ryxn, r. e. npenounramr
nnrynrnnnte pemennx anannrnuecxnm. Tontxo xaxt noctmo nontsyercx meroamn xannrana
nosymnoro cyna. Bosmoxno, pyrne ne snamr o raxom noxoe, no axe onoro snannx n
annom cnyuae mano. Cmapr onynnxonan pesyntrart cnoero nccneonannx onee 10 ner nasa.
Hocne +roro y nero ntmna ouent ycnemnax xnnra no nasnannem Kro (Who), n xoropo
paccmarpnnancx nonpoc nama cnennanncron. Ho xora x cnpocnn ero, ynennunnoct nn
xonnuecrno nnnecropon, xoropte nontsymrcx onee ynopxouenntm noxoom na ocnone
uex-nncron, on ornernn orpnnarentno uncno raxnx nnnecropon ocranoct npexnnm.
Mt ne nmnm uex-nncrt. Onn moryr ornnmart mnoro cnn. Onn cxyunt. Ho x ne ymam, uro
nmn npeneperamr ns nenn. Ecrt uro-ro na renernuecxom yponne, uro sacrannxer nme
orxastnartcx or uex-nncron axe rora, xora peut ner o cnacennn xnsne nnn sapaartnannn
ener. uro-ro sacrannxer nac ymart, uro uex-nncrt nac neocront, uro or nnx onn
neyocrna. Onn ne coornercrnymr namnm npecrannennxm o nennxnx nmxx, xoroptmn mt
crpemnmcx crart, n o rom, xax onn neyr cex n cnoxntx cnryannxx, xora na xony ontmne
cranxn. Bennxoe rpeyer ornarn. Bennxne nmn nmnponnsnpymr. Hm ne nyxnt nporoxont n
uex-nncrt.
Moxer, nam cronr nepecmorpert namn npecrannennx o reponsme?

BO3 onynnxonana uex-nncr esonacno xnpyprnn 14 xnnapx 2009 r. Cnyunnoct rax, uro
nem nosxe ns ntm-opxcxoro a+ponopra Ha Iyapnx ntneren opr 1549 co 155 naccaxnpamn n
cronxnyncx na Manx+rrenom c ontmo crae xanacxnx ryce. Oa nnrarenx ntmnn ns crpox,
n camoner conepmnn cranmym snamennro anapnnym nocaxy n xononte not pexn Iyson.
Orcyrcrnne xeprn sacrannno CMH oxpecrnrt +ro nponcmecrnne uyom na Iysone.
O]nnnantnt npecrannrent Hannonantnoro conera no esonacnocrn na rpancnopre saxnnn, uro
+ro camoe yaunoe anapnnoe npnnonenne n ncropnn annannn. 57-nernn xomannp +xnnaxa
uecnn Canneneprep, tnmn nnnor BBC c nanerom onee 20 000 uacon, cpasy cran nsnecren na
nect mnp.
Kannran Amepnxa
10
rnxn nosymnt repo xpnuan sarononox n New York Post .
Tenexomnannx ABC News nasnana ero repoem pexn Iyson, nemenxne rasert nncann o nem xax
o repoe Htm-Hopxa, a no upannnn on cran nontm repoem Amepnxn. Hpesnenr xopx Fym

10
Cyneprepo ns xomnxcon xomnannn Marvel Comics. Hpu+. peo.

A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 85
oparnncx x Canneneprepy no rene]ony co cnonamn nnuno naroapnocrn, a nont npesnenr
Fapax Oama npnrnacnn ero c cemte na nepemonnm nnayrypannn. uororpa]t ncronrann ncm
nyxaxy nepe omom Canneneprepa n annnnne, mrar Kann]opnnx, meurax cenart cnnmox ero
xent n nopocrxon-ere. B ponom ropoe emy ycrponnn ropxecrnennym ncrpeuy n
npenoxnnn ronopap $3 mnn sa nanncanne xnnrn.
Ho no mepe roro xax cranonnnnct nsnecrnt noponocrn roro, xaxne uex-nncrt n
nponeypt tnn ncnontsonant, xax paorana +nexrponcrannnonnax cncrema ynpannennx
nonerom, xoropax nomorna npnnonnrt camoner, xax ecrnonan nropo nnnor, pasennnmn
ornercrnennocrt c nepntm, xax nenn cex pyrne unent +xnnaxa, cymenmne tcrpo onennrt
ocranonxy, omecrnennocrt crana comnenartcx n rom, xro tn nacroxmnm repoem +roro
nnnnenra. Canneneprep ne nepecranan nonropxrt c camoro nepnoro cnoero nnrepntm, uro on
ne repo, uro yaunax nocaxa sacnyra ncero +xnnaxa, cranmax pesyntrarom xax rounoro
conmennx ncex nponeyp, rax n nnnnnyantnoro macrepcrna.
Mt, npana, pemnnn, uro +ro npnponax cxpomnocrt nacroxmero repox. uepes mecxn, xora
ncem nxrn unenam +xnnaxa, a ne rontxo Canneneprepy, npyuannct cnmnonnuecxne xnmun or
Htm-Hopxa, nce renexanant rpancnnponann +xcxnmsnnnte nnrepntm, a 70-rtcxunax ronna
pyxonnecxana nm na cranone Tamna-F+, moxno tno nonxrt, uro CMH yxe onpeennnnct n
rom, xax rpaxronart +rn cotrnx. Hm xorenoct ronopnrt ne o xonnexrnnntx ecrnnxx +xnnaxa n
ncnonnennn nm npenncanntx nponeyp, a o rom, uro Cannn ncnontsonan cno ontr
nnnornponannx nnanepon, xoropt npnopen, yyun xaerom nernoro yunnnma.
Ha +ro Canneneprep orneuan, uro +ro tno anno, uro nnnornponart nnanep n
conpemennt camoner conepmenno pasnte nemn n npexnn ontr ne nmeer nnxaxoro snauennx.
Cosananoct nneuarnenne, uro mt necnocont nonxrt peantnocrt roro, xax yanoct cnacrn
uenoneuecxne xnsnn, nocann camoner.
Camoner tn enponecxn, moenn Airbus A320, y xoroporo no xaxtm xptnom
naxonrcx no onomy nnrarenm. Annananep nsneren n 15:25 npoxnantm xcntm nem n nsxn
xypc na Bapnorr, mrar Cenepnax Kaponnna. 3a mrypnanom tn xe]]pn Cxans, a
Canneneprep npocro npncyrcrnonan n xanne. Hyxno cpasy ormernrt, uro o +roro nerunxn nn
pasy ne nerann nmecre. Oa nmenn orpomnt ontr. V Cxansa naner tn npnmepno raxo xe, xax
y Canneneprepa. On onroe npemx tn nepntm nnnorom na Boeing 737, noxa ne nonan no
coxpamenne, npomen nepeoyuenne n cran nroptm nnnorom na A320. Fontmo ontr, onaxo, ne
ncera oxastnaercx nonesntm. Hpecrantre, uro n nepnt ent cya nac naunnamr samnmart na
ne snaxomtx mexy coo anoxara. Hnn npecrantre cee nyx acxerontntx rpenepon,
xoropte nnxora pyr c pyrom ne ncrpeuannct n npyr crann pyxononrt ]nnantno nrpo
uemnnonara. Moxer nnuero ne nponsorn, no nepoxrnee ncero, uro ena noyr nnoxo.
Hepe rem xax nnnort sanycrnnn nnrarenn, onn ntnonnnnn nce xax nonoxeno, c
rmarentnocrtm, xoropax pexo ncrpeuaercx y npecrannrene pyrnx npo]eccn. Honnocrtm
orpaorann nce uex-nncrt, nosnaxomnnnct pyr c pyrom n c pyrnmn unenamn +xnnaxa. 3arem
oronopnnn nnan nonera, nosmoxnte nponemt n ro, xax onn nx yyr pemart n cnyuae
nosnnxnonennx. 3a +rn necxontxo mnnyr nnnort ne rontxo yennnct n roronnocrn nosymnoro
cyna x nonery, no n npenparnnnct ns orentntx nnunocre n cnaxennt xonnexrnn, cnocont
pemart nmte nponemt, xoropte moryr nosnnxnyrt.
Koneuno, Canneneprep n Cxans mornn t c nerxocrtm nponycrnrt +rn npnroronnennx n
ne mopounrt cee ronony. Omn crax unenon +xnnaxa npentman 150 ner. Hentx 150 ner onn
es xonna orpaartnann onn uex-nncr sa pyrnm, mnn]onann nx na rpenaxepax n nsyuann
exeronte ononnennx. Ocnonnym uacrt npemenn nce +rn nponeypt xasannct nnmenntmn
cmtcna. unent +xnnaxa yxe ne pas cranxnnannct c anapnntmn cnryannxmn, no meurann
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 86
ornerart rax, urot sa nx xaptepy nn pasy ne nponsomno nnxaxnx nemrarntx cnryann. Xorx, no
nx mnennm, manct, uro cnyunrcx uro-ro yxacnoe, ncxnmunrentno mant, snaunrentno mentme,
uem nepoxrnocrt neyaun n mennnne, nnnecrnnnonnom, mpnnuecxom nnn pyrnx nnax
nsneca, no rem ne menee onn nponenn nce nonoxennte nponepxn.
Onaxo rax tno ne ncera. Eme n 1970-e rr. nnnort nexoroptx annannnn npononnn
npenonernym nororonxy cnycrx pyxana, xax t rmarentno +ra nponeypa nn tna paspaorana,
mornnnpyx +ro rem, uro n cnoe nerno npaxrnxe onn ne cranxnnannct c nponemamn. Moxno
tno ycntmart, xax nerunxn ronopnnn: Hycrt nce ner, xax ner. Hnn xannran, +ro moe
nosymnoe cyno, n ne rpartre moe npemx nonycry! Paccmorpnm, nanpnmep, neuantno nsnecrnym
annaxaracrpo]y n 1977 r. n Tenepn]e, n xoropo nornno camoe ontmoe xonnuecrno nme sa
ncm ncropnm annannn. na annananepa Boeing-747 cronxnynnct na ontmo cxopocrn n rymane
na Kanapcxnx ocrponax na nsnerno-nocaouno nonoce. Hornnn 538 uenonex. Komannp onoro
ns nosymntx cyon, npnnanexanmnx xomnannn KLM, nenepno nonxn pacnopxxennx
ncneruepa, nocunran, uro emy paspemnnn nsner n nponrnopnponan sameuanne nroporo nnnora o
rom, uro nncrpyxnnn ncneruepa tnn neuerxnmn. Onaxo onn xacannct pyroro peca
xomnannn Pan American, xoropt onxen tn nsnerart c pyroro xonna ro xe
nsnerno-nocaouno nonoct. Bropo nnnor nepecnpocnn, xomy sanpemen nsner, no xomannp
ornernn, uro ero sanpernnn camonery Pan American, n npoonxnn nnxenne no nonoce.
Onaxo xomannp oxasancx nenpan. Bropo nnnor +ro samernn, no nerunxn ne tnn roront
x raxo cnryannn. Onn ne cenann nnuero, urot crart xonnexrnnom. B pesyntrare nropo nnnor
ne nonepnn, uro y nero ecrt npano n axe oxsannocrt ocranonnrt xomannpa n paspemnrt
neopasymenne. Hepnomy nnnory tno nosnoneno nnrartcx antme n norynrt ncex.
Crpax, xoropt nmn ncntrtnamr nepe neoxonmocrtm conmart nexn nporoxon,
oxcnxercx ero xecrxocrtm. Onn ymamr, uro, yrnynnmnct n uex-nncr, npenparxrcx n
esymnte anromart, xoropte ne n cocroxnnn cnpannrtcx c nponemamn peantnoro mnpa,
naxoxmerocx sa noontm crexnom xannt camonera. Onaxo ecnn uex-nncr paspaoran
npannntno, ro or nnnora rpeyercx conepmenno oparnoe. uex-nncr nsannxer uenonexa or
esymntx ecrnn, or ro pyrnnt, xoropo ne onxen sannmartcx ero mosr (Vcranonnen nn
]nxcarop noemnnxa renerpana?, Bonpemx nn nannenr nonyunn anrnnornxn?, Vcnenn nn
menexept npoart nce axnnn?, Bce nn mpncrt unramr ony n ry xe crpannny ena?),
nosnonxx emy yenxrt nnnmanne onee cnoxntmn enam (Ie mt onxnt npnsemnnrtcx?).
Bor npnmep onoro ns camtx yauno paspaoranntx uex-nncron, c xoroptmn mne
npnxonnoct cranxnnartcx, uex-nncr na cnyua ocranonxn nnrarenx na onomoropnom
camonere Cessna. C nnm cnyunnoct ro xe camoe, uro n c camonerom xomnannn US Airways,
cenmem na noy Iysona, sa rem ncxnmuennem, uro na Cessna nnnor rontxo onn. uex-nncr
coxpamen o mecrn nynxron, nanpnmep raxnx: yenrtcx, uro nenrnnt noaun ronnnna orxptr, a
sanacno ronnnnnt nacoc nxnmuen, n r. . Onaxo nepntm nynxrom n uex-nncre ner
norpxcammax ]opmynnponxa: HPOOHXAHTE HHHOTHPOBAHHE. 3ro oxcnxercx rem, uro
nerunx rax oruaxnno ntraercx cnona sanycrnrt nnrarent, uro xpymenne nponcxonr no npnunne
neperpysxn mosra, nocxontxy nnnor naunnaer ymart o rom, uro nomno ne rax, n satnaer o cnoe
rnanno saaue ynpannennn camonerom. Ho+romy eno ne n ]ynxnnonantno xecrxocrn
uex-nncra, a n rom, urot ynennunrt manct nme na ntxnnanne.
Hpnmepno uepes 90 cexyn nocne nsnera camoner xomnannn US Airways, ntnonnxnmn pec
1549, na ntcore 1000 m cronxnyncx co crae ryce. 3ro nponsomno rax neoxnanno, uro nepntm
xenannem Canneneprepa tno cnycrnrtcx nnxe. Iycn nnnct o noonoe crexno xannt n
nnrarenn nacrontxo rpomxo, uro +ror snyx saperncrpnponan oprono peueno camonncen. Kax
nnocnecrnnn coomann CMH, camonert cranxnnamrcx c cornxmn rtcxu nrnn es ncxxnx
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 87
nocnecrnn. Ho cnyuan, xora n annannrarent nonaamr cpasy ne nrnnt, onontno pexn.
Hyxno yuecrt, uro ero xoncrpyxnnx nosnonxer oportcx c nrnnamn, nepemantnax nx rena nourn
o xnxoro cocroxnnx. Onaxo xanacxne rycn snaunrentno npentmamr no pasmepam pyrnx
nrnn n nopo necxr ontme 4 xr, no+romy npornn nnx annannrarenn eccnntnt. Hx ycrpocrno
raxono, uro npn nonaannn raxo ontmo nrnnt onn sarnymamrcx es nsptna n nopaxennx
xptnten camonera nnn naccaxnpon cnonmn onomxamn. Hmenno +ro nponsomno c camonerom
A320, xora nosnnxna peuamax cnryannx nonaanne cpasy rpex ryce n nnrarenn, oruero nx
momnocrt cpasy ymentmnnact.
Kax rontxo +ro nponsomno, Canneneprep npnnxn na ocnonntx pemennx: nepexnmunrt
ynpannenne co nroporo nnnora Cxansa na cex n canrtcx na noy Iysona. Oa pemennx
xasannct ecrecrnenntmn n tnn npnnxrt nourn nncrnnxrnnno. He npomno n mnnyrt, xax crano
xcno, uro y camonera neocrarouno cxopocrn, urot nepnyrtcx n a+ponopr Ha Iyapnx nnn cecrt
na nonocy n Terepopo, mrar Htm-xepcn, xax npenarann ncneruept nosymnoro nnxennx.
uro xacaercx ynpannennx camonerom, ro oa nnnora tnn ocrarouno ontrntmn, npana,
Canneneprep ontme uacon naneran nmenno na +rom a+poyce. Hyxno tno npenpnnxrt mept,
urot ne cronxnyrtcx c neocxpeamn Manx+rrena n mocrom xopxa Bamnnrrona, xoropt
nnnencx n nenoe crexno xannt. Cxans concem neanno npomen oyuenne cnocoam ntxoa ns
anapnntx cnryann na A320, no+romy yxnantno rontxo uro paoran c uex-nncramn, xoropte
mornn nm npnronrtcx.
Canneneprep cranaprntmn ]pasamn npeynpenn, uro nsxn ynpannenne na cex. Cxans
nornepnn, uro nonxn xomannpa. Hn cnopon, nn axe ncxyccnn o rom, uro enart antme, ne
tno. Hpemecrnymmax nororonxa nnnoron cenana ns nnx xomany. Canneneprep cran ncxart
nnxamee esonacnoe mecro nx npnsemnennx, a Cxans onxen tn sanxrtcx uex-nncramn na
cnyua ntxoa ns crpox nnrarene n nonxrt, moxno nn nnont nx sanycrnrt. Ecnn ne cunrart
mexannuecxoro ronoca cncremt npeynpexennx o nosmoxnocrn cronxnonennx c semne,
xoropt es ocranonxn rnepnn Hapart ntcory!, n xanne tna nonnemax rnmnna,
nocxontxy xaxt nnnor tn sanxr ntnonnennem cnonx ]ynxnn n cnenn sa naprnepom, urot
ne napymnrt xoopnnannm ecrnn.
Kaxt ns nerunxon ntnonnxn cnom pont. Mt cunraem nroporo nnnora uem-ro
nropocrenenntm, uenonexom, xoropomy onepxmrcx nexoropte saaun, urot on ne
esentnnuan. Ho ecnn yuecrt cnoxnocrt conpemenntx camoneron, ro nropo nnnor rax xe
neoxonm nx ycnemnoro nonera, xax anecresnonor nx ycnemnoro nponeennx onepannn.
Hepnt n nropo nnnor no ouepen ynpannxmr camonerom, cnexr sa paoro npnopon n
ntnonnxmr ]ynxnnn n coornercrnnn c uex-nncramn. Kora uro-ro ner ne rax, ro rpyno cxasart,
xaxomy ns nnnoron tnaer rpynee. Hx camoner mor nnannponart eme rontxo 3,5 mnnyrt. 3a +ro
npemx Cxans onxen tn yenrtcx n rom, uro cenan nce nosmoxnoe, urot nnont sanycrnrt
nnrarenn, n, ecnn +ro cenart ne yacrcx, nororonnrt camoner x ntnyxenno nocaxe na noy.
Onaxo nx nepesanycxa rontxo onoro nnrarenx otuno rpeyercx ontme npemenn, uem y nnx
tno n sanace, no+romy npnmnoct npnnxrt px pemenn.
Cxans nonnman, uro nepesanycx nnrarene nontmaer manct na ntxnnanne, n pemnn sa
mnnnmantno xoporxn cpox orpaorart uex-nncr c nepeunem ecrnn n cnyuae nx orxasa. On ne
snan crenent nonpexennx nnrarene, onaxo noccranonnennx xorx t mnnnmantno momnocrn
tno t ocrarouno, urot orxnyrt o a+ponopra. B xonne xonnon Cxans pemnn sanepmnrt
nponeypy nepesanycxa oonx nnrarene. 3rn ecrnnx +xcneprt norom couryr
nopasnrentntmn, yunrtnax npemx, xoropoe y nero tno, n nenosmoxnocrt nx noccosannx na
rpenaxepe.
3axptnxn? nponsnec Canneneprep.
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 88
Btnyment! ornernn Cxans.
Canneneprep cocpeorounncx na nocaxe camonera na noy. Ho axe n +ro npemx on ne tn
npeocrannen camomy cee. Kax nnocnecrnnn nncan xypnanncr n nerunx Vnntxm Hanrennme,
+nexrponcrannnonnax cncrema ynpannennx tna cnpoexrnponana raxnm opasom, urot nomout
nnnoram conepmnrt nnannoe nnannponanne, ne nmex nx +roro ocotx nantxon. Cncrema
ncxnmuaer pe] n ptcxanne, a raxxe anromarnuecxn cornacyer nonoxenne pynx c xpenom
xptnten. nx onrnmantnoro cnycxa na +xpan Canneneprepa ntnonnact senenax rouxa. Cncrema
oecneunnaer camonery onrnmantnt yron, npenxrcrnyx nmomy sanannnannm, npn xoropom
nosymnoe cyno repxer cnoconocrt nnannponart. Ona ocnoonna Canneneprepa or
nropocrenenntx saau, nosnonnn emy cocpeorounrtcx na esonacno nocaxe annananepa
pxom c napomamn, urot onerunrt cnacenne naccaxnpon n epxart xptntx camonera
napannentno noe no npemx npnnonennx.
B +ro npemx rpn oprnpononnnt Bena en, onna enr n opnn V+nm ntnonnxnn
ro, uro nm npennctnana nncrpyxnnx n raxo cnryannn. Onn nonpocnnn naccaxnpon narnyrt
ronont n oxnarnrt xonenn, npnroronnnmnct raxnm opasom x npnsemnennm. Omyrnn yap o
noy n ynnen ee n nnnmmnnaropt, oprnpononnnt cxasann naccaxnpam, uro nyxno naert
cnacarentnte xnnert. Kora camoner nonnocrtm ocranonnncx, onn mrnonenno orxptnn nepn,
urot nmn ne rparnnn npemx na cop cnonx neme nnn ne naynann cnacarentnte xnnert
nnyrpn camonera. V+nm, naxonnmaxcx n xonne canona, ntnyxena tna ponrt no rpyt n
nexno noe, nponnxanme uepes pasopannt ]msenxx. Tontxo na ns uertpex ntxoon tnn
esonacnt nx +naxyannn naccaxnpon. Tem ne menee oprnpononnnam yanoct ntnecrn ncex
nme ns ronymero camonera sa rpn mnnyrt, r. e. sa npemx, xoropoe nonoxeno no nncrpyxnnn.
Kora +naxyannx eme npoonxanact, Canneneprep npomen n xnocr camonera, urot
nponepnrt, ne ocrannct nn n canone naccaxnpt n xaxne nonpexennx nonyunno nosymnoe
cyno. B +ro npemx Cxans ocranancx n xanne n orpaartnan uex-nncr +naxyannn naccaxnpon,
yexaxct, n uacrnocrn, uro npnunnt nosropannx orcyrcrnymr. Tontxo orpaoran xapry, on
ntmen ns camonera. Hoomeme ]nornnnn napomon n xarepon oxasanoct onee uem ocrarouno,
urot noopart ncex c not. Bosyx n nanononnny nycrtx ronnnnntx axax ycrounno epxan
camoner na nnany. V Canneneprepa noxnnnoct npemx, urot eme pas nce nponepnrt. On cnona
npomencx no canony, urot yenrtcx, uro on nycr, n rontxo nocne +roro noxnnyn camoner.
Bect nponecc npomen na ynnnenne rnaxo. Canneneprep paccxasan xypnanncram, uro
nocne nocaxn camonera xe]] Cxans n on ononpemenno nonepnynnct pyr x pyry n nourn n
ynncon nponsnecnn ony n ry xe ]pasy: A +ro oxasanoct ne rax crpamno, xax x yman!
H xro xe tn repoem n +rom cnyuae? Feccnopno, nannno nenepoxrnoe nesenne, ctrpanmee
orpomnym pont. Anapnx nponsomna n cnernoe npemx cyrox, uro nosnonnno nnnoram narn
esonacnoe mecro nx npnsemnennx. Ho cuacrnnno cnyuanocrn pxom oxasanoct mnoro xarepon,
xoropte tcrpo npnmnn na nomomt, n naccaxnpt ne ycnenn nepeoxnanrtcx.
Hrnnt cronxnynnct c nosymntm cynom na ocrarouno ontmo ntcore, uro nosnonnno
ne saert mocr xopxa Bamnnrrona. Camoner npnnonnncx no reuennm, a ne npornn reuennx
nnn na oxean, uro ymentmnno paspymennx npn nocaxe.
Ho, xorx nm yntanact yaua, nce 150 naccaxnpon n nxrt unenon +xnnaxa mornn n ror ent
nornnyrt. Cnacno nme neuro onee ncxnmunrentnoe, uem yaua, uro-ro onee naxnoe n, ecnn
xornre, reponuecxoe. 3xnnax peca 1549 noxasan cnom cnoconocrt n camo rxxeno cnryannn
ecrnonart crporo n coornercrnnn c nncrpyxnnxmn, coxpanxrt cnoxocrnne n cnoxntx ycnonnxx
n npannntno nonnmart, xora nyxno nmnponnsnponart, a xora +roro enart ne cronr. Hnnort n
oprnpononnnt xopomo npecrannxnn, xax ecrnonart n cnoxno, oruaxnno cnryannn. V
+xnnaxa tno nonnmanne roro, xax paorart enntm xonnexrnnom, on tn roron x +romy saonro
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 89
o roro, xax cnryannx crana anapnno.
Hmenno +ro tno neotuntm. Hmenno +ro onxno nastnartcx reponsmom n conpemennym
+noxy. Hmenno n +rnx xauecrnax mt nyxaemcx n namem orpomnom mnpe.
Bo ncex npo]eccnxx, rpeymmnx opasonannx, ecrt nonxrne npo]eccnonannsma n
onpeenennt xoexc noneennx. Hmenno n +rnx pamxax ]opmnpymrcx neant n oxsannocrn.
Hnora xoexct cymecrnymr n nnctmennom nne, nnora xax nexoe nonnmanne, no n xaxom ns
nnx ecrt rpn omnx +nemenra.
Bo-nepntx, cymecrnyer oxnanne camoornepxennocrn, r. e. roro, uro mt, re, xro
npnnnmaer na cex ornercrnennocrt sa pyrnx, npaun, mpncrt, yunrenx, npecrannrenn
nnacre, conart nnn nerunxn, yem crannrt ntme ncero saory o rex, xro sanncnr or nac.
Bo-nroptx, cymecrnyer oxnanne onpeenennoro macrepcrna, r. e. roro, uro mt yem
crpemnrtcx x nepmnnam snann n ontra. B-rpertnx, onxna cymecrnonart nepa n ro, uro mt camn
yem enart nce or nac sanncxmee, urot ocrnut +rnx ntcor.
Annaropt oannxmr eme uerneprt xomnonenr ncnnnnnny, r. e. esyxopnsnennoe
cneonanne nncrpyxnnxm, n xonnexrnnnsm. 3rn npecrannennx ne nnnctnamrcx n nexcnxon
ontmnncrna npo]eccn, nxnmuax mom. B mennnne mt orcrannaem anronomnm xax
nyrenonym snesy npo]eccnn, npnnnnn, xoropt aconmrno npornnononoxen ncnnnnnne. Ho
n mnpe, re ycnex sanncnr or macmraa npenpnxrnx, xoman xnnnnnncron, ntcoxopncxonanntx
rexnonorn n or snann, oem xoroptx cnnmxom nennx nx uenonexa axe c ouent xopome
namxrtm, nnnnnyantnax anronomnx npx nn moxer trt ro nentm, x xoropo cronr
crpemnrtcx. Ona cxopee noxoxa na nporexnnonnsm, uem na npnsnax conepmencrna. B xoexcax
namero npo]eccnonantnoro noneennx nnmt nspexa snyunr nonxrne xonnernantnocrt.
Conmecrnax paora +ro ne npocro xopomee ornomenne pyr x pyry, a eme n ncnnnnnna.
Ona aercx rpynee, uem onepne n macrepcrno n, noxany, rpynee, uem
camoornepxennocrt. Mt or npnpot ne ornnuaemcx nocroxncrnom n ne moxem ne conepmart
omnox. Mt axe ne moxem yepxartcx or nepexycon mexy ocnonntmn npnemamn nnmn. Mt
ne cosant nx ncnnnnnnt. Ham npanxrcx nonnsna n nocropr, a ne rmarentnoe ornomenne x
eranxm. Mt eme rontxo onxnt ntpaartnart n cee ncnnnnnny.
Bepoxrno, nmenno no+romy n annannn cosaercx cncrema ornomenn, n xoropo
ncnnnnnna xnnxercx nopmo. uex-nncr nx npenonerno nororonxn tn cosan rpynno
noenntx nerunxon n 1930-e rr., nocne uero crann noxnnxrtcx pyrne nncrpymenrt n pernamenrt.
B Coennenntx Brarax ceronx cymecrnyer Hannonantnt coner no esonacnocrn na
rpancnopre, xoropt paccneyer nce anapnn. Ero saaua nesanncnmo anannsnponart npnunnt
nponcmecrnn n art pexomenannn no nx npeynpexennm n yymem. V nac ecrt
nannonantnte npenncannx, nent xoroptx nnepenne raxnx pexomenann n uex-nncrt n
raxom nne, n xaxom onn moryr peantno ymentmnrt nocnecrnnx xaracrpo].
Hyxno ormernrt, uro uex-nncrt ne onxnt trt nensmenntmn, nnaue co npemenem onn
yyr ontme memart, uem nomorart. axe camte npocrte ns nnx onxnt nocroxnno
nepecmarpnnartcx n conepmencrnonartcx. Annanpomtmnennocrt na ncex uex-nncrax crannr ary
ntnycxa, urot tno nnno, xora onn n nocnenn pas ononnxnnct. B xonne xonnon, uex-nncr
+ro ncero nnmt nocone. Ecnn on ne nomoraer, snaunr, npn ero cocrannennn tnn onyment
omnxn. Ho ecnn uex-nncr moxer nomout, ro mt ne onxnt ynycxart raxym nosmoxnocrt.
Mt ncera onxnt trt roront ncnontsonart n cnoe paore xomntmrept, xoropte
orxptnamr nepe namn nosmoxnocrn anromarnsannn, npeynpexamme omnxn. Onn
ocnooxamr nac or orpomnoro xonnuecrna saau n yxe nsannnn or neoxonmocrn uro-ro
cunrart, a raxxe opaartnart, xpannrt n nepeanart nn]opmannm. Conepmenno eccnopno, uro
rexnonornn pacmnpxmr namn nosmoxnocrn. Onaxo nm roxe ne nce no cnny ecrnonart n
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 90
ycnonnxx nenpecxasyemocrn nnn neonpeenennocrn, crponrt ntcoxne oma nnn cnacart xnsnn
na onepannonnom crone. Bo mnornx ornomennxx rexnonornn ycnoxnxmr +rn saaun. Onn
oannnn eme onn +nemenr cnoxnocrn cncremam, or xoroptx mt sanncnm, n sacrannnn nac
oportcx c conepmenno nontmn rnnamn orxason.
Ona ns ocoennocre conpemenno xnsnn cocronr n rom, uro mt nce sanncnm or cncrem,
yt ro ontmne xonnexrnnt nme, cnoxnte rexnonornn nnn conoxynnocrt roro n pyroro.
Ona ns camtx ontmnx cnoxnocre cenart rax, urot +rn cncremt paorann. Hanpnmep, n
mennnne, ecnn x xouy, urot mon ontnte nonyuann camoe nyumee neuenne, ro xopomo
paorart oxsan ne rontxo x ncx conoxynnocrt ncenosmoxntx xomnonenron roxe onxna
nsanmoecrnonart ouent +]]exrnnno. B +rom cmtcne spanooxpanenne noxoxe na anromonnt,
xax yxastnaer onant Fepnnx, npesnenr Hncrnryra pasnnrnx spanooxpanennx n Focrone n
onn ns namnx camtx nsnecrntx mtcnnrene. B oonx cnyuaxx neocrarouno nmert ornnunte
xomnonenrt.
B mennnne mt cnnmxom ynneuent npnoperennem camtx nyumnx cocrannxmmnx
nexapcrn, annaparypt, cnennanncron, no nourn ne opamaem nnnmannx na ro, xax cosart ns nnx
xopomo ]ynxnnonnpymmym cncremy. Fepnnx ormeuaer, nacxontxo nopouen raxo noxo.
Hmo, xro nonnmaer, uro raxoe cncrema, onxen snart, uro onrnmnsannx uacrn ne neer x
onrnmnsannn nenoro. B xauecrne npnmepa on npnnonr nontrxy nocrponrt camt nyumn n
mnpe anromonnt ns uacre nanonee yauntx mamnn. Bostmem nnrarent or Ferrari, ropmosa or
Porsche, nonecxy or BMW n xyson or Volvo. B pesyntrare mt nonyunm ne npexpacnt
anromonnt, a nnmt xyuy opororo xnama.
Ho nmenno rax mt nocrynaem n mennnne. V nac ecrt nannonantnte nncrnryrt
spanooxpanennx c omnm mxerom $30 mnp, xnnxmmnecx reneparopom ncex mennnncxnx
orxptrn. Ho y nac ner nannonantnoro nncrnryra no conepmencrnonannm spanooxpannrentntx
cncrem, xoropt sannmancx t nnepennem orxptrn n noncenennym npaxrnxy mennnnt,
xoropt mor t nsxrt na cex pont Hannonantnoro conera no esonacnocrn na rpancnopre n
anannsnponart neyaun rax xe, xax +ro enamr re, xro paccneyer anapnn na rpancnopre,
nanpnmep Boeing, n no mnoro mecxnen orcnexnnart pesyntrart, xoroptmn sannmamrcx
pasnnunte arenrcrna.
To xe moxno cxasart n npo mnoxecrno pyrnx onacre. Mt ne orcnexnnaem cranaprnte
omnxn, onycxaemte n npenoanannn, mpncnpyennnn, npannrentcrnenntx nporpammax, a
raxxe n ]nnancono nnn pyrnx c]epax. Mt ne paccmarpnnaem npnunnt namnx nonropxmmnxcx
omnox, ne paspaartnaem n ne conepmencrnyem nx npeynpexenne.
Ho mt moxem +ro enart, nor uro rnannoe. Bcx nama exrentnocrt nonna omnox mt ne
sameuaem nmancon, crpaaem or neocrarxa snann n axe or orxponenntx nponanon. B
ontmnncrne cnyuaen nam xaxercx, uro nponemt pemamrcx nnmt rora, xora mt ontme
paoraem. V nac ner npnntuxn paccyxart rax, xax +ro enann noennte nerunxn, xora nnepnte
pasrnxtnann cnepxammn omapnponmnx moenn 299 n ymann, uro mamnna nacrontxo
cnoxna, uro ee nnxro ne cmoxer nnnornponart. Onn t roxe mornn pemnrt, uro nao
nonaryxnrtcx nnn cnncart anapnm na cnaocrt nororonxn +xnnaxa. Ho nmecro +roro
nerunxn npnsnann, uro uenonexy cnocrnenno omnartcx, n npnmnn x ntnoy o neoxonmocrn
ncnontsonart npocrte n nonesnte uex-nncrt.
Mt roxe moxem nocrynnrt, xax onn. V nac ner pyroro ntopa, nocxontxy nnaue nnuero ne
cmoxem npornnonocrannrt cnoxnocrn mnpa. uem nnnmarentnee mt paccmarpnnaem
nponcxoxmee, rem ontme yexaemcx n rom, uro omnamrcx axe camte cnoconte n
neneycrpemnennte. Mt snaem, nouemy +ro nponcxonr. Mt snaem +romy neny. Heoxonmo
nonoe pemenne.
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 91
Honpoyre ncnontsonart uex-nncr.

Fnana 9
Cnaceuue

Becno 2007 r., xax rontxo crann ]opmnponartcx uex-nncrt n xnpyprnn, x cran nx
ncnontsonart no npemx cnonx onepann. cenan +ro ne noromy, uro tn yexen, uro onn
nyxnt, a noromy, uro paccunrtnan nponepnrt, nacxontxo onn nonesnt. Kpome roro, x ne xouy
trt nnnemepom. Xorx mt conpannct onpoonart uex-nncr n noctmn ropoax n pasntx crpanax
mnpa, n rnynne ymn x snan, uro ecnn menx cnenenart n yrpoxart yanennem annennxca es
anecresnn, ro x ne yy ynnpartcx n cxaxy, uro ne ouent ntcoxoro mnennx o uex-nncre.
K moe ocae, x eme nenym neenm paoran es nero, xorx on nomor t nam nsexart
mnornx npomaxon. Hanpnmep, sa nocnenmm neenm, xora x yxe nnmy +ry xnnry, mt
npeornparnnn rpn omnxn n nxrn onepannxx.
V menx tna nannenrxa, xoropax ne nonyunna anrnnornxn o nauana xnpyprnuecxoro
nmemarentcrna. Hmenno raxne omnxn mt uame ncero ornannnnaem. Anecresnonorn ornnexnnct
na cnon otunte ena onn onro ncxann xopomym neny, norom ncnpannxnn onn ns monnropon,
nocne uero mececrpa oxnnna naysy, urot orpaorart npeonepannonnym nponepxy.
C nacrennoro nnaxara x rpomxo, xax n nonoxeno, saunran: Bnonnnct nn anrnnornxn
ontnomy n nocnenne 60 mnnyr?
Anecresnonor samxncx, a norom cxasan, uro ceuac nneer. Mt nooxann mnnyry, n
reuenne xoropo nnonnoct nexapcrno, n nnmt norom xnpyprnuecxax cecrpa nepeana mne
cxantnent.
V menx tna eme ona nannenrxa, xoropax npnnnnnnantno ne xorena, urot e nnonnnct
anrnnornxn, nocxontxy, no ee mnennm, onn npnnonnn x paccrpocrny xnmeunnxa n sapaxennm
poxxentmn nn]exnnxmn. Xenmnna nonnmana nce npenmymecrna ncnontsonannx anrnnornxon,
no xonxperno npn ee onepannn nepoxrnocrt nn]nnnponannx tna mana npnmepno 1 %, no+romy
ona xorena nocnontsonartcx +rnm mancom. Onaxo nneenne anrnnornxon nacrontxo otunoe
eno (ecnn nac nnuro or nero ne ornnexaer), uro mt na pasa uyrt nx ne nnenn, necmorpx na
nporecrt nannenrxn. Hepnt pas +ro cnyunnoct o roro, xax ona ycnyna, n e camo yanoct
npeornparnrt omnxy. Bo nropo pas +ro nponsomno, xora ontnax yxe cnana, n nomemart
nneennm anrnnornxon yanoct naroapx uex-nncry. Kora mt cenann naysy, urot eme pas
ocynrt nosmoxnte nponemt, ona ns mececrep ncnomnnna, uro anrnnornxn nnonrt ne
nao. nx anecresnonora +ro oxasanoct cmpnpnsom, nocxontxy ona ne npncyrcrnonana npn
nepnom ocyxennn +ro nponemt.
Tpertx omnxa cnxsana c 60-nerne xenmnno, xoropo x onxen tn yannrt nononnny
mnronnno xenest n cnxsn c yrposo paxa. V nannenrxn tno mnoxecrno xponnuecxnx
saonenann, n, urot epxart nx no xonrponem, rpeonancx ontmo accoprnmenr nexapcrn.
Ona mnoro ner xypnna, no neanno pocnna. Ha nepnt nsrnx, xenmnna uyncrnonana cex
ocrarouno xopomo morna, nanpnmep, nonxrtcx na na necrnnuntx nponera es otmxn n
one n rpyn. Onaxo npn nepno ncrpeue c anecresnonorom ona ncnomnnna, uro nocne nyx
npetymnx onepann y nee nosnnxann nponemt c txannem n e n reuenne necxontxnx neent
npnxonnoct nontsonartcx oma xncnopono noymxo. Onaxt xenmnna axe nexana n
peannmannonno nanare.
3ro tno ceptesno nponemo. Anecresnonor snan npetcropnm nannenrxn, no x
ocranancx n neneennn o rex nop, noxa mt ne orpaorann uex-nncr. Anecresnonor cnpocnn menx,
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 92
nouemy x nnannpym npetnanne ontno n peannmannonno nanare rontxo n reuenne necxontxnx
uacon n ent onepannn, ecnn pantme y nee tnn ceptesnte nponemt c txannem.
Kaxne nponemt? ynnnncx x.
H ryr x ysnan nce noponocrn. Mt pemnnn nonanmart xenmnny n ontnnne noontme,
a xpome roro, ncnontsonart nnranxropt no npemx n nocne onepannn, urot npeornparnrt
nponemt c txannem. Bce cpaorano ornnuno, n e axe ne norpeonanoct noanart xncnopo.
Kaxo t pyrnnno nn tna onepannx, ontnte ncera uem-ro nenoxoxn pyr na pyra. Ho
npn ncnontsonannn uex-nncra nam yaercx ntxnnxrt pasnnunte anneprnn na nexapcrna,
nponemt c oopyonannem, omnxn c nexapcrnamn nnn c mapxnponxo opasnon noncnn. Mt
crann nyume nnannponart onepannn n rmarentnee roronnnnct x npnemy ontntx. axe ne snam,
cxontxo ceptesntx nonpocon morno t nporn mnmo namero nnnmannx n npnnecrn x
ocnoxnennxm, ecnn t ne uex-nncrt. Ho n onn nonnocrtm ne samnmann or omnox. Otuno mt
npoxnnxnn nrentnocrt n nnnmanne, naroapx uemy npeynpexann xaxne-ro nponemt. Ho re,
uro mt nponycxann, mornn npnnecrn x ocnoxnennxm.
V menx tn cnyua, xora uex-nncr cnac ontnomy xnsnt. Hexro Xarepman, xax mt yem
ero nastnart, nannenr n nospacre 53 ner, oren nonx ere n pyxononrent ono ns mecrntx
xomnann, tn ocrannen nx yanennx npanoro nanoueunnxa n cnxsn c rem, uro nnyrpn nero
pasnnnanact ouent neotunax onyxont no nasnannem ]eoxpomonnroma. Onyxonn raxoro rnna
npnnoxr x npocy onacntx yponne apenannna, n yannrt nx onontno cnoxno. Bcrpeuamrcx
onn pexo, no n nocnenne rot y menx nosnnx nnrepec x +noxpnnno xnpyprnn, n xoropo x
npnopen onpeenennt ontr. Ha ceronxmnn ent x yannn npnmepno 40 onyxone c
nanoueunnxon es xnpyprnuecxnx ocnoxnenn. Ho+romy, xora Xarepman npnmen xo mne na
xoncyntrannm, x cunran, uro cmory emy nomout. Ho pncx ocnoxnennx ncera cymecrnyer.
oxcnnn, uro ocnonnax onacnocrt cnxsana c orenennem nanoueunnxa or nono nent
ocnonnoro cocya, uepes xoropt xpont nosnpamaercx x cepny. Ecnn nanecrn nonpexenne
nono nene, ro +ro moxer npnnecrn x yrpoxammemy xnsnn xponoreuennm. Ho nepoxrnocrt raxo
rpanmt, xax x sanepnn nannenra, tna mana.
Kora rt naxonmtcx n onepannonno, ro xnpyprnuecxoe nmemarentcrno moxer nno
saxonunrtcx ocnoxnennem, nno ner. B annom cnyuae ono nosnnxno. enan
nanapocxonnuecxym onepannm n ntcnooxan c nomomtm nncrpymenron onyxont, nanmax ee
uepes nneomonnrop, na xoropt noananoct nsopaxenne c xamept, nneenno n reno nannenra.
Bce mno nopmantno. Mne yanoct npnnonxrt n oronnnyrt neuent, no xoropo x onapyxnn
mxrxym xenronarym maccy, nanomnnammym xenrox cnapennoro nxpyrym xna. cran orenxrt
ee, n xorx +ra paora rpeonana mnoro cnn, ocoo rpyno ee nasnart nentsx. yxe nourn
orennn onyxont, xax npyr cenan ro, uero nnxora ne enan, nporxnyn nonym neny.
3ro tna xaracrpo]a. C raxnm xe ycnexom x mor t nporxnyrt cepne nannenra. Hourn ncx
ero xpont ncero sa 60 cexyn ntnnnact n pmmnym nonocrt. , ne repxx npemenn, ncxptn
rpynym xnerxy n xnnor nacrontxo mnpoxo, nacxontxo mor. Horom nsxn n pyxn cepne n cran
enart npxmo maccax: pas, na, rpn naxarne, pas, na, rpn naxarne, urot mosr nannenra ne
ocrancx es xponn. Homoranmn mne opnnarop noepxnnan annenne n nono nene, urot
ymentmnrt xponoreuenne. Ho no peaxnnn cepna n monx pyxax x nonxn, uro ono cnaeer.
yxe pemnn, uro nce xonueno, uro mt nnxora ne ntnesem Xarepmana ns onepannonno
xnntm n uro x ero ynn. Ho nepe onepanne mt orpaartnann uex-nncr. Kora x omen o
mecra, re mne nyxno tno onpeennrt, xaxoe xonnuecrno xponn moxer nonaonrtcx nx
nepennnannx, ro ornernn, uro otuno ne onycxam ontmnx xpononorept n uro, xax npannno,
nannenr repxer ne ontme 100 xy. mn xponn. tn ynepen n cee. roronnncx x +ro onepannn,
n no+romy oannn, uro onyxont npnxara x nono nene, ncnecrnne uero cymecrnyer xax
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 93
mnnnmym reopernuecxax nepoxrnocrt ceptesno xpononorepn. Mececrpa nocnpnnxna mon cnona
xax npnxas x ecrnnm n saxasana uertpe ennnnt +pnrponnrapno macct, xax ona norom
cxasana, na ncxxn cnyua. B anxe xponn nce nororonnnn, n rontxo ono +ro cnacno nannenry
xnsnt.
He mentmee nosecrnne, uem cam uex-nncr, na nac oxasana cnxsannax c nnm ncnnnnnna.
Ha momenr nauana onepannn ns ncex npncyrcrnonanmnx (anecresnonor, nomorammax emy
mececrpa, xnpypr-opnnarop, onepannonnax cecrpa, xnpyprnuecxax cecrpa, cryenr-menx) x o
+roro paoran rontxo c nymx, a xopomo snan nnmt opnnaropa. Ho xora mt nce npecrannnnct
Aryn Ianane, xnpypr, Pnu Fa]]op, xnpypr-opnnarop, Ctm Tnapn, mececrpa, ro nonxnn,
uro c ontmnm nnnmannem ornocnmcx pyr x pyry. Mt nponepnnn npannntnocrt ]amnnnn
nannenra na nenrn]nxannonnom pacnere n onpeennnnct c rem, na xaxom nanoueunnxe
enaem onepannm. Anecresnonor nornepnn, uro y nero nnxaxnx nponem ne npennnrcx. B
raxom xe yxe ornernnn mececrpt. Mt nponepnnn, nnonnnct nn nannenry anrnnornxn n na
mecre nn rennoe oexno. Ha norax y ontnoro tnn naynnte canorn, urot npeornparnrt
opasonanne rpomon. Mt nomnn n onepannonnym xax nesnaxomnt, no x momenry, xora
cxantnent xocnyncx xoxn nannenra, yxe tnn enno xomano.
B pesyntrare, xora x onycrnn nep]opannm n nannex na ncex nac ey, xaxt snan, uro
enart. Xnpyprnuecxax cecrpa +xcrpenno norpeonana ononnnrentnt nepconan n nourn
mrnonenno nonyunna xpont ns anxa xponn. Anecresnonor sanxncx nepennnannem, ncnontsyx ony
ynaxonxy sa pyro. Ftnn npenpnnxrt mept x nonyuennm sarpeonannoro mno oopyonannx.
nonpocnn narn cocyncroro xnpypra, urot ror nomor anecresnonory pacmnpnrt
nnyrpnnennt ocryn, a raxxe nocroxnno nn]opmnponart anx xponn o namnx norpenocrxx.
Mt xax xomana +xonomnnn moe npemx n npemx ontnoro. 3a nect nepno onepannn emy nnnnn 30
naxeron xponn. Xarepman norepxn n rpn pasa ontme xponn, uem coepxanoct n ero oprannsme o
onepannn. Cnex sa noxasannxmn xponxnoro annennx n maccnpyx nanpxmym cepne, mt
onnnct nopmantnoro xponoopamennx. Cocyncrt xnpypr n x nonyunnn ocrarouno npemenn,
urot saenart nonym neny. nouyncrnonan, xax cepne nannenra cnona sannoct. Mt
nanoxnnn mnt, saxonunnn onepannm, n Xarepman ocrancx xnn.
He mory cxasart, uro nx nannenra nce oomnoct es nocnecrnn. Hocxontxy n reuenne
nnrentnoro nepnoa ero xponxnoe annenne ocrananoct nnsxnm, y nannenra nonpenncx
spnrentnt nepn, n on ocnen na onn rnas. Xarepman mnoro ne nponexan no xncnopono
macxo n necxontxo mecxnen ne mor paorart. Mne tno ne no cee or roro, uepes uro x sacrannn
ero nporn. Xorx x nsnnnnncx nepe nannenrom n nocroxnno ero nanman, npomno mnoro
npemenn, npexe uem xo mne nepnynact ynepennocrt xnpypra. yxe ne mor enart
apenan+xromnm, ne ymax o +rom cnyuae. B xaxom-ro cmtcne +ro tno xopomo. axe
crapancx yconepmencrnonart xnpyprnuecxym rexnnxy, urot nonnocrtm ncxnmunrt nep]opannm
nono nent n nnxora ontme ne nonropxrt raxnx omnox.
Hpana, nmenno naroapx onepannn, xoropym x cenan Xarepmany, x nonxn, na uro
cnocont uex-nncrt. Mne axe ne xouercx ymart o rom, uem t morna saxonunrtcx onepannx.
ne mory cee npecrannrt, xax t x ntmen ns onepannonno n coomnn ero xene o rom, uro ee
myx ymep.
He rax anno x pasronapnnan c Xarepmanom, xoropt ouent yauno npoan cnom xomnannm
n ceuac sannmaercx pacxpyrxo pyro ]npmt. On paoraer rpn nx n neenm n axe nonr
mamnny.
Xarepman npnsnancx, uro c onnm rnasom emy xnrt rpynonaro, no on x +romy yxe npnntx,
nn o uem ne coxaneer n nn na xoro ne snnrcx. nx menx +ro camoe rnannoe. uenonex pa yxe romy,
uro ocrancx xnn. cnpocnn, mory nn paccxasart +ry ncropnm pyrnm nmxm. Koneuno,
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 94
ornernn Xarepman. Fyy rontxo pa.

Rpunoxeuue


Hpnuepm uex-nnc1on


nept nepenero rpysonoro nmxa


A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 95

Orxas nnrarenx n nonere


uex-nncr xnpyprnuecxo esonacnocrn
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 96


uex-nncr nx paspaorxn uex-nncron

Ru1epa1ypa


Hpencnonne

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Infarction, New England Journal of Medicine 355 (2006): 230820.
E. A. McGlynn et al., Rand Research Brief: The First National Report Card on Quality of
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 97
Health Care in America, Rand Corporation, 2006.
American Bar Association, Profile of Legal Malpractice Claims, 20042007 (Chicago:
American Bar Association, 2008).

Inana 1. Hponeua ncxnmun1entnon cnoanoc1n

M. Thalmann, N. Trampitsch, M. Haberfellner, et al., Resuscitation in Near Drowning with
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation, Annals of Thoracic Surgery 72 (2001): 6078.
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A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 98
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Inana 4. Hen

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Inana 5. Hepnan nonm1xa

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A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 99
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Inana 6. mapnxa uex-nnc1on

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Inana 7. Tec1nponanne

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Inana 8. Iepon +noxn uex-nnc1on

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Transportation Safety Board, Public Hearing, J an. 9, 2009.

Bnaropapuoc1u

3ra xnnra noxnnnact naroapx rpem xareropnxm nme: rem, xro nomoran ee nncart, rem,
xro noennncx nexmn, n rem, utx noepxxa nosnonnna nonnornrt +rn nen n peantnocrt.
Hocxontxy n ne ncnontsonant pesyntrart nccneonann n onacrxx, cnennanncrom n xoroptx x
ne xnnxmct, ro xonnuecrno rex nme, xomy x xort uem-ro oxsan, ouent nennxo. Ho es ncex nnx
xnnra nnxora t ne tna saxonuena.
Hpexe ncero x oxsan rem, xro onen mon cnyuante mtcnn o omnxax n uex-nncre o
yponnx xnnrn. Mo arenr Tnna Fenner cpasy nonxna ncm naxnocrt yyme xnnrn, cronno e
rontxo osnaxomnrtcx c monmn namerxamn, cnxsanntmn c uex-nncrom. Mo peaxrop ns xypnana
The New Yorker, nesamennmt Ienpn uanep, noxasan, xax mne nyume crpyxrypnponart
uepnonnx, a monm mtcnxm npnart ontmym crponocrt. Hopa Bonxepp, necrxmax n
neycrannax nomomnnna n monx nccneonannxx, namna nourn nce ncrounnxn, nponepnna nce
npnnonmte mno ]axrt, anana xpane naxnte conert n ne nosnonnna mne conrart. Pocnnn
Bnocc cenana rmarentnym ntunrxy n oxonuarentnoe peaxrnponanne. B nsarentcrne
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 101
Metropolitan Books Pnna Xoxepman noxnonenno n co snannem ena unrana rexcr na ncex +ranax
cosannx xnnrn n ennnact co mno cnonmn coneramn. Ho ontme ncero x oxsan nsarenm Cape
Fepmrent, c xoropo x corpynnuam yxe ontme 10 ner. 3ra ymnax, xecrxax n neyromnmax
xenmnna npopaorana ne onn mo uepnonnx, nomorna mne saocrpnrt xaxt pasen n cnacna
menx or mnorouncnenntx omnox n ntope rona n opasa mtmnennx. Fonee roro, ona c
ynnnrentno +]]exrnnnocrtm cnenna sa ncemn +ranamn nsannx xnnrn.
uro xacaercx camnx ne n paccxason ns xnsnn, +rn nen nornepxammnx, ro x
ecxoneuno naroapen sa nnx mnornm n mnornm. onant Fepnnx nayunn menx cncremnomy
noxoy n orxptn mne rnasa na nosmoxnocrn uex-nncron n mennnne. Hnrep Hpononocr ne
rontxo npeocrannn naxnemn ncrounnx ne, nsnoxenntx n ero ocnonononarammem rpye no
nnrencnnno repannn, no raxxe paccxasan mne, xax uex-nncrt moryr npnnecrn nontsy yxnantno
ncem. Hmcten Hnn, +nn Ferc n Fepnnx tnn remn, xro npenoxnn mom xannarypy nx
paort no Bcemnpno oprannsannn spanooxpanennx. C+p Hnam onantcon, nocnannnx BO3 no
nonpocam esonacnocrn nannenron, cranmn nnnnnaropom mexynapono nporpammt no
coxpamennm cmepre n pesyntrare xnpyprnuecxnx nmemarentcrn, onycrnn menx x pyxonocrny
+ro nporpammo, a sarem noxasan, xax ono na ene ocymecrnnxercx n omecrnennom
spanooxpanennn. Honnn unnnn, ncnonnnrentnt npexrop BO3 no nonpocam esonacnocrn
nannenron, orxnnxnynact na moe npenoxenne n oxasana cnom ncxnmunrentnym
opoconecrnocrt n +]]exrnnnocrt npn ntnonnennn nporpammt, xoropax ceronx peannsyercx n
ecxrxax crpan.
Ienepantnt npexrop BO3 Mapraper uan, a raxxe ee conernnx n Cmnr, samecrnrent
renepantnoro npexropa +nn Xeman n nomomnnx renepantnoro npexropa Tnm 3nanc roxe
oxasann mne neonennmym nomomt. Mox ocoax naroapnocrt xepanty snxany, c xoroptm x
nourn exenenno paoram nocnenne rpn roa, Bnnten Anan, Xnnapn Koarc, Apmopent anxan,
Cyon Xnan, Xenen Xtms, Anrene Hacxo+p, Kn+p Hemep, Arnecce Heonaxoc, yrnacy Hony,
H+ry Maprnny, Kpncrnn Cren, unone Crmapr-Mnnnc n xynnn Cropp. B xomnannn Boeing
ann+nt Fypman oxasancx npexpacntm naprnepom, c xoroporo nauannct paspaorxa,
recrnponanne n nnepenne xnnnnuecxnx uex-nncron nx raxnx c]ep, xax esonacnoe
eropoxenne, xonrpont sa xnmeuntmn nn]exnnxmn, xpnsncnte cnryannn n onepannonno,
nanmenne sa ontntmn rpnnnom H1N1 n nx pyrnx. xemn n Kpncro]ep Kynep-Xon, Poman
3mmanm+nt, Mana Iaonxap, Onnnep Xapman, +nn Ipnncnen n Hen n Hnnn Hn tnn cpen rex,
xro nonpemx menx noepxnnan.
B Iapnapcxo mxone omecrnennoro spanooxpanennx croponnnxamn uex-nncron
oxasannct Vnntxm Fepn, Tom Basep n Anexc Xenc. Hporpamma BO3 no esonacnocrn n
xnpyprnn, xoropym x onnctnam n +ro xnnre, no mnorom onnpanact na Aent-Xan Fpesara,
nopa Apy apsn, E. H+ruen ennnnxepa, Teoopa 3posy n Cnxnpa xose]a, a raxxe na
Hacnnenne Kaarana, Mapn Hannran, Anana Mepn, Kpnmny Myprn, Pnuapa Pesnnxa n Fpaca
Tenopa, xoropte sannmannct nenocpecrnenno nccneonarentcxo paoro na noctmn namnx
oexrax. Hpnnomy naroapnocrt Fpmcy Fappaxno, Hcxanepy Caexy, Maprnny Maxapn n
nte Hnre pyxononrenxm name nayuno-xoncyntrannonno rpynnt; Maprnny uneruepy n
nopy Hapenpe Harenm ns Hannonantnoro arenrcrna no esonacnocrn nannenron n
Bennxopnrannn, a raxxe mnoxecrny corpynnxon BO3, paoranmnx na nponemo esonacno
xnpyprnn; Anexcy Appnara, Anxene Faep, Kennn Fepnte, Fpnxepy Kpery, Peuen aep,
Hpnx ecan, Hnsn 3moncon, Hmxe uanxy, Crmapry Hnncnny, Cxorry Perenoreny n monm
xonneram xnpypram ns Oennennoro nenrpa Fpnr+m n Henrpa xencxoro sopontx, a raxxe
uona Maxaprypon.
Btpaxam cnon ncxpennmm npnsnarentnocrt ncem +xcnepram, nasnanntm n +ro xnnre, sa
Ofpepakfupoean u onynukoean ua cafe : PRESSI ( HERSON )
A1yn Ianane: Hex-nnc1. Kax nseaa1t rnynmx omnox, neymnx x qa1antnmu nocnec1nnnu 102
nx opory n repnenne npn oxasannn mne nomomn n cnonx onacrxx. Xouy eme nasnart
xypnanncra xonarana Kana, xoropt orxptn mne nepn n mnp crponrentcrna ntcorntx sann;
aruy Heonapy n Apnonty Xoynrry, xoropte paccxasann mne npo yparan Karpnna; Hynto
Annecy n 3npm 3epry nonapam-coycnnxam ns pecropana Rialto, nosnonnnmnm mne
nroprnyrtcx na nx xyxnm; Rxnny Xnnny, xoropt ornpannn mne paory xe]]a Cmapra;
a raxxe Mapxycy Cemeny nccneonarenm ns moe rpynnt, xoropt anannsnponan annte,
nonyuennte ns nonnxnnnnuecxoro nenrpa Iapnapcxn ananrap n nnnmcrpnpymmne ncm
cnoxnocrt xnnnnuecxo paort, a raxxe nannonantnym crarncrnxy no cmeprnocrn n xnpyprnn.
K+rn Tomncon nomorna mne c anannsom n nponepxo anntx, ncnontsonanntx npn nanncannn
mno crartn uex-nncr nx xypnana The New Yorker , ns xoropo nnocnecrnnn ntpocna +ra
xnnra.
Haxonen, mt omnn o rex, es xoro mo nncarentcxn rpy, nccneonannx n xnpyprnx
tnn t nenosmoxnt. 3ro mo amnnncrparnnnt npexrop 3nnsaer Mopse, oxasanmax cnom
nesamennmocrt, ncera ocranaxct cnoxono, oxastnax mne xpyrnocyrounym nomomt n anax
neonennmte conert; Maxn 3nnnep, saneymmn monm xnpyprnuecxnm orenennem n ontnnne
Oennennoro nenrpa Fpnr+m n Henrpa xencxoro sopontx; Apnn 3ncren, exan ]axyntrera
oprannsannn spanooxpanennx n Iapnapcxo mxone omecrnennoro spanooxpanennx, oxasann
mne nomomt npn peannsannn annoro npoexra, xax n npn peannsannn mnornx pyrnx npoexron,
ocymecrnnenntx n nocnenn ecxrox ner. +nn Pemnnx, peaxrop xypnana The New Yorker ,
tn xo mne ncera op, nnnmarenen n nce +ro npemx nnxora oo mne ne satnan. ouent pa,
uro na moem nyrn noncrpeuannct raxne npexpacnte nmn.
Ho nanonee naxnt nx menx ne nocnenne rpynnt. 3ro mon nannenrt xax re, xro
nosnonnn mne paccxasart o nnx, rax n re, xro npocro onepnn mne cnoe soponte. Hm x oxsan
cnonm ontrom ontme, uem xomy-nno. Kpome roro, y menx ecrt cemtx: mox xena K+rnnn Xocon
n ern Xanrep, X+rrn n Vonxep. Hmenno nm ontme ncero ocrananoct or monx nce npemx
menxmmnxcx nnanon n xenann. Ho onn ncera nomorann mne narn npemx nx nanncannx moe
paort, yuacrnonann n ne n nanomnnann mne, uro +ro eme ne nce. Mox naroapnocrt nm
esmepna.

O an1ope

Aryn Ianane anrop xnnr Hyume (Better) n Ocnoxnennx (Complications). On naypear
uona Maxaprypon, cnennanncr no ome n +noxnpyprnn n oennennom nenrpe Fpnrx+m n
xencxoro sopontx n Focrone, nocroxnnt anrop xypnana The New Yorker , onenr Iapnapcxo
mennnncxo mxont n Iapnapcxo mxont spanooxpanennx. Kpome roro, nosrnannxer
nporpammy BO3 no esonacno xnpyprnn. Xenar, nmeer rponx ere, npoxnnaer n Htmrone,
mrar Maccauycerc.

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