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111111.1.1.

111111

-~JXi+j5'1lf4111D

..

~
,

2007

621.396.931(024)
32.884.1
.49

..

.49

.: -,

2007. -

296 .:

ISBN 978-5-88405-087-7

GSM,

D), (

WiMAX

UMTS)
IEEE 802.16).

(, , .).
:

(D),
(OFDA),

UTRAN.

, ,
, , .

,
.

ISBN 978-5-88405-087-7

32.884.1

..,2007

........................................... "."".""." ........ """""."".""."""."."" .. ""."." ......... 7

1. .

1.1.
1.2.
1.3.

GSM """.""." ... ".""" .. " ... " ... ""."." .... " ........ "" ..... " .................... 10

GSM" .. " ........... "." ... "." ... " ... " ... "."." ... "" ...... " ... " ... "" .... "."".".10
, GSM".".""" .... " ... "" ... "."."."." .. " .. 11
GSM ...... "" ...... " ... " ... " ............ ""." ... """.".".""." ... ""13
1.3.1. "."""" .... """""""" .. ".""".""."."".".".""."". 15
1.3.2. """ .. """""."""""""""""""""""" 15
1.3.3. "".".""""""""""""""".""""16
1.4. GSM ........... " .... " ... "" ...... "" .... 24
1.4.1. GSM"."."."" ... "" ........ " ....... " ....... " ...... 24
1.4.2. .................................................. 26
1.4.3. GSM .............................. " .... " ... " ....... 26
1.4.4. ...... " .................... " ....... " .......... 28
1.4.5. ... " ........ "." ... "."."" ...... """." ... "."."." ... "". 29
1.4.6. , GSM "".".".""" .... ". 30
1.4.7. ." .. " ... "" .... " .......... " .. ". 34
1.4.8. GSM .. """" .. "" ... "."."."" .. " ... 36
1.5. GSM." .. "." ... "" .... "" .. "".".""" .................................. "". 46
1.5 .1. ".""."."."".""." ... "" .. """.".""""."" .. "."".""" .. 46
1.5.2. .......................................... 48
1.5.3. ..................................... 53
1.6. GSM""" ..... ".""" ... " .. "."".""""".".""".". 62
1.7. GSM """""""""""""""""""""""""" .. " 64
1.7.1. ............................................................ 64
1.7.2. """""".""."""."".".""." .. "."""". 65
1.7.3. "" .. """ .... """"" .. """.".""."". 68
1.8. "."."".""""""""""".".""." ... ""."."""""".".""."" 70
1.8.1. .... " .. " ........................................ " ................. 71
1.8.2. .............................. " .......... 72
1.8.3. /.
/ ......................................................... 75
1.9. .............................. " .. 77
2.
D ..... " ............................... " .... " ...........

80
2.1. ............................ 80
2.1.1. " ..... "" .. "." ... " ... " .......................... " ... "."" .... "" ... 81

2.1.2.
2.1.3.
2.1.4.

............."............ 83
86

............................

..............................................................................................

87
CDMA .............................................................................. 90
2.2.1. .......................................................................... 90
2.2.2. ........................................................................... 91
2.2.3. ...................................................... 92
2.3. .............................................................................................. 96
2.3.1. ...................................................... 96
2.3.2. ................................................ 100
2.4. CDMA ............................................. 101
2.4.1. ....................................................................... 101
2.4.2.
.................................................. 102
2.4.3. ................................................. 104
2.5.
CDMA.................................................................................... 106
2.5.1. - ................................................................................ 107
2.5.2. .................................................................. 112
2.5.3. .......................... 116
2.6. ......................................................................... 120
2.6.1. ....................... 121
2.6.2. .......................... 131
2.7. ..................................................................... 132

2.2.

3. ........ 134
.............................................................. 134
3.1.1. ............................. 134
3.1.2. IMT-2000 ....................................................................................... 137
3.1.3. ................................................................ 140
3.1.4. .................................................................. 144
3.1.5. ............................................................................. 146
3.2. .......................................................... 147
3.3. UMTS ........................................................................................ 155
3.3.1. .................................................................. 155
3.3.2. ................................................ 157
3.3.3. ......................................... 158
3.3.4. ......................................... 160
3.3.5. ........................................................................................... 163
3.4. UMTS ......................................................... 167

3.1.

3.5.

..........................................................

169
171
............................................................... 176
UMTS .................... 178
3.6. UTRAN ........................................................ 180
3.6.1. ................ 181
3.6.2. ....... 183
3.6.3.
...................................................................................... 184
3.6.4. ................................................... 186
3.6.5. ......... 186
3.6.6. .............................................................. 187
3.6.7.
, ...................... 189
3.6.8. RRC
............................ 190
3.7. .............................................................. 192
3.7.1. ............................................................ 193
3.7.2. ................................................................. 194
3.7.3. .............. 196
3.8. ............................................................ 197
3.8.1.
.................................................................... 197
3.8.2. Iur ............................. 200
3.8.3.
Iur.
DCH .......................................................... 201
3.8.4. .............................. 203
3.9. ................................................................... 205
3.9.1.
RNC ........................................ 205
3.9.2. GSM
UMTS (UTRAN) ................................ 206
3.10. UMTS ................................................................... 208
3.5.1.
3.5.2.
3.5.3.

........................................

4. 802.16.
WiAX ............................................................................... 214

4.1.
4.2.

...................................................

4.3.

215

OFDMA .................................... 218


............................... 220
OFDMA .............................................................. 222

FD-

4.3.1.

4.3.2.

4.3.3.

................................

4.3.4.
4.3.5.

222

..................................... 223
224

................

................................................................

226
..................................................................... 226
TDD .................................................................. 227
4.4. WiMAX ............................................................... 229
4.4.1. ................................................. 229
4.4.2. ..................................................... 232
4.4.3. ........................................ 232
4.4.4. .............. 234
4.4.5. .............................................................. 234
4.4.6. ................................... 235
4.4.7. () ....................................................... 236
4.4.8. ................................................................................. 237
4.5. WiMAX .................................. 238
4.5.1. .................................... 238
4.5.2. .......................... 245
4.5.3. ..... 246
4.3.6.
4.3.7.

4.6.
4.7.

WiMAX ........................................................... 248


WiAX ........................................................ 249

......................................................................................................................... 258

........................................................................................................

277

....................................................................................................................... 286

. ,
,
. ,

.

.


, .
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xDSL.


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GSM ( 1), , D ( 2),


cdma2000, UMTS ( 3)
WiAX IEEE 802.l ( 4).
,
, , .

GSM,

1,

.
,

(SMS),

/.

GSM
(CDMA), 2.

, ,

( , ).
:
,

, , ,
,
.

IMT-2000,

3.

2 /, .. ,
ISDN, , .
(cdma2000,
UWC-136 ), .
UMTS.

GSM

(GPRS, EDGE).

;
.

, ,

WiAX, IEEE.802.le,

4.

.
.

.
.

.

,
, . .

,
(
, ).

1 ... 5

).

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134

( ).

() ().

. ,
,

(MIMO),

..

(, ).

,

,
.

SDR (Software Defined Radio ).

,
.
.

:
.

1.1.

GSM

GSM

1980- , ,


. ,
.
,

,
.
.

1982 .

(-

Conference of European Post and Telecommunications}-cop


GSM (Group Special Moile)
[42, 104].

poaa

;
;
;

;
;
;

1989

ISDN.

GSM

(ETSI, European Telecommunications Standards Institute). GSM


1990 .
1991, 1993 36 GSM 22 .
GSM ,
. 200 GSM ( DCS-1800 PCS-1900)

. GSM

110

11

. ,

GSM,
PCS-1900.
GSM ,
GSM (Global System
for Moile communications).
GSM

:
(S

- Advances Moile Phone System)


(TACS-Total Access Communications System) .
,

GSM

8000

.
, .

1.2.

GSM

GSM

[27, 93, 94].

ISDN

ISDN

64 /.
IU-T,

GSM, -

[77-79, 115].

GSM

, , ,
.

GSM :
1) ( :
, .);

2) ;
3) ,
4) ( 3).

12

GSM
9600 / :
- (POTS - Plain Ordinary
Telephone Service);
- (ISDN);
-
(PSPDN - Packet Switched Pulic Data Network);
-
(CSPDN - Circuit Switched Pulic Data Network).
GSM :
- 300, 600, 1200, 2400,
4800 9600 / ;
- 1200, 2400, 4800 9600

/ ,

(CSPDN)

ISDN;

300-9600 /
(PSPDN);

2400-9600 /.
9,6 /

9,6

/ .
,

.25 .32

GSM

[86].

GSM -

GSM

GSM,

- (SMS - Short Massage


Service). SMS- -
( 160 ) .
(store-and-forward fashion).
SS-
.

SMS

.
SI-

(SIM -

Subscriber Identification Module)

.
(
, , -

. GSM

13

..).
,

( ) .
, ,
.

(CUG-Closed User Group)-

o ,
.
.
.

.

. ,
, .
:

ISDN

PSTN.

1.3.

GSM

GSM

1.1.

, .

GSM

(MS),
(BSS),

(SSS),

14

(MSC),

MSC
1.1

, . .

,
.

Um,

-.

NMC
1--___;-=i'-I

----1
1
1
1

1
1

1
1

L ____ _11

'

\ BSC

ADC

.-------------------------------

Umi-------------------------------

1
1

SS7

SS7-----.

~um:

PSTN

BSC

MSC

PDN

PSTN

MSC

ISDN

PDN
ISDN

----,

\ BSC
1L ____ _11

855

555

! ______________________________ _

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _1

ADC
AuC
BTS
BSC
BSS
EIR
HLR
ISDN
MS
MSC
NMC

PDN
PSTN

1.1.

GSM

Autheticatio Ceter
Base trasceiver Statio
Base Statio Cotroller
Base Statio System
Equipmet ldetificatio Register
Home Locatio Register
ltegrated Services Digital Network
Moblle Statio
Moblle Switchig Ceter
Network Maagemet Ceter
Operatio d it t

VLR

Packet Data Network


Puic Switched Telephoe Network
Switchig Subsystem
Visit Locatio Register

Trascoder Equipmet

sss

Admiistratio t

. GSM

15

1.3.1.

(MS)

()

, ,

Module).

(SIM -

Subscriber Identification

SI-

. SI

GSM,

( )

(IMEI - Intemational

Moile

SI-

Equipment Identity).

Intemational Moblle Subscriber Identity),

(IMSI -

IMEI

IMSI

. SI-

.

(Moblle Terminal


; 1

(Moblle Terminal 1) -
ISDN; 2 (Moblle Terminal 2) -

V .


, -,

(DTE),

..

: 1

(Terminal Equipment 1) ISDN; 2 (Terminal

Equipment 2) -

ISDN

). 2 1 (

1.3.2.

ISDN)

(BTS -

Base Transceiver Station)

16

(BSC- Base Station Controller).


s (. . 1.1).
BTS ,

. ~

BTS -

BTS.

, ,

BTS.

, .

1.3..

BSC
BTS (MSC).

(MSC)

(MSC).

(ISDN).

(PSTN)

, , ,
, ()
.

,
.

MSC

PSTN

ISDN.

-7

ISDN

(SS7),


,
.

MSC

(PSN,

ISDN
PDN, ISDN ..)

.
.

ISDN,

MSC

,
,
.

MSC

(,

. GSM

).

MSC

17

MSC

-7,

MSC

(-).

MSC

, ;
,
.

MSC

(BSS).

.
,
.

,
,

BSC.

MSC.

GSM

BSC,

(),

MSC.

Location Register)
tion Register).

HLR

(HLR -
(VLR - Visit Loca-

(HLR)

HLR

.
,

, ,

. () ,

(TMSI -

Temporary

Moile

Subscriber Identity)
(VLR). HLR

18

Subscriber Identity),

(IMSI -

Intemational Moblle

(AUC -Authentication Center).

MSC

() .
,

GSM,

(Visit Location Register).

GSM,

VLR

HLR

HLR,

HLR,

MSC

VLR

HLR

.
IMSI
ISDN (MSISDN - Moblle Station ISDN Number).
MSC VLR, ,

(VLR)

,
,

VLR.

HLR.

BSC, ,
BSC, BSC, VLR
, .
, LR

VLR,

VLR , HLR,
VLR , ,
VLR.
GSM
(LA - Location Area),
(LAC - Location Area Code ). VLR -

. GSM

LA.

19

VLR

LA

LA
VLR.

VLR,
VLR.

VLR , HLR, .
VLR
(MSRN Moile Station Roaming Number).
, VLR MSRN
MSC,
, .
,

MSCNLR, ,
MSCNLR. MSCNLR
MSCNLR . -
TMSI HLR. VLR

.
, ,

VLR
MSRN.

VLR.
IMSI, TMSI

VLR -

VLR
HLR, .
. 1.1, 1.2, 1.3
, HLR VLR

1.1. , HLR VLR

(IMSI -

International Moblle Subscriber Identity)


ISDN (MSISDN)

2
3

7
8
9
10

20

11

12
13
14
15
16
17

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

1.2.

HLR

(TMSI-Temporary

Moile

VLR

Subscriber Identity)

VLR

(/)

1. 1

1.3.

VLR

(TMSI - Temporary

Moile

Subscriber Identity)

2
3

4
5

(AuC -

(EIR - Equipment Identity Register)


Authentication Center). EIR - ,

IMEI.

. GSM

21

, .

AuC -

, SI- ,

,
.

IMSI,

(SIM),

(i), ().

SIM


, .

EIR

IMEI.

IMEI,

IMEI,

.
.

IMEI

GSM,

.
.

IMEI

, ,
.

EIR

MSC

MSC .
HLR, EIR,
EIR ,
IMEI. MSC ,
IMEI EIR,

, .

(Operation and Maintenance Center) -

GSM,

22

,
.

GSM

, .25.

,
,
.


.
.

GSM,

.
.

NMC (Network Management Center) -

GSM.


, ,

NMC

, . ,
,

NMC.

~ , NMC

.

NMC

,
.

PSTN

GSM

NMC

NMC

(BSS).

NMC

, , -

. GSM

23

( )
.

NMe

- ,

NMe

NMe

, .
,

, , ,

ADC (Administration Center) -

, ,

(Transconder Equipment) -

s
,

GSM

(64

/, )

,
,

13

/.

6,5

/).

(LPe - Linear Predictive eoding),


Long Term Predicting),
(RPE-Regular Pulse Excitation).

(LTP -

13

(BSe)

16 /.
64 /.

(stuffing).

120

GSM

30- -,

(64

/)

(slot)


-7

D-

LAPD (Link Access Procedure for the D-channel).


(64 /)

.25.

24

1.4.
1.4.1.

1.1

GSM

GSM [22, 27, 32, 49]


1.4.

1.4.

GSM.

MSC-BSS

Ais

BSC-BTS

MSC-VLR

MSC-HLR

HLR-VLR

MSC-MSC

BSC-OMC

BSC-TCE

Um

MS-BTS

-.

GSM

BSC+ BTS)

MSC

BSS

BSS,

(),
. - .
-7. -

08 ETSl/GSM.
MSC VLR. ,

-.

MSC

VLR.

MSC

VLR,

. ,

MS

. ,

VLR,
HLR.
-. MSC HLR
MSC HLR. MSC HLR
MSC

. GSM

25

, .

MSC

HLR

MS.
D-.

HLR

VLR

. , ,

.
.

VLR

HLR

HLR
MS,

,

.

-.

MSC

MSC

BSC BTS
ETSl/GSM

s-.

BTS

BSC

2,048

/.

64 /.

-.

BSC

BSC

, .25 ( .

1.1.

).
-.

BSC

(); -

05

16

2,048

64 /.

Um.

MS

BTS

04

ETSI/GSM.

-. ,

12.01 ETSl/GSM
Q.3, ISO/OSI.
GSM.


-7 .25.

26

1.4.2.

PSTN.
MSC

-7.

G.732.

ISDN. ISDN
2 /,


-7.

GSM.

GSM.
GSM

-7

(SCCP - Signaling Connection Control


Part) (GMSC Gateway MSC). ,
GSM .
,

, .

1.4..

GSM

GSM [81 ).
1.2, , ,
MSCNLR (PLMN Puic Land Moblle Network).


( )
MSCNLR
( MSC)


( ,
MSC)

(
BTS)

1.2. GSM

. GSM

27

- BTS.
GSM
(CGI - Cell Global Identity) - ,

(LA -

Location Area) -

MSC

(.

1.2).

(LAI -

Location Area

Identity).

MSC!VLR
MSC


(.

VLR

GSM,

MSC

1.3).

MSC/VLR,

PLMN

LA1

LA2

LA4

LAS

LA6

1.3. (LA)

[sc[S

[sc[S
4

[sc[S
.

(.

1.4) -

[sc[S

1.4. (PLMN)

28

1.4.4.

[27, 32, 49, 101].

(frequency reuse distance) -

D = J3NR, N ; R -

( , ).

(cluster) -

. N

i 2 + ij +

i, j -

j2,

,
:

=,

j = 1, N = 1;
i = 1, j = 1, N = 3;

i = ,
i = 1,
i = ,
i = 2,

j = 2, N = 4;

j = 2, N = 7;
j = 3, N = 9;
j = 2, N = 12;

..

R,

(1/N),

, .

k =D /R

=J3N

N k
k(12) = 6.

k(l) = 1,7; k(3) = 3; k(4) = 3,5; k(7) = 4,6; k(9) = 5,2;

1.5

(4- ) .

1.6 (7-

).

. GSM

....,.---;--

~:-'---=---

~=--=--~--

1 --~

1.4.5.

2 ____,1:::-~::--=--'----

3 ----

29

1.5.

4-

1.6.

?-

(sectorized cell).

.

,
.
.

120 ( ).
3/9, 4/12, 7/21,
, - . . 1.7,
3- 3/9.
9 .

1.7, 6

60.

60

12

Motorola

30

6- (

4/24).

)
.

1.7. :
) 3- ; ) 6-

1.4.6. , 1 GSM
,

GSM

GSM . 1.8.
( )
. ,

GSM :
(TCH/F - Traffic Channel/Full) - 22,8 /
(/ - Traffic Channel/alf) - 11,4 /.

. GSM

31

,
.
,

, ,

(setup),

..
,

MS .
Random Control Channel).

(RACH -

,
,
.

".

...

"'

TCH/F

:ii
111

g;
"'

r::

"

..

""""""".. FACCH,
""""".."" SDCCH,
"""""""" SACCH,
FCCH,
"""."""". SCH,

MS

MS

AGCH
RACH

1.8.
GSM

AGCH
FACCH

Access Grat hl
Fast Associated tl

FCCH

Frequecy ti hl
Pagig hl

hl

RACH
SACCH
SCH
SDCCH
TCH/F
/


( )

Radom Access hl
Slow Associated tl hl



Sychroizig hl

Stad-aloe Dedicated tl hl
Traffic Chael/Full
,
Traffic Chael/Half
,

32

L (D

Time Division Multiple Access).

, ,

, ,
.

(SDCCH - Stand-alone Dedicated


Control Channel),
MS ,

().

MS

( ) (

Paging Channel),

(LA).

-
Random Access Channel). -.

(RACH -

.

.

1.9 [14].

.
.
.

BTS

) :

1.

MSC.
- ( - Paging Channel).
2. MS - q
(RACH - Random Access Channel) -
.

()
L, .

BTS

3. BTS

,
.

MS

. GSM

33

SI- (SRES - Signed Response),


BTS MS.
4. BTS .
5. (
) ,
.

1.8.

MS

RR 010111 ASSignment COMmanD

RR

IMdiate

0100111

ASSignment

1RR

0010100 AUTHentication RESponse

1RR 0110010

0000100


(SDCCH)


(SDCCH)

SETUP

SETUP ACKnowledge

RR 010111 ASSignment COMmanD

RR 0101001 ASSignment COMplete


0000001 ALERING

( )

( )

0000111

0001111

CONnect

CONnect ACKnowledge

1.9.

BTS

(RACH}

Cipheing MODE COMplete 1

0000011

0110101 Cipheing MODE COMmanD 1


(RACH}

PAGing RESpons

0010010 AUTHentication REQuest

MS

()

RR 0100001 PAGING REQ

RR 0111111

BTS

34

1.4.7.

[32, 33]

, ,
, .. (.

1.10).

GSM
1

MS

MS

] 1~1 ~

SDCCH

.1.10.

GSM

[29, 32, 33, 110]:


- Broadcast Channel)
(downstream) ,
.

, <<- ,

.
~:

l (

Channel):

Broadcast Control

, , ,

(LAC -

Location Area Code),

, , , , ..

MS

s
;

(FCCH -

Frequency Correction Channel):


MS, MS
MS.
,

D;

. GSM

MS

35

Sychroizig hl):

(SCH -

; D

SCH MS
BTS.

Common Control Channels) -

MS.
MS.

( )
Pagig h[):

MS

MS; BTS

(PCH-

(G):

MS; BTS
MS ;

SDCCH

MS,

(!):
;

MS

SDCCH.

MS

()

Dedicated Control Channel)


,

(DCCH -

, , :

( ),

, ..

DCCH :
- (SDCCH - Stad-aloe
Dedicated Cotrol h[) MS BTS
,

(). , , ;
, ,

, (

ciated

(SACCH -

MS);
Slow Asso-

Cotrol hl)

( );

SDCCH.

, , ;

SDCCH

, , (

MS);

Associated Cotrol h[).

(FACCH - Fast
SDCCH,

(boowing

SDCCH

mode)

SDCCH,

36

, ,

(), ,
..

RACH, FCCH SCH.

1.4.8.

GSM

GSM

[33, 36, 40, 81, 84, 86, 98, 107]

GSM (. 1.11).
--------------~

--------------

i----+-lf----1

VLR

7
11

MS

6
10

MSC

HLR

2 3

GMSC
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

L--------------J

BSS

1.11.

GSM

1. MSC (GMSCGateway MSC).


2. (IMSI)

(HLR).

. GSM

3.

37

(VLR)

(.

1.12)- MSRN (Moile Station Roaming Number).


4. HLR GMSC.
5. MSC.
6. MSC VLR.
7. VLR LA (
) . MS ,
. 8.
8. ,
VLR.
9.
.

10.

( ).
, .

MSC

12. MSC TMSI MS .


. 1.12

11. VLR

11.
MSC,

(.

TMSI

1.12).

-------------.1

MSISDN

1 MSRN

MSC

MSC

IMSI

1
1

1
1
1
1

MSRN

------------------

VLR

1
1

-------------

IMSI

VLR

---1 .!~SI

1-------------

1.12.

MSISDN
MSRN
IMSI
TMSI

HLR
VLR

ISDN

38


(.

1.13).

, , , .

, .
VLR

HLR

f
--@--

MSC
()

AuC

1.13.

(.

1. MS

1.13):

()

16

,
.

2. MS

BTS
BSC MSC.
3. MSC MS IMSI.
4. MS IMSI . IMSI

, , ,

250 -

5. IMSI VLR
eeHLR.
6.

VLR,

99 -

).

(MSC/LR)

IMSI

(,

VLR,

, .

7. MSC VLR .
8. MSC MS .

HLR

VLR

, -

. GSM

39

- .
.
,

. ,

, ,
.

, (
). ,
, .

(, m ,

, )
.

IMSI.

,
.
,
.

9).

10

11

15

, ).
SI-. 10-
(

112),

IMSI.

. .

,

- Paging Channel).

. ,
(), -

40


. -
, . ,

GSM,

, .

HLR VLR

, :

BTS BSC

;
-

(PLMN).

.

(

VLR),


. ,
( -7),

VLR,

HLR

HLR

(MSCNLR)
(MSCNLR)

[56, 107].

(.

1.14)

,
.

: SI-

(AuC-

Authentication Center).

RAND,

AuC

128-

. SI-

. GSM

Kj

41

IMSI,

SI-), 32-

SRS*

(Signed Response)

SRES*

=Kj > RAND.

SRES,

).

Kj

AuC (
SRES*, ,

AuC,
TMSI,

VLR).

RAND

128

MS

128

(SI-)

RAND

128

Kj
128

AuC

SIM

SRES*
SRES

RAND
MSC

Kj -

1 SRES*

1.14.

=SRES?

SRES

SRES* -

SRES (Signed Response) - ;


SRES,


, ,
.
D ,

114

114

57 ).

MS,

GSM

IMEI. IMEI
EIR (Equipment

Identity Register),

IMEI

EIR

42

GSM.

{)


. ( ),

(handoft),

t<
.

RRM (Radio Resources Management).

1.
2.

1.15:

3.

4.

BSC.

BSC,

MSC

BSC,

MSC.
- MSC.

, ,
,

BSC,

MSC

. ,

BSC
(MSC). (
MSC.

MSC,

MS

MSC.

()

16

. GSM

43

MSC

BSC

-----------------------,

1
1
1

[~]

[~]

L------ ---- ------

1
1
1

-----~

1.15.

-----------------------,

l~J
1
1

[~JI

L--------- ---- ---

1
1

----~

(),

GSM.

, -


, .

[49]

, ():
,

. .
,

().

,
,

44

[49)

.
,
, .

, .

1.16

4- (. .

1.15) [33). .
1. MS ,
BTSl .
SACCH ( )
480 .
.

2.

MS

MS

MSCl, BTSl ,
3. BTSl

MSC2

MS,

BSCl.

4. BSCl

5.

BSCl

MSCl

, ,

BSCl

BTS2

MCSl

).

6. MCSl MSC2.
MSCl ( VLR HLR)
. MSCl ,
MSC2 (
BSC2).
7. MSC2
, .

VLR MSC2,

(MSRN -

Moile

Station Roaming Number).

VLR MSC2.
8. MSC2 (
) MSCl. MSCl ,
(. . 6), .
MSCl , VLR MSCl .

. GSM

45

, VLR ,
HLR, .
9. MSCl BSCl , .
10. BSCl , MSCl ,
.

11. MSCl

MSC2

.
-----------------------------------------------------------1

HLR
(VLR)

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

VLR

BSC2

1.16.

,
, .
( ),
( ) (
).

(MSCNLR)

(MSC/LR)
.

(MSC/LR),
, .

46

, .. ;

, ,

, ;
.

,
, ;

,
.

.
,

. .


[9].

1.5.
1.5.1.

GSM

GSM

ETSI.

[76-79].

(registration),
(authentication), (call routing),
, (handover)
,
, -7

36].

GSM

, .

1.17.

1.17.
[7, 10, 17, 49, 117]

[1, 10, 11,


. GSM

BTS

47

MSC

BSC
/

LAPD

RRM

RRls

s1 BSSAP

BSSAP

LAPDm

LAPDm

SCCP

.1

LAPDm

'

um 1

1 64/2048 /

16/64 /

1.17.

GSM

Connection Management
Mobllity Management
Radio Resources Management
Link Access Protocol D

RRM
LAPD

Ais

264/2048 / 1
.


D (m -

BTSM

Base Transceiver Station Management

BSSAP

BSS Application Part

SCCP

Signaling Connection Control Part

Massage Transfer Part

()

1-

, , .

ISDN,

Um,

LAPDm [93, 94].

LAPD,

3-

2 -

LAPD,

(RR

Radio Resources Management) -

- , ,
.

Mobllity Management) -

,
.

48

Connection Management) -


,
.

(BSC)

(BTS)

Aiso

(BTSM -

Base Transceiver Station Management).



( ) : 1
(Message Transfer Part - ); 2 SCCP (Signaling Connection Control Part -
) [1, 10, 11, 35],
-7. 3 GSMMM CM.
BSSAP (BSS Application Part
)

(BSS)

(MSC).
500 , GSM [78].

1.5.2.

SCCP,

[1, 10, 11, 17, 35]

-7.

SCCP.

ing Connection Control Part)

SCCP (Signal-

.
( )

35, 115]. SCCP

[10, 11,

.
.

SCCP

. -

. GSM

49

()

. :
,
.

SCCP

.
,

-
.

SCCP

[1, 10, 11, 35].

, .
, , :

(CR);

()

CR;

(RLSD);
(RLSC)

( );

(DT);

(SSA).

1.18

t--~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~--j
,

1.18.

SCCP

3
4

0000 0001.

1.5.

0000 0000
0000 0001
0000 0010
0000 0011
0000 0100

SCCP

SCCP

IU -
( )

1.5.

ISUP-R

50

1.5

0000 0101
0000 0110
0000 0111
0000 1000
0000 1001

HLR
VLR
MSC
EIR

0000 1010
0000 1011
00001100
00001101
0000 1110
00001111

ISDN

B-ISDN

()

..........

00011111
0010 0000

.......

1111 0111
11111000

NMT (

11111001
11111010
11111110

11111111

HLR-NMT (

BSSAP

1.5

GSM).

BSSAP

SCCP (Signaling Connection Control Part)


(BSSAP Base Station
System Application Part).
BSS MSC (. . 1.17). -
BSSAP ,

3.

BSS

MSC.

BSSAP

. GSM

51

3.

BSSAP

(BSSAP

(DTAP - Direct Station Application Part) MSC


MS. 3
BSS;
Base Station System Management Application Part)

3- ,

, ()

BSS. BSSMAP
ETSI GSM 08.08 [76, 79].
BSSAP
. ETSI GSM 08.08
3 ,

.
, , ,

,

BSSAP,

DT.

, .

BSSAP , . 1.19.
(Discrimination). ,
: BSSAP DTAP.
(DLCI - Data Link
Control Identifier). DTAP. MSC
BSS, ,

. ,

DLCI

1.19.

BSSAP

3.

52

(BSSMAP)

SCCP -

MSC

BSS,

,
. BSSAP

RRM (Radio Resource Management), ETSI [76, 79].


BSSAP . 1.20.
1

1.20.

BSSMAP

. ,
,
BSSAP.

().

.

DTAP (Direct Transfer Application Part)

{DTAP)

MS

MSC.

BSS,

DTAP
7

, .

1.21.

2
+

1.21.

. GSM

53

1.22.

1.22.

, .
,

MSC,

MS,

1.

, ,
.

(RM,

), .

(RM,

, ) .

1.5..

ment)

(RRM -

Radio Resource Manage-

(MSC).

, , .

RRM

[49, 56].

, ,

,
.

,
.
, ,

,
,

RRM.

,
.

54

( ),
.
,

,
.


. ,
.

ISDN,
Q.931, ()
GSM .

( ) .

3-

MS-BTS

(, ,

RRM)

ISDN.

MS-BTS [13, 18, 19, 33].

[10, 11, 17].

RRM

, , .

1.23.

1
.

1.23.

RRM

. GSM

55

1 .

,
,

ISDN,

GSM.
1.6 [17, 39].

1.6.

...

".

1
1

I.451

RR

( ,

".

".

".
".

".

1
1

3-

."

".

-1

3-

3 GSM
1.7-1.9 ,
RRM.

. .

, ,

,
.

56

1.7.

3-
( - 00110000)

001

010

xOll

0001

1000

0010
0111
1111

1110
0011

(ALERting)
(CALL COMplete)
(CALL PROCeeding)

(CONnect)

MS-BTS

(CONnect ACnowledge)

(EMERGence SETUP)

(SETUP)

0111
1111

0011
0000
1000
1001
1010

1100

1101
1110

(MODify)

(MODify COMplete)
(MODify REJect)

(USER INFormation)

(HOLD)

(HOLD ACnowledge)
(HOLD REJect)

(RETRieve)

(RETRieve ACnowledge)
(RETRieve REJect)

0101
1100
1101

(DISConnect)

(RELease)

(RELease COMplete)

1001

1100
1101
0100
0101
0001

(NOIFY)

0010
0110

(CONGestion Control)

(STATUS)
(STATUS ENQuiry)

(START DTMF)
(STOP DTMF)

(STOP DTMF

ACnowledge)

1110
1010

(START DTMF ACnowledge)

(FACILIY)

. GSM

1.8.

xOOl

3-
( - 01010000)

0001
0010
0100
1000

57

MS-BTS

IMSI (IMSI DETuch INDicator)


(LOCation UPDate ACCept)
(LOCation UPDate REJect)
(LOCation UPDate REQuest)

010

011

0111

1.9.

0001
0010
0100
1000
1001
1010
1011

(AUentication

REJect)
(AUTHentication REQuest)
(AUTHentication RESponse)
(IDENtification REQuest)
(IDENtification RESponse)
TMSI (TMSI REALLOCation CoMmanD)
TMSI (TMSI REALLOCation COMplete)

0001
0010
0011
0100
1000
1001

0100

SERVice ACCept)
SERVice REJ ect)
( SERVice R)
( SERVice REQuest)
( SERVice REESTAlishment)
(

(R)

STATUS)

3- RRM
( - 01100000)

011
111
001

MS-BTS

(ADDitional ASSignment)
(IMMediate ASSignment)

(IMMdiate ASSignment EXTended)

010

(IMMediate ASSignment REJect)


0110

101
010

(Ciphering MODE CoMmanD)


(Ciphering MODE COMplete)

58


0101

xOOOl

0100

101

101
010
111

001
010
100
111

1.9

(ASSignment CoMmanD)
(ASSignment COMplete)
(ASSignment FAILure)
(ANDover CoMmanD)
(ANDover COMplete)
(ANDover FAILure)
(PHYSical INFormation)

110
001
111
011
100

(CANnel

RELease)
(PARTial RELease)
(PARTial RELease COMplete)

1 (AGING REQuest 1)
2 (AGING REQuest 2)
3 (PAGING REQuest 3)
( AGing RESpons 1)

xOOll

0010

(CANnel

010
111

MODE MODify)

RR (RR STAUS)


(CANnel

100
101
110
011

BTSM -

MODE MODify ACnowledge)


(FREQuency REDEFinition)
(MEASurement REPort)

(CLASSARK CANGE)
(CLASSARK

ENQuiry)

BTSM BSC-BTS (Base Station Controller - Base Transceiver Station) s


, . 1.23.
(
). , -
.

. GSM

59

. .

1.6

(0011).
(.

1.10).

, -

- Radio Link Layer Managemet - ;


- Dedicated Channel gt- ;
- Channel Management- ;
- TRX gt - .
(transparent).
7 .

1.10. 3-
BTSM BSC-BTS

0000000
0000001
0000100
0000110

000100

. ,
,

, .
.

1.11.


, , ,

(. .

1.9).

ISDN

MS-BTS

. .
.

1.9,

1.24

MS-BTS

(RRM (RR),

, ).

, (,
,

, ).
.

1.24

. -

ISDN:
- I (Initial address) - ;
- (Address complete) - ;
- ANM (Answer) - .

60

1.11.

OOOlxxxx
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
OllOxxxx
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101
1110
1111

00001
00010
00011
00100
00101
00110
00111
01000
01001
01010

BTSM

REQuest
D INDication
EROR INDication
ESTaish REQuest
ESTaish CONfirm
ESTaish INDication
RF CANnel RELease REQuest
RF CANnel RELease CONfirm
RELease INDication
UNIT DATA REQuest
UNI DATA INDication

BSSCH INFOrmation
LOAD INDication
CHANnel ReQuireD
DELETE INDication
PAGGING CoManD
IMMidiate ASSignee CoMmanD
SMS Broadcast REQuest

BSSCH

SMS

RF ReSourse INDication
SACCH FILing
OVERLOAD
ERORREPORT
SMS Broadcast CoManD
BSCCH LOAD INDication
NOTification CoManD

SACCH

SMS

BSCCH


CANnel

ACTivation

CANnel ACivation ACnowledge


CANnel

ACTivation Negative

ACnowledge

CONNection FAILure
DEACTivation SACCH
ENCRyption CoMmanD

ANDover DEECTion

MEASurement RESult
MODE MODify REQuest
MODE MODify ACnowledge

SACCH

. GSM

MS

BTS

MSCNLR

HLR

EIR
1

IAM

PAGING
0101PAGING
CMD

RRPAGING
REQ
RRASS
CMD

ISDN

61

0010011CHAN
RQD
00100001CHAN
ACTIV
00100010CHAN
ACTIVACK
001110

ASS CMD

RRIMMASS
RR SABM
PAGING
RESP
RRUA
PAGING
RESP

0000110EST
IND
PAGING
RESP

CR
PAGING
RESP

------AUTH REO

MMAUTH
REQ
MMAUTH
RES

CIPMOD
00110ENCR
CMD

RRCIP
MODCDM

RRCIP
MODCOM

SETUP

SETUP

(RAND, SRES, Ki)

SEUP

00100001 CHAN
ACIV

ASS
REQ

00100010CHAN
ACTIVACK
RRASS
CMD

ASS
CMD

SABM
UA
ASSCOM

ASS

0000111RF
CHAN REL

00001000RF
CHAN REL

CMALERT

IMEI

CMCONNECT

CONNECT

IMEI

CONNECTA~

ANM

.1.24. ISDN-MS

62

(Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode) -

LAPD

, ,

( ).
, , .

UA (Unnumbered Acknowledge) -

, .

1.24

* * ;
* * * .
,

BSC.
Transparent ( ).
1.25 -

BTS

MS

MS

cf

MSCNLR

ISDN

x0100101DISC

i------4---.i

DISC

DISC
REL

REL
x0101100REL
x0101101REL

RELCOM
RELCOM

1.25.

()

1.6.

115].

1.26

GSM

GSM [32, 36, 49,

. GSM

0,2

0,2

0,2

0,2

960

935
25

124

25

1.26.

- 890-915

20

63

GSM-900

GSM

S S);

- 935-960 - (
BS MS).
25 124 ,
200 ,
(FDA Frequency Division Multiple Access).
200 '1 , 8
.

(DA-Time

Devision Multiple Access).

,
.

, ( ),

8 '1
(burst),

8 248 ,
1984 . 7 (. 1.4.4)
283 (1984/7).
, , , ,

,
.

64

1.7.
1.7.1.

GSM

() .
.
:

0-11

1.27 [33, 36, 49, 115].

()

13-24 ()

16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

.25

4,615

57

26

148 , 0,546

57

156,25 , ,577

1.27.

26

TDMA,

GSM

8 (burst *) .

120 /26

=4,615

() 120/(268)

24

120 .

=0,577 .

26

, (12- )

Channel)

(SACCH -

Slow Associated Control

(25-) .

57

, ..

114 ;

. .

,
;

burst .. [22].
, >.

. GSM

(tail

65

its),

.
;

, ,
.

,
. .

.
,
.

, .

=32500 .
120 . (32500/0,12 = 270833 /) -

156,25826

270,833 /
3,69 .

148

156,25

, .

.
,

11,4 /

22,8

/.

(SDCC

Stand-alone Dedicated Control

Channels) [81 ].

.
... 7,

1.7.2.

- 8 ... 15.

1.28.

51

D,

8 .

1.29.
(FB -

Frequecy

correction Burst)


hl).

(FCCH -

Frequency

Correctio

66

4,615

142

1.28.

142

8,25

ED
39

64

ED
39

8,25

ED
58

26

ED
58

G
8,25

41
.

1.29.

1 ED

36 3

G
68,25

. GSM

(SCH -

Sychroizatio

Burst)

67

TDMA

(64

),

39

).

Sychroizig hl).

(SCH -

(DB - D Burst) - ,
58 , .

,
.

- Access Burst)
MS BSS, (RACH Random Access Channel).

. (

8 ),

41

(68,25

252

36

156,25

235

- 8,25

1.30

51

26

1326

6,12 .

~o~~__.I::::::::::::::: :~1_4_9__.__5___.__o_~__.I::::::::::::::: :~1_2_4~-25__.

_o_....___.I ::::::::::124 125

. ._o___.____.I ::::::::::1 49 150 1

1.30.

68

1.7..

(FACCH- Fast Associated Control Channel)


(SACCH - Slow Associated Control Channel)
. . 1.30,
,
, ,
.
,

26

24

, (12-

SACCH.

(25-) ,

12-

114

SACCH

0,12

SACCH.

8 .

FACCH

(. . 1.27),
114/0,12 =950 /.

(.

1.28),

51

[13, 29]

1.31.


,
.

10

SCH.

MS

FCCH,

), ,

, ,

( )

AGCH.

. ,
,

FCCH, 5

SCH 36 (9 ) - AGCH,
MS
RACH.
. 1.12
.

. GSM

69

F-FCCH,

-, -: PCH/AGCH
-

(51
MS

235

0-

2-

1-

10

10
)

3-

10

10

RACH (51

235

4-
11.

H'"p--o,MS<~

i111~111111111~111111111~111111111~111111 ll~llllf
9 10

1920

3940

2930

49 50

0-SOCCH - 8 , A-SACCH - 8
(51 , 235 )
-

MS

0-SOCCH - 8 , A-SACCH
(51 , 235 )
- MS ( )

- 8

-, - - 3 ,
A-SACCH - 2 , 0-SOCCH - 4 (51 , 235 )
- MS

00

D-SOCCH -4 , A-SACCH
R-RACCH - 27 (51 , 235 )
- MS ( )

- 2

03

R/

00

01

02

03

Ri

00

01

02

00
.

1.31.

SACCH; - ; - ; D - SDCCH;
F - FCCH; R - RACCH; S - SSCH

70

1.12.

FCCH

SCH

AGCH

RACH

SDCC/4

DCCH
SDCC/8

FACCH

SACCH

. , . 1.31, 1.31, , .

1.8.
.

1.32

(RPELTP)

(
)

( PE-LTP)

1.32.

. GSM

1.8.1.

71

( ,
)

GSM

lar Pulse Excitation - Linear Predictive Coding).

(RPE-LPC, Regu-

, *.
,

,
.
,

20

260 ,
13 /. -
(full rate). [3]

GSM

. - .

1.33.

: ()
,

[30, 36].

---------------------------------------------------------~
1
1

1
1

L------------------------- ---------------- ------------J


----------- --------------- ---------------- ------------i

1
1

---------------------------------------------------------~
.

1.33. -

GSM-1900

, ,

, - .

72

(EFR -

Enhanced Full-Rate).

1.8.2.

13 / [70, 85].

, ,
.

(convolution encoding)

GSM

(lock

interleaving) [8, 25].

. , , .
-,

20 20
1

la

50

132

(.

260

1.34).

11

78

260
.

1.34.

,
, .
:

- 50 ;
- 132 ;
// - 78 .
Ia (3 )

. ,

.
.

132

Ib
189 .

53

(convolution coding) [6, 22] -

(constrain

. GSM

length).

73

.
,

(.

1.35).

(code rate)

r. . 1.35 = 3

r =1/2,

0()1()0 =1

1()0()1 =

0()1()1=0

1()1()0=0

1()0()0=1

0()0()1=1

0()1()0=1

01
10
00
10

11
01

01.

r------.-----.-------.--.......---.,.-------,.------.---~

.._...,.....__.__.---'---"-----'--..........-_ _._......,.___..._--__.____,....-....

...

.--.........---.-----.-------.--.......---.,.------.
__.__ __,__ _,___1...;..__._1_1_..___0_1___.__ __,

..__
.

1.35.

: =

r = 1/2

74

GSM

= 5.
(r = 1/2), 5 .
, 378 ,
78 ,
. , 20-

22,8

456

(.

1.36)

/.

50
l

189

!:::!

ID

"'~
11

lb

132

JI ....
:I:

[~

189

11

78

\
(\}

i::::

"'ID

:I:

()

1-

!::.::

ID

!i1

)!

:I:

:I:

456

(.)

i::::

1.36.

Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying).

[3, 22]
(MSK).

(GMSK-

,
.

GMSK

180


.
.


. ,

0,7

GMSK

2 / )

, .
,

. GSM

75

.
,

GSM

( , ).

(

Ia),

50

G(X) =3 + + 1.
(
).

[3, 7].

, (

) ,

, .
(

).
,

[76-78],

1.8..

/.
/

()

,
, .

,
.

()

[41, 49].

( ),

..

[115],

,
i

GSM 456 (
8 57 .

.
.

.
(. .

1.27).

1.37.

76

114

114

2
3
456

6
7
114
.

1.37.

, .

GSM

.
(,

).

(normal burst).

114

( ).

(session key).

. .

. GSM

1.9.

77

GSM

, , , , .. ,

(fade).

, . -

(multipath propagation)

. ,
-

, ,
.

26

,
.

GSM

.
,
ffiA. ,

GSM,

, ,
,
.

BTS

. -
, .
,
.


, , .

78

(DTX -

Discontinuous Transmission mode) -

40 %

, D .

DTX, ,
Voice Activity Detector).

(VAD -

, , .

,
. , ,

DTX

. , , , ,
,

GSM.

, ,

,
, .

. (),

,
, .

.
.

, .

20, 8, 5, 2,

0,8

,
, ,
.

. GSM

79

(BSC),

BER)

, , ,

.
,

.
,

, .
, .

2


2.1.

CDMA

(D

Multiple Access) -

Code Division

[45, 80, 105].

, .
.

D .

2.1.

8; ___....

______..;

2.1.

()
,

(). ,
. .

CDMA

81

, , ,

(spreading

spectru)

[119].

, (

)
.
. ,
D,

, (

).

, .. .
()

(D):

;
.

2.1.1.

, .

[119, 120]

2,
-1,

2
.

2.1.

+1 -1.
1 - +1.
1 ( 15),

(1, , 4).
,

, (.

2.2),

, (
) .

2 -1.
4

() -

() ( , ..).

82

2.1.

Xz

1
1

1
2
3

1
1

7
8
9

10

11

12
13

14

15

"1

.
2

10 11 12 13 14 15

,1

10 11 12 13 14 15

1.

,1

1 .

10 11 12 13 14 15

,1

1 .

2
.

3
2.2.

10 11 12 13 14 15

CDMA

83

.
,

N-1

D=~>k2k,
k=O

N -

ak -

k-

2.2

, . ,

2, 3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 14, 15.

, .

2.2

2.1.2.

,
,
.

. ()
. :

1.

(cross correlation)

Cij

/2

f W; (t)Wj (t - )dt.

-/2

, .

2.

l /2
C;/t) = W; (t)W/t - )dt =.
-/2

, ,

=), .

84

3.

l
R;(:) = -

/2

f W; (t)W; (t - :)dt =.

-/2

,
.

. , (
) , ..
.

. 2.2 23

101, 120, 121 ].

=8 [3, 22,

-1,al-a+l.

2.2.

WAL(8,1)
WAL(8,2)
WAL(8,3)
WAL(8,4)
WAL(8,5)
WAL(8,6)
WAL(8,7)
WAL(8,8)

00000000
00001111
00111100
0011 0011
0110 0110
01101001
01011010
0101 0101

WAL (I,J) 1 - ,
-1, - (

,
).
.

2.3

, ,

2.2.

= [] :

[22].

CDMA

~rWAL(i~ii~-~-----1
1

r~- --~1;;;,------1

1 1\2\3\4\51617181!

11
L---------------------------------------1
~;~;;-;:;------l
+1

'-1

85

1 1

1L---------------------------------------'

~;-;;-----!

!+ 1
! -1

~
=JI
3 4 L..L...OJ 7 8 1

L---------------------------------------1

1
1
L---------------------------------------1

~-,-00110---i
1+1 ~
~
!
!-1 1 2 3 L..L2..J 6 7 1

1+1
! -1

1
1
L---------------------------------------1

1
1
L---------------------------------------1

r:r7J~o;o;-;;;;o-----i
1+ 1 ~ !

~s;~-,-;o;o~
1+ 1 !
! -1 1 2 w 4 6 L1J 8 1

!-1

1
1

!
1
1

2.3.

2 =(~

Hs=

~}

4=

2 4

1 1

1 1

1 8,8

1 1

1 1 8,4

1 1

1 1

1 1 1 1 8,2

1 1

8,7

1 1 1 1

8,3

1 1

1 8,6

1
1
L---------------------------------------1

L---------------------------------------1

~--1
~
!
1 2 3 w 5 l...0.......2.J 8

8,1

8,5

, .
.
.

2.2.

2.2,

2.2.

86

( )

8.8 (0101 0101)

8.6

(0110 1001).
[ (-1) (-1)] +[ (lxl)] +[ (-l)xl] +[lx(-1)] +[ (-1) xl] +[lx (-1)] +[ (-1)(-1)] +[lxl] =
1

.
.

.
.
D.

2.1..

()

, (

2)

. .

2.4

1
1
1

5
6

1
1
1

2.4.

R2

Ro
1

R1

1
1
1

( .

2.4

CDMA

87

g 1, g 2). N 2N
.

, ,
. ,
,

,
. ,

i' -1.


-.

, -

. .
-

[61].

, ,
. , ,
, ,
..

2.1.4.

[23, 61 ].

,
,

1- -

(-1, -1, -1, -1);


2- - (-1,+1, -1, +1);
3- - (-1, -1, +1,+1).
, :

1-

(110);
(010);
3- (001)

2-

1 +1

-1,

1-

(+1 +1-1);
(-1 +1-1);
(-1-1 +1)

2-
3-

. . 2.5' i -

88

3- . .

-1

+1

+1

1 +1
.

-1

-1 1

+1

+1

+1

-1

+1 1

2.5.


(), .

2.6

2.3.

~ ,_:J.".__
. __~_ _~....,

~
2 _: JLR,____,____,Flj

--1j1 +1

LFlJi

--+--~-....---..--+--_.._-~1-.

_ __.__+--....---+-..........

3
2
1
_+---1f--~--.--..........-+----+-~--+---+--~1----1.---'-
_
1

-2
-3
.

2.6.

2.3.

110
010
001

-1, -1, -1, -1


+1, -1, +1, -1
+1,+1,-1,-1
+1, -1, -1, -3

-1, -1, -1, -1


-1, +1, -1, +1
+1, +1, -1, -1
-1,+1,-3,-1

+1, +1, +1, +1


+1, -1, +1, -1
-1, -1, +1, +1
+1,-1,+3,+1

CDMA

2.7

2.4

89

2.

2
1

-1

-2
-3

"--:::~ _;l-LJ=L1LJ{;

-1 ___...______,

-2
-3

+4

-4

-4
.

2.7.

2.4.

+1, -1, -1,-3

-1,+1, -3, -1

+1, -1, +3, +1

-1, +1, -1,+1

-1, +1, -1, +1

-1, +1, -1, +1

-1, -1, +1, -3

+1, +1, +3, -1

-1,-1,-3, +1

-4

+4

-4

2.

90

+4, -4.
+1 -1.

1 3.


, ,

(.

2.5.

2.5).


(-1, +1, +1, -1)

+1, -1, -1, -3


-1, +1, +1, -1

-1, +1, -3, -1


-1,+1,+1,-1

+1, -1, +3, +1


-1, +1, +1, -1

-1,-1,-1,+3

+1,+1, -3+1

-1,-1,+3,-1


11
3

CDMA

(chip rate) Rc =

(. .

2.6).

1/ ,

/.

Gain ),
Factor),
Rc (R =1/).
PG =SF =Rc!R =!
(PG

-Processig

(SF

-Spreadig

,
.
.

PG

(PG),

2.2.
2.2.1.

CDMA

(CDMA),

91

(I

communication Industry Association).


[71-75]:
- IS-95 D - ;
- IS-96 D - ;
- IS-97 D - ;
- IS-98 D - ;
- IS-99 D - .

Tele-

2-

cdmaOne.

3-

cdma2000 [65, 82, 83].

, D:

9,6 /, 4,8 /, 2,4 /;

( );
;

( );
;
;
;

2.2.2.

2.8

CDMA IS-95.
(BTS, BSC, MSC,

GSM,

. .

1.1).
IS-95
Selector Unit). ,

, D

(SU -

BSC,

(MSC)

SU

BSC.

,
.

92

r------1

-1
-11

SU

----,

i-i

~L______ 1,

BSC '

---i---'
1

_:------:

-_l __,

--.

-11 su 1
- i s
1 1

1
1

"L_____ _: -------'

2.8.

BSC
BTS
DB
ISDN
MS
MSC

Base Statio Cotroller


Base Trasceiver Statio
Data Base
ltegrated Service Digital Network
Moblle Statio
Moblle Switchig Ceter

Operatio d it Ceter

PDN
PSTN

su

Packet Data Network


Puic Switched Telephoe Network
Selector Uits

Trascoder Equipmet

2.2..

CDMA

(forward).

(reverse) [14, 31, 48, 59, 60, 75].


IS-95 824
849 . - 869 ... 894 .
45 .
1,2288 /.
- 128
9,6 /. D IS-95
. 2.9.

CDMA

93

i1
-

(Forward

hl)

i1

( FTCH -

Forward Traflic

hl)

,._

1
(Reverse

hl)

(RTCH -

Reverse Traffic
Chanel)

( Canel)

Paging

Access Channel)


Pilot hl)

(PICH -


Synchronizatio

(SCH -

Channel)

2.9.


.
, ,

.
,
.

(
), ,
, .

.

20 .


, .

. -

94

64

( ),

1,2288 /.

.

(.
).

, ()
, ,
,
.

GPS.

(PICH -

Pilot Channel)

,
, , .

(SCH -

Synchronizing Channel)

1200 .

, (

Paging Channel)
- 7 .

.

.

9600, 4800, 2400 .

(FTCH - F orward Traffic Channel)

,
,
.

D
. ,

. , ,

,
:
/)

RS-1 (1200, 2400, 4800 9600


RS-2 (1800, 3600, 7200 14400 /).

CDMA

95

, .

64

2.10.

, .. ,

64 .

64,

64 :

1-

(WO),

(W32),

(Wl, W2,

W,

W4, W5, W6, W7),

- 55

.
CDMA
1,2288

WO

W2

W1

W8

2.1 .

.___31___.____33__,_[:: :....___ _,
w

W63

- Access Channel)

,
.

, (),
. ()
.

(RTCH - Reverse Traffic Channel)

96

2.3.
2.3.1.

[14, 121 ],
/

9,6 (19,2)

1,2288 /.

---------------,

1------

5
4

1,2288

L----------------1
2
.

2.11.


(.

2.11).

. .

1.

(CELP- Code Excited Linear Prediction) [67].


9,6 /,

2.

8,55 /
4 16 /).

(
)

(convolution encoding)

(.

1.8.2.).

CDMA

: =

= 1/2.

9,

20

(r = 1/2)
19,2 / (384 20 ).

3.

97

9,6

. , ..

20 ,

, . ,
.
,
.

(24

20 ,
19,2 / 384 .
16) .

, .
,
, , ,
.

4.

( ),

42 .

()

, .
, ..

8, 7

42 .

.

42

813,8

1 1,2288 / (

).

5.

). , ( )
,
.

, , -

98

2n - 1

IS-95

42- .

1,2288

19,2

/,

64- .
,

(
). .
.
,

20%

.
:

6.
,

..

l 2, ,

1,2288 /. (19,2 /)
64 . ,
, .

0,

(,
),

1 -

( ).
.
.
, ,

64 ) , .
7-8.
(1- -) -

CDMA

99

(QPSK).

=32768

215
,

1,2288 /.

.
15-
.

g(x)1

=x1s + + 9 + 8 + 7 + xs +1,

g(x)Q

=x1s + 12 + 11 + 10 + + xs + 4 + +l.

1 2
.

1,2288

/.

32768 26,66 (32768/1,228810 6

=26,6610-

).

32768

511

64

512 ().

,
D

[24].

(Frequency Hopping

F D

D)

9.

(Time Hopping

D).

[24].

CDMA

,
.

.

615

1/Q-

2.12.

, ,

,
, , .

2.11.

100

--------------

1
1

17
1
1

2.3.2.

2.12.

,

.

20 .


( ) , .

2.11.

9,6

20

1/3.
28,8 /,

64

,
. ,
.

/. ((28,8/6)64

307,2

= 307,2).

, ,
.
.

.
,
.

101


, ,

1/2

Q-

QPS.

,
.

2.12.

).
.
15- ,

511

2.4.

CDMA

64

CDMA

, ,

GSM,

, . :
,

2.4.1.


(
). ,

MS

,
.

*
.

W32

SCH,

(. .

2.10).

42- ,

320

' ( ) -

102

. .

. ,
.
,
.
,
.
,
.

2.4.2.

MS ( ) MS (
2.13 [14, 60].
GSM.

) .

.
.

1.

).

2.

),

(MIN - Moile Identification Number), (ESN -Electronic Serial Number).


3. ,
,
.
.

4.

, ,

( , ),
,
.

5.

MS

6.

( ) .

7.

103

Calling Identification Number).


8.

(CIN -

CIN.

( ).

9.

10.

MS

MS


2
3


4

5

6


7

8


()


()

8
( )

8
( )


CDMA

2.13.

-"'

104

BTS

MS


. , .

MIN

2,

ESN;

2.4..

.
.

2.14.

(VE,

cation and Voice Encryption) [123]

Cellular Authenti128 ,
Shared Secret Date).

(SSD -

-,
, . VE

. :

64 ,

SSD

SSD-A
SSD-B (64 ) -

.
,
.

18

,
.
:

(global challenge),

(unique challenge),

.

SI-.

- ,

- :
) -;
) ;

CDMA

105

) ;

ming)

--------------------------------1

OTASR (Over The Air Service Reprogram-

i----------------------------1

-----------------"

HLR/AUC


(SSD)

MSC

~'--~---'-'-___..:..(S_S_D.:..)--~.--------~


(V)

~---+--!

(CAVE)

'

,/.../\\
CAVE

----- ______________________ J

18-

SSD-A

SSD-B

CAVE

2.14.

OTASR

m
VE

code mask).

(SSD-B)
(private long

- Cellular Message Encryption Algorithm) - 64 , (Data ) 32 . ,


.

, -

106

D.
,
, D

, .

, .

(Enhanced

), ,
.

,
.

2.5.

CDMA

[22, 111]:
- hard handover;
() - soft (intercell) handover;
() - softer (intersector) handover.

.
.

. ( ,

),
.

,
D;

- - - (
-);

D.

.
-

107

Selector Unit).
SU,

(SU -

.

. -
.

(diversity handover).

. ,
.

.
,
.



. ,

SU

,
.

,
,

2.5.1.

- D
, .

(PICH),

. -

. .
-

,
. -
(
).
, .

108

-, ,

( ).

(three fingers)

(R 1 -),
. , R-
, -,

-.
,

(channel assignment).

- ,

-,
. -
, ,

-,
, -,

. -

(),

(). -

(). -

- 20.

-, ,
, .

(PN).

R - . ,
(
.

- fingers)

CDMA

109

, - . , ,

- ,
,
. -

, ,
, .
, .

,
-:

-SR_WIN_-
;

- SRCH_ WIN_ N -

- SRCH_ WIN_ R -

SRCH_WIN_A

SRCH WIN

, ,

-
-.
. ,
,
,
.

1.

, :

1 ;

5 ;
- , 1-95, -1,2288
- - 300 106 /.
:
(1/(1,2288106) 0,814 ;

1000/(30010

=3,333

1000 (1

):

/;

110

3,333/0,814 = 4,1.
5

20,5

20,5 -4,1=16,4 .
SRCH_WIN_A ~ 216,4 = 32,8 33 .
2

2.

16

(.

2.15).

.
,

6 10

(.

2.15).

10
16
.

2.15.

SRCH _WI N_ A

S-

300 106 0,81410-6

244'

6000
244

= - - = 24,6

10000
244

= - - = 41,0

d = 41,0-24,6 = 16,4 .

CDMA

111

10000
244

= --=

41,0

= 6000 = 24 6 .
244

'

d =41,0- 24,6 =16,4 ,


SRCH_WIN_A ~ 216,4 =32,8 .
, - ()
.

SRCH_WIN_N

SRCH_WIN_N -

, ,

-.
,

SRCH_WIN_A.


- ( ),
.

.
,

6 .

, -
,

1.

1,

- 6000/244 = 24.6 .
2 24.6

, (

1 2) ,
SRCH_ WIN_ N

SRCH_ WIN_N

112

SRCH_WIN_R
, ,
, ,

2.5.2.

SRCH_WIN_N.

T_TDROP,

T_TDROP

T_DROP,

T_ADD,

_,

T_DROP

-.

T _TDROP

, . ,
-

. -

T_DROP, .
T_TDROP - ,
T_DROP,

.
-
-.

T_ADD

-, ,

, .
.

T_ADD

, -

.
, -,

, ,
.

, ,

, ( -

CDMA

113

_
).

T_ADD

,
. ,
.

T _DROP

,
. ,

,
,
, . _DROP

T_TDROP

T_ADD

T_TDROP.

T_ TDROP

, -

. ,

, .

T_TDROP

, -,

, .
.

2.6 .

2.6.

ADD

DROP
TDROP

-31,5 ... 0
0 ... 7,5
-31,5 ... 0
0 ... 15

-l

2,5
-15
2

,
-.

CDMA

(PSMM -

Pilot Strength Measure-

114

ment Message ),

(HDM - Handover Direction Message),


( Handover Completion Message ),
- (NLUM Neighbor List Update
Message).

. ,
,

HDM.

PSMM

/;
;
-;

(T_ADD, T_DROP, _,
T_TDROP).
HDM :
- ;
- CDMA;
- ( -
);

, -.

.
-

(NLUM)

- .

,

T_ADD,

_,

T_DROP, T_TDROP.

-
. .

2.16

.
.

1.

2.16.

(T_ADD),

-
-.

(PSMM)

CDMA

2.

115

(HDM),

-, .

3.

, -

().

4. - DROP.
5. .
PSMM.
6. (HDM)

7.

HDM.

,
.

8.

(NLUM),

-.

- .

BSC

MS

HDM

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

2.16.

T_TDROP

- .
, - -

116

.
, -

. -

T_ADD

(.

2.17,

1),
PSMM .

(.

2.17,

2),

PSMM

> _,5

(.

2.17,

3),

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.

2.5..

2.17.

(2)

(3)

, :

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Moile

Assisted Handover),

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. ,
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CDMA

117

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,

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(, 4), ,
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2.18

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(-

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1)

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119

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3.

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.

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120

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. .

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.

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2.6.

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.


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121

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:

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, , .


, , ,
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Frame Error Rate)

FER

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2.6.1.

3-4

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122

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.

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123

, - ,
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(access attempt).

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124

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quence );
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0

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2.19.

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16

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126

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127

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(.

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);

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10

11

12

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14

15

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11

12

13

14

15

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, /N0

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/N0

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/N0 , .

N0

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20- . , ,
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CDMA

129

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.

2.22

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1N0

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2.22.

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) .

2.23.

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1).
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Emin (

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3)

.
.

4.

, (

> ) ( 4).
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5).

, -

130

6.

7).

, .

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9.

10).

11),

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11

2.23.

CDMA

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131

(FLPC -

Forward Link Power Control) -

.
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/N

(FER).

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N0

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.

2.24.

,
.

FER

FER

.
, .

1.

2.24.

FER,

2.

3.
4.

5.

FERm > FER,

FERm

FERm

FER.

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5.

1 ,

2.

FER

6.

, .

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7.

2.

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132


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2.24.

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CDMA

133

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Radio Service)

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ierarchical

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ture );
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136

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AMPS

Advaced

---------

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Moblle h

Service
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cdmaOne
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cdma2000

IS-95
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0-AMPS
EOGE

Oigital AMPS
hd Oata rate for GSM
Evolution

FH-COMA
GPRS
GSM

Frequecy Hoppig

Geeral

Packet Radio Service


Global System for Moblle

GSM

Commuication

HOR
HSCSO

UWC-136
-

WCOMA
1

High Oata Rate


Hight Speed Circuit Switched
Multi-Carrier
Personal Oigital Cellular
Universal Wireless
Communication IS-136
Time Hopping
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Multi Carrier

IMT-2000

2007

. ()

1935-1950

2010--

2015

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137

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1.

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).

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3G


. ,

3G,

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3G

1992

., ,

.
,

10

[128),

ture

FPLMTS (FuLand Moblle Telecommunication System -


) [125).
Puic

IMT-2000 (Intemational
Moblle Telecommunications for the year 2000 -
2000).
IMT-2000 :
- (. 3.2);
-
20 /;
- 2000 ,
;

2000 .

138

,
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, .

cweb

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3.2.

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,
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IMT-2000

IMT-2000

FPLMTS [125]

IMT-2000,

, :

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- (MSS - MoSatellite Service)


(GMPCS-Global Moile Personal Communication Satellite).
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ile

,
.

139

,
,

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,

.


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1999

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.

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:

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384 /

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1992 ,
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[6, 114].

IMT-2000

[46].

.
, G,
, , ,

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,

Services) [65, 68],

UMTS (Universal

Moile

IMT-2000.
Telecommunications

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, 2G
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160 . , ,

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.
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600
500
400
300
200
100

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Europe, Middle East, Africa -

, ,

420-806 .

[6, 44, 114].

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,

2520-2670

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146

. ,

UMTS

2700-3400

2700

, ,

3332-3339

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.
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(DS -

Direct Spectrum),
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,

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,

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WCDMA
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, .

1998

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ARIB
GSM.

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D.

5 .

cdmaOne,

WCDMA,
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, GSM.

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,

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WCDMA ,
GSM .

TD-WCDMA
TD-WCDA

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3.5

TD-WCDA.

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15

12

13

12

13

14

15

13

14

15

14

12

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TS

TS

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TS -

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149

FDD (Frequency Duplex Division)


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.

TDD


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7 (5 ).
2100

1900-1920 1920-1980
.

2010-2025

2110-2170

2200

3.6. WCDMA/UMTS

UMTS

1996

WCDA

(UMTS Universal
Moblle Telecommunications Services).
UMTS , GSM, ,
GSM,
. UMTS
WCDA, GSM.
. G,

2G

150

WCDA N

DoCoMo

Jphone [44].
N

DoCoMo

. ,
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348

64

/ ,
(

).

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dafone, Cingular Wireless, Siemens

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(4G).

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4G 2010 .

cdma2000

cdmaOne

D.

G,

,
.

2000

cdma2000,

IS-95.

cdmaOne .
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cdmaOne

, , ,

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. :

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cdma2000

WCDA

2000

GSM.
Motorola Nokia
lXtreme, , ,

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Qualcomm.
D lXtreme

151

D .

IS-95b

WCDMA.

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[128).

3.2.

D-

cdmaOne IS-95b
cdma2000 lXMC
cdma2000 lXtreme
cdma2000 HDR
cdma2000 3
WCDA(UMTS)

, /

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1,25
1,25
1,25
3,75
5,00

1,2288
1,2288
1,2288
1,2288
3,6864
4,0960

115,2 /
384,0 /
5,2 /
2,4 /
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64
144
1200
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1126

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Multi Carrier).

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2000.

cdma2000,

IMT-

WCDA,

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, .

, ,
: WCDA .

HDR

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1,25

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).
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240

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Qualcomm

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1Xtreme
,

HDR,

HDR

Nokia

Motorola [123].

3G

D. D

GSM (EDGE -

Ehanced Data rate for GSM Evolution).

GSM , HSCSD (High-Speed


Circuit Switched Data -
) GPRS.
EDGE (UWC-136)

GSM
UMTS.
IMT-2000.
UMTS GSM,
EDGE

, , ,
.
,

tions Consortium -

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153

, D.

GSM,

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cdma2000,

WCDA

, .
, , ,

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2048

384 /.

3G,

GSM,

/),

IMT-2000

- ,
.

EDGE -

200 ,

EDGE

EDGE

IMT-2000

UWC-136.

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,

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2000

GSM

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, ). .

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EDGE WCDMA [20].

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, /

, /
,
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/

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EDGE

WCDA

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384

384

2048

GSM (450, 900,


1800) PCS (1900)
0,2

1920-1980
2110-2170
5

1DA/8-PSK

DS-CDA/QPSK

1 (.)

0,125

154

EDGE

(EGPRS, Enhanced GPRS)


(ECSD, Enhanced Cir-

cuit Switched Data).


GSM GPRS, TDMA
0,577 . .
GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying
) 8-PSK, ,
HDR.
cGSM.
EDGE
GSM . ,
, GPRS ( ) HSCSD
( ).

EGPRS

EHSCSD.

EDGE,

GSM.

EDGE,
8-PSK

GMSK, EDGE
3.4).

(.

.
. ,

.

(

8-PSK).

3.4. EDGE

(MCS)

, /

,%

MCS-1

8,8

143

GMSK

70,4

91

GMSK

89,6

, /

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11,2

MCS-3

14,8

45

GMSK

118,4

MCS-4

17,6

22

GMSK

140,8

MCS-5

22,4

187

8-PSK

179,2

MCS-6

29,6

117

8-PSK

236,8

MCS-7

44,8

43

8-PSK

358,4

MCS-8

55,4

18

8-PSK

435,2

MCS-9

59,2

8-PSK

473,6

155

EDGE Compact
EDGE
D-AMPS, UWCC ,
EDGE Compact, ,
. ,
.

EDGE Compact .
- ,

D-APS.

3.3.
3.3.1.

HDR

D.

UMTS

UMTS

3.7.

1.1, 1.3, 1.4).


3G ,
[28]. : , UMTS
UE (User Equipment); ,
- ; (BSC)
(MSC).
GSM

(. .

WCDA
-

(RNC -

Radio

Network Controller).
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Radio Access Network)
,

WCDA. ,

work) [102, 106] -

GSM.

CN (Core Net-

,

, .

UMTS

UTRAN,

, ,

156

CN,

(UE - User Equipment),


Uu.
lu

UMTS

ADC

NMC

,-------'

1
1
1

--------

'

'1
1

---1-CS

SS7

1
1

SS7

lur:

PSTN

PSTN

RNC

MSC

TCP/IP

MSC

ISDN

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TCP/IP
ISDN

lur

1
1
1

RNC
s

:
1

1
1
1

1
J
1

1
1
1

UTRAN

'
CN '
L----------------------------------'
.

ADC
AuC
BTS
EIR
HLR
1-CS
1-PS
ISDN
lu
lub
lur
MS
MSC
NMC

PSTN
RNC
TCP/IP

3.7.

UMTS:

Admiistratio Ceter

Autheticatio

Base Telephoe Statio


Equipmet ldetificatio

Register

Home Locatio Register

lterface hl Switchig

lterface

Packet Switchig
ltegrated Service Digital Netwok
lterface UTRAN-CN
lterface BTS- RNC
lterface RNC-RNC
Moblle Statio
Moblle Switchig Ceter
Network Maagemet Ceter
Operatio d it Ceter
Puic Switched Telephoe Network
Radio Network Cotroller
lteret Protocols

UTRAN-CN
BTS- RNC
RNC-RNC





/-

UE
UTRAN
Uu
VLR

User Equipmet
UMTS T.errestial RAN
lterface UE-BTS
Visit Locatio Register

UMTS
UE-BTS

157

UMTS

UMTS

, ,
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, (,
, , ,

).

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). PLMN [108]
PLMN , ,
, ISDN, PSTN, .. . 3.7 PLMN,
(PSTN, ISDN, TCP/IP).
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UTRAN
3.3.2.

(UE) :
,

Uu;

US-SIM

Identification Module),

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SI- ,
,
,
.


, , :

(. .

3.3);

(ISDN),

(TCP/IP);

473,6

best

effort*;
best effort -

158


, ;

- .
UTRAN ::

( G*

lub

Uu.

.
.

( G

- RNC)
1-CS 1-PS.

,
.

RNC.

, .
.

[16].

.
3-

3.3.3.

WCDMA.

(RNC),

3.8,

,
;

(
);

lub,
1,5/2 / [106];
-

155 /

lub;
UDI);

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Iu-

1,5/2 /. ,
3.8, 160 ,

MSC -.
softswitch [18].

1,5/2 -1,5/2

ALT-1,5/2

WOS

Ethernet

~----'

WOS

Ethernet

~----'

PWC

TU

RSU

3.8.

ALT-1,5/2
DHT

Link Terminatio
Diversity Hadover Termial

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Exchage Termial

MIO

Multiplexig lput/Output

i Processor
Power ti
Referece Clock Uit
Radio Network Cotroller

BTS RNC
RNC MSC
/

-155

lu
lub

PWC
RSU
RNC
TU
WOS

Timig Ui
WCDMA Operatio

System

WCDMA

160

UMTS UE
RNC. ( )
(SRNC Service RNC), -
(DRNC - Drift RNC).

3.3.4.

UMTS.

(MSC) UMTS,
3.9,
GSM (. 1.3.3). MSC

(, ,

ISDN);
-


-7;

,
;

(PSTN,

ISDN

MSC

RNC

ISDN ..);

Iub,

ISDN

,
,
, , ,
, ;

,
;

GSM

MCS

UMTS
MSC

, -.

GSM :
(HLR Location Register),

161

GSM,

(VLR -

Visit Location Register),

RNC

1,5/2

HLR.

-155

UADP
PADP

IWF

WOS

Ethernet
WOS

Ethernet

GSM

IWF
ETPRI
BRl(2B+D)

ISDN
-155

PWC

TU
.

3.9.

BRI

Basic Rate lnterface


Echo Canceller
-1,5/2, Exchange Terminal

-155

IWF

MSC
PADP
POTS
PRI
PWC
RNC
TU
UADP

wos

lnterworking Function
Multiplexing lnput/Output
Main Processor
Moblle Switching Center
Packet services Adaptation
Plain Ordinary Telephone Services
Primary Rate lnterface
Power Connection
Radio Network Controller
iming Union
UDI services Adaptation
WCDMA Operation System

()



UDI

WCDMA

162

RNC, MSC

UMTS

- ,

RNC.

RNC
MSC, RNC lub,
ISDN - -

MSC

MSC

MSC

, , ;

IU-T

ISDN;

-;

G.729

MSC);

I-.


, ,

, ,

ISDN

(BRI)

ISDN-

(PRI

ISDN
BRI),

IU-T Q.931(3), Q.921(2)

1).

1.430/1.431

I--

IETF RFC 1483.

IWF . 3.9)

GSM.

I-

10 /.

(PADP),

I-

(IPR)

UDI (UADP)
PRI.

CS (Channel Switching),

163

PS (Packet Switching)

(.

3.10).

PS

.
/

BSS

BSS
CN
GGSN
HLR
MSCNLR
SGSN

3.10.

Base Statio System


Core Network
Gateway GPRS Support Mode
Home Location Register
Moblle Switchig CeterMsit
Locatio Register
Servig GPRS Support Node

GPRS

GPRS

GPRS

( )

- SGSN (Serving GPRS Support Node -


GPRS), MSCNLR (
, ),
;

- GGSN (Gate GPRS Support Node) -


() GPRS .

3.3.5.

MSC.

, UMTS/WCDA,
, '1 () .
.

164

UMTS

D ,

, ,

(. .

1.27)

() (. .

1.29)

[60].

10- ,

UE

16

625,0

UE


.
: ,

.
,
.
,

, ,
.

Media Access Control)

.
.

Channel)-

( Broadcast Cotrol
UE (DL- downlink).
UE,

( Paging
Control Channel) ( ). PICH (Paging
lndication Channel), .
.

UE

(DCCH -

Dedicated Control

Chanel) (

). ,

UE

Control

Chanel) (

). ,

Control Channel)

(SHCCH -

Shared Channel

().

(TDD -

Time Duplex Division)

165

WCDAIUMTS
.

(DTCH - Dedicated Traffic Channel).


.
(

Traffic Channel)

).

UE.

.
()

Dedi-

trasport hl) .

cated

DCH

UE.

UE

UE).

(DCH -

Broadcast Channel)

UE .
, (F - F orward Access Chanel) (
). UE,
. F.
UE,

( ) ( -

Pagig hl) .

UE,

SS-,

, ,
.

()

nel) -

(RACH -

Radom

Access Chan-

UE,

(-

Packet Chanel)-
UE . ,
RACH, .
(DSCH Downlik Shared Chanel) - UE.


, > ,

w-, ,
(, ).

166

Control Physical Channel)

UE).

Primary

Control Physical Channel)

UE,

(SCCPCH -

UE)

Secondary

(PRACH - Physical Random


Access Channel) ( UE ).
UE
.

()

Dedicated Physical Data Channel)

(DPDCH -

().

()

(DPCCH -

Dedicated Physical Control Channel)

().

UE.

(TFI -Transport Format Comblnation Identifier).

UE

(CPICH -

(FBI - Feedback Information).


Pilot Channel).
, UE

.
,

UE

Channel). AICH ,
(DCH),

(AICH -Acquisition Indicator


UE

UE.

(PDSCH - Physical Downlink Shared Channel)

UE).

UE

UE

(SCH -

Synchronizing Channel).

(I).

UE

167

.
,

UE

(PICH - Paging Indication Channe[)


UE

().

PICH UE .
(CSICH - Status Indication

Channe[) - ,
UE .

.

/ (CD/CAICHCollision Detection/Channel Assignent Indication Channe[).


UE , ,
.

3.4.

UMTS

UMTS . 3.11.
B-ISDN

UTRAN,

(access stratum, AS) - ,


UE UTRAN;
- (non-access stratum, NAS)- ,
CN UE UTRAN.
-

) , ,

(113].

(C-plan)

, , .
,

(.
:

3.11).

168

- RANAP (RAN Application),

(RNC-MSC),
Iub;
- RNSAP (Radio Network System Application),

RNC-RNC), Iur;
-NBAP (Network Base station Application),

RNC.

3.11. UMTS

(U-plane)

, . ,
, ,

, .

UTRAN

, .
,

(SVC -

Signaling Virtual Channel),

169

, .

(
) .
,

.
- , (
) (
).

;
;
-.

. .

tion),

UMTS
ALCAP (Access Link Control Applica-

. ,
-
, .

(
) ,

ALCAP,

ALCAP

,
.

ALCAP

UMTS

ALCAP

(&).

3.5.

3.12

UMTS.

170

UE

(RRC) -

: ()
RL,

RRC

RLC

RLC

ML2

"'
RANAP

RANAP

SMLNNI
UMTS
CS/PS

SAALNNI
UMTS
CS/PS

(RRC)

UE

MSC
SGSN
lu CS/PS

lub

. .12.

BTS

Layer 2
Asychroous Trasfer Mode
Base Trasceiver Statio

ti Maagemet

AAL2

lub
lu CS
lu PS

Adaptatio

lu Circuit Switchig
lu Packet Switchig

Media Access Cotrol

Moblle Maagemet
MSC
Moblle Switchig Statio
NBAP
Network Base statio
Applicatio Protocol
RANAP
RAN Applicatio
Radio Lik Cotrol
RLC
Radio Network Cotroller
RNC
RRC
Radio Recourse Cotrol
SAALNNI Sigalig AAL NNI
SAALUNI Sigalig AAL UNI
Servig GRPS Support Node
SGSN
User Equipmet
UE
Uu

(RNC)

(BTS)

Uu

.\

~i

UMTS:

RNC

RNC MSC
RNC SGSN






()


-



UE -

GPRS

RNC,

171

(BTS)

[87].

2 (AAL2).

AAL2


,
.

3.5.1.

trol) -

RRC (Radio Resource Con[57],

Iub.

3.4.
RRC :
- RRC;
-'- (RLC);
- ();
RRC :
-
UTRAN;
- - ,

UE

;
;

, RR-

UE

UTRAN;

,
;

, RR-;

;
U- ;
;

;
;

RRC

172

.

.

. .

3.5

3.5.

(r)

UE=>SRNC

DCCH

UE=SRNC

DCCH

UE:::::>SRNC

SRNC:::::>UE

SRNC:::::> UE

DCCH

UE:::::>SRNC

DCCH

SRNC:::::> UE

DCCH

UE:::::>SRNC

DCCH

SRNC:::::> UE

DCCH

SRNC:::::> UE

DCCH

UE:::::>SRNC

DCCH

SRNC:::::>UE

DCCH

()

URN-

UE Capabllity
Information

Direct Transfer

RRC Connection
Request

RRC Connection
Setup
RASetup

UE


RR-

RRC-

RR-

R-

R-

Complete

Release
Complete

Handover
Command
Active Set Update

R-

Release

NAS

RASetup

NAS

RRC-

RAB-

Active Set Update


Complete

Paging

(RRC)


R-

R-

R-

UE

UE RRC

R - Radio Access Bearer - .


SRNC - Serving RNC - RNC.
NAS - Non-Access Stratum - .

(RLC)

(RLC) [117, 124]


3 :

173

1. TrD (Transparent mode Data).


2.
(UMD - Unacknowledged Mode Data);
3. (D -Acknowledged Mode Data).
RLC :
- ;
- ();
- (, );
- ;
- ;
-
;

;
;

;
;

/ .

.
.

TrD

(, ).

RLC ,

TrD

, .

UMD

).

UMD


RL-

(PDU),
(SDU).

.

.

UMD PDU

RLC

).

, .

D (
). , D
,

PDU,

RL-

SDU.

174

. :

, ;

;
.

PDU (Piggybacked Status PDU)

(, ,
.).

[117, 124].

(Media Access Control)


[126].

- ( Broadcast Channel);
- ACc/sh - (
- Common Control Channels);
- MACd -
(DCCH - Dedicated Control Channel).
(PDU)
( SDU).

SDU

, .
.

-''"''"

TCTF 1

~~~~d 1UE-ld 1
.

3.13.

-<"'"<m

SDU

3.13.
1

TCTF (Target Channel

Field) -

175

(RACH) (F).
TCTF F FDD - 2 8
, TDD - 3 5
. TCTF TDD - 2 4

UE-Id type -

, ,

UE-Id

(UMTS Radio Network Temporary Identity) -


, UMTS;
01- C-RNI (Cell Radio Network Temporary Identity)-
00 -

U-RNI

10 -

(PDU

(PDU

);

11 -

).

UE-Id

U-RNI

UE
UE-ld, :

(DCCH),

C-RNI

Channel)

(Date Transmission
(Date Synchronizer Channel)

FDD
DCCH; .
UE-Id :
- U-RNI-32 ;
- C-RNI - 16 .

/ ,
.

FACH

RACCH,

.
/

. ,

/ :

- 0000 - 0001 -

1;
2;

176

- 1110- 15;
-1111- (PDU ).
3.5.2.

Connection Management)

,
,

. :

(, );
: , .

.
.

3.14.

3.6.

3.6.

3.14.

01

( )

Alerting
Call Proceeding
Progress

04

Estaishment

02

05

Setup

06

Estaishment

07

Connect
Call Confirmed
Start
RECALL
Emergency Setup
Connect Acknowledge

08
09

OxOF

Confirmed

177

OxlO

User Information

l
17

Modify Reject
Modify

18

Hold

19

Hold Acknowledge

OxlA

Hold Reject
Retrieve

OxlC

3.6

- Mobllity Management)

Mobility Management) [117]

, .

3.15.
8

3.15.

- 0101
- 0000.

3.7.

3.7.

0001

IMSI Detach Indication

0010

Location Updating Accept

0100

Location Updating Reject

1000

Location Updating Request

IMSI

178

. 7

OxOl

0001
0010
0100
1000
1001
1010
1011

OxlO

Oxll

Service Accept
Service Reject
Service Abort
Service Request
Reestaishment

Request

Abort

Status

3.5.3.

TMSI

SI

0001

0001
0010
0011
0100
1000
1001

Authentication Reject
Authentication Request
Authentication Response
Identity Request
Identity Response
TMSI Relocation Command
TMSI Relocation Complete

lub

UMTS

.
: - ,
.

:

SONET, SDH .

(
)

(CS).

(CN)

[19].

(S-AAL Signaling

Adaptation Layer).
3.16):

(.

Specific Coordination Function),

(SSCF -

Service

-
-

(SSCF UNI - User-Network Interface)


(SSCF NNI - Network-Network Interface);

179

(SSCOP -

Service Specific Connection Oriented Protocol);


- ( UMTS
AAL5,
).

SCCP
-3

SSCF (UNI

NNI)

SSCOP

ML

3.16.

UMTS

( )

17, 35]. :
- SCCP (Signaling Connection Control Part) -

[1, 10, 11,

GSM.

-3

, ,
, , ..

. ,

(Q.2150.1)

(CN)

AAL2 (Q.2630.1)

SCCP.

(PS). ,
MUA-3 (Mail User Agent) -

(.

3.17).

()

. .

SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) -

.
,

TCP/IP-2000 [112].

180

IP

UDP.


.
.

[112].

Tunnelling Protocol) -

GPRS.

GTP (GPRS


, .. .

MUA-3
SCTP

IP

AAL

3.17.

UMTS

( )

3.6.

GSM

UTRAN

UMTS

. ,
, :

RNC

Iur;

UE

(BTS).
,

GSM.

3GPP [58, 118, 126, 129],

[88, 89, 99, 100, 116, 118].


3.18

UE UTRAN,
[116, 118]. ,
. 3.8-3.10.

UMTS

1
.

UE

-RRC
-

.....--.----,
RRC NBAP

NBAP

CCCH,DCCH

ocL. Rf\CH,FACH, DSCH


1

--

RANAP

RNC

lub

Uu

NBAP

181

NBAP RNSAP

f+- -

RANAP

CN

lu

RNSAP

RRC

RANAP

--

RANAP

RACH,FACH

~
UE

f!

Uu
.

3.18.

nn<

1 il

_n!J~

-~

DRNC

lub

UE

SRNC

lur

UTRAN

lu

CN

( ):

) ; )

3.6.1.

RANAP (RAN Application Protocol) -

/.

(RNC),

(GTP -

GPRS Tunneling Protocol),

..

[87, 113].

GPRS (SGSN),
MSC

UE

(CN).

RANAP
RNC,

RANAP :
- ;
- ;
- .

.

3.8.

(RANAP)

182

3.8.

(r)

Initial UE Message

()

UTRAN

NAS (Non-Access Stratum)

RN-

=> CN

R (Radio Access
Bearer) Assignment

(R)

(R)

RN-

RN-

Assignment
Complete
Relocation Required

RNC

vN

RN-

RN-

RN-

RNC

=>CN
=> CN
=> CN

URAN

=> CN
=>CN

(CN)
=> GS/SS
GSM/SS => UTRAN

CN => RNC
CN => RNC
CN => RNC


RN-

Relocation Request

RNC

CN =>

CN =>
CN =>
CN =>

RNC

(CN)
UTRAN => GSM/SS
GSM/SS => URAN

RNC
RNC
RNC

CN => U RNC

RN-

Relocation Request
Acknowledge

GSM/SS

=> UTRAN

RNC => CN
RNC => CN
RNC => CN

RN-

Relocation Command

CN => RN-


RN-

Relocation Detect

Relocation Complete

CN =>

RN-

GSM/SS

=> UTRAN

GSM/SS

=> UTRAN

RNC => CN
RNC => CN

RNC => CN
RNC => CN

RNC => CN

RN-

Relocation Faile

RN-

RN-

=> CN

Iu Release Command

lu

CN=>RNC


RN-

lu Release Complete

Iu

UTRAN => GSM/BSS

CN =>
CN =>

RN-
RN-

RNC => CN

RNC => CN

RNC => CN

N

RN-

Paging

UTRAN =>

GSM/SS

CN =>

RN-

3.6.2.

183

Base station Application Protocol)

(NBAP -

Network
Iur.

,
, .

(abstract syntax notation one),

NBAP

, .

NBAP

NBAP

PDU

. .

3.19

PDUNBAP.

NBAP PDU

ID

()

ID

3.19. NBAP

ASN .1 -

[69].

NBAP PDU. .
ID. ,
(error indication).

.
.
. ,

().
. ,
()

ID.

NBAP.

, ,

NBAP

3.9.

184

3.9.


(.)

Radio Link Setup

(.)

(NBAP)

UTRAN

RR-

Radio Link Setup


Response

RR-

Node => RNC


NodeB=>RNC
NodeB =>RNC
RNC=>NodeB

RNC=>NodeB

RR-

RNC::::>NodeB
RNC=>NodeB
RNC=>NodeB

Radio Link Addition

RNC=>NodeB
RNC=>NodeB
RNC=>NodeB

Radio Link Addition


Response
Radio Link Deletion

Radio Link Deletion


Response

RR-

Radio Link Reconfiguration Prepare

RAB

NodeB=>RNC
NodeB=> RNC
NodeB=> RNC
RNC=>NodeB
RNC=>NodeB

Radio Link Reconfiguration Ready


Radio Link Reconfiguration Complete
Paging

3.6..

NodeB=>RNC
NodeB=>RNC

RNC::::>NodeB
RNC=>NodeB
RNC=>NodeB

(RNSAP - Radio Network


Subsystem Application Part) :
- ;
- DCH (Dedicated transport Channel);
- .

UTRAN,

Iur.

D- ,

DCH RNC

lur.

185

UE.

-.

RNSAP

, .

3.20,

3.10.
5

3.20.

3.20

2-3

RNSAP

[69].

, .
(.

3.10).

3.10.

()

Radio Link
Reconfiguration
Prepare

()

URAN

SRNC~DRNC

SRNC~DRNC

Radio Link
Reconfiguration
Ready

SRNC
SRNC

Radio Link
Reconfiguration

SRNC~DRNC

SRNC~DRNC

RadioLink
Reconfiguration
Response

DRNC~SRNC

DRNC~SRNC

Radio Link
Reconfiguration
Complete

SRNC~DRNC

Radio Link Addition

()

SRNC~DRNC

DRNC~SRNC

()

SRNC~DRNC

DRNC~SRNC

~DRNC
~DRNC

SRNC~DRNC

Radio Link Addition


Response

Radio Link Deletion

Radio Link Deletion


Response
SRNC Relocation
Complete

()

SRNC

SRNC SRNC ~
RNC

186

3GPP [118].

3.6.4.

.
,

3GPP 25.931Vl.1.011999-06.

, ..

();

,
, ,

,
;

;
;

(DTB -

lu/lur

Data Transport Bearer)


(ALCAP)

, ,
,

RLC

RRC,

.

.

.6.5.

, .. .
.

3.21.

(CN).

187

, (

1),
CRNC (Control RNC).
( 2). ,
, UE ,
. 3.21 UE ( 3-5).

RNC -

NodeB

CRNC

CN

. .21.

3.6.6.

(paging):
- UE (. 3.22);
- UE,

(.

3.23).

UE.

UE

UE
(.

(RRC)

(pagig)

3.22).

1. (CN) UE
(LA - Location Area), RNC (RNCl RNC2),
RANAP ( )
(paging).

188

UE,

( ).

2. RNCl

RNC2

NBAP

) (,

Node

1.1, Node 1.2).


:

UE.
3. UE, 1. : Paging
. 3.22
.

4. UE, 2.
5. UE ,

RNCl,

(NAS -

Non-Access Stratum).

Node

Node

1.1

1.2

RNC 1

RNC2

CN

2 Paging

3.
4.

Paging

Paging

5. NAS:

3.22.
UE

RRC (. 3.23).

189

DCCH (Dedicated Control Channel).


RNC

CN

2. DCCH: Paging

3.23.

UE

UTRAN

, ,

SMS. :
1. UE
RANAP .
2. RNC (SRNC)
(paging)
DCCH,
(RRC).
3.6.7.

UE, CN NAS. , NAS -


(Non-Access Stratum) - , CN UE
UTRAN.

NAS UE

(. 3.24)
NAS UE, :
1. RRC (RR-
, . . 3.5).
2. UE SRNC RRC
UE
: UE, ,

, ,
.

190

RRC

NAS

3,

3. UE

SRNC

RN-

RRC

: , ,
, ,

GSM, ...;
(CN), NAS.
4. SRNC CN
RN- UE.
: NS- , ,
, ,

...

NAS UE
NAS.

CN

SRNC
1.

2. DCCH:

RR-

3. DCCH:

3.24.

CN

UE

NAS

3.6.8. RRC

RRC
(DCH)
DCH. SRNC DCH

RR-,

(RNI) RR-.
.

3.25.

1. :

191

SRNC

2.

RRC

4. ALCAP:

5.

6.

3.25.

: RR-

()

1. UE

RRC

RRC

(CCCH-

Common Control Channel).


:

2.

DCH,

(BTS)

, ,

3.

UE, .

FDD), 1 ( TDD),
( TDD), .

.
: ,

4. SRNC

AAL2,

AAL2)

Iub.

ALCAP

(-

192

cess Link Control Application Protocol).

DCH.

lub

AAL2

5.

SRNC

lub.

6.

FDD).

RR-
:

SRNC UE.

UE,

(RNI), , (
(

TDD),

FDD),
TDD),

3.7.

UMTS

CDMA.

, .

. ,

, .
,
.


. ,

CDMA,

.
,

UE

RNC

UE.

RNC

,
.

UE

RNC.

, (

), .

193

()

(RSCP - Received Signal Code Power)


(received signal strength indicator).
, RNC.
, RNC UE

- ( );
- ( ).

, g

3.7.1.

(.

3.26)
RNC (DRNC),
RNC (SRNC), (BTS).

,
.

(.

1. SRNC

3.26).

(DRNC),
UE, Iur

DRNC
RNC.

UE.

RNSAP

RNSAP,

, ,

FDD),

1 (

TDD),

( DD), ,
.

2.

DRNC,

DRNC
(NBAP) ,

, ,

FDD),
( TDD), .

( DD),

194

SRNC

DRNC

DRNC

1.
2.

4.

5. ALCAP:

5. ALCAP:

lub

6.

~-~-~-r~-~-~----~-----~~--~---~-----7.
8.

D:

D:

3.26.

( )

lub

3.

195

, , ,

NBAP.

: ,
(

AAL2,

AAL2

).
.

4. DRNC

RNSAP

SRNC

: ,
(

AAL2,

AAL2

), .

5. SRNC

(ALCAP)
AAL2,
Iur/Iub,

Iur/Iub

DCCH.

6.

SRNC

.
.

7. SRNC

DCCH

RR-

( )

UE (.

3.5).

: , ,
, , ,
( N-).

8. UE

RR-

3.7.2.

(.

3.27)

RNC (DRNC),
RNC (SRNC).
(. 3.27).
1. SRNC ,
, RNC (). SRNC (
) UE DCCH RR-

( ).
:

, .

196

SRNC

DRNC

DRNC

1. DCCH:

2. DCCH:

4.

5.

6.

7. ALCAP:

2. UE

3.27.

7. ALCAP:

( )

RR- .

3. SRNC (

DRNC (

.
.

: ,
.

4. DRNC

N- .

: ,
.

5.

N- .

6. DRNC

197

( ) RNS-

SRNC

7. SRNC

3.7.3.

ALCAP.


, ,

RNC (DRNC),

(SRNC).

RNC
3.28.

. .
:

1-6. . 1-6 .
7. SRNC DCCH RR-
. .
.

, ,

, ,

(N-).

8. UE

,
.

9-11.

..

(. .

3.8.
3.8.1.

4, 5, 7

3.27).

(CN)

SRNC

DRNC,
3.29.

.
, .

198

SRNC

DRNC

SRNC

DRNC

1.

2.

3.

4.

5. ALCAP:

5. ALCAP:

~--.~__.-------~~~11::'~~~~~~~8..:r~~1~~~~~1::'~~3~~~~------

7. DCCH:
8. DCCH:
9.

10.

11. ALCAP:

. .28.

DRNC

SRNC

7,

8.

11, lub

13,

3.29.

,
lub

199

SRNC

200

3.8.2.

RNC

lur

UMTS ,
RNC UMTS .
. 3.30.
SRN

SRN

SRNC

DCH
1.

2.
() lur
3.

lur

4. DCH.

8.

3.30.

lur

1.

SRNC

2.

Iur

().

3. RNS- .
4. RRC.
5-8. .

3.8..

201

RNC

, ,
(.

lur.

DCH

DCH.

3.31):

RN

RN

2.

SRNC

3.

4. ALCAP:

6. ALCAP:

7.

8.

9.

10.

13.

14. ALCAP:

3.31.

lur ( DCH)

202

1. SRNC

RN-.

: RN-,
(RNI), , .

2.

RNC

RNTI,

( )

(NBAP)

: , ,
, (

FDD),

, ( D),

3.

FDD),

N- .

: ,

4.

RN-,

lub.
ALCAP,

DCH.

5.

AAL2

lub

lur -.
RNC

SRNC

6. SRNC,

ALCAP,

lur.

AAL2
Iur DCH.
Iur - RNC.
7. SRNC RR- UE.
8. RR- RNC
, UE SRNC.
9. SRNC RNS-
RN-.

10.

RN- N-

-.
: ,
.

11.

- . ,

m RN- .

12.

RN-,

ALCAP,

13.

RN- ,

RNSAP

14. SRNC,

ALCAP,

AAL2

203

Iur.

Iur DCH.
Iur - RNC.

3.8.4.

MSC.

UE

RNC (SRNC)
(CN). SRNC ,

RNC

3.32. .
1-2. RN-

.
: ,
,

3-4.

RNC.

(CN)

RNC

: ,
, ,

-, (

).
5-6-7. RNC CN Iu
.

RNC

,
.

:
RN-.

8-9.

RNC,

10.

RN-

UE

RNC.

RR-

( ).

11-12.

RNC

UE,

UE,

Iu.

RNC,

/
(AC/RLC) .

204

RN

1.
2.

MSC/SGSN1

MSC/SGSN2

5. ALCAP:
lu
6.

1. DCCH:


( )

1.

DCCH:

18. ALCAP:
lu

3.32.

CN (UE

MSC)

13.

205

RR-

UE

RNC

RR-

RNC.
14-15.
RNC MSC/SGSN 1 .
, , ,

UE

, ,
.

,
,
.

3-10, 13-14.
16-17.

Iu-

RN-, RN-

Iu.
18.

RN


URAN,

3.9.

RRC.

3.9.1.


(.

3.33)

RNC

RNC
RNC.
UE

RN-. , ,

UE

SRNC

(RN-),

CN

UE.

1.

RN-

. RN-

UE.

RN-

C-RNI

(Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier).

2. RNSAP
RNC (SRNC). SRNC UE RN-.

206

3.

3.32.

(S-RNI

- Serving Radio Network Temporary ldentifier) .


4. RN-
RNC (SRNC), RRC -
, S-RNI, S-RNI,

SRNC.

RN-

CN

SRNC

C-RNTI

(RNI, )

2.


SRNC

3.

SRNC

S-RNI

4.

-:

~
~?
.

3.33.

.9.2.

RNC

GSM

UMTS (UTRAN)

3.34.

GSM.

UTRAN

207

GSM

UMTS
RN

4.

8.

9. DCCH

12.

~
13.

14.

$-$
.

3.34. GSM/BSS ~ UTRAN

208

1.

BSSMAP BSC

MSC

GS-

2. MSC -
UMTS (CN UMTS).
3. CN RN-
RNC.
4.
RNC CN RN-.
5. MSC UMTS (CN UMTS) -
.

6-7. GSM.
8. RNC UE, CN

9.

RR-

UE

RNC

RNC.
10.

RNC
CN.

RN-

11. CN - MSC.
12. MSC BSC.
13. BSC GSM

14. MSC -
UMTS (CN UMTS) .

3.1 .

UMTS

UMTS/WCDMA

GSM.

TDMA,
UMTS .

, D,

GSM.

UMTS/WCDMA,

, ,

World Administrative Radio Conference) 1992


IMT-2000,

2000 .
(WARC -

1885-2005

2110-2200

209

UMTS.

- 1920-1980 2110-2170 -
(FDD) WCDA,
UE (downlink) UE (uplink)
- 5 - 200 .
3-4 (215 220 )
;

- 2010-2025

TD/CDA).

200

(TDD,

-1980-2010 UE

(uplink), 2170-2200 -
UE (downlink).
, 3G
1935-1950, 2010-2015, 2225-2240 .
UMTS WCDA
. 5 .
UE
. UE
(QPSK).

-,

DQPSK

GSM.

QPSK).

(I Q)

(spreding)

,
.

.
.
.

(spreading code),

. WCDA

210

) ,
. ,
,
.

3,84 /.

QPSK

UE

().

512.

15

7,68

/.

/,

. ,

.

, , ,

.
, ,

,
. .
,
, ,
.

, .

, :

(OVSF -

Orthogonal

Variae

Spreading Factor codes),

.
.

,
,
.

(OVSF)

UE,

(PN)
UE.
UE

, ,

UE.

211

, ,

UE,

UE

. ,
,

-512.

UMTS

.
,

(ARS

Rate System).

Adaptive Multi-

. ,

GSM.


. ,

, .
, UMTS/CDA

(DTX -

Discontinuous Transmission)

( ).

UE

UMTS/CDA , ,
.

( ) .

UE

288

10 ,

(PICH -

Paging Indication Channel)


300
12 .

(PI -

Paging Indicator),

PI

, ,
.

(PSCH)

UMTS,

212

(SSCH).

, ,

(PN)

VSF-.

. .

PSCH, -
SSCH.
256 ,
. UE
. UE ,

, ,

,
, .
.

15

(256

16

) .

64

UE

, ,
. .

SSCH

UE

, , ,
.

64 , 8 .
UE

8
(CPICH - Common Pilot Channel). , UE

,
(

Primary Common Control Physical

Channel).

2.6.

CDMA

UMTS.

, D,

UMTS

UE

. , ,

, .
, . -

213

, -. ,


, , , .

.
. ,
, ,

UE.

:
.

UE

. ,


. ,

.
, ,

UE

UE

).
(

UE

).

(1 -

). ,
, ,
.

UE

.
,

4

802.16. WiMAX

-
(Worldwide Interoperabllity for Microwave Access -
)

WiAX

IEEE

802.16,

[62, 103, 127].

WiAX

( *) IEEE 802.16,

WiMAX.

(AAS -

Adaptive Antenna System),

,
.

,
WiAX, ,

VoIP,

WiAX
,
,

xDSL.

' -

, ,
.

().

802.16. WIMAX

215

,
, , ,

, WiAX
.

WiMAX

4.1.

WiMAX,

WiMAX -
IEEE 802.16-2004 (Air Interface Standard) 7
2005 IEEE 802.16-2005,

Cetecom Labs

, ).

7 2005 IEEE IEEE 802.16,


IEEE 802.16.
, WiAX [53]. IEEE 802.16, ,
WiAX Forum
(. 4.1). ,

, WiAX .

IEEE

802.16-2005

...---------.

WiMAX..

Release-1
IEEE 802.16-2004

4.1.

WiMAX

216

WiAX

( )

.

WiAX
(OFDA

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access),

[3, 22]

N/n

, ,
. ,

, .

1,25

20

IEEE

802.l

OFDA (S-OFDA
WiAX

Forum,

Scalae OFDA)

[109].

,
, .

WiAX
,

[90-92].

,

.

NWG (Network Working Group),

WiMAX Forum

,
, ,
.

IEEE 802.16
IEEE 802.16 WiMAX Forum

Wi-
.

WiMAX

,
.

,
WiAX, .

802.16. WiMAX

217

MIMO* (Multi Input - Multi Output)


, .

WiAX

63 /
28 / .
(QoS)
(IEEE 802.16 Media Access
Control). WiMAX
DiffServ - ,

QoS.

WiAX

ing).

(MPLS -

Multiprotocol Label Switch-

I-

QoS.

(subcanalization)


ile

(Mo-

Application Part).
.

WiMAX

1,25

20 ,

, ,
,
..
.

tication Protocol).

Extensie

Authen-

SI- ( , .).

AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)

' MIMO
,
.

218

( -

Hash based Message Authentication Code).


SIM-
(Smart Card), ,

:
USI-,
-.

. WiAX
()

50

, ,

VolP.

4.2.

OFDMA

OFDM.
(OFDM -

quency Division Multiplexing) -

[,
.

Orthogonal Fre-

5],

4.2.
1- n

1- n

&

L.Q

..-----.

..-----.

n- n

- n

4.2.

OFDM

(
). -

802.16. WIMAX

.....

219

........

. ,
, .

OFDM,

, .

OFDM,

4.2.

. , ,

200,

.. -

nw.

akcos kwt +

()

+ bk sin kwt.

, , :
N-1

x(t)

= + ~] ak cos kwt + bk sin kwt].


k-1

, ,

, .

,
().
.

x(t)

, ,

x(t),

.

,


, ,
().
FD- (.

4.3)

. 1
, ,

, .

' ,
, .. .

220

4.3.


() ,
.

.

4.3.

FD-

OFDA (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access)


[51, 52] , . 4.4:
- ;
- - ( );

,
.

-)

, .
, , , ,
.
.

802.16. WiMAX

221

4.4.

-
.

*
:

(FUSC - Fully Used Subcanalization);


-

(PUSC - Partly Used Subcanalization);


-

- Adoptive Modulation and Coding).

. (
) , .
,

**
.


,
.

* (DL -

Down Link) -
- .
** (UL - Up Link) -
, - .
,

222

, :
-;

,
.

.
.

4.3.1.

OFDMA

IEEE 802.l-2005
OFDMA - S-OFDMA

()

(Scalae

OFDMA) [109].

)
(
.

- FFT - Fast Fourier Transform). S-OFDMA


4.1. WiAX Forum

()

5 10 ( . 4.1

).

4.1. S-OFDMA

1,25
1,4
128
2

F"'
NFF

10

5,6
512

,2

=/8),

FD-
(

4.3.2.

=1/f),

Ts

= + ~,

5 )

1024
16

20
22,4
2048
32

10,94
91,4
11,4
102,9
48

-
,

48

802.1. WiMAX

4.2

(109]

223

4.2.

(DL FUCS)

1,25
128
22
106
96
9
2

10
1024
173
851
768
83
16

5
512
86
426
384
42
8

20
2048
345
1703
1536
166
32

,
.

(. .

17%

4.3, 4.4).

4.2

, .

, . ,

4.2

345.

2048

1703


-,

. -

. l.

48.

4.3..

(48 ).

32 (1536/48

=32).

DL PUSC

14

OFDM,

224

. -

4.5.

- 14

4.5.

od

0000 0000

- ;

@)-

OFDM:

4.3.

, (
).
-.

4.3.

(DL PUSC)


/

-

4.3.4.

1,25
128
43
85
6/3
72
12

5
512

91
421
30/15
360
60

20
2048
367
1681
120/60
1440
240

10

1024
183
841
60/30
720
120

(tile*). 4- .
3-

OFDM

4.6

, .

24

4.6.

. 3- 243

. ,

24

' -

-.

, .

48

=72

802.16. WiMAX

9009

1-

0000

2-

9009

3-

225

90

1-

2-

3-

)
.

4.6.

) 3- 4- ;
) 3- 3-

EtJ -

-;

4.4.

4.4. (UL)

1,25

10

20

128

512

1024

2048

31

103

183

367

97

409

841

1681

24

102

210

420

17

35

70

, .

4.6,

, .

226

4.3.5.

,
.
( - Adaptive Modulation and Coding - )
(DL) (UL), ,
, .

-.

N -

(N = 6),

, :

2 , 3

6 , 1 ; 3
1 , 6 .

,

.

,
,

[51, 52, 109].

WiMAX

( ),

4.3.6.

WiMAX

FD- (

, ).

().

' ,
. ,
.
, (

).

802.16. WiMAX

227

FD-

.
.

ODFMA

, .

4.7

, .

(ID Cell

ID Cell

ID Cell Z).

ID Cell

.
,

.
.

4.7. OFDMA:

PUSC (Part Used Sub Carrier) -


FUSC (Full Used Sub Carrier) -

~--~-

4.3. 7.

:: : : : : : : : : ) -

TDD

IEEE

802.l '1

(TDD -Time Division Duplex)

quency Division Duplex).

(HDFDD -

Half-Duplex Fre-

228

FDD

TDD.

TDD

,
.

, ,

TDD

.
:

FDD

,
;

MIMO

FDD,

TDD

,
;

TDD

, , .

4.8

. - ,

/
/

(RTG -

(TRG -

Transmit/Receive Guard period)


Guard period)

Receive/ransmit

.
.
: , FD
.

, .

(FCH - Frame

Cotrol

Header):

,
, , ,
.

DL-MAP

L-:

UL

(ragig): ,

, ,
.

802.16. WiMAX

UL-

229

(CQI -Channel Quality Indicator)

( ).
,

UL

CQI CQICH.

: ,

OFDM
-1

N-1

FCH
UL
ULMAP

ID

DL

i:;

1
:i::

UL 2

"
~
i:::

S-1

"

::

S+1

QJ

i:;

~
:::;

DL

UL
DL

DL

QJ

Q.

Q.

UL

QJ

:::;

DL

DL

DL 6

UL-

UL 5

DL

4.4.
4.4.1.

4.8.

UL 6

TRG

RTG

OFDM WiMAX

TDD

WiMAX

WiAX ,
, ,

- Adaptive Modulation and


Coding), (ARQ - Hybrid
Automatic Repeat Request) (CQI),
.

230

WiMAX

QPSK (Quadrature PhaseShift Keying - ), lQ 64Q


(Quadrature Amplitude Modulation - ).
64Q.
:

(CC-Convolution Coding);
- Convolution Turbo Coding)

- (

- (

Block Turbo Coding);


(LDPC -

Density Parity Check Coding).


. 4.5

Low

, WiAX.

4.5.

QPSK, 16QAM, 64Q


1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6
1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 5/6

QPSK, 16Q, 64Q


1/2, 2/3, 5/6
1/2, 2/3, 5/6

2,4,6

2,4,6

. -
( ).
,
..

(CQICH)


- .
,

(CQI),

/,

(MIMO)

.).

(ARQ

Hybrid Auto-

802.1. WiMAX

matic Repeat reQest).

231

.
,

. (

NAK)

, ,

WiMAX

,
.

(CQICH),

120 /.

4.6

US-.

48

FD-.

44

10

FD-

64QAM

4.6.


( )

,


-

Ts,

,
FD-

512
92
60
360
15

10

5
512
184
120
720
30

1024
104
136
272
17
102,9
5
48
44

1024
184
280
560
35

232

0,53
0,79
1,58
3,17
4,75
6,34
9,50
9,50
12,67
14,26
15,84

0,38
0,57
1,14
2,28
3,43
4,57
6,85

1,06
1,58
3,17
6,34
9,50
12,67
19,01
19,01
25,34
28,51
31,68

0,78
1,18
2,35
4,70
7,06
9,41
14,11

3/4
16Q

64Q

1/2
3/4

1/2
2/3
3/4
5/6

4.4.2.

1/2 6
1/2 4
1/2 2
1/2 lx

QPSK

4.6

",$

,1

. tt,28

11)47.

14,11
. 1J.82
: 21~17

23,S2

IEEE 802.16

, , .

DOCSIS (Data Over

Service Interface Specification [68]

, )

.

.
, ,

.

. ,
,

,
, .

4.4..

,
,
, WiAX -

802.16. WiMAX

(QoS)

233


, .

4.9.

QoS.


~~-~ QoS = QoS

"'3"

:s;

ID

8.
:s;

.....,..,..,.,.,....,.,...,....,.,.,

QoS

=QoS 2

:i:

ro
::

SID
.

4.9. WiMAX:
SID (Service ID) - ;
CID (ti ID) -

(peer-to-peer).

QoS,


.
.

4.7

QoS

4.7.

QoS

VoIP

WiMAX

QoS

234

QoS

QoS

(VolP)

4. 7

(F)

, -

W-

4.4.4.

WiMAX

, , , ,

.
:

.

. ,

QoS

-,

,
.


,

.

/,
,
.

4.4.5.

WiMAX

. ,

802.16. WiMAX

235

MS

, .

MS

MS

. ,

.

, .

4.4.6.

, .
,

,
, .

. (
). ,
.
.
.

256 . -
144 .
(BPSK - Binary Phase Shift Keying).
6 24

ID Cell.

.
:

NL-

;
;
.

()

(UL-MAP),

236


, .
.

: ,
FD-, .
,

ID),

(SID),

(CID -

Connection

.
, ,
,
. ,

.

.

,
.
.

4.4.7.

()

IEEE

802.l

(Hard Handover),
FBSS (Fast Base Station Switching)
MDHO ( Diversity Handover). , - , FBSS
MDHO - () .
IEEE 802.l WiAX Forum

, .

50 .

FBSS,

,

, .

(MS). ,
MS

.
,

- (S

Anchor Base Station).

802.16. WiMAX

FBSS,

237

. S
,

BS

BS) .

BS

CQICH.

FBSS

MS

S, .

MS

,
. ()

, ,
, S.

S
, .

FBSS

,
.

(MDHO),


,
, , .

,
.

MDHO

,
.
,

S.

4.4.8.

WiMAX

.
:

/;

238

;
;
.

:
.

Privacy and

Management protocol. Version 2)

IEEE 802.l,
2 (. v2 -

WiAX.
, / .

,
.

/. WiAX
,
(Extensie

col).

SIM-

Authentication Proto-

USI-,

-.
.

cryption Standard).

AES (Advanced En-

, .

, .
.
,
.

4.5.

4.5.1.

WiMAX

,
( ,
..).

OFDMA

MIMO

OFDMA

802.1. WiMAX

239

WiAX
.

:

.

,

STC

(Space-ime

Code).

,
.

SM (Spatial Multiplexing).

.

.
,

.
22

MIMO

, .

,
.
.

,
WiAX, .

4.8.

(DL)

N, -

(UL)

4.8.

N 1 ;;,.2,N,;;,.1

N 1 =2, N,?:. 1,

Ni?:.1,N,;;,. 2

N, -

N 1 =2, N, ?:. 2,

N,

=1, N,?:. 2,

WiAX ()
,

240

4.10.

, ,


. ,

(,
, ),

. (
,

),
.

(
)
- .
,

11

4.10.

(
) .

(PER -

Packet Error Rate)

, ,

802.1 . WiMAX

(SM)

PER.

241

(STC) [55]

,
.

WiMAX

(MIMO)

.
.

4.9

10 , 5-
48 FD-).

44

(DL/UL).

1:0

( ).

4.9.

DL/UL

lx2
SIMO

22

MIMO

lx2
SIMO

22

MIMO

DL
UL
DL
UL
DL
UL
DL
UL

MIMO

SIMO

1:0

3:1

2:1

3:2

1:1

31,68

23,04
4,03
46,08
4,03
23,04
4,03
46,08
8,06

20,16
5,04
40,32
5,04
20,16
5,04
40,32
10,08

18,72
6,05
37,44
6,05
18,72
6,05
37,44
12,10

15,84
7,06
31,64
7,06
15,84
7,06
31,64
14,12

63,36

31,68

63,36

0:1

14,11

14,11

14,11

28,22

MIMO - Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output - SIMO - Single-Input, Multiple-Output - -

;
.

MIMO

PUSC.

22

63,36 /.

( ) ,
.

14,11 / 28,22 /.
DL/UL ,

242


, .

WiMAX

DL/UL

3:11:1

.

.

. ,

.
, .

OFDMA


( ), ..

(, . .)

.

.
,
.

,
,

,
.

OFDMA

, .

OFDMA

(diversity-map scan)

(direct signaling method).

PUSC,

FUSC,

).
.


. .

4.11

802.16. WIMAX

243

(AAS)

, .

AAS (non-AAS)

AAS.

N-4

N-

.
.

PUSC/FUSC .
- .

4.11

,
,

, (

).

k+1

k+

k+2

k+4

k-+f!

k+10

"'

AAS

ID

ID

k+17

DL AAS

DL

DL

"'

ID

:!

"'\;,

"':!

:!

"'

u.

Q)

"'

...."'

!J1

_.:,

Q)

:!

:I:

N-4

"'....

!J1

"'""' "'"" DL /

_.:,

AAS

DL

non-AAS

~.---------

AAS

DL AAS

4.11.

(DL)--------

DL

AAS

DL

244

(), ,
.

(TDD)

,

.

(FDD)

.
:

,
/. .

Allocation/Access)

BW (Bandwidth
UL- DL-.

()

RLT (Reverse Link Training),


RLA (Reverse Link Access), ()
FLT (Forward Link Training)
FLI (Forward Link Initiation).
(MS), - (BS).
RLA
BW.

FLI -

FLI).

MS (BS

BS

MS.

,
,

( )

BS

MS

. , ,

RLT,

BS

MS

, .
:

BS

RLT-

FLT -

MS.

OFDA
( ) . -

802.1. WiMAX

245

STC (Space Time Coding)


FDC (Frequency Hopping Diversity Cording).

,
.

[55].

(S.M. Alamouti)

. ,

.
,

j -

(i, j),

i-

. ,

, ,
.

.

. ,
.

4.5.2.

, ,

WiMAX

,
. , ,
, .
WiAX ,

.
,

, .
.

WiMAX

, .


, .

4.12,

246

4.12 Fl, F2,

.
, r

( ),

, (

).

4.5..

4.12.

Broadcast Service),

MBS (Multicast and


WiMAX,

, ,

(SFN -

Single-Frequency Net-

work);

;
;
- ;
.

WiMAX

MBS.

,
. .

4.13

MBS,

(DL/UL).

802.16. WiMAX

247

MBS

n DL

>

4.13. MBS, WiMAX

MBS

SFN (Single Frequency Network).

S-,

MBS

MBS.

()

(IE)

MBS -

MBS

,
.

.
,

OFDMA.

(ARQ

Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQest)

.
, ,
. .

248

4.6.

WiMAX

WiMAX

OFDA,

, ,
,
.

.
: .

4.10 -

, .

4.11 -

OFDMA,

4.12

WiAX

4.10.

[103].

WiMAX

3-

19

2500

( )

TDD

10

- ,

28

36

70 (-3 )
-

32

1,5

15

-1

43

20

23
2 4
2 4
1
2

802.16. WiMAX

4.11.

OFDMA

10

(FJ),

11,2

(NFF)
,

(
(!(

= 1/f),

= f8),

FD-

(Ts

= + Tz),

4.12.

249

1024
10,94
91,4
11,4
102,9
5
48
184
120
720
30
184
280
560
35

,

,

COST 231 Suburban


8
0,5
10

Cooperation in field Of Scientific and Technical research ( COST 231 Suburban -


[63].

COST -

- ).

4.7.

IEEE

WiMAX

802.l :

( -).

Ethernet,

(IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force), ,


TCP/IP, SIP, VoIP.

250

, , G,

, ,
,

. ,

,

.

[4]:

(fixed access);
(nomadic access);
(portae

access);
- (simple moblle access);
- (full moile access).
, ,

.
.

,
, .


. ,
.

,
.

WiMAX Forum-Network Working Group (


Service Provider Working Group (

),
.

WiAX

All-IP (Bce-IP).

. ,
(

All-IP

All-IP

, -

802.16. WiMAX

251


, , - ,

,
.

, , ..
, .
, ,

802.16 -

(IEEE

/) .

WiMAX

) ,

IEEE 802.16
Ethernet;

, ,

IEF

) I-;
) :
-

WiMAX

- ,
,
, ;

- ;
- , .

. :
) , ,
, ,
( - );

) ,
;

VoIP;

) ,
,

IP

W)

SMS,
WiMAX;

)
I- WiAX.
.

WiMAX,

252

, G,

DSL

MSO

, ,
, ..), ,
;
) WiAX,
,

, (

Authentication, Authorization and Accounting),

;
) ,
, ,

SIM (USIM)
(RUIM- Removale User Identify Module).
WiAX Forum WiAX NRM (Network Reference Model),
. NRM
(SIM),

,
. ,
(,

).
.

4.14

NRM,
(MS), (ASN - Access Ser (CSN Connectivity Service

vice Network),
Network)
. . 4.14 Rl ... R5.
,

ASN)

.
: , ,

NRM


, ,
, .

802.16. WiMAX

253

NSP

NSP

4.14. WiMAX:

- -

.... " .....

,
.

(ASN)


, ,
, .

ASN WiAX
WiMAX

,
.

(ASN) .
WiMAX Forum ,

CSN

IP.

() WiMAX

, ,

, ,
.

(NSP-Network Service Provider).

254

, WiAX,
, :

IP

, ,

, (
), , ;
) SN-

NAP (Network Access Provider)

NS;
)

CSN

ASN;

)
;

)
;

) ,

ASN

CSN,

CSN

, ,

MS, ASN

ASN,
CSN), ,

;
)
, ;

)

;

) ,
,
, .

4.15

, ,
.

WIMAX

IP-

Ethernet-ycy

. ,

, , Wi-
, .

WiMAX

: , .
, , :

802.16. WIMAX

255

4.15.

1 -

WiMAX;

WiMAX

IP:

WiMAX,

IEEE

802.l

;
) ,
;
)

, ,
;

) ,

, ,

(VPN);

) , I-
( )
.

{)

WiAX

. :

xDSL

MSO (Multi Service Operator),

WiFi,

G,

256

IP (IPv4

IPv),

;
, I-

(IPv4

IPv);

) ;

)
;

) :

- (
,

);
;

(
, ).

WiMAX

, .
:

)
, , ;
;

) :

( ), /
;

) ,
,
;

) ;
) I-,

, ;
)
, , - .

CSN

802.16. WiMAX

257

WiAX

. :

BS

)
( )
, ,
.

IEEE

802.l .

WiAX

(Ethernet, 1Pv4

IPv).

WiAX
. ,
(
) , I-.
:

) ;
) ;
) ,

(SLA -

Service Level Agreement);

, , , ..

, .

,
. , WiAX

Forum

, .


,
.

s .

GSM

BSe

- BTS.

2,048

/.

64 /.

-.
-

MSe

GSM

BSS

- s+),

BSS,

(), .

-.

-.

HLR

GSM

MSe

HLR.

D-.

GSM

VLR.

GSM

VLR.

, .
-.

GSM

s.

s .

-.

GSM.

().
-.

GSM

s .
, 25.
RAE-receiver

Um-.

MS

GSM

GSM

BTS.

-.

,
.

() ()

(Automatic Number Identification -

ANI) -

cated Control Channel) -

MS

(SDCCH - Stand-alone DediBTS, -

259

,
().

(ADC -

Administration Center) -

,
.

(Viterbl decoding) -

r (S

Secure Hash

Algorithm) -

.
(

-Asynchronous Transfer Mode)-

(authentication) -

(BTS -

Base Transceiver Station) -

, ,
.
()

(CN - Core Network) -

.
r

(softer handover) -

(videotex) -

(videotext) -

.
r

(VLR -

Visit Location Register) -

,
.

.
.

Temporary Moblle Subscriber Identity) -

(TMSI -

tion Roaming Number) -

(MSRN -

Moblle Sta-

, -

260

(SCCPCH -

Second1

Common Control Physical Channel) -

.
(F) ()

(DCCH -

Dedicated Control Channel)

, , , ,
, (), ..

sian Minimum Shift Keying) -

(GMSK -

Ga

, , 1


.
(ARQ 1
brid Automatic Repeat Request) - ,
N .
, 1

. (

N) 1

Satellite) -

(GPS -

Global Position:

, 1

communications) -

(GSM -

Global System for Mol

(active set) -

(ETSI).

, , (

).
-

(candidate set) -

-, .
- ,


.
-

(neighbor set) -

, )]

-, :

, -,
.

(PCG- Power Control Group)-

261

(constrain length) -

, ,
.

(HLR- Home Location Register) -

,
.
(portae

access) -

,
. ,
.

(full moblle access) -

. .

(nomadic access) -


, .

(simple moblle access) -

(fixed access) -

,
.

1 (DD

sion Duplex) -

Time Divi-

Division Duplex) -

(FDD -

Frequency

(, )
.

(CUG -

Closed User Group) -

,
.

262

(fade) -

, .

ing call) -

(barring incoming or outgo-

.
( ).
.

(coverage) -

(private key) -

.
.

(interface) -

, .

UTRAN
UE BTS.
lu 3- UTRAN
RNC BTS.
Iub - 3- UTRAN
RNC MSC.
Iur 3- UTRAN
RNC.
Uu -

3-

(Basic Rate Interface - BRI) -


(-)
)

(ISDN),
64 / (D-

16 /.

2,048

(Primary Rate lnterface - PRI) (ISDN),

Access Channel) -

, .

Channel) -

(AICH -

Acquisition Indication

UMTS, ,
UE (D),

, .

(PICH - Paging Indication Channel) - ,


UE -

263

(Paging Channel). PICH UE.

nel) -

(CSICH -

Status Indication ChanUE

/ (CD/CAICH
Collision Detection/Channel Assignment lndication Channel) -
(UMTS),
UE , ,
.

(RTCH -

Reverse Traffic Channel) -

D ;

.

(FCCH - Frequency Correction Channel) -

MS.

(AGCH -

UE,

Access Grant Channel) SDCCH

MS. BTS
MS .
UMTS

(FACH- Forward Access Channel)-

. ,

F.
(F

Forward Traffic Channel) -

D, ,
.
.

()

(RACH - Random Control CHannel) -

UE,

CDMA;

(SCH -

Synchronizing Channel) -

nel) -

UMTS

(DSCH -

Downlink Shared Chan-


, .

Traffic Channel) -

- Control Channel) -

264

Channel) -

(RACCH - Random Access Control

, .

(Network Interface Card -

NIC) -

, ,
.

ing) -

(QPSK -

Quadrature Phase Shift Key(00,01,10,11)

- (-Q

Quadrature Amplitude

Modulation) -

(quadrature signal image) -

(cluster) -

-
.

(clipping) -

(LPC -

Linear Predictive Coding) -

,
.

switch) -

, .

(CS -

Circuit Switching) -

(PS - Packet Switching) -

,
,
.

(BSC - Base Station Controller) -

UTRAN.

(RNC - Radio Network Controller) - 3GSM

(BSC).

(conferencing) -

() (
) .

(BER -

Bit Error Rate) -

(FER -

Frame Error Rate) -

, , .

265

(SF -

Spreading Factor)

()

Residual Excited Linear Predication) -


RPE-LPC ,

(RELP -

,
.

(RPE-LPC -

Regular Pulse Excitation Linear Prediction Code) -

, ,

.
, ,

.

ear Prediction) -

(CELP -

Code Excited Lin-

,
.
.

(LA -

Location Area) -

, .

(LAC - Location Area Code).

(keying) -

(, ,

).
.

Keying) -

(MSK - Minimum Shift


MSK

180 .
(router) - ,

,
.

(Hadamar matrix) -

266

national Moblle Station Identity) -

(IMSI -

Inter-

, , .

International Moblle Equipment Identity) -

(IMEI -

Multi-Pulse LPC) LPC;

(MPLPC -

, ,

(multipath propagation) -

(PLS

- Multipro-

tocol Label Switching) -

(D

sion Multiple Access) -

Time Divi-

, .

L (DA

Time Division Multiple Access

L). , ,

, ,
, .

(D

Multiple Access) -

Code Division

, ,

.
(FDA

Frequency Division Multiple Access) -

.
,
.

Network) -

(PLMN -

Pulic

Land Moblle

, (

).

(MSS -

Moblle Satellite Service) -

(MS -

Moblle Station) -

.
WiAX

OSI -

, .

(Subscriber Identification Module,

SI

, .

267

(modulatio)

(, ) ,
.

(bridge) -

(soft

hadover)

(S-OFDA

Scalae OFDA)

OFDM

z z,

( orthogoal D) -

D,

(SACCH - Slow Associated Cotrol hl) - ,


(,

) , .

(VAD -

Voice Activity

Detectio)

, .

UMTS,

(UE -

User

Equipmet)

(traiing

sequence) -

vice) -

(GPRS -

General Packet Radio SerGSM.


Shared Cotrol Channel) -

(SHCCH -

(TDD -

Time

Divisio Dplex) WCDA/UMTS;

.
-7

(CCS7 -

Commo hl Sigalig)

u (

Common Packet

Chanel)

268

(UMTS)

UE .
RACH,

,
.

Common Traffic Channel) -

(
),

UE.
Common Control Channel) MS. ,

() ,

G.
-

(CPICH -

Common Pilot Channel) -

(UMTS).
UE

quency Division Multiple) -

(OFDM -

Orthogonal Fre-

),

(orthogonal functions) -

(orthogonal CDMA) -

CDMA,

(, )
.

/N0

(energy to spectral noise ratio) -

, ,

(/), -

N 0 (/).

(pair bands) -

, ,

Common Control Physical Channel) -

UMTS

Primary

(, )
(, ).

(redirected call) -

()

(interleaving) -

, .

269

(OTAR -

Over The Air Reprogramming) -

(PICH -

D,

Pilot Channel) -

, , .

(pilot signal) -

(U-plane) -

,
, ,

, .

(C-plan) -

(UMTS),

, , .

(CT-plane) -

(S),

.

(frequency reuse) -

,
.

(BSS -

Base Station System) -


.
(

Message Transfer Part) -

-7,
, , .

naling Connection Control Part) -

(SCCP -

Sig-

-7,

,
.

(T_TDROP) -

, ,
.

(T_ADD) -

, -

- (_DROP)

,
.

(_)

,
.

270

{m-)

,
- .

{DTX -

Discontinuous Transrnission Mode) -

(DRX -

Discontinuous Reception) -

Direct Transfer

{DTAP -

plication Part) -

BSS,

MS

MSC.

.
{)

{BSSAP

Part) -

Base Station Systern Managernent Application

3- ,

{)

Station Systern Application Part) BSS

{BSSAP -

Base

MSC.

BSSAP

:
(BSSAP)

plication Part) -

{RNSAP -

(DTAP).
Radio Network Subsystern

(RNC-RNC)

/r.

{NBAP -

Network

Base station Application Protocol) -

( )

RNC.

Application) -

(RANAP -

Radio Access Network

RNC-MSC /.

(access probe) -

; .

IMT-2000 {lnternational Moblle Telecornrnunications 2000) -

3- .
.25

cation) -

{ALCAP -

Access Link Control Appli-

Access Procedure for the D-channel) -

D {LAPD -

Link

ISDN

-.

271

(time hopping) -

,
.

(pseudorandom sequence) -

,
, , (,
).

(DB - Dummy Burst) - ,


58 , .

, .

(diversity) -

(frequency reuse distance).

,
.

(spread spectrum) -

(spreading sequence) -

(,

CDMA).

ter) -

(EIR -

Equipment ldentity Regis-

IMEI

, , ).

(registration) -

(voice mailbox) -

(roumong) -

(convolution coding) - ,
k , - . .

, .

(sectorized antenna) -

(sectorized cell) -

272

UMTS - UTRAN (UTRAN -

UMTS Terrestrial

, ,

Radio Access Network) -

UMTS.
Circuit Switching Network) -

(CSN -

,
.

(PSN -

Packet Switching Network) -

(symbol).

(OFDM) -

, .

cdma2000 -

3- , 2-

D.

cdmaOne - 2- ,
(lXMC, 3).
EDGE (Enhanced Data for GJobaJ EvoJution) - ,
GSM; 3- ,
384 /.
(frequency hopping).
3-

(code rate) -

(NAS - non-access stratum) - ,


CN UTRAN.
(access stratum) - ,
UTRAN.
( - Access Burst) MS
BSS; (RACH - Radom Access Channel)

,
.

(FB -

Frequency correction Burst) -

(SB -

FCCH.
Synchronization Burst) -

, ,

(64

),

D .

SCH.

(SMS- Short Massage

Srvi)-

,
.

(random access) -

.
.

273

()

tic Channel) -

UMTS;

(DTCH - Dedicated Traf

.
()

transport Channel) -

UMTS,

(DCH - Dedicated

, .

UE

DCH

(DPDCH -

()

Dedicated Physical Data Channel) -

UMTS,

, .
()

Dedicated Physical Control Channel) -

UE.

UMTS,

(DPCCH -

(DES -

Data Encryption Standard) -


(, ).

(teletext) -

(telefax) -

- Terminal Equipment) -

- Transcoder Equipment) -

ISDN.

(traffic) -

GSM

MSC (64

/ ) ,

(, ,

.), .
.

UTRAN,

versal Moblle Telecommunications System) -

(UMTS -

Uni-

3- .

- Mobllity Management) -

3-

,
, .

274

(power control) -

,
.

(closed loop power control) -

, ,
,
.

(open loop power control) -

, ,
, .

, .
(BTSM Base Transceiver Station Management) - BSC-BTS (Base Station Controller - Base Transceiver Station) Ais
(RR - Radio Resources Management) -

3- ,
, .

Connection Management) -

3-

;
,

(SU -

Selector Unit)

, ,
. , .

(PSK -

Phase Sift Keying) -

,
k(2/), 2/
,

k-

cess Channel) -

(PRACH -

Physical Random Ac-

(UMTS)

(PDSCH -

Physical Downlink Shared Channel) -

>>

(UMTS)

BTS

.
.

(fixed access) -

,
.

275

(phonernes) -

2n

(Walsh functions) -

),

1.

().

>> ( )

(tail

its)

.
.

(handover) -

.
,

, (

over) -

Moblle Assisted Hand-

, (

Handover) -

Moblle Controlled

, ,

, . ,
.

(AuC -

Authentication Center) -

,
.

(MSC -

Moblle Switching Center) -

,
.

(NMC -

Network Managernent Center) -

, .
,

().
(

Maintenance Center) -

Operations and

work) -

(ISDN -

lntegrated Services Digital Net-

64

/.

(hi)- , .

(chip rate) -

276

()

(broadcasting) -

.
(

Broadcast Channel) -

. ,
, .
( ) (

Paging Channel) -

MS; BTS

MS

nel) -

Broadcast Control Chan-

, , , ,

, , ,
, .

( Paging
Control Channel) - , .
PICH
.

D (WCDA

Wideband

D)

(puic

key enckription) -

, .
: , ,
, .

MSC (gateway MSC) -

- ,

MSC


lXtrem

IMT-2000
G

hird

D Multi

BSS
BRI
BSSAP

Authentication, Authorization and


Accounting
Adaptation Layer
Adaptive Antenna System
Access Burst
Anchor Base Station
Access Channel
Address Complete
Administration Center
Advanced Encryption Standard
Access Grant Channel
Acquisition lndicator Channel
Access Iink Control Application
Iink Termination
Adaptive Modulation and Coding
Advances Mobile Phone System
Adaptive Multi Rate System
AnchorMSC
Answer Message
Access Service Network
Abstract Syntax Notation
Asynchronous Transfer Mode
Authentication Center
Broadcast Control Channel
Broadcast Channel
Bit r Ratio
Binary Phase Shift Keying
Base Station Controller
Base Station System
Basic Rate Interface
Base Station System Application Part

BSSAP

BSS Management Application Part

Block Turbo Code


Base Transceiver Station

Generation Partnership Project

(
)

Carrier

AAL
AAS

ADC

AES
AGCH
AICH
ALCAP
ALT

S
ARS
S

ASN

AuC

BER
BPSK
s

-
r



()


()


()

BTS

278

BWAA

D-APS

Bandwidth Allocation/Access
Certification Authority
Channel Assignment Message
Cellular Authentication Voice
Encryption
Convolution Coding
Common Control Channel
Common Channel Signaling-7
Collision Detection/Channel
Assignment
Code Division Multiple Access
Code Excited Linear Prediction
Conference of European Post
and Telecommunication
Communication ID
Connection Management
Cellular Message Encryption
Algorithm
Core Network
Common Packet Channel
Common Pilot Channel
Channel Quality lndicator
Channel Quality lndication Channel
Call Request
Contro!RNC
Channel Switching
Status lndication Channel
Carrier Sense Multiple Access
with Collision Detection
Circuit Switching Network
Connectivity Service Network
Convolution Turbo Coding
Common Traffic Channel
Digital S

DB
DBR
DCCH

DummyBurst
Data Burst Randomizer
Dedicated Control Channel

CASM
CAVE

CCS7
CD/CA
D

CELP

CN

CPICH
CQI
CQICH
CR
CRNC

cs
CSICH
CSA/CD

CSN

/
()

-7

()

DCH

Dedicated transport Channel,

DES
DK

Data Encryption Standard


DataKey

()

279

DL

Downlink

DMS
DOCSIS
DPCCH

Diversity-Map Scan
Data Over ! Service Interface
Specification
Dedicated Physical Control Channel

DPDCH

Dedicated Physical Data Channel

DRNC
DSCH
DSM
DSP
DT
DTAP
DTCH

Drift RNC
Downlink Shared Channel
Direct Signaling Method
Digital Signal Processor
Data Transfer
Direct Transfer Application Part
Dedicated Traffic Channel
Data Teninating Equipment
Discontinuous Transmission Mode
Extensie Authentication Protocol
Energy to Spectral Noise Ratio



()
()

()

D
D

E,/No




()

()



,

(/) -

N0 (/)

EDGE

Enhanced
Enhanced Data rate for GSM Evolution

EFR
EGPRS
EIR
ESN

FCCH
FCH
FDD

Enhanced Full Rate


Enhanced GPRS
Equipment ldentification Register
Electronic Serial Number
Exchange Terminal
n Telecommunication Standards Institute
Fast Associated Control Channel
Forward Access Channel
Frequency coection Bst
Fast Base Station Switching
Frequency Coection Channel
Frame Control Header
Frequency Duplex Division

FDA

Frequency Division Multiple Access

FER

Frame r Rate
Fast Fourier Transform

ETSI
FACCH
FACH
F

FSS

GSM

FF


()

280

FDC

FLI
FLPC
FLT
FPLS

FUSC

Frequency Hopping Diversity Code


Fward Link Initiation
Forward Link Power Control
Forward Link Training
Future Puic Land Moile
Telephone System
Forward Traffic Channel
Fully Used Subcanalization




()

GGSN
GMPCS
GMSC

Gateway GPRS Support Node


Global Moile Personal
Communication Satellite
GatewayMSC

GMSK

Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying

GPRS
GPS
GSM

General Packet Radio Service


Global Positioning System
Global System for Moile Communication
GPRS Tunneling Protocol
Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest

GPRS

ARQ

GPRS

HDFDD
HDM
HDR

HLR

HSCSD

Handover Completion Message


Half-Duplex - Frequency Division Duplex
Handover Direction Message
High Data Rate
Hard Handover
Location Register
Hash based Message Authentication
Code
igh Speed Circuit Switched Data

ICH
ID

IMEI
ISI
I-2000

ISDN

Initial Address Message


Indication Channel
ldentifier
lntemational Mobile Equipment
ldentity
Intemational Moile Subscriber
ldentity
Intemational Moile
Telecommunication - 2000
Integrated Service Digital Network

2000,

281

1U

IAC
LAPD
LDPC
LPC
L

Intemational Telecommunication Unit


Location Area Code
Link Access Procedure
for the D-channel
Low Density Parity Check Code
Linear Predictive Coding
Long Terrn Predicting
Media Access Control
Metropolitan Area Network
Mobile Application Part
Multicast and Broadcast Service

D
n

Multi-Carrier D
Message Digest
Macro Diversity Handover
Multi-Input Multi-OutPut
Mobile Identification Number
Mobility Management
Multi Pulse Linear Prediction Coding

PLS

Multiprotocol Lael Switching

MS
MSC
MSRN
MSS

Mobile Station
Mobile Switching Center
Mobile Station Roaming Numer
Mobile Satellite Service
Massage Transfer Part
Mail User Agent
Non-Access Stratum
Network Base station Application
Protocol
Neighbor List Update Message

MDHO
I
IN

D


r

MUA
NAS
NBAP
NLUM

N
NR

NWG
OFDM
OFDA

Network Management Center


Network Reference Model
Network Working Group
Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiplexing
Orthogonal Frequency Division
Multiple Access
Operation and Maintenance Center


WiAX



282

OTASR
OVSF

Over h Air Service Reprogramming


Orthogonal Variae Spreading
Factor code
Paging Control Channel

Primary Comrnon Control Physical


ChanneJ
Paging Channel

PDC
PDN
PDSCH

Personal Digital Cellular


Packet Data Network
Physical Downlink Shared Channel

PDU
PICH

Protocol Data Unit


Pilot Channel
Paging Indication Channel
Privacy and Management protocol
Version2
Private l.ong Code Mask
Pulic Land Mobile Network


( )

v2

PLCM
PLMN

PN
PRACH
PRI
PS
PSCH
PSDN
S

Pseudo code Number


Physical Random Access Channel
Primary Rate Interface
Packet Switching
Primary Synchronizing Channel
Packet Switched Data Network
Pilot Strength Measurement Message

PSPSN

Packet Switched Puic Data Network

PSN

Pulic

PUSC

Switched Telephone Network


Partly Used Subcanalization

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation


Quality of Service
Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
Radio Access Bearer
Random Access Channel
Random Access Control Channel
Radio Access Network
RAN Application Protocol
Reference Clock Unit

QoS
QPSK
R

RACH
RACCH

RAN
RANAP
RCU


()

283

ROLPC

Residual pulse Excitation Linear


Prediction
Reverse Link Access
Radio Link Control
Reverse Link Training
Radio Network Controller
Radio Network System
Radio Network Subsystem
Application Part
Reverse Outer Loop Power Control

RPE

Regular Pulse Excitation

RRC

Radio Resources Control


Radio Resources Management
Rivest, Shamir, Adelman

RELP
RLA
RLC
RLT
RNC
RNS
RNSAP

()

()
()


RR

RSA


()

Reverse Traffic Channel


Receive/ Transmit Guard period
RUI
Removae User ldentify Module
SAALNNI Signaling AAL NNI

SAALUNI Signaling AAL UNI

Set Asynchronous Balanced Mode

SACCH
SB
SCCP

Slow Associated Control Channel


Synchronization Burst
Signaling Connection Control Part

SCCPCH

Secondary Common Control Physical


Channel
Synchronizing Channel
Stream Control Transmission Protocol
Stand-alone Dedicated Control Channel
Service Data Unit
Serving GRPS Support Node
Secure Hash Algorithrn
Shared Control Channel
Service Flow ID
Subscriber ldentify Module
Single-lnput Multi-Output
Service Level Agreement

RTCH
RTG

SCH
S

SDCCH
SDU
SGSN
S

SHCCH

sm
SI
SIO

SLA

GPRS

284

SM
SMS

Spatial Multiplexing
Short Massage Service

S-OFDA

Scala!e OFDA

SRCH_WIN Search Windows


SRES
Signed Response
SRNC
ServiceRNC
ss
Spreading Spectrum
SSCH
Second Synchronizing Channel
SSD
Shared Secret Date
Switching Subsystem
sss
Spase Time Coding
STG
su
Selector Units
TACS
Total Access Communications System
Tail Bit

Transaction Capabilities Application


Part

Transcoder Equipment
Traffic Channel

/F
Traffic Channel/Full


OFDA

RNC

Traffic Channel/alf

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/


Intemet Protocol
Tirne Division Duplex
Tirne Division Multiple Access

Tirne Hopping D

DD

/

i

SI

Temporary Mobile Subscriber ldentity

RG

Transmit/Receive Guard period


Unnumbered Acknowledge
Unrestricted Digital lnfonation
User Equipment
Uplink

(
)

UA
UDI

UE
UL


us

URAN

UWC-136

Universal Mobile Telecommunications


System
Universal Mobile Telecommunications
Services
US Teestrial Radio Access
Network
Universal Wireless Communication 136


n UMS

3-
EDGE

285

VAD
VLR
WAL
WCDA
WiAX

Voice Activity Detection


Visit Location Register
Walsh
Wideband D
Worldwide Interoperability for icro
wave Access
Wireless N Exhange


1.

.., .. -7.

2.
3.
4.

5.
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