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, .
() () .2.9.
1,...,n,
. ,
, .. .
1. , 1, .. 1,
1,
, 2 .
- , 1
2, . ,
1,..., n ,
, .
i .

29
;
- .
, ( )
.
, ()
. -41.
. ,
- ,

, .

( ),
,
. . ,
, .
-,
.

: , , .
, .

,
.
. .
, - , ,
,
. ,
, .

2.3.

. , V,
,
L. .2.10.

2.10. .
, ..
( ), (, ,
( ) ..) ( ),
, . ( 1)

. ( 2)

, ,
, -
- .
( 3), ,
,

.
. .2.11,.

30

. 2.11. .
. ,
L,
() ()
Uab. ,

:
U(1) = U (1) - (E + U),
U(0) = U (0) + (E + U).
U(1) U(0)
U ,
, ..
U(1) - U (0) > U
.2.11,6 - (0,8-2,0)
- (0,4 2,4) 0,8,
0,4 . 0 1.
, ,
. .2.12
, V.28 ( RS232C).
.

. 2.12. V28.

, .
,
.
- -
(.2.13,)
(.2.13,).

31

.2.13. .
, . 2.13, , - U1 =
U + E U2 = E ( ,
). U = U1
U2= , .. .
.
, . ,
(Uab) .
(.2.13,6), , () () Ua U:

Ua (0) = -U ; U (0) = +U ,

Ua (1) = +U; U, (1) = -U .
, ,
, , .
, ..
. , (+U; -U)
,
, . ,
; ,
.

20 , .
, , , ..
( ) ,
. (), ,
(), . ,
Ro.
Ro ( ,
), ( , ).
.2.14 . Ro
20 .
- ( ); Ro
; . -
40 .

( 2 ) .

. 2.14. 20 .

. 2.15. .

. - ,
,

32
.
.2.15
. ,
R ().
()
.
.

(. 2.16).

.2.16. .
- , 1 2,
,
, . /
1 2 (1/0).
/ , 1 2
, .. .
,
. ,
. ,
, ,
.
. ,
,
.
, ,
, 1.

, ,
.
,
.
,
, ; ,
.

, , ,
,
. ,
, .

2.4. -

-
; - IBM/370.
- , , .
, .
- ( 40.304.000-84).
5 : ,
, , .

33
, .. () (),
; ,
. ,
.
, :
; .
9 . (-) (-) (X
0,1,2,...,7,) , ,
8- ( , = ).
(-I) (-I)
. .
. , ,
0, 1 -0, -1. -0 -0
, 1 1
.
.
: -
-, -,
- -. -
-;
,
- -
,
.
. -, -, - -
. - :
-.
.
- , .
- -.
-, -, - -
. - -,
; , .
, .. ,
-; , ..
-, - ,
.
, ..
-, -, - -.
. -
, :
;
;
.
- , ;
50 .

2.5. -

-
0 (.. 2.1,6), ,
.
() , (), , 41 .
. -3, -4
( 25-795-78).
- ,
2 . ,
, () .
,
( ), ( ).

34
.
, () () (. 2.17).
, .
(1)
(2).
[17-00] 18 ,
256 .
. ,
256 .
16 [15-00]
, .
0, 1.

. 2.17. .
:
, . [0,1],
1, . 00
, .. 2 . [0,1]=10
( ), ; [0,1]=10
, [0,1]= 11 - . [0,1 ]
.

, 0, 1.
.
-. ,
, .
, .
, ,
. ,
, .
( )
.
.


2.

. 2.18. 2.
, 2 (. 2.18),
, .. . ,

35
; .
.
( )
, .
4 [4-7], 4 [4-7],
, ,
() .
.
();
( ); ( ).
. ( )
- () - (),
. -.
, .
, 15 ,
20.
. ( 26765.51-86)
, , -60;
LSI-11 DEC. -

. -, .
[15-00] .
, :
; .
( )

,
, . ,
-
.
-41.

, -,

, .

.
-41 ( 25969-83),
MULTIBUS INTEL. 1810 1031.

. 2.19. .
. -41
, 2
.
. -41
. -, ,
, .
. ,
.

36
. .
(. 2.19, ) [0-13]
IORC () MRDC (); [0-F]
- .
(. 2.19, ) [0-13]
[0-F] MWTC IOWC .
.
.
. 2.20.

. 2.20. .
BPRN , ,
, BPRO
.. BPRN ,
. , ..
BPRO, BCLK.
BPRO.
BCLK
BUSY, .. :
BPRO ( ), BPRN
(.. ),
BUSY (.. ). ,
BCLK ( BPRO)
.
, BCLK.
, , .
2.21, . BPRN
BUSY .
BREQ.
, ,
, ,
. BPRN
. -41
. ( 8).
, .. , .2.21,6.
BCLK. BCLK , BREQ () ,
BPRN () , .. BPRN ().
BCLK
BUSY,
, , ..
. BUSY BUSY
. BUSY
.
,
, .. BUSY ,
, .
. -41
: INT [0-7] INTA. -41 :
,
.

37

. 2.21. .
INT
. ,
, .

, .

INTA:
;
[8-10], INT,
; .
. ,
(, , , ),
2.
. 3 .

2.6 / - .
/
PC- . ,
, ,
/ .
/, ()
PC- , :
ISA-8 ISA-16
, ( ).
EISA ( , ) 32-
,
. PCI,
,
( , PCI , 4, ,
EISA 6-8 ).
PS/2,
. . .
VLB 32- (64-) ( ),

38
ISA/EISA,
486. ,
.
.
PCI 32/64- ,
486 . ,
SCSI, , -, .
3 4 PCI. PCI
Media BUS, ISA ( PCI
ISA-, ).
PC Card, PCMCIA , , ,
.
PC.
( )
. .
. 2.22.
- .
: ISA+PCI, ISA+VLB, EISA+PCI, EISA+VLB. .
Media BUS, PCI ISA, , ,
ASUSTek.

. 2.22. .
PCI, ISA/EISA VLB,
.
(Shared Slot). ,
ISA, PCI. ,
ISA PCI ,
.
,
- Riser Card.
( ),
(, ISA+PCI, ISA+VLB).
Riser Card ISA, ISA-16,
Slim BabyAT. -
,
.
, ,
.
VLB ,
, 33,3 .
PCI .
, BIOS Setup .
ISA ( 8 )

39
8- 16- .
ISA,
.
ISA PCI BIOS Setup
( , ).
. 2.1.
2.1.

Bus, DMA
Master ACFG**

/*
ISA-8
4
3
8
20 (1 )

ISA-16

8/(16)

16

24 (16 )

8/(16)

EISA

33,3

32

32 (4 )

8,33

-16

16

16

24 (16 )

10

-32

20

32

32 (4 )

10

VLB

132

(+)

32/64

32 (4 )

33-50(66)

PCI

132/264

32/64

32 (4 )

33(66)

PCMCIA

16

26 (64 )

33

* .
2 , .
** . ISA PnP
, .

2.6.1. ISA, EISA PC-104

ISA Bus (Industry Standard Architecture) ,


PC . XT
8 20 . AT 16
24 .
. ()
2,54 (0,1 ), . 2.23. ISA-8
62- ( , ), ISA-16 36 ( , D).
8- 16-
/ . 1 ,
ISA-16 BIOS Setup
15- 16- (, 15
). /
, 0FFh,
. PC 10- /,
[15:10] . ,
ISA 100h3FFh, 758 8- .
.
12- ( l00hFFFh),
10- ,
[9:0] 12- .

. 2.23. ISA
ISA-8 6 IRQ,
ISA-16 11. , BIOS Setup
PCI.
8- DMA, 16-

40
16- 8-, /
. 16-
Bus-Master. DMA
, Bus-Master
, ,
15 ( ).

. :
( )
DMA.
.
.
IRQx DRQx

. ,
, .
. (
) PC ()
.
,
,
n.
32- ,
32- ISA , EISA.
EISA Bus (Extended ISA) ISA 32 .
ISA- (. 2.24).
( , F, G, )
ISA , , , D , ISA,
, . EISA ISA
, ISA,
( , ).

. 2.24. EISA
:
EISA ,
. ( )
32 ( ,
). (Burst Mode)
.
, 1024 .
DMA,
33 /. ,
ISA-:
( ISA), .
45 , ,
8 360 , ,
.
EISA - PS/2. ( 8)
/
. ISP (Integrated System

41
Peripheral). ( ): , DMA, CPU, Bus-Master.
EISA
NVRAM, EISA .
,
ECU (EISA Configuration Utility).
, PnP EISA
. ,
.
/ : AEN,
/,
AENx, -. ,
ISA, , ISA
, EISA.
EISA PnP ISA (
ESCD NVRAM EISA).
EISA , ,
, - ,
/. PCI ,
PCI , EISA .
ISA EISA . 2.2 2.3.
2.2. ISA 8/16 , EISA
F

GND
+5
+5
Unused
Unused
Key
Unused
Unused
+12
M/-IO
-LOCK
Reserved
GND
Reserved
BE 3#
Key
BE 2#
BE 0#
GND

GND
Reset
+5
IRQ 2/91
-5
DRQ 2
-12
OWS#2
+12
GND
SmemWR#
SmemRD#
IOWR#
IORD#
DACK 3#
DRQ 3
DACK 1#
DRQ 1
Refr#

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

IOCHK
Data 7
Data 6
Data 5
Data 4
Data 3
Data 2
Data 1
Data 0
IOCHDRY
AENx
Addr 19
Addr 18
Addr 17
Addr 16
Addr 15
Addr 14
Addr 13
Addr 12

CMD#
START#
EXRDY
EX32#
GND
Key
EX16#
SLBURST#
MSBURST#
W/R#
GND
EMB66#3
EMB133#3
Reserved
GND
Key
BE 1#
LA 31#
GND

+5
LA 29#
GND
LA 26#
LA 24#
Key
LA 16
LA 14
+5
+5

Bclock
IRQ 7
IRQ 6
IRQ 5
IRQ 4
IRQ 3
DACK 2#
TC
BALE
+5

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

Addr 11
Addr 10
Addr 9
Addr 8
Addr 7
Addr 6
Addr 5
Addr 4
Addr 3
Addr 2

LA 30#
LA 28#
LA 27#
LA 25#
GND
Key
LA 15
LA 13
LA 12
LA 11

42
GND
LA 10

Osc.
GND

30
31

Addr l
Addr 0

GND
LA 9

B4: XT=IRQ2, AT=IRQ9.


B8: XT-Card Selected.
3
E12, E13 - Fast EISA.
# , .
2

2.3. ISA 16 , EISA



D
N#

LA 8
LA 6
LA 5

MCS16#
IOCS16#
IRQ 10

1
2
3

SBHE#
LA 23
LA 22

LA 7
GND
LA 4

+5

IRQ 11

LA 21

LA 3

LA 2
Key

IRQ 12
IRQ 15

5
6

LA 20
LA 19

GND
Key

Data 16
Data 18

IRQ 14
DACK0#

7
8

LA 18
LA 17

Data 17
Data 19

GND
Data 21
Data 23
Data 24
GND
Data 27
Key
Data 29
+5
+5
#

DRQ0
DACK5#
DRQ 5
DACK6#
DRQ6
DACK7#
DRQ 7
+5
Master#
GND
-

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

MemRD#
MemWR#
Data 8
Data 9
Data 10
Data 11
Data 12
Data 13
Data 14
Data 15
-

Data 20
Data 22
GND
Data 25
Data 26
Data 28
Key
GND
Data 30
Data 31
MREQx

ISA Microbus Multibus,


Intel 8080 8086/88.
8- ISA .
/ :
Data [7:0] .
Addr [19:0] .
AEN ( DMA).
IOWR# .
IORD# .
SmemWR# ( 0-FFFFFh).
SmemRD# ( 0-FFFFFh).
:
IRQ 2/9, IRQ [3:7] .
.
, .
IRQ2/9 XT 2, AT 9.
DRQ [1:3] 8- DMA ( ).
DACK [1:3]# 8- DMA.
DMA.
, , ,
:
IOCHRDY , ( 15 ).
BALE . Addr 019 .
Refr# ( XT DACK 0#). 15

43
, .
IOCHK , NMI CPU (
061h, 062h).
Reset ( ).
Bclock 8 .
, .
Osc 14,431818 (
).
+5, -5, +12 -12 .
, 16-,
, , :
Data [15:8] .
SBHE Data [15:8].
LA [23:17] ,
BALE.
BALE.
IRQ [10:12], IRQ[14:15] .
DRQ [5:7] 16- DMA ( ).
DACK [5:7]# 16- DMA.
:
MCS16# 16- .
IOCSl6# 16- .
:
MemWR# 16 .
MemRD# 16 .
OWS# ,
( ).
Master# , 16- DMA .
DACK [5:7] Bus-Master ( 15
).
ISA.
. (PIO) ,
( REP INSB), :
,
IORD#. .
,
MEMWR#. .
.
, (-)
DF. .
/
. 2.25. CMD* :
SMEMRD#, MEMRD# - ;
SMEMWR#, MEMWR# - ;
IORD# - /;
IOWR# - /.
BCLC Bclock, SA(19: 0) Addr (19: 0)
SD(15 : 0) Data(15 : 0).
( )
() . (
.)
,
.
() ,
. / , LA[32:17]
.

44

. 2.25. ISA

BIOS Setup .
/. AT
: 16 , , XT
. , Setup
ISA /, 8- 16-
.
,
, IOCHRDY, , 15
.
.
, ,
. ,
. .
: DRQx DACKx#.
DMA , ,
.
(. 2.26):
DRQx
( ).
IORD#,
DACKx# MEMWR#. DACKx# , , a
IORD# (
IOWR#). IORD# ( IOWR# )
/, , DMA,
AEN . ,
, .

DRQx, .
(Terminate Count),
.
, IOWR# MEMRD#.
, (
) I/OCHRDY.
, ,
.
.
, DMA .

45

..2.26 DMA
ISA
.
. 2.27.
,
15 . PC/XT
DMA DACK0#. PC/AT ( ISA-16)
-REFRESH (Refr#) DMA
( D8 D9).
256 ( SA0...SA7).
, .
256 , 256 ,
. -
, .

. 2.27. ( SYSCLK (Bclock);


8 ); - ,
.
-REFRESH, SA0...SA7 -MEMR. I/OCHRDY.
ISA - (Prototype Card),
.
, .
,
. ,
, .
EISA ISA,
EISA. ISA 32 ,

46
. EISA

BCLK. IORD# IOWR# EISA- .
/IO# W/R#. EISA-
SBHE, [3:0]. AEN
AENx. EISA :
LA [23:16] , BALE.
LA [31:24]# LA [2:23], .
[3:0]# 0-3 EISA-.
M/IO# (1) (0) EISA.
W/R# - (1) (0) EISA.
1#, 32# .
SLBURST# .
MSBURST# , SLBURST,
.
LOCK# EISA Bus-Master
.
EXRDY EISA-, IOCHRDCY.
STARTS EISA-.
.
CMD# , STARTS.
MREQx# EISA Bus-Master x .
# EISA Bus-Master .
EISA .
2.28 2.29. ,
BCLK, a .

. 2.28. EISA

, .
,
, .
ISA (
). ISA,
, - (mPC microPC).
, , , ,
/.
() -
ISA. , PCI.

47
(microPC) ISA
PCI , VLB. -
PCI, ISA,
, .

. 2.29. EISA
ISA PC-104,
. ,
ISA. ISA PC-104
. m
() PC-104. , PC-104
() . PC104 ( ), .
, .
, (
). , -
, .
ISA

.
.

24 ( ),
3 ( ).

0,8 , 0,04 .
,
65 ,

20 .
,
+5 . IORD#, IOWR#, MemRD#, MemWR#, SMemRD#, SMemWR#, I/O
4,7 , -I/OCS16#, MCS16#, REFRESH#, MASTER#, OWS# - 300 ,
I/ORDY 1 .
: IORD#, IOWR#, MemRD#, MemWR#, SMemRD#, SMemWR#, Osc -
22 , SYSCLK (Bclock) 27 .

48

2.6.2.

(Micro Channel Architecture)


IBM PS/2, 50.
ISA/EISA . ,
,
.
Bus-Mastering, (Central Arbitration Control Point).
( ): , DMA, Bus-Master, CPU ( NMI
).
( PS/2 ).
0,05 ,
.
16- (. 2.30, ) 1/1-45/45 8-
48/48-58/58 16-. 46, 47 .
32- (. 2.30, ) 48/48-89/89.
1/1
(. 2.30 ):
1/1-4/4 ;

. 2.30. : 16-, 32-, 16-


AV1/BV1-AV10/BV10 ,
VGA-, .
VGA Auxiliary Video Connector VESA
Feature Connector.
( ISA)
- -
ISA-. -,
/.

2.6.3. VLB

/ ISA, MCA, EISA ,

49
PC. ( )
, .

486.
( ,
).
VLB (VESA Local Bus) 32- ,
486,
. 486 ,
386. Pentium
2.0, 64, .
VLB,
, , VLB .
VLB- 16- -,
ISA-16, EISA ,
. - VLB
. 66 ,
33 .
132 / (33 4 ),
. 44 = 16 5 ,
105,6 /, (
) 66 /, , ISA.
(
, ) : VLB-
40 , 50
. (Bus-Master)
, .
Bus-Master , Master-.
VLB .
, ,
VLB, VLB . ,
, VLB.
, , .
,
VLB .

2.6.4. I

PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) local bus


. , -
(mezzanine bus), ( )
/ ISA/EISA . Pentium-,
486 , , Intel x86.
PCI
-. PCI-2.1.
20-33 132/264 /
32/64 .

() CLK. 2.1 66 .
( ) (Initiator
Master) (Target Slave).
PCI : ()
, .
AD.
/[3:0] .
FRAME#, AD ,
/# ().
DEVSEL#,
IRDY#. ,
TRDY#. AD
IRDY# TRDY#.
, . . 2.31
, , .

50
,
32 ,
.

. 2.31. PCI
() ,
IRDY# FRAME#.
IRDY# (PCI Idle)
FRAME# IRDY# .
, ,
.
:
.
- (Time-out) ,
( GNT#) ,
MLT ( ).
(Abort),
(DEVSEL#).
,
STOP#. :
(Disconnect) STOP# TRDY#.
.
(Disconnect/Retry) STOP#
TRDY#, .
.
(Abort) STOP# DEVSEL# (
STOP# DEVSEL# ).
, .

.
() : AD[31:0] /#[3:0]
, PAR ( ,
PAR, ). PAR
D /#.
PERR#.
, ( C/BE#i).

.
,
. -
REQ# GNT#
. (, , ) .
(PCI Master)
MLT (Master Latency Timer),
, .

51

.

(Incremental Latency Mechanism),
8 . ,
.
, . AD,
, /[3:0] (
). ,
, AD[31:2], AD[1:0]
:
00 ;
01 - ;
lx .
/
AD[31:0]. /
IDSEL#, ,
AD[7:2], AD[1:0]=00. IDSEL# PCI
,
.
PCI /#
2.4.

AD.
AD[15:0]
(Shutdown), (Halt) ,
. 0000, 0001 0002;
0003-FFFFh .
2.4. PCI
/[3:0]

0000
0001
0010
0011
0100
0101
0110
0111
1000
1001
1010
1011
1100
1101

Interrupt Acknowledge
Special Cycle
I/O Read /
I/O Write /

Memory Read
Memory Write

Configuration Read
Configuration Write
Multiple Memory Read
Dual Address Cycle

1110

Memory-Read Line

1111

Memory Write and Invalidate

/ AD ,
AD0 AD1 ( , #). PCI
8- 16-. PCI 32 ,
86 16 . ,
PCI 10- , ISA,
ISA 64 , 1 .
0CF8 0CFC
.

52
.
AD , AD0, AD1
/[3:0]#.

256- . .
, ,
.

.
, 32 ,
64- . 32
, , 32 .
PCI 64- /, , 86
, , PCI.
32-
( ). ,
, .

, .
PCI 0,05 , ISA/EISAMCA. , PCI
. PC- PCI-
ISA- (Shared slot).
5 , 3,3 ( +V I/O 5 3,3 ).
12, 13 50, 51. 5-
50, 51; 3- 12, 13; : 12, 13 50, 51.
. 32-
62/62, 64- 94/94.
. 2.5, . 2.6..
2.5. PCI

A

-12B

TRST#

GND/M66EN

49

AD 9

TCK
GND
TDO
+5
+5
INTRB#
INTRD#

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

+12
TMS
TDI
+5
INTRA#
INTRC#
+5

GND/ 5
GND/ 5
AD 8
AD 7
+3,3
AD 5
AD 3

50
51
52
53
54
55
56

GND/ 5
GND/ 5
C/BEO#
+3,3
AD 6
AD 4
GND

PRSNT 1#
Reserved
PRSNT 2#
GND/ 3,3
GND/ 3,3
Reserved
GND
Clock
GND

9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Reserved
+V I/O
Reserved
GND/ 3,3
GND/ 3,3
Reserved
RST#
+V I/O
GNT#

GND
57
AD 1
58
+VI/0
59
ACK64#
60
+5
61
+5
62
32-
Reserved
63
GND
64

REQ#
+VI/0
AD 31
AD 29
GND
AD 27

18
19
20
21
22
23

GND
Reserved
AD 30
+3,3
AD 28
AD 26

/6#
/4#
GND
AD 63
AD 61
+VI/0

65
66
67
68
69
70

AD 2
AD 0
+V I/O
REQ64#
+5
+5
GND
/7#
/5#
+V I/O
PAR64
AD 62
GND
AD 60

53
AD 25
+3,3
/#
AD 23

24
25
26
27

GND
AD 21
AD 19

AD 59
AD 57
GND
AD 55

71
72
73
74

AD 58
GND
AD 56
AD 54

28 AD 22
29 AD 20
30 GND

AD 53
GND
AD 51

75
76
77

+V I/O
AD 52
AD 50

+3.3
AD 17
/2#
GND
IRDY#
+3,3

31
32
33
34
35
36

AD 18
AD 16
+3,3
FRAME#
GND
TRDY#

AD 49
+VI/0
AD 47
AD 45
GND
AD 43

78
79
80
81
82
83

GND
AD 48
AD 46
GND
AD 44
AD 42

DEVSEL#
GND
LOCK#
PERR#
+3,3

37
38
39
40
41

GND
STOP#
+3,3
SDONE#
SBOFF#

AD 41
GND
AD 39
AD 37
+VI/0

84
85
86
87
88

+V I/O
AD 40
AD 38
GND
AD 36

SERR#
+3,3
/1#
AD 14
GND
AD 12

42
43
44
45
46
47

GND
PAR
AD 15
+3,3
AD 13
AD 11

AD 35
AD 33
GND
Reserved
Reserved
GND

89
90
91
92
93
94

AD 34
GND
AD 32
Reserved
GND
Reserved

AD 10

48 GND

GND
AD 24
IDSEL#
+3,3

64-

M66EN PCI 2.1.

2.6. PCI

AD[31:0]
Address/Data /.
,
/[3:0]#

Command/Byte Enable / . , (/ , /
-, ),

FRAME#

. ( ),
,
Device Select (
)
Initiator Ready
Target Ready

,
PCI
Request PCI- ( 3:0)
Grant
Parity AD[31:0] /[]
ParityError ( , )
Reset

DEVSEL#
IRDY#
TRDY#
STOP#
LOCK#
REQ[3:0]#
GNT[3:0]#
PAR
PERR#
RST#

54
IDSEL#
SERR
REQ64#
64#
INTRA#
INTRB#
INTRC#
INTRD#
CLK
M66EN
SDONE

SBO#
TCK
TDI
TDO
TMS
TRST

Initialization Device Select



System Error , PCI
NMI
Request 64 bit 64-
64-
Interrupt , , , D ,
IRQ.

Clock , 2033 , PCI 2.1
66,6
66MHzEnable 66 ,

Snoop Done .

. ,

Snoop Backoff
. ,
(WB)
Test Clock JTAG
Test Data Input JTAG
Test Data Output JTAG
Test Mode Select JTAG
Test Logic Reset

PCI (, ).
PCI
PCI (PCI Bridge). (Host Bridge) PCI
( ). (Peer-to-Peer Bridge)
PCI. PCI
PCI .
ISA/EISA ,
.
/, .
() ,

. , , PCI,
(routing) . ,

, , .
DEVSEL#, PCI. ,
PCI, (E)ISA.
PCI

PCI Concurrent PCI Transferring.
( ),
( , . .) .
PCI/(E)ISA VGA Palette Snooping,
. PCI
PCI. VGA (Palette Registers),
/.
,
VESA Feature Connector (
), ,
. ,
( PCI), ,
ISA. BIOS Setup

55
PCI VGA Palette Snoop. /
PCI, (E)ISA,
PCI.
PCI.
, DEVSEL# TRDY# ,
(E)ISA.
, (E)ISA.
( , )
BIOS Plug and Play. PCI
256 ,
, /.
Configuration Read Configuration Write,
PCI,
/. ( ) PCI
/, .
IDSEL#,
. , (
POST), ,
/.
BIOS, PCI, ,
ROM BIOS. PCI
PC- ,
. ()
BIOS ,
. , ,
IBM PC, Power PC.
PCI JTAG.
,
.
PCI ( ISA) .
, , ,
, ISA.
, , ( ISA - 8
, PCI - 33/66 ).
PCI ( VLB),
/ VLB ( ).
PCI
Media Bus, ISA.
PCI ,
ISA.
1995 Compact
PCI. Compact PCI (cPCI) PCI 2.1.
PCI : 8 4.
4 .
32- 64- ( ).
33 133 / 32 266
/ 64 ( ). 66 ,
. PnP
, PCI. ,
, (
) . J1
GA0...GA4,
. ,
( PnP
, ).
Compact PCI 3U (100160 )
(J1) 6U (233160 ) (J1 J2). 7-
2 , - ,
. :
, , .
.

56
(J1), 32-
. 64- . -
, .
, . J2
(), J1 J2
95- J3. J2
, , ,
. +5,
+3,3 12.
Compact PCI National Instruments PXI (PCI
extensions for Instrumentation PCI )
. PXI , Compact PCI
, . Trigger Bus (8 )
( PCI) .
.
10 PXI_CLK, (
)
. PXI
, . 13 ,
, ( 48 ) .
( ),
(Daisy chain). PXI
: Windows NT/95,
. ,
. PXI Compact PCI,
Compact PCI PXI.
PXI PXI. PXI
Compact PCI VXI VME.

2.6.5. AGP
PCI,
33 132 / ( VLB,
, ).
.
, ,
,
, .
, .

(), .
,
.
,

.
Intel PCI 2.1
AGP (Accelerated Graphic Port ).
32- 66 (, 66,66...), (.
2.7) PCI.
2.7. AGP


Spare
5.0V
5.0V
USB+
GND
INTB#

1
2
3
4
5
6

12V
Spare
Reserved
USBGND
INTA#

Vddq3.3
AD21
AD 19
GND
AD17
C/BE2#

34
35
36
37
38
39

Vddq3.3
AD22
AD20
GND
AD18
AD16

57
CLK
REQ#
VCC3.3
ST0
ST2
RBF#
GND

7
8
9
10
11
12
13

RST#
GNT#
VCC3.3
ST1
Reserved
PIPE#
GND

Vddq3.3
IRDY#

Vddq3.3
FRAMED

VCC3.3
DEVSEL#

40
41
42
43
44
45
46

Spare
SBAO

14
15

Spare
SBA1

Vddq3.3
PERR#

47
48

STOP#
Spare

VCC3.3
SBA2

16
17

VCC3.3
SBA3

GND
SERR#

49
50

GND
PAR

SBSTB
GND
SBA4
SBA6

18
19
20
21

Reserved
GND
SBA5
SBA7

C/BE1#
Vddq3.3
AD14
AD12

51
52
53
54

AD15
Vddq3.3
AD13
AD11

KEY
KEY

22
23

KEY
KEY

GND
AD10

55
56

GND
AD9

KEY

24

KEY

AD8

57

/0#

KEY

25

KEY

Vddq3.3

58

Vddq3.3

AD31
AD29

26
27

AD30
AD28

ADSTB0
AD7

59
60

Reserved
AD6

VCC3.3
AD27

28
29

VCC3.3
AD26

GND
ADS

61
62

GND
AD4

AD25
GND

30
31

AD24
GND

AD3
Vddq3.3

63
64

AD2
Vddq3.3

ADSTB1
AD23

32
33

Reserved
/3#

AD1
SMB0

65
66

AD0
SMB1

GND

GND
VCC3.3
TRDY#

AGP . 2.1, . ,
AGP ,
PCI. :
.
.
.
. 2.32,
PCI AGP. PCI
. AGP ,
( ).

. 2.32. PCI AGP


AGP 256 ,
n ( -
). AGP
.
, PCI.
66

58
532 /, 32- (4 ) :
66,6x4=266. AGP , 1,
4- , 2
, (
Ultra DMA-33). SideBand Control (
SB ). 2 , , ,
. 100 ,
, 800 /.
()
.
. .
8 SBA (SideBand Address),
, (1 ) (1
). , .
AGP,
-, , .
- AD.
, AGP 64-
Pentium .
PCI.
AGP
, PCI. ,
PIPE#, . PCI
FRAME# ,
/ . AGP
( , , , VLB). AGP,
USB, .
AGP PCI, (
EISA) ,
, PCI.
Intel AGP Pentium Pro Pentium II,
.
AGP Pentium.
AGP .
DMA (Executive Mode). DMA
,
, , AGP.
() .

. DIME (Direct
Memory Execute).
.
, AGP

, . AGP
WRAM RDRAM
1,6 /, DIME
.

2.6.6. PCMCIA (PC Card)

PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association


)
. PCIMCIA,
PC Card. PC Card
, , , SCSI-,
.
. . 2.8.
64 , 16 , 33 , DMA Bus-Mastering
. 4080 PC Card PC.
(
). n
-

59
PC.
, ,
. (Card Detect) .
BIOS-.
,
.
2.8. PC Card (PCMCIA)

1
2
3

GND
Data3
Data 4

35
36
37

GND
Card Detect 1#
Data 11

4
5
6

Data 5
Data 6
Data 7

38
39
40

Data 12
Data 13
Data 14

7
8
9
10
11
12

Card Enable 1#
Addr 10
Out Enable#
Addr 11
Addr 9
Addr 8

41
42
43
44
45
46

Data 15
Card Enable 2#
Refresh
RFU (IOR#)
RFU (IOW#)
Addr17

13
14
15

Addr 13
Addr 14
WrEnable#/Prog#

47
48
49

Addr 18
Addr 19
Addr 20

16
17
18
19
20

Ready/Busy (IREQ)
+5
Vpp1
Addr 16
Addr 15

50
51
52
53
54

Addr 21
+5
Vpp2
Addr 22
Addr 23

21
22
23
24
25

Addr 12
Addr 7
Addr 6
Addr 5
Addr 4

55
56
57
58
59

Addr 24
Addr 25
RFU
Reset
WAIT#

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

Addr3
Addr 2
Addrl
Addr0
Data0
Data 1
Data 2
WRProt/(IOCS16#)
GND

60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68

RFU (INPACK#)
Register Select#
BatVDet2 (SPKR#)
BatVDetl (STSCHG#)
Data 8
Data 9
Data 10
Card Detect 2#
GND

3 PC Card. ,
( ). 1
5485 3,3 , 2 4875 5 , 3
10,5 ( HDD 3 13 !).
PC Card .
PC.
CardBus 68-
32 ,

60
PC Card.
(, , -)
Miniature Card, PC Card.
33383,5 60-
PC Card 2.


1.

. ?
?
2. ?
3. .
4. .
?
5. ?
.
6. - -
- ?
7. ? -41, ?
8. IBM PC.
9. ISA, EISA PC-104.
10. PCI AGP.
11. PCMCIA.

2.7.

( 4) ;
, ,
. ;
,
. ,
, (
)
.

, ,
, (
).
() ,
,
, ().
(SCSI),
.
.

2.7.1. - .
- ,
, 2.
, , (
BS 4421) .
.
() ().
, .
16 .
. , ,
() ();
, . . -
( ) . - (
) .

D(0-15). 3- ( )
. (01) ; - (1-8)

61
; - (18)
(, ,
..). 0 ()
.
- .
.
.
, -, . 2.33.
. .
0-0,4 2.4-5.25 .
0-0,8 , 2,55,25 . 15 .

(-), (-), (-) ..,
,
- (1-8) -(1-8 ).

. 2.33.
(
- Current loop (CL)) .
, ,
. 20
( 40 ) ; , .
, . 2.3,6. ;
5, 7 8; ,
- 1; 1,5 2.
( 20 ). ,
. ,
- .
9600 /
500 . .
2.
() - ().
2, 18145-81
V.24 ; 2 RS-232C.
, ,
, .
2
. (
100) ( 200).
100, 36,
: , , .
()
() . ,
: 103,
104. , 118 119
.
: ( 105),
; ( 106),

62
; ( 107),
; ( 108),
; ( 125),
. , 2 .
113 114 (
). ,
, ..
200
, ,
.
,
2 .
. , 0
+5 +15 , +; 1
-5 - 15, 3. 2-,
1 0,3, 0- +0,3 .
2
. ,
,
2 103 104 ,
103 104 .

2.7.2. .

,
, ,
.
(LPT-, -, GAME- MIDI-), , ,
, SCSI, USB FireWire l2C JTAG.

2.7.2.1. : LPT-
PC
LPT- (Line PrinTer ).
, , ,
LPT . LPT-
Centronics.
2.7.2.1.1. Centronics
Centronics , 36 , . .2.9,
- .2.34.
2.9.. Centronics

I/O*
Strobe#
I
Data [0:7] I
Ack#
O

1
2-9
10

Busy
PaperEnd
Select

O
O
O

11
12
13

Auto LF#

14

Error#

32

Init#

31

.
. Data 0 ( 2)
Acknowledge (
).

.

(
+5 )
. ,
CR (Carriage Return ),
LF (Line Feed )
: , OFF-Line

( ,
)

63
Sict In#

36

( ).

GND

19-30 33

* I/O (/) .

. 2.34. Centronics
Centronics ,
-.
Centronics , :
.
.
( ) : 220
+5 330 . ,
PC.
( ) .
LPT-,
.
, , (,
).
2.7.2.1.2. LPT-
() SPP (Standard Parallel Port)
, Centronics.
#.
DB-25S (), (
) .
(. 2.10) Centronics.
2.10. LPT-

DB-25S I/O*
Reg.Bit**

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

1
3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21

O/I
O(I)
O(I)
O(I)
O(I)
O(I)
O(I)
O(I)
O(I)
I***
I

CR: 0\
DR: 0
DR: 1
DR: 2
DR: 3
DR: 4
DR: 5
DR: 6
DR: 7
SR: 6
SR: 7\

Strobe#
Data0
Data 1
Data 2
Data 3
Data 4
Data 5
Data 6
Data 7
Ack#
Busy

12
13

23
25

I
I

SR: 5
SR: 4

PaperEnd
Select

14

O/I

CR: 1\

Auto LF#

64
15
16
17
18-25

4
6
8
10,12,14, 16

I
O/I
O/I
18,20, 22, 24,26

SR: 3
CR: 2
CR: 3\
-

Error#
Init#
Select In#
-

* I/O (/) . O/I ,


; O(I) ,
(. ).
** (CR), (SR) (DR). \
(1 ).
*** Ack# (10 ) +5 .

8- ,
/, (BASE).
( IRQ7 IRQ5)
10 (#) CR.4=1.
10 +5 . ,
.
Centronics
( ):

(1 IOWR#).

( SR.7 - BUSY).
-
( 1 IORD#).

,
(2 IOWR#). ,
(), ,
IORD#.
, 4-5
/ ( ,
).
.
100-150 / ,
.
.
12 ( ),
, 5 .
,
Nibble Mode. , Hewlett Packard Bi-tronics,
4 , . ,
, /,
Centronics.
2.7.2.1.3.
,
PS/2.
1 (Type l parallel port) , PS/2.
.
,
: CR.5=0 , CR.5=1 .
, enhanced bi-directional, ,
. ( PS/2) .
(Type 3 DMA parallel port) PS/2 57, 90,
95.
. , ,
, , Centronics .
LPT-,
Centronics Fast Centronics, FIFO- Parallel
Port FIFO Mode. He ,
. ,
,

65
. VLB,
ISA, .
2.7.2.1.4. IEEE 1284-1994
IEEE 1284, 1994 ,
SPP, . 5 , ,
. IEEE 1284,
:
Compatibility Mode () Centronics.
() SPP.
Nibble Mode ( 4 ), .
.
Byte Mode , .
, (Bi- Directional PS/2 Type 1).
(Enhanced Parallel Port) Mode ,

( ). ,
.
(Extended Capability Port) Mode
RLE (Run Length Encoding) FIFO-
DMA. .
.
- LPT- SPP, ,
BIOS Setup. Compatibility Mode,
, SPP.
.
.
IEEE 1284
. ,
, .
, , . ( )
. IEEE 1284 .
(Level 1) , ,
. (Level II)
, ,
. :
-0,5... +5,5 .
14 +2,4
(VOH) +0,4 (VOL) .
RO, , 50()5 VOHVOL.
.
.
() 0,05-0,4 /.
:
-2,0...+7,0 (
).
2,0 (VIH) 0,8
(VIL) .
0,2-1,2 (
, ).
( ) 20 ,
+5 1,2 .
50 .
, Microsoft (!)
.
IEEE 1284, .
, . 2.35.
IEEE 1284 . A (DB-25)
(Centronics-36) ,

66
36- .
, ,
18 25 , GND.
, . .
2 / 2 .
IEEE 1284 :
() .
62()6 4-16 .
10%.
(), 85% .
.

. 2.35. IEEE 1284:


,
, , IEEE Std 1284-1994
Compliant. 10 , . 2.11.
2.11. IEEE 1284-1994

AMAF

Type A Male Type A Male


()
Type A Male Type Female
()
Type A Male Type Plug ()

()
()

AC

Type A Male Type Plug-- ()

Type Plug Type Plug

Type Plug Type Plug


IEEE 1284 ,
- Centronics.

. ,

67
, ( PC),
( ).
, Centronics (Fast
Centronics, Parallel Port FIFO Mode), IEE1284,
.
:
, .
, (
). Ptr .
.
.
Nibble Mode

, () .
5 ,
PC (nibble , 4 ) . , #, , , 6
, .
. 2.12 , . 2.36.
2.12. LPT-
SPP
I/O Nibble Mode
14

AUTOFEED#

HostBusy . ,
IEEE 1284 (
SPP )

17

SELECTING

10

11

BUSY

PtrClk. ,
HostBusy
3, 7

12
13

SELECT

I
I

2, 6
1, 5

15

ERROR#

0, 4

. 2.36. Nibble Mode


:
1.
HostBusy.
2. .
3. PtrCLk.
4. HostBusy,
.
5. PtrClk.
6. 1-5 .
,
50 / .
, . ,
(, ). Nibble
Mode , CD-ROM
.

68

Byte Mode
,
CR.5=1.
, -
.
. 2.13, . 2.37.
2.13. LPT- /
SPP Byte I/O

Mode
1
STROBE
HostClk
O ( )

14
AUTOFEED# HostBusy
O .
,

17

SELECTING 1284Active

IEEE
1284. ( SPP )

16
10

INIT#
ACK#

INIT#
PtrClk

O
I

,

DATA[7:0].
HostBusy

11
12

BUSY
PE

PtrBusy
AckDataReq*

I
I

13

SELECT

Xflag*



*
*

15

ERRORS

DataAvai'Uf*

2-9

DATA[7:0]

DATA[7:0]


*
I/O ( )

* (. ).

. 2.37. Byte Mode


:
1.
HostBusy.
2. DATA[7:0].
3. PtrCLk.
4. HostBusy,
.
5. PtrCLk.
6. HostClk.
7. 1-6 .

. ,
PS/2.

69

(Enhanced Parallel Port )
IEEE 1284 Intel, Xircom Zenith Data Systems.
. Intel
386SL ( 82360)
. , IEEE 1284,
.
:
.
. 4 . 4
.
.
, .
.
SPP . 2.14.
2.14. LPT- /
SPP

I/O

STROBE#

WRITE#

14

AUTOFEED#

DATASTB#

17

SELECTIN#

ADDRSTB#

16

INIT#

RESET#

10
11

#
BUSY

INTR#
WAIT#

I
I

.

.

( )


.
( ),
( )
2-9 D[8:0]
AD[8:0]
I/O /
12

AckDataReq* I

13
SELECT
Xflag*
I

15
ERROR#
DataAvail*
I

* (. ).
- (. 2.15),
/ 5-8 .
2.15. -

R/W

SPP Data Port


SPP Status Port

+0
+1

SPP/EPP W
SPP/EPP R

SPP Control Port +2


EPP Address Port +3
EPP Data Port
Not Defined

SPP/EPP W

EPP
R/W .

+4
EPP
R/W . () ()
+5...+7 EPP
N/A 1632- /

- , , -
( , )
. . 2.38
, ,

70
( ).
.
:
1. (lOWR#) 4 ( Data Port).
2. Write# ( ),
LPT-.
3. WAIT# .
4. ( WAIT# ).
5. - - .
6. /.
7. WAIT#,
.

. 2.38.
. 2.39,
.
.

. 2.39.

/. (0,5-2
/)..
WAIT#.

(Extended Capability Port )
Hewlett Packard Microsoft
. ,
.
:
.
.
: RLC
(Run-Length Count).

() , The IEEE 1284 Extended
Capabilities Port Protocol and ISA Interface Standard Microsoft.
, IEEE 1284:

71

- RLE;
FIFO ;
DMA /.
RLE (Run-Length Encoding)
64:1 ,
. , ,
, .
,
. , //,
,
. SPP, ,
, .
.
1284, SPP (. 2.16).
2.16. LPT- /
SPP
I/O
1
14
17
16
10
11
12
13
15
2-9

STROBE#

HostClk

PeriphAck
()
AUTOFEED# HostAck
O /
.
PeriphClk
SELECTIN# 1284Active
O
IEEE 1284. ( SPP )
INIT#
ReverseRequest# O

ACK#
PeriphClk
I
HostAck

BUSY
PeriphAck
I
HostClk
. /

PE
AckReverse#
I

ReverseRequest#
SELECT
Xflag*
I
Extensibility ftag
ERROR#
PeriphRequest#* I

() *
Data[0:7]
Data[0:7]
I/O
* (. ).

,
.
. 2.40, :
. HostAck: ,
.
RLE. 8 (): , 1-7
RLE (0-127), . . 2.40,
.
:
1. (
) ( ) HostAck.
2. HostClk, .
3. PeriphAck.
4. HostClk,
.
5. PeriphAck
.

72

. 2.40. : ,
FIFO-,
, , .
4, HostClk .
. ,
3 4,
.
. 2.40 .
, .
: ReverseRequest#,
AckReverse#.
.
, ,
FIFO, ,
.
:
1. ,
ReverseRequest#.
2. Ack-Reverse#.
3. (
) ( ) PeriphAck.
4. PeriphClk, .
5. HostAck.
6. PeriphClk,
.
7. HostAck
.
-
IEEE 1284
Microsoft. (. 2.17),
. Mode ECR ( [7:5]).
(. 2.18)
ISA, /
10 . ,
, , Port, Port+400h, Port+800h...
Port, 0-3FFh. PC
, , , 0x378h 0x778h
.

73
( 400-402h) : -,
,
/. -,
000-001
- .
2.17. -

000

SPPmode

001

Bi-directional mode (Byte ( 1 PS/2)


mode)
Fast Centronics
FIFO
DMA

010

()

011
100
101

ECP Parallel Port mode


EPP Parallel Port mode*
(reserved)

EPP
-

110
111

Test mode
Configuration mode

FIFO

* Microsoft, EPP SMC FDC37C665/666


1284.

( ) .
ECR. ,
, 000 001.
(Nibble Mode). ,
(010-111) 000 001.

FIFO-.
2.18.

R/W

000
000

DR
ECPAFIFO

R/W
R/W

000-001
011

Data Register
Address FIFO

001
002

SR
CR

R/W
R/W

Status Register
Control Register

400
400

SDFIFO
ECPDFIFO

R/W
R/W

010
011

Parallel Port Data FIFO


ECP Data FIFO

400
400

TFIFO
CNFGA

R/W
R

110
111

Test FIFO
Configuration Register A

401
402

CNFGB
ECR

R/W
R/W

111

Configuration Register
Extended Control Register

* ( 7-5 ECR).

( 000 001),
.
.
- : (
ECR)
. () FIFO-
( ECR), .
. -
( DMA),
.

74
IEEE 1284
IEEE 1284, 1997 ,
, ,
. :
IEEE P1284.1 Standard for Information Technology for Transport Independent Printer/Scanner
Interface (TIP/SI).
NPAP (Network Printing Alliance Protocol).
IEEE P1284.2 Standard for Test, Measurement and Conformance to IEEE Std. 1284
, IEEE 1284.
IEEE P1284.3 Standard for Interface and Protocol Extensions to IEEE Std. 1284 Compliant Peripheral
and Host Adapter Ports
. BIOS
DOS.
, .
IEEE P1284.4 Standard for Data Delivery and Logical Channels for IEEE Std. 1284 Interfaces.

. MLC (Multiple Logical Channels)
Hewlett-Packard, .

2.7.2.2. .
2.7.2.2.1. (-)


, .
, .
Serial Interface Serial Port.
, .
-,
, , ,
( ). -,
(. 2.41). -
-,
. -, (. 0),
.

. 2.41.
, ,
.
- , -.
, .
,
.
, 8 , -
, ,
5%. ( )
.
(: ),
, , ,
. , ,
.

.
: 50, 75, 110, 150, 300, 600,

75
1200, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600 115200 /. /
(baud) ( ), ,
, .
, (
) (/)
() .
5, 6, 7 8 (5- 6-
). - 1, 1,5 2 ( ,
, ).
PC - RS232C.
.
, .
,
. ,
, .
,
.

, (,
NRZ ),
.
,
( , ). PC SDLC
( ), .
(mainframes) IBM (
).
V.35.
,
.
: RS-232C, RS-423A, RS-422A RS-485. . 2.42
(L)
(V).

. 2.42.
RS-232C RS-423A
, RS-423A
. RS-422A
() RS-485, .
, () .
PC - RS-232C.

76
RS-485, RS-422A,
.
.

2.7.2.2.1.1. RS-232C
RS-232C ,
( ),
(). , ,
. DTE
Data Terminal Equipment. ,
DCE Data Communication Equipment.
DTE, . 2.43.
DTE (),
- (. 2.44).
, ,
. ,
- . RS-232C
V.24/ V.28 2,
.

. 2.43. RS-232C

. 2.44. RS-232C -

RS-232C
(
, RS-422).
.
-12...-3 .
ON (), MARK.
+3...+12 .
OFF (), SPACE.
-3...+3 , :

(. 2.45). -12...-5 +5...+12
.
(SG) 2 ,
.
,

,
, , , , .

( )
( ) (

). , , "",
.

77

. 2.45. RS-232C
RS-232C (
) .
(, )
. ,
. RS-232C
. 2.46. ( : - 1702;
1702). .
, ,
.
, 20 .

. 2.46. RS-232C: 1489 ( RS-232,


(), Y ); 1488 (, , Y
RS-232, VDD = +12 , VEE = -12 ); (*1 =. 1)
RS-232C ,
.
DTE ( , - PC) (male ) DB25P - DB9P.
, ( 25 ).
DCE () (female ) DB25S DB9S.
, DCE DTE
( )
, .
9 25- (. 2.47).

78

. 2.47.
DTE , ()
- (Zero-modem Z-modem), ,
, . 2.48.

. 2.48. - : ,
- DTE (, , ) -
, ()
, .
, (
, , , ).
. 2.19 - (
DTE).
2.19. RS-232C

PC
RS232 2 DB25S DB9S
1*
2*
3* 4*
PG
101
1
(10) (10) (10) 1

I/O
-

TD

103

RD

104

RTS

105

CTS

106

DSR

107

11

SG

102

13


Protect Ground

Transmit Data

Receive Data

Request To Send

Clear To Send


Data Set Ready

Signal Ground

79
DCD

109

15

DTR

108/2

20

14

RI

125

22

18

Data Carrier Detected



Data Terminal Ready
(PC)

Ring Indicator

1* 8- . 2* 16- .
3* . 4* 25- .

DB25S EIA/TIA - 232-, DB9S


EIA/ TIA-574. (DCE) ,
, , (-) .
RS-232C, ,
- PC, RS-232C (DTE).
, ()
( -3 ) ,
( +3 ).
. 2.20.
2.20. RS-232C

PG

SG
TD
RD
RTS

() ,


:
.


.
.

.

(

)

CTS
DTR
DSR
DCD
RI

().

: ,
25- , 9.3.1.6. .

2.7.2.2.2.

( 2.7.1).
, ,
. ( )
20 , .

- (
).

() . (
). ( ),
()
. , , ,
.

80

.
. ,
.
,
XON/XOFF. , ,
CTS ( )
( ).
RS-232C ,
. 2.49.
- . ,
-, .

().
,
, .
(, KERMIT) -.
, .

. 2.49.

2.7.2.2.3.

, ,
, . (
115,2 /) , 1,152 4 / .
,
, ( ) ,
, . .
, . 1993
IrDA (Infrared Data Association),
.
IrDA 1.1, Hewlett
Packard HP-SIR (Hewlett Packard Slow Infra Red) ASK (Amplitude Shifted Keyed IR) Sharp.
() :
IrDA SIR (Slow Infra Red), HP-SIR - 9,6-115,2 /;
IrDA MIR (Middle Infra Red) - 1,2 /;
IrDA FIR (Fast Infra Red) - 4 /;
Sharp ASK - 9,6-57,6 /.
115,2 / UART,
16450/16550.
COM2.
, IR-Connector
.
,
- DMA,
(Bus Master).
(),

81
. - ,
, .

- (PC Docking), .
.

2.7.2.2.4. MIDI
MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface)
31,25
/. , 1983 ,
, , , ,
. MIDI
, ,
.
10 ( 5 )
() ( 100 ).
, (),
.
, ,
.
-, 8 1 -,
. -.
.
[6:4] , [3:0] .
, ().
, ,
( - MIDI Time Code).
: MIDI-IN, MIDI-OUT MIDI-THRU.
MIDI-IN 10 ,
2 .

.
MIDI-OUT 10 ,
.
5 .
. ,
.
MIDI-THRU .
.
5- DIN,
. , .
MIDI (. . 2.50).
, 2
( MIDI-OUT MIDI-THRU). MIDI-IN .

. 2.50. MIDI
, , .
, In Out
, , , : In Out. ,
,

82
In In Out Out. ,
.
16 .
: MIDI-IN
MIDI-OUT MIDI-THRU . MIDI .
, ( ),
, , .
, .
-,
.
. .2.51.
PC MIDI- ,
(12 15) .
MIDI ,
. ,
. 2.52. PC 5 MIDI.

. 2.51. MIDI: ,

. 2.52. - MIDI
PC MIDI- UART, MPU401.
UART 8250 8251 ,
. ,
( ), .
, ,
. / MPU401
MPU MPU+1:
MPU+0 ( 330h) (R/W);

83
MPU+1 (W) (R).
,
UART, -, BIOS SETUP
MIDI-.

2.7.2.3. - GAME-
.
(4 ) ( 4 ).

(Paddle), .
,
.
(201h), 0-3 .
0-3, .
GND ,
( ).
-.
0-100
()=24,2+11R().
, ,
( 1,12 ) . , ,

() .
- DB-15S,
. 2.21. +5 ,
GND (. 2.53). 5-7.
, ,
GND, , + 5 .
( ) Y- -.
Game MIDI-
-,
(. . 2.52). MIDI 12 15,
GND +5V.
MIDI MIDI.

. 2.53.

7
6
5
4
3

2.21. MIDI

#2
#1
#2
#1
Y-

14
10
7
2
13

84
2
1
0
-

-
Y-
-
GND
+5
MIDI In ( )

11
6
3
4, 5, (12)
1, 8, 9, (15)
12

MIDI Out ( )

15

2.7.2.4.

,
(KB-Data) (KB-Clock).
(KB-Reset) .
XT ,
8255.
IRQ1,
60h. 7 6 61h
. XT KB-Clock.
AT i8042,
XT .
(, ).
XT AT (
AT), .
(POST) ,
.
BIOS Setup, POST
F1.
8042 ,
(+5 ), ,
. .
( ) . 2.54,
2.22.

. 2.54. XT, AT, PS/2 ( )


2.22 .

3

4
()
5
+5
5- DIN
( ) mini-DIN,
PS/2.
+5 .
PS/2 AT,

85
.
8042 ,

() .
.
. 2.55.
PC AT 11- . 8042
. - ,
, .
.
, . ,
RESEND.

. 2.55.
. 2.56 11- .

. 2.56. 11-
. 2.56 11- .
:
.
11- 2.23.
. 2.23.

()
()
()

60
5
2
0
5

2.7.2.5.
(PAL, SECAM NTSC)
,
.
- , ,
.
,

86
(.. 35 , ).
,
, Composite Video.
(75 )
1,5 . , ,
, .
. RFM (Radio Frequency
Modulator) ,
.
RCA (), .

- RGB- (Red Green Blue - ,
).
, PC, (. 2.24)
RGB TTL.
. , : 22=4, (0,
0) . CD (Color Display)
.
, 16 .
ECD (Enhanced Color Display)
. 4
, 26=64. RED, GREEN, BLUE
Red, Green, Blue .
H.Sync V.Sync.
MDA HGC, (720350 ),
. CGA
( ).
EGA .
V.Sync:
. RGB TTL
DB-9S.
2.24. (RGB TTL)

MDA/HGC

CGA

EGA Color/ Mono

1
2

GND
GND

GND
GND

GND
Red

3
4
5

RED
GREEN
BLUE

RED
GREEN
BLUE

Intensiv.

Intensiv.

Green/Intens.

7
8

Video
+H.Sync.

Reserved
+H.Sync.

Blue/Video
+H.Sync.

-V.Sync.

+V.Sync.

-(+)V.Sync.

,
, ,
. 8-
16,7 (True Color). RGB Analog,
.
,
+0,7 . ,
. PGA IBM,
9- DB-9S (. 2.25). ,
VGA, 15- (.
2.26).

87
2.25. PGA ( DB-9S)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Red
Green
Blue
(H+V)Sync
Mode Control
Red Return
Green Return
Blue Return
GND

2.26. (RGB Analog)

DB-15
1
2
3
4
5.
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

MCGA/VGA/SVGA/
XGA
Red
Green
Blue
ID2
GND/DDC Return1
Red Return
Green Return
Blue Return
( )
GND
ID0
ID1/SDA1
H.Sync/(H+V)Sync2
V.Sync
SCL1

Mono

Color

Video
SelfTest/DDC Return
Key
Video Return
GND
-/SDA
H.Sync/(H+V)Sync
V.Sync
SCL

Red
Green
Blue
SelfTest/DDC Return
Red Return
Green Return
Blue Return
GND
GND
GND/SDA
H.Sync/(H+V)Sync
V.Sync
SCL

DDC Return, SDA SCL (DDC)


. 9 .
2
(H+V)Sync (Composite Sync).
2.27. 9-15
DB9

DB15
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Red
1
Green
2
Blue
3
H.Sync
13
V.Sync
14
Red Return
6
Green Return
7
Blue Return
8
GND
10,11
,
15- 9- (. 2.27). PGA
(Composite Sync) (H+V)Sync.,
.

88
( ),
,
. ,
.
, n, .
ID0-ID2,
( IBM, .
. 2.28). GND,
( , ).
ID1,
.
Red Blue. ,
,
, -,
, POST.
2.28. IBM

ID0
ID1
ID2
12" IBM8503
12" IBM8513
14" IBM8512
15" IBM8514

NC
GND
GND
GND

GND
NC
NC
NC

NC
NC
NC
GND

,
VESA DDC (Display Data Channel). (
DIMM) I2C (DDC2B) ACCESS Bus (DDC2AB),
- SCL SDA. DDC1
SDA ( 12),
V.Sync ( 14).
V.Sync 25 (
). DDC2 ,
SCL ( 15). DDC2AB
, ,
, ACCESS Bus.
(. 2.29).
EDID (Extended Display Identification)
DDC (. 2.30).
2.29. ACCESS Bus (VESA)

1
2
3
4

GND

SDA
+5 ( )

SCL

2.30. EDID
, ,

0
8
18
20
35
54

8
10
2
15
19
72

( EDID)
( )
EDID


(4 18 )

89
126
127

1
1

VESA DPMS
(Display Power Management Signaling)
V.Sync H.Sync (. 2.31).
2.31. (VESA DPMS,)

H.Sync
V.Sync
On
Standby
Suspend
Off

, SVGA,
. 150
,
. ,
,
BNC- .
, ( )
USB FireWire
VESA EVC (Enhanced Video Connector).
RGB DDC2 EVC ,
-, , USB FireWire, a
. :
30
(. 2.57). , , 2 .
. 75- 500
2%. 1, 2 4
R, G , 3
(Pixel Clock DotClock). . 2.32.
, , ,
USB 1394 . (S-Video
, PAL NTSC) DDC2.

. 2.57. EVC ()
: , .
DDC,
.
, , ( , , ) .
( )
.
-. EVC
, , , . ,
,
.

90
2.32. EVC

1
2

Audio Output, Right


Audio Output, Left

11
12

Charging power input, +


Charging power input, -

21
22

Audio input, left


Audio input, right

3
4
5

Audio Output Return


Sync Return
Horizontal Sync (TTL)

13
14
15

Video input, Y or composite in


Video input, return
Video input, in

23
24
25

Audio input, return


Stereo sync (TTL)
DDC return

6
7
8

Vertical Sync (TTL)


RESERVED 1
RESERVED 2

16
17
18

USB data +
USB data USB/1394 common mode shield

26
27
28

DDC data (SDA)


DDC, clock (SCL)
+5

9
10

1394 pair A, data 1394 pair B, data +

19
20

1394 Vg
1394 Vp

29
30

1394 pair , clock +


1394 pair , clock -

2.7.2.6. .
, PC,
34- : 5" 3"-. PC 7 10-16 (. 2.58).
,
: : , : .
, . 2.58,
, .
, .
. 2.33, ,
. () .

. 2.58.
2.33.

2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18

Reduce Write
Reserved
Reserved
Index
Motor On A
Drive Sel 1
Drive Sel 0
Motor On
Direction

2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18

Low Cur.
Reserved
DS3
Index
DS0
DS1*
DS2
Motor*
Direction

2
4
6
8
16
14
12
10
18

Low Cur.
Reserved
DS3
Index
Motor*
DS2
DS1*
DS0
Direction

20

Step

20

Step

20

Step

91
22
24
26
28
30
32
34**

Write Data
Write Gate
Track 00
Write Protect
Read Data
Side 1
Disk Changed

22
24
26
28
30
32
34

WData
WGate
TR00
WProt
RData
Side 1
DC

22
24
26
28
30
32
34

Wdata
Wgate
TR00
Wprot
Rdata
Side 1
DC

1-33 . 5" 4-5 6-7.


* , FDD (Motor On Drive Sel 0 :
Motor On Drive Sel 1 ).
** 34 AT.
.
,
. .
.
Step, Direction:
( ) (
). ,
Track 00. Side 1.
Index,
. (
-) Read Data.
Write Gate,
Write Data. , ,
Write Protect. , HD
DD QD, Reduce Write. HD
Disk Changed, .
, PC,
Drive Sel 0 Motor On :
Drive Sel 1 Motor On :.
, Drive Sel 1 ( 12 ).
DS0/DS1/DS2/DS3, DS1.
DS1/DS2/DS3/DS4, , DS2.
,
.
PC
-. DS0,
,
,
.

2.7.2.7.
ST-506/412, ESDI, ATA, SATA,
SCSI. ST-506/412 ESDI ,
,
. ,
ATA, SATA SCSI.
, ,
. USB
, -,
FireWire SCSI-3.

2.7.2.7.1. ST-506 (ST-412) ESDI


, .
, (
-), , , ,
. ST506 (ST-412). MFM,
MFM. , ,

92
, ,
RLL. MFM RLL
RLL .
(. 2.59). 34-
(. 2.34) ,
. ,
. , 5
25-29. DS0, :
, D: .
20- ,
- (. 2.35). ,
.

. 2.59. ST-506/412 ESDI


2.34. ST-506/412

GND
1
2

-HD SLCT 3

GND
GND

3
5

4
6

-HD SLCT 2
-Write Gate

GND
GND

7
9

8
10

-Seek CMPLT
-Track 0

GND
GND

11
13

12
14

-Write Fault
-HD SLCT 0

( )
GND

15
17

16
18

Not Connected
-HD SLCT 1

GND
GND

19
21

20
22

-Index
-Ready

GND
GND

23
25

24
26

-Step
-DRV SLCT 0

GND
GND
GND
GND

27
29
31
33

28
30
32
34

-DRV SLCT 1
Not Connected
Not Connected
-Direction In

-
, ,

93
. MFM 17 , RLL 26.
, ,
, ,
(
MFM RLL).
, ,
.
2.35. ST-506/412

-DRV SLCTD
1
2

GND

Not Connected
Not Connected

3
5

4
6

GND
GND

Not Connected
Not Connected
GND
+MFM Write
GND
+MFM Read
GND

7
9
11
13
15
17
19

8
10
12
14
16
18
20

( )
Not Connected
GND
-MFM Write
GND
-MFM Read
GND

ESDI (Enhanced Small Device Interface )


ST-506.
(XFER 1 /) ( 32-80 SPT).
ESDI
, None CMOS. , ( ) (. 2.36, 2.37)
ST-506. , ,
, ESDI ST-506 .
2.36. ESDI

GND
1
GND
3
GND
5
GND
7
GND
9
GND
11
GND
13

15
GND
17
GND
19
GND
21
GND
23
GND
25
GND
27
GND
29
GND
31
GND
33

2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34

-HD SLCT 3
-HD SLCT 2
-Write Gate
-CNFG/Status
-XFER ACK
-Attention
-HD SLCT 0
-Sector
-HD SLCT 1
-Index
-Ready
-XFER REQ
-DRV SLCT 0
-DRV SLCT 1
Reserved
-Read Gate
-CMD Data

2.37. ESDI

-DRV SLCTD
1

-Sector

94
-CMD Complete

-ADDR MRK EN

GND

GND

+Write CLK

-Write CLK

GND

10

+RD/REF CLK

-RD/REF CLK

11

12

GND

+NRZ Write

13

14

-NRZ Write

GND

15

16

GND

+NRZ Read

17

18

-NRZ Read

GND

19

20

Index

ST-506/412 ESDI
. , DS0/DS1,
DS0. DS1/DS2, DS1.
,
: DS0, D: DS1.
.
,
.
.
ST-506/412, ESDI ,
, /.
HDC (Hard Disk Controller) XT AT
, .

2.7.2.7.2. (IDE)
(AT Attachment for Disk Drives) 1986-1990 .
IBM PC AT ISA. ,
10, 40 . (
PC/AT) ,
- IDE (Integrated Drive Electronics).
:

,
.

. IDE
, .
,
, , .

.
.
,


. , IDE
,
. ,
, .

IDE :
(AT Attachment) IDE (16-), AT-BUS -
AT. 40- 4-
AT.
(2,5" ) 44- ,
.

95

PC Card ATA 16- 68- PC Card (PCMCIA).


XT IDE (8-), XT-BUS 40- , ATA,
.
IDE (16-) 72- ,
PS/2. PS/2, ,
.

IDE,
ISA ( ),
ATA (AT Attachment AT).
.
ATA (Common Access Method) ANSI-,
. , 46
, .
-2 ATA, 2 , 4 , PIO Mode 3,
multiword DMA mode 1, Block mode, 8 , LBA CHS (
PIO (Programmed Input/Output) DMA 2.38 2.39
. . 3. ).
2.38. (PIO mode)
PIO mode
,
, /
0
600
3,3

1
383
5,2

2
240
8,3

3
180
11,1
E-IDE, -2 ( IORDY)
4
120
16,6
E-IDE, Fast -2 ( IORDY)
590
22,2
2.39. DMA -2

, , /
Single word DMA Mode 0
Single word DMA Mode 1
Single word DMA Mode 2
Multiword DMA Mode 0
Multiword DMA Mode 1
Multiword DMA Mode 2
Ultra DMA/33

960
480
240
480
150
120
120*

2,08
4,16
8,33
4,12
13,3
16,6
33

* Ultra DMA/33 ,
, .
Fast -2 Multiword DMA Mode 2 (13,3 /), PIO Mode 4.
ATA-3 , .
, ,
SMART (Self Monitoring Analysis and Report Technology).
Ultra DMA/33 ATA/IDE 33 /.
ATA IDE, E-IDE, -2, Fast -2, ATA-3 Ultra DMA/33
.
ATAPI (ATA Package Interface ATA)
ATA CD-ROM, ,
ATA, .
ATAPI ATA, 12 , - .
SCSI,
, SCSI ATA. ATAPI
ATA. ATA, , ATAPI, ,

96
512- 12-
.
ATASPI (ATA Software Programming Interface) / Windows,
HDD, CD-ROM , 32-
.
E-IDE (Enhanced IDE) , PCI VLB,
4 ( ), CD-ROM (ATAPI).
PIO Mode 3, multiword DMA mode 1, 8 , LBA CHS.
,
-2. E-IDE, Western Digital,
-2. Fast -2 -3
-2.

40-
( -) (. 2.60).

. 2.60. ATA
(
-), ,
- .
. 2.40.
2.40. IDE

RESET
DD 7
DD 6
DD5
DD 4
DD 3
DD 2
DD 1
DD 0
GND
DMARQ
DIOW#
DIOR#
IORDY
DMACK#
INTRQ

I
I/O TS
I/O TS
I/O TS
I/O TS
I/OTS
I/O TS
I/O TS
I/O TS
O TS2
I
I
O OK
I
O TS2

DA 1

3
5
7
9
11
13
15
17
19
21
23
25
27
29
31

2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32

I/OTS
I/OTS
I/OTS
I/OTS
I/OTS
I/OTS
I/OTS
I/OTS
I/O

GND
DD 8
DD 9
DD 10
DD 11
DD 12
DD 13
DD 14
DD 15
( )
GND
GND
GND
SPSYNC/CSEL
GND
IOCS16#

33

34

I,03

PDIAG#

97
DA 0
CSO#
DASP#
+5 (Logic)
GND

I
I
I/O OK4
-

35
37
39
4l5
435

36
38
40
425
445

I
I
-

DA 2
CS1#
GND
+5 (Motor)
TYPE (0ATA)

: I , , I/O , TS
, OK .
2
(
).
3
-0 , -1 .
4
-1 .
5
41-44 .

. -2 ,
-, #.
:
RESETS (Device reset) ( ).
25 .
DA[2:0] (Device Address) ,
.
DD[15:0] (Device Data) 16-
. 8- D[7:0].
DIOR# (Device I/O Read) /.
.
DIOW# (Device I/O Write) /.
.
IORDY (I/O channel ready) .
.
PIO MODE 3 .
IOCS16# 16- . ,
, 8-. PIO MODE 0, 1, 2 16-,
8-. PIO MODE 3, 4 DMA 16-,
( 512- ) ).
DMARQ (DMA ReQuest) DMA ( ).
DMA ( )
. DMARQ, DMACK#, DMARQ.
. Multi-Word DMA
. , (. 0 . 1)
DMA. -1
, -.
DMARQ (
L- PC).
DMACK# (DMA aCKnowledge) DMA. -
. DIOR#
DIOW#. DMA IOCSl6#, CS0# CSl# ,
16- .
INTRQ (Device interrupt) . ,
. 1 ,
IEN# Device Control.
RESETS, SRST Device Control,
. PIO
( ). :
FORMAT TRACK, WRITE SEC-TOR(S), WRITE BUFFER WRITE LONG
. DMA
.
CS0# (Chip Select 0) (Command Block Registers).
/
1F0h-lF7h ( CSlFX#).

98
CSl# (Chip Select 1) (Control Block Registers).
/
3F6h-3F7h ( CS3FX#).
PDIAG# (Passed diagnostics) . -0
, -1 .
-1 ( DASP#), -0 31
6 . , -0
7 . -1 , -0
-1
. , -
.
DASP# (Device Active, Slave Present) :
-1 (Slave).
10 +5 . RESET#
1
, , 400 , -1
. -0 450 , -1
. -1
31 ( ).
.
.
SPSYNC/CSEL (Spindle Synchronization/Cable Select) /
. ,
. SPSYNC ( RAID), . CSEL
: - ,
-0 (Master) , -1 (Slave)
. ( -)
31 RESETS. ( 28
) .

2.7.2.8. SCSI
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface, ) ,
ANSI. , ,
- .
, SCSI- ,
8 . (Host Adapter) SCSI ,
.
(, , CD-ROM, .), ,
, IBM PC.
, , SCSI ID,
8- (
). (ID) 8 LUN (Logical Unit
Number ).
(Target). SCSI-
(Synchronous Negotiation),
.
SCSI-1
. 5 .
SCSI-2 18 SCSI- (Common Command Set, CCS),
, CD-ROM
. 256
. SCSI CPU.
SCSI-2:
Fast SCSI-2 ( 10 ).
Wide SCSI-2 16- ( 32-) SCSI-2.
Ultra SCSI ( 20 ).

. 2.41.

99

2.41. , SCSI
,
Fast
Ultra

8 (Narrow)
16 (Wide)
32 (Wide)

5 /
10 /

10 /
20 /

20 /
40 /

20 /
6

40 /
3

80 /
1,5

A+P+Q
(Single ended)

SCSI-3 ,
, , Plug and Play.
SPI (SCSI-3 Parallel Interface)
, -
100 /. SCSI-3 ,
,
FireWire, . .

2.7.2.8.1. SCSI , ,
(Single Ended) (Differential)
SCSI, , ).

, ,
.
, PC .
, (, ,
) () .
. 2.61.
(Daisy Chain),
. -. -
, .
- .
, ,
.
( ), (
). :
(SCSI-1) 132 .
SCSI-2.
110
10 SCSI-2.
FPT (Forced Perfect Terminator)
.

. 2.64. SCSI
,
TERMPWR.
SCSI . :
-: 8- SCSI 50-
( IDC-50) ( CENTRONICS-50).
-: 16- SCSI-2, .
-: 16- SCSI-2/3 68-

100
, 8-, 16- 32- SCSI ( 8 1-5, 31-39, 65-68 ).
Centronics ,
.
Q,-: 68- 32 , -.
DB-25P 8-, Macintosh,
(Iomega ZIP-Drive).
, -. 2.42.
P Q-.
, .
2.42. P, Q SCSI

- Q-

Q-

1
2

GND
GND

35
36

DB12#
DB13#

DB28#
DB29#

GND

37

DB14#

DB30#

4
5

GND
GND

38
39

DB15#
DB Parity 1#

DB31#
DB Parity 3#

GND

40

DB0#

DB16#

GND

41

DB1#

DB17#

GND

42

DB2#

DB18#

GND

43

DB3#

DB19#

10

GND

44

DB4#

DB20#

11

GND

45

DB5#

DB21#

12
13

GND
GND

46
47

DB6#
DB7#

DB22#
DB 23#

14

GND

48

DB Parity 0#

DB Parity 2#

15

GND

49

GND

GND

16
17
18
19
20

GND
TERMPWR
TERMPWR
Reserved
GND

50
51
52
53
54

GND
TERMPWR
TERMPWR
Reserved
GND

GND
TERMPWRQ
TERMPWRQ
Reserved
GND

21

GND

55

ATN#

Terminated

22

GND

56

GND

GND

23
24

GND
GND

57
58

BSY#
ACK#

Terminated
ACKQ#

25

GND

59

RST#

Terminated

26
27

GND
GND

60
61

MSG#
SEL#

Terminated
Terminated

28
29

GND
GND

62
63

C#/D
REQ#

Terminated
REQQ#

30

GNO

64

I/O#

Terminated

31

GND

65

DB8#

DB24#

32

GND

66

DB9#

DB25#

33

GND

67

DB10#

DB26#

34

GND

68

DB11#

DB27#

101

I, SCSI
. , -
.
.
- -.
(Initiator) (Target). . 2.43
.
2.43. SCSI

: I=Initiator,
T=Target
DBx#
TERMPWR -

ATN#

BSY#
REQ#
ACK#

I, T
T
I



REQ#

RST#
MSG#

I, T
T

Target

SEL#

I/T

C/D#

(Select)
Reselect
(0)/ (1)

I/O#


Selection (l)/Reselection (0)

2.7.2.9. USB

USB (Universal Serial Bus )


PC,
. 1.0
1996 ,
. USB :
PC.
, 12 /.
- .
.
.
PC .
, .
, PC.
USB:
.
.
,
.
.
1996 PC USB,
. USB Unused
Serial Bus , , , .
, , , /
USB, USB-
.

USB .
5
. D+ D 0,3 ( )

102
2,8 ( ). 0,5...+3,8 .
.
USB .
, D+
D-, .
, . Diff0
Diff1 D+ D- 200 ,
VSE. , D+
D- , (SE0 single-ended zero).
:
Data J State Data State ( Diff0
Diff1).
Idle State .
Resume State .
Start of Packet (SOP) ( Idle ).
End of Packet (EOP) .
Disconnect .
Connect .
Reset .
,
Diff0 Diff1 .
Disconnect, Connect Reset
( 2,5 ) .
. USB 12
/, 1,5 /.
90 5 ,
3 . .
,
.
, .

. 2.62.

. 2.63. .

103

. 2.64. NRZI.
, , ,
D+ D-, R2
(. . 2.62, 2.63).
NRZI (Non Return to Zero
Invert), . 2.64. SYNC,
.
, VBus GND
5 .
.
(. 2.44).
2.44. USB

VCC

-Data

+Data

Ground

, >> (upstream connector).


, (, , . .).
(downstream port) .
(downstream connector) ,
(, ).
,
.
,
, USB. ,
.
.
USB , .2.65.

. 2.65. USB
USB (bus-powered devices), rat
(self-powered devices).
. ( ), ,
, .
USB . . 2.66
USB. ,
.
USB . -
(power management system),
USB. USB
, , (SUSPEND)
(RESUME). , USB , .

104

. 2.66. USB

2.7.2.10. IEEE 1394 FireWire


(High Performance Serial Bus),
IEEE 1394, 1995 .
,
, ,
. FireWire,
Apple Computer SCSI Macintosh PowerMac.
FireWire ( ) IEEE 1394,
1394.
FireWire :
: 63
(). , ,
, ,
PC ( ), . FireWire VESA
.
(100
/) (30 )
CD.
() .
. FireWire Plug and Play.
.
( 1,5 )
. PC,
.

2.7.2.10.1.
1394 : - (backplane).
- ,
, 1394.
USB, -, 1394
. ,
.
- .
. PC FireWire PCI 1394,
1394 - . 16-
63 , 6-
. 10-
1023 , .
, ()

105
. ,
( 2.67). .

. 2.67. FireWire
,
:
16 ;
4,5 ;
72 (
).
,
. 27 .
6- ,
. (
), (8-40 , 1,5 ).
( 500 )
( 60
).

. 2.68. FireWire
. 2.68. (, Sony
DCR-VX700 DCR-VX1000, DHR-1000 DVCR) 4-
, .
(
-).
1394 : 98,304, 196,608
393,216 /, 100, 200 400 /.
S100, S200 S400.
S100, S200.
, .
. , (logy_ Speed_Map),
, ,
.
() .

106
, .
( )
.

2.7.2.10.2. 11394
, ,
:
IEEE 1394-1995 Standard for a High Performance Serial Bus ,
, .
FireWire IEEE-1394 Apple Computer, Inc.
1394 IEEE-1394 ( 1995 .).
DigitalLink Sony Corporation,
IEEE-1394 .
MultiMedia Connection , 1394 High Performance Serial Bus
Trade Association (1394TA).
Apple FireWire 1986 , FireWire
IEEE 1394.
IEEE 1394-1995 ( )
, :
1394 ,
(,
). 1394
Sony, .
800 / , 1394.
1394.1 4- .
( 4,5 ),
, .
1394.2 1
/ , 1394. IEEE 1596 SCI
(Scalable Coherent Interface) Serial Express
SCILite. 1394.2 FCAL (Fiber Channel Arbitrated Loop)
, 1394.

2.7.2.10.3. FireWire USB


FireWire USB, ,
.
(127 USB 63 FireWire),
/ . .
, USB, ,
. , , FireWire
. Plug and Play (
) ,
DMA .
.
USB , PC.
. ,
PC , .
PC .
FireWire
.
.
PC, .
PC .

2.7.2.11. ACCESS.Bus I2C

ACCESS.Bus (Accessory Bus), DEC,


, ( VESA DDC),
(Smart Battery) . .
(12 , 500 ) 14
/, 8 .
I2C, , , USB,

107
. I2C ACCESS.Bus
,
.
.
I2C, Philips, PC

( DIMM).
,
- . BIOS
,

(, ), .
,
, .

. 2.69. I2C
I2C
, : SDA (Serial Data) SCL (Serial Clock).
(master) (slave).
, SDA ,
, . . 2.69.
,
. (
) 100
400 (Fast mode), -
.
Start SDA
SCL. SDA
SCL Stop. SDA
SCL,
SCL. 8 , ( MSB
),
. .

, SCL .
, SCL ,
.
, 7
. [6:0] [7:1] , 0
RW (RW=1 , RW=0 ). 7- :
4 [6:3] (, EEPROM 1010),
3 [0:2] .
I2C ,
.
(. 2.45).

. START ,
( ) .
. 10- [2:1]
, 8 , RW=0.

108
2.45. I2C
[7:1]
0 (RW)

0000 000
0000 000

0
1

General call address


START -

0000 001

CBUS ( )

0000 010
0000 011

X
X

0000 1
1111 1
1111 0

X
X
X

10-

.
. 2.70.
Start, ,
RW .
8- , ( 256
). ,
Stop, ,
.
( ) ,
Stop. , ,
, Start.

.2.70. I2C: SA[0:21 ,


DA[0:7] , D[0:7] , W (0), R (1)
, , RW=1.
, .
, ,
.
, ,
. ,
( ).
Stop, ( ).
,
,
Start ,
. ( ).
8
, (. 2.71).
.
SCL SDA

109
(), SDA SCL.
( ),
, SCL ( SDA).

.2.71. I2C
I2C ,
( )
. :
SDA , ,
. ( , )
. ,
.
, , , ,
.

2.7.2.12. JTAG (Boundary Scan)


JTAG ,
, . , ,
, -.
IEEE 1149.1 Boundary Scan Architecture ( JTAG)
, .
, , (
JTAG PCI). JTAG
:
TMS (Test Mode Select) .
TDI (Test Data Input) .
TDO (Test Data Output) .
(Test Clock) .
(Test Access Port),
.
,
.
, JTAG.
(. 2.72),
( , ,
JTAG).

. 2.72 JTAG
. 2.73.
, , (, )
. B/S

(boundary) . -
. Boundary Scan,
.

110

. 2.73. Boundary Scan


-
, ,
, ( ).
JTAG , ,
,
.
, , JTAG,
:
( ).
-, .
IR (Instruction Register),
TDI.
, .
: BPR (ByPass Register), DID (Device Identification Register) BSR
(Boundary Scan Register).
,
. ( ) TDI, (
) TDO.
.
BPR .
, .
BSR ,
, .
( ), ,
, ,
.
32- DID , ,
- , .
,
.
JTAG BSDL (Boundary Scan
Description Language).
(
) .
Pentium :
R/S#, .
.

111
, ( )
, .
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

. 4,
- ; ?

IBM PC.
(LPT).
Centronics .
IEEE 1284-1994.
.
IEEE 1284.
.
RS-232C.
.
MIDI.
GAME-.
.
.
.
ST506/412 ESDI.
.
PIO Ultra DMA?
SCSI.
USB IBM PC .
IEEE 1394 FireWire IBM PC .
USB FireWire.
ACCESS Bus I2C.
JTAG (Boundary scan) .

[4].
. [3,4,21,22,23],
IBM PC [2], [4].
LPT COM- [2, 22].
,
, .
[1, 2, 5].

112

3. -


.

, .

, ,
.

.
;
.

, ;
.
,
,
.
, .
,
.
. . ,
, .
- :
1) .
;
-, ,
;
2) - ,
.
. -
( Intel: i8086, Pentium ..,
).
3) - .
,
. - (
DEC Digital Equipment Corporation).

3.1. -
-
: .
: ,
- ;
, .
. , ,
.
;
, ,
.. , .
,
, ..
. ,
,
( ).
, .
, ,
, . ,
.
,
-. ,

113
. ,
(), (,
). ,
, .
, :
- , , .
,
.
, .
, , ..
,
, .

. ,
, ,
, .
,
. ,
, - ,
.
, ;
.
, , .
,
, , .
-
. , -
. ,
. .
,
, .
, ,
.
.
, , .
, ,
, .. .
,
-. ,
,
. :
, (
) .
, ,
, . ,
.
( )
, .
.
;
(), .
, ,
, ,
.
. .
, ,
( ).
, , ..
. .
. ,
().

114

. , -, -,

. 3.1 .
() (), ( )
. (.
3.1).
.
.
-,
(). ,
-
. , -, (1)
.
1 ,
. 2
. ,
() -, ,
, .
,
. -
(
. , .

-.

3.2. -
-
- ( -), (-, ).
-
, -.
, ,
, ..
,

. , , ,
, .. , ..
,
. .
- .
.
,
. ; ,
, .
,
. . ( )
, . 0

115
() (); 0
. 1 : 1=0+1 ( 1 = 0+2).
(). .
-
,
. , ,
,
. - ,

.
.
-
. ,
(. 3.2). ()
.
(),
.
();
.
- (),
, .. , .

. 3.2 - .
,
. , .
,
:
, ..
, ..;
-, ,
, ;
- ;
, ,
;
,
;
,

116

3.2.1. , .

: -, -
, -

. 3.3 -

. 3.4 -

.
- ,
, .
(.3.3).
.
. , , ,
.
. ,
. ,
.
.
, .
.

( ), ;
.
, .
,
. , , ,
OUT.
, , 150 /.
, , , IBM PC (.2.7.2.1.4.),
. -
/ ,
. PIO (Programmed
input/output) IDE (ATA).
REP-INS/OUTS ( i80286),
,
.
(DMA)
,
, . , PIO
Mode (Programmed input/output Mode /), . 2.38
2. 0, 1 2 ,
. , ,

117
. PIO
.
-
- , - .
,
.
; ,
.
(. 3.4) ,
. .

, .. ,
, .
, .
.
;
, .
, ;
.
,
-; .

, .
. .
- ,
. -
.
.
, -
.
-
;
. , ,
().
, ,
.
. 1. ,
-,
, () () .
.
; ,
, .
,
. ,
,
- .
IBM PC (DMA Direct
Memory Access) 2 4
. ,
DMA. DMA .
Ultra DMA/33 33 /.
IDE, PCI.
DMA ATA-2 2.39 2
.

3.2.2. -.

, , .3.2.
-

.
.

118
,
(). ,
. ,
, -60
-, PC/AT ISA- ..
.
,
.
.3.5 , ()
;

; () .

. 3.5 () .

,
( ) ( ).
.

. ,
. ()
().
,
, ,
2 ..
() () .
() ().
-

.

. 3.6. , .

119
,
, (, - 60) (.
3.6). ,
(), (), (), (),
( ). ,
-.
, ,
.
10 .
,
.
. , ,

.
IBM PC
DMA .
, .
() IBM PC, ,
, .
, ,
.
, ,
.
(), (), () ().
, . (
) () .3.7 3.8 .

-.

, . 1,
.
,
. 2
.
, .

. 3.7 .

, .
(110, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800 9600 /), (1
2), .

120
SYN,

. .
48000 /.
- ().

. 3.8 .


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

-?

?
- ?
- ?
?
-?
- i80286
?
?

.
?
?

[1, 3, 23].
[23], [24].
[23].

[1].

121

4. -
.
25% 40% ,
,
.
,
, , , , , .
.
;
- (). ,
, ;
().

,
, ,
.. ,
( ).
-,
. , ..
. ,

, .
(). (
-) .
, ,
. ,
.

4.1. -


,
, ..
.
,
. 4.1.

. 4.1 .
(, , ..),
() .
, . ,
,
, -
, f(t)
{Ai}, {Bi}
p(t). f(t)
{Ai} , p(t),
, .. {Ai}
f(t) , , ..
[f(t)-p(t)]<
,(4.1)
, , ,

122
.. , ,
,
{Ai}.
f(t) {Ai}
. f(t)
{f(ti )} .4.2,.
f(t) ti .

. 4.2 .
ti ti-1 = ;
, .
f( ti ) - Ai f(ti ), ..
, .4.2,6; .
f(ti ), ,
, .

. -
.
. .

f(t) {f(ti )} .
(),
f(t), [0,F],
f(ti ),
(4.2)
,
, ,
,
. , (4.2) ,
;
.

. 4.3 .

. f(t)
f(ti ) p(t).
f(ti ) = p(ti ),
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, 1989.- 416 ., .
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. / . . , . . .: , 1992. 592 ., .
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112 ., .
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17. / . . -. :, 1989, 63.
18. . : . . . :, 1985, 237.
19. . RAID- Promise Technology// , 1988,
4.- .208 215.
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21. .. . / . -.., 1997 368 ., .
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. . .: , 1996. 782 ., .
23. .., .., .. - .- .: , 1984,376.
24. . .- .: , 1986,
680.
25. . . 4- : . . -. :, 1987. ..
412.
26. .., .., .. .
/ . .. . -: , 1980, 207.
27. .., .. : . .
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, 1985, 298.
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.: , 1988, 223.
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31. . : . .
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32. . .- .: , 1980, 192.
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34. .., .., .. .-.: , 1984, 288.
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39. . RAID-. " ",: 1998. 4, . 208 - 215.
40. .., .. CD-R CD-RW. "Hard &
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42. .. .- .:
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52. . . - .: , 2001. - 336 .: .
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232