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. .

: 2007

CZU 512.643(075.8)
43

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, . . .

: . .

Descrierea CIP a Camerei Nationale a C


artii
,
: :
[pentru uzul studentilor] / . - Ch.: S. n., 2007 (Tipogr.
"Valinex"SA). - 132 p.
Bibliogr. pag. 132 (5 tit.)
ISBN 978-9975-68-049-3
20 ex.
512.643(075.8)

ISBN 978-9975-68-049-3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . .

2.1

. . . . . . . . . . . .

2.2

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

14

2.5

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

24

2.6

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

29

. . . . . . . . . . . . .

36

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45

4.1

. . . . . . . . . . . .

45

4.2

. . . . . . . . . . .

48

4.3

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

51

4.4

. . . . . . . .

57

. . . . . . . . . . .

61

68

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

6.1

68

6.2

. . . . . . . . .

71

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

76

7.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

7.2

. . . . . . . . . .

7.3

77

80


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88

. . . . . . . . .

97

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99

. . . . 106

10

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

11

119

7.4

,
,
.

A mn , , m n . m n .
: A, B, C, D, . . . . , , , . . i=1,2,. . . ,m , j=1,2,. . . ,n
, .
,

a11 a12 . . . a1n


a21 a22 . . . a2n

(1.1)
A = ..
..
..
.. .
mn
.
.
.
.
am1 am2 . . . amn


. A = (aij )
(1.1), i=1,2,. . . ,m j=1,2,. . . ,n.
A B , , . . aij = bij
i=1,2,. . . ,m j=1,2,. . . ,n.
A = (a11 a12 . . . a1n ),
, ,

b11
b21

B= . ,
..
bm1

, .

n , n:

a11 a12 . . . a1n


a21 a22 . . . a2n

A = ..
..
.. .
..
nn
.
.
.
.
an1

1.1

an2

. . . ann

1
2
3
A = 0 3 2
5
4 5
.
aii A

nn

(i = 1, 2, . . . , n).
a11 , a22 , . . . , ann
, . an1 , a(n1)2 , . . . , a1n
, .
, . . aij = 0 i 6= j,
.
1.2


4
0
0 8
,

1
0 0
A = 0 3 0
0
0 2
A=

n E
,
n .

1.3

1 0 0
E= 0 1 0
0 0 1
.
,
, :

0 0 ... 0
0 0 ... 0

O = .. ..
..
.. .
mn
. .
.
.
0 0

... 0

, 0 , , . .
.

2
2.1

A A = (aij )
B = (bij ),
bij = aij
i=1,2,. . . ,m j=1,2,. . . ,n.
2.1


1 2
3
A=
,
5 4 5

3A =

3
6
9
15 12 15


.
2.2

15
5 0
3
1 0
20 5 0 = 5 4 1 0 .
30 15 40
6
3 8
7

2.2

A + B A = (aij ) B = (bij )
m n C = (cij ),

cij = aij + bij


i=1,2,. . . ,m j=1,2,. . . ,n.
2.3

 
1
4 3
3
+
8 3 2
4

1 1
1 0

4
5 4
12 4 2

A + O = A, A , O , A.

2.3

A B
B 1
A (1) B, . .
A B = A + (1)B .
, , . ,
,

1. A + B = B + A .
. , , ,
, A + B = F B + A = G.

, F G.
,
fij = aij + bij = bij + aij = gij
i = 1, 2, . . . , m j = 1, 2, . . . , n.
, , F = G, . . A + B = B + A.
2. (A + B) + C = A + (B + C) .
. ,
(A + B) + C A + (B + C) (. ).
, (A + B) + C A + (B + C).

A+B =F ,

B+C =G


L = F + C = (A + B) + C ,

Q = A + G = A + (B + C) .

,
lij = fij + cij = aij + bij + cij = aij + gij = qij
i = 1, 2, . . . , m j = 1, 2, . . . , n.
, , L = Q, . . (A + B) + C =
= A + (B + C).
3. () A = (A) .
. , .

() A = F
.

(A) = G

F
G.
A = L .

G = L .
,

fij = () aij = (aij ) = lij = gij


i = 1, 2, . . . , m j = 1, 2, . . . , n. , , F = G, . . () A =
= (A).
4. (A + B) = A + B .
.
,
, ,
(A + B) A + B.
, (A + B) A + B.
(A + B) = F,

A = L,

B = Q

:
G = F = (A + B) ,
R = L + Q = A + B .
,
gij = fij = (aij + bij ) = aij + bij = lij + qij = rij
i = 1, 2, . . . , m j = 1, 2, . . . , n. , , G = R, . .
(A + B) = A + B .

10

5. ( + ) A = A + A .
. , ( + ) A A + A (. ).
, ( + ) A A + A.
( + ) A = F,

A = L,

A = Q

:
R = L + Q = A + A .
,
fij = ( + ) aij = aij + aij = lij + qij = rij
i = 1, 2, . . . , m j = 1, 2, . . . , n. , , F = R, . .
( + ) A = A + A .
2.4 A + B (A + B),




2 3
5
0 2 7
A=
, B=
.
1 4 2
1
2 2
.


 
32
57
A+B =
=
4 + 2 2 2

 
2 1 2
2
(A + B) =
=
0 6 4
0
2+0
11

2
0


1 2
,
6 4

1 2
.
6 4

2.5




2 3
5
2
1
A=
B=
.
1 4 2
3 2
. . . A B
.

11

2.6 C = 5A 2B,




2 3
5
2 2
5
A=
, B=
.
1 4 2
0
6 4
.
C

=
=
=
=

5


2 3
1 4
2 3
1 4

10 15
5 20
6
5

19
8


2 2
5
2
=
0
6 4



5
2 2
5
+ (2)
=
2
0
6 4
 

25
4
4 10
+
=
10
0 12
8

15
.
2
5
2

2.1 , ,
, , . , 4
2a1
2a2
6a3
8a4

+
+
+
+

b1
3b2
b3
5b4

=
=
=
=

3c1 ,
6c2 ,
3c3 ,
9c4 ,

(2.1)

ai , bi ci (i = 1, 2, 3, 4) ,
(2.2)

2A + B = 3C ,

A=

a1
3a3

a2
4a4

B=

b1
b3

3b2
5b4

C=

c1
c3

2c2
3c4

. (2.3)

(2.2) A
B C. (2.2) B.
B B = O, 2A + O = 2A, :
2A = B + 3C .

12

(2.4)

, , (2.2) (2.4)
B (2.2)
( ) .
(2.4) ,
A=

1
1
2A = (B + 3C) .
2
2


,
, :
A = (1/2) B + (3/2) C .

(2.5)

, (2.5) (2.4)
1/2.
(2.5) A, B C (2.3) , :
2 a1
2 a2
6 a3
8 a4

=
=
=
=

b1
3 b2
b3
5 b4

+
+
+
+

3 c1 ,
6 c2 ,
3 c3 ,
9 c4 .

(2.6)

(2.6) :
a1
a2
a3
a4

=
=
=
=

(1/2)
(3/2)
(1/6)
(5/8)

b1
b2
b3
b4

+ (3/2) c1 ,
+
3 c2 ,
+ (1/2) c3 ,
+ (9/8) c4 .



(2.1).
,

.
,
.

13

2.7



4 2

,
2X 3Y =
 7 7 
1 3

.
X + 2Y =
4 5

(2.7)

. X (2.7):


1 3
X=
2Y .
(2.8)
4 5
(2.7).
:


2 4
7Y =
.
(2.9)
1 3

(2.9) 1/7, :


1
2 4
.
Y =
1 3
7

(2.10)

(2.10) (2.8), :


1
11 13
.
X=
26 29
7

2.4

a1 + a2 + . . . + am m
P
ai .
i=1

aij , i = 1, 2, . . . , m j = 1, 2, . . . , n,
n
P
aij , i = 1, 2, . . . , m,
, . .
j=1

.
! m
n
P P
aij . , , aij
i=1

j=1

aij 
 , m
n
P
P
aij . ,
:
j=1

14

i=1

m
P

i=1

n
P

j=1

aij

n
P

j=1

m
P

i=1


aij , . . -

. m P
n P
n
m
P
P
, ,
aij =
aij .
i=1 j=1

j=1 i=1

A B ,
. A B mk kn

C , cij
mn

i A
j B, . .
cij = ai1 b1j + ai2 b2j + . . . + aik bkj =

k
X

ais bsj

(2.11)

s=1

i = 1, 2, . . . , m j = 1, 2, . . . , n.
C:
,
(. . 1).

= C
mn

mk k n

. 1
2.8 AB,



1
2 4
1 2
3
A=
, B = 3 3 1 .
5 4 5
1
0 2

. : A B = C .
23 33

:


1+6+3
26+0
4+2+6
C=
=
5 + 12 5 10 12 + 0 20 + 4 10

15

23

10 4 12
12 2 14

2.9 AB,



1 1
2 7/2

0
2
A=
,
B=
.
1 3/2
1
1

. - A B = C .
32 22

32

2 1 (7/2) (3/2)
1 2
= 2 3 .
0+3
C = 0+2
2 + 1 (7/2) + (3/2)
3 5
2.10

3
A = 2 B = (1 1 2 2) .
5

3 3
6
6
2 4 4 .
A B = 2
31 14
5 5 10 10

2.11 AB AC,


1
1
2

, C= 2 .
A = 2 1 4 5 , B =
0
0
1

A B = (2 2 + 0 5) = (5) ,

14 41

A C . .
14 31

A ( ) C ( ).

16

:
1. : B + C AB , A (B + C)
= AB + AC.
. , B + C ,
, B, C
F =B+C
. ,
AB = L ,

AC = Q,

AF = G


R = L+Q,
G R .
k A. , ,
gij

k
X

ais fsj =

s=1

k
X
s=1

k
X

ais (bsj + csj ) =

s=1

ais bsj +

k
X

ais csj = lij + qij = rij

s=1

i=1,2,. . . ,m j=1,2,. . . ,n.


, , G = R, . . A (B + C) =
= AB + AC.
, A + B AC , (A + B) C = AC + BC.
2. : AB , (AB) = (A) B =
= A (B).

17

.
,

AB = F
,
LB = U

AQ = V ,

L = A

Q = B ,


. U ,V
F = G
.
k A.
,
,
gij = fij =

k
X

ais bsj =

s=1

gij = fij =

k
X

k
X

ais bsj =

s=1

ais bsj =

s=1

k
X

k
X

lis bsj = uij ,

s=1

ais bsj =

s=1

k
X

ais qsj = vij

s=1

i=1,2,. . . ,m j=1,2,. . . ,n.


, , G = U = V , . . (AB) =
= (A) B = A (B).
3. : AB BC , A (BC) = (AB) C.
. A, B C
, BC = F AB = G :
B C = F ,

kl ln

A B = G .

kn

mk kl

F = L

mk kn

18

mn

ml


G C = Q

ml ln

mn

.
, L
Q. , ,
lij

k
X

ais fsj =

k
l
X
X
r=1

ais

s=1

s=1

k
X

ais bsr

s=1

l
X

bsr crj =

r=1

crj =

l
X

gir crj = qij

r=1

i=1,2,. . . ,m j=1,2,. . . ,n.


, , L = Q, . . A (BC) =
= (AB) C.
,
.
AB ,
BA .
2.12 AB



2
2 3 1
A=
, B= 1
1 0 1
0

A B =

23 33

2 3 1
1 0 1

2
1
0

BA,

1 1
3 2 .
2
1



1 1
7 13 7
3 2 =
.
2 1
2
2
1

BA , . . B
( ) A ( ).

19

AB BA ,
.
2.13

b1
b2

A = (a1 a2 . . . an ) , B = .
..

bn

A B = (a1 b1 + a2 b2 + . . . + an bn ) =

B A =

n1 1n

b1
b2
..
.
bn

n
X

1n n1

AB BA,

as b s

s=1

(a1 a2 . . . an ) =

b 1 a1
b 2 a1
..
.

b 1 a2
b 2 a2
..
.

...
...
..
.

b 1 an
b 2 an
..
.

b n a1

b n a2

. . . b n an

2.2 2.11 2.13


1 1, .
: A = (a11 ) 6= a11 .
11

, . 7 , , 1 1 ,
.
2.14



0
2 1 1
A=
, B= 1
0 3 2
1

AB BA,

3
5 .
1

A B = C =

23 32

22

2 0 + 1 1 + 1 (1) 2 3 + 1 5 + 1 1
0 0 + 3 1 + 2 (1) 0 3 + 3 5 + 2 1

20

0
1

12
17

B A = D =
33

32 23

02+30
01+33
01+32
12+50
11+53
11+52 =
=
(1) 2 + 1 0 (1) 1 + 1 3 (1) 1 + 1 2

0 9
6
= 2 16 11 .
2 2
1

, AB BA
A B 1 . , ()
, . . AB BA.
2.15


1 0
A=
0 0

B=

0
1

0
0

AB BA.
.
AB =

BA =

1
0


0
0



0 0
1 0

0
1


1 0
0 0

0
0

0
0


0
0

0 0
1 0

= O,


, AB 6= BA. , AB = O , A = O B = O!
,
, 1 :
n A
,
AE = EA = A .
(2.12)
1 ,

B B

nm kl

kl nm

m = k l = n. , n = k l = m.
, m = n = k = l, . . A B
.

21

, : AE = F , EA = G.


1, i = j ,
eij =
(2.13)
0, i 6= j ,
, i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n
fij =

n
X

ais esj = aij ,

gij =

s=1

n
X

eis asj = aij .

s=1

, E
, (2.12) A . , E , E E = E , E E = E, . . E = E.
2.3 ,
:




=
=

A
=
A

A ,
E
E A
mn
mm mn
mm
mn


mm mn
=
= A E
=
A
A ,
A E
mn

mn

mn nn

= .
..
0

nn

mn nn

..
.
0

0 0
0 0
.. . .
.
. ..
.
0

2.4 AB = O B, A = O. AB = O
A, B = O.
. , B E, : A = AE = O. A = E, :
B = EB = O.

22

2.16 A () A ()
A () A ()


cos
sin
A () =
.
sin
cos
. A () A ():



cos
sin
cos
sin
A () A () =
=
sin
cos
sin
cos


cos cos sin sin
cos sin sin cos
=
=
sin cos + cos sin
sin sin + cos cos


cos ( + )
sin ( + )
=
.
(2.14)
sin ( + )
cos ( + )
, A () A (),
A () A () . (2.14) ,
.
A () A () = A () A ().
2.17 ,

1 0 0
A= 0 1 0
3 1 2

B=
3 3

, , , ,
.

1
AB = 0
3

0
0 ,

.
0
1
1

2
3 3

6 3

2 3

23

0
0 .
2

0
0 =

BA =

2.5

3 3

6 3

0
1 0 0
0 0 1 0 =

3 1 2

0 = AB .
2 3 2

am (m > 1) a
m , a, . . am = a
. . . a} , a0 =
| a {z
m

1 a 6= 0.
, Am A
Am = AA
. . . A}.
| {z
m

, A
A.

.
A A, . . A0 = E.
Am (m > 0) A
m , A, . .
Am = AA
. . . A} .
| {z
m

:
1. Am Ak = Am+k .
.
Am Ak =

24


. . . A} = Am+k
. . . A} = AA
AA
. . . A} AA

| {z
| {z
| {z

k
m+k

. . . A} = AA
. . . A} = Ak = A0+k
E AA
| {z
| {z
=
k
k

AA . . . A E = AA . . . A = Am = Am+0

|
|
{z
}
{z }

m
m

EE = A0 = A0+0

m 6= 0, k 6= 0 ,
m = 0, k 6= 0 ,
m 6= 0, k = 0 ,
m = 0, k = 0 ,

. . Am Ak = Am+k .
k

2. (Am ) = Amk .
.
(Am )k =

A
| A {z. . . A } =
k

m
m
= |Am .{z
. . Am}A
. . Am} . . . A
. . Am} =
| .{z
| .{z
m

{z

= AA
. . . A} = Amk
| {z

mk

k

A0 = E k = EE
. . . E} = E = A0

| {z

(Am )0 = E = A0

0

A0 = E 0 = E = A0

m 6= 0, k 6= 0 ,

m = 0, k 6= 0 ,

m 6= 0, k = 0 ,
m = 0, k = 0 ,

. . (Am ) = Amk .

2.18 An ,

A=

1
1
1 1

. :


 

1
1
1
1
0 0
2
A =
=
= O,
1 1
1 1
0 0
An = A2 An2 = OAn2 = O

25

n 3 .

, Am = O ,
A = O!
2.19 f (A), f (x) = x2 x x0

2
1 1
1 2 .
A= 3
1 1 0
.

2
1
1
= 3
1 1

8
= 11
1

f (A) =


1
2
1 1
2
1 1
1
2 3
1 2 3
1 2 0
0
1 1 0
1 1 0
0


2
4
2 1 1
1
0
2
5 + 3 1 2 + 0 1
0 1
1
1
0
0
0

5 1
3
3 .
= 8 0
2 1 2

2.20

1 0
A= 0 1
1 0

0
0 =
1

1
0
1

0 2
1 0 ,
0 2
4
0
4

0 4
1 0 .
0 4

A3 = pA2 + qA:

2p 0 2p
q 0 q
0 1p 0 + 0 q 0 .
2p 0 2p
q 0 q
26

0
0 =
1

p q, -

A3 = pA2 + qA.
. :


1 0 1
1 0 1
2
A2 = 0 1 0 0 1 0 = 0
1 0 1
1 0 1
2


1 0 1
2 0 2
A3 = AA2 = 0 1 0 0 1 0 =
1 0 1
2 0 2

(2.15) (2.16)


4 0 4
0 1 0 =
4 0 4

0
1
0

(2.15)

(2.16)

(2.17)

(2.17) p
q:

2p + q = 4 ,
(2.18)
p +q = 1.
, : p = 3, q = 2.
2.21
A=

1
0

a
1

a .
1. An .

2. , A
2x4 3x3 + x2 x + x0 = O, O
, A.
3. , A



B=
,
0
, .
4.

n
P

Am .

m=1

.
1.

1 a
0 1

1
3
2
A = AA =
0

1
A4 = AA3 =
0
A2 =


a
1
a
1

 

1 a
1 2a
=
,
0 1
0 1

 

1 2a
1 3a
=
,
0 1
0 1

 

1 3a
1 4a
=
.
0 1
0 1

,
n = 1, 2, . . .


1 na
n
A =
.
(2.19)
0 1
27

, , (2.19) n n + 1:


 

1 a
1 na
1 (n + 1) a
An+1 = AAn =
=
.
0 1
0 1
0
1
, (2.19) n = 4, n = 5; (2.19)
n = 5, n = 6 . ..
.
2. An (n = 1, 2, 3, 4) 2x4 3x3 + x2 x + x0 = O, :
2

1
0

4a
1

1
0

23+11+1
0

0
0

0
0

3a
1

1
0

2a
1

8a 9a + 2a a + 0
23+11+1

1
0

a
1

1
0

0
1

= O.

3. , AB = BA. :


 

1 a

+ a
AB =
=
.
0 1
0
0



 


1 a
a +
BA =
=
= AB .
0
0 1
0

4.
n
X

Pn

Am

m=1

m=1

Am :
n
X

m=1

n
0

1
0

ma
1

asn
n

28

n
n
P
1 a
m

m=1
= m=1
=
n
P
0
1
m=1


sn

n
X

m=1

m = 1 + 2 + 3 + . . . + (n 2) + (n 1) + n =
{z
}
|
n

n (n + 1)
2

(2.20)

n 2 . :


n
X
1 (n + 1) a/2
Am = n
.
0
1
m=1

2.6

A AT ,
, .

a11 a21 . . . am1


a12 a22 . . . am2

(2.21)
AT = .
..
..
..
nm
..
.
.
.
a1n a2n . . . amn

a11 a12 . . . a1n


a21 a22 . . . a2n

A = ..
..
..
..
.
mn
.
.
.
am1 am2 . . . amn

, A =
 (aij )
m n, AT = aTij n m,
aTij = aji .
2 C

n 1, 2, 3, . . . . sn = 1 + 2+ +3 + . . . + (n 2) +
(n 1)+n : sn = n+(n 1) + + (n 2)+. . .+3+2+1.
sn , 2sn = (n + 1) + (n + 1) + (n + 1) +
. . . + (n + 1) + (n + 1) + (n + 1) = = n (n + 1). , sn = n (n + 1) /2.

29

2.22

1 2
AT = 3 4
32
5 6




1 3 5
.
A =
2 4 6
23
2.23
A = (a11 a12 . . . a1n )
:

a11
a12

AT = . .
.
.
a1n

B=

b11
b21
..
.
bn1

:
B T = (b11 b21 . . . bn1 ) .
, :
T
1. AT
= A.
. A mn,
F = AT

30

n m. ,
F
T
G = F T = AT

, A, . . m n. ,
T
AT
= A m n. , . i = 1, 2, . . . , m
j = 1, 2, . . . , n :
gij = fji = aij .
T
, G = A, . . AT
= A.
T

2. (A) = AT .

. A mn. ,
F = A
, A, . . m n. F
G = F T = (A)T
n m.
A
L = AT
n m.
, AT , AT ,
. . n m.
, T
(A) = AT n m. ,
. i = 1, 2, . . . , m
j = 1, 2, . . . , n :
gij = fji = aji = lij .
T

, G = L, . . (A) = AT .

31

3. (A + B)T = AT + B T .
. A B ,
. A
m n. B
F = A+B
m n.

G = F T = (A + B) ,
L = AT , Q = B T R = L + Q = AT + B T
n m. ,
T
(A + B) = AT + B T n
m. , .
i = 1, 2, . . . , m j = 1, 2, . . . , n :
gij = fji = aji + bji = lij + qij = rij .
T

, G = R, . . (A + B) = AT + B T .
T

4. (AB) = B T AT .
. A m k, B k n, , AB ,

F = AB
m n. F
G = F T = (AB)T
n m.

L = AT

Q = BT

k m n k, . QL ,
R = QL = B T AT
n m.

32

, T
(AB) = B T AT n m. ,
.
i = 1, 2, . . . , m j = 1, 2, . . . , n :
gij = fji =

k
X

ajs bsi =

s=1

k
X

bsi ajs =

s=1

k
X

qis lsj = r ij .

s=1

, G = R, . . (AB)T = B T AT .
A ,
AT = A, . . aji = aij .
, .
2.24

1
5 4
A = 5 2 7
4 7
3

3 .

A 3 , AT = A, . . aji = aij .
, , . . aii = 0.
2.25

0
2 3 7
2 0 1 5

B=
3
1
0 8
7 5 8 0

4 .
:
3

33

1. A B () ,
A + B () .
. , A B
,
T
(A + B) = AT + B T = A + B .
A B ,
T

(A + B) = AT + B T = A B = (A + B) .

2. A () , A
() .
. , A ,
T
(A) = AT = A = (A) .
A ,
T

(A) = AT = A = (A) .

3. AB A B AB = BA
AB = BA.
. A B () .
T

(AB) = B T AT = BA .
, (AB)
= AB, AB = BA.

= AB AB = BA, (AB)

4. A , Am (m = 1, 2, 3, . . .)
. A ,
Am (m = 1, 2, 3, . . .)
m .

34

. , A .

. . . A} = Am .
(Am ) = AA
. . . A} = |AT AT{z. . . AT} = AA
| {z
| {z
m

A ,
m T

(A )

=
=

AA . . . A = AT AT . . . AT = (A)(A) . . . (A)
| {z }
{z
} |
|
{z
}
m

m
m

(A)(A) . . . (A) = (1) AA


. . . A} = (1) Am .
| {z
|
{z
}
m

5. A

A = A(s) + A(a)

A(s) =


1
A + AT
2

A(a) =


1
A AT ,
2

A(s) , A(a) .
. ,
T

A(s) =
T

A(a) =

T

 1
1
1 T
A + AT
=
A +A =
A + AT = A(s) ,
2
2
2

T


1 T
1
1
A AT
=
A A = A AT = A(a) .
2
2
2

35

.
1 , 2 , . . . , n
1, 2, . . . , n, . , 1 , 2 ,
. . . , n n 1, 2, . . . , n.
n n!.

1 ,
2 , . . . , n i , j , i , j
, i > j i < j, . .
.
, , 1 , 2 , . . . , n ,
N (1 , 2 , . . . , n ) .
. , 1, 1. , 2, 2.
,
.
3.1
5, 2, 1, 4, 3 .
. :
5, 2, 1, 4, 3
5, 2, 4, 3
5, 4, 3
5, 4
5

2
1
2
1
0

1 ,
2 ,
3 ,
4 ,
5 .

, N (5, 2, 1, 4, 3) = 2 + 1 + 2 + 1 + 0 = 6.

36


4 sign (1 , 2 , . . . , n ) 1 ,
2 , . . ., n
(1)N (1 , 2 , ..., n ) .
,
(. . sign (1 , 2 , . . . , n ) = 1)
(. . sign (1 , 2 , . . . , n ) = 1).
n :

a11 a12 . . . a1n


a21 a22 . . . a2n

(3.1)
A= .
.. .
..
..
..
.
.
.
an1

an2

. . . ann

, , . , ,
, .
|A| A =
= (a11 ), , 1 ,
a11 :
1 = |A| = a11 .

(3.2)

|A| A =
= (aij ), , 2 ,
:


a11 a12

= a11 a22 a12 a21 .
2 = |A| =
(3.3)
a21 a22

a11 a22 a12 a21 . , 2! ,


2-x ,
. +, .
4

37

|A| A =
= (aij ), , 3 ,
:


a11 a12 a13


3 = |A| = a21 a22 a23 =
a31 a32 a33
= a11 a22 a33 + a12 a23 a31 + a13 a21 a32

(3.4)

a13 a22 a31 a12 a21 a33 a11 a23 a32 .


(3.4) , 3! , 3-x ,
.
+ .
, (3.2)(3.4)
a11 a22 . . . ann

(n = 1, 2, 3) ,

(3.5)

, : , .
, 1 , 2 , . . . , n
,
+,
.
.
, . ,
, , , .
, , - (3.5)
. , , ,
+, ,
. , , ai i aj j , i < j, i > j , . .

38

(. . 2).
ai i
v

i
j

v
aj j
. 2

, .

1. .
. n! ,
n .
2. .
. , , .

. 2!
, . 3:

1. a11 a22 ;
2. a12 a21 .

39

(+)
v
v
a11

a12

a21

a22

()
v
v
v

. 3
(3.3).
. ,
.
.
1. a11 :
(a) a22
a33 ( 0 );
(b) a23
a32 ( 1
).
2. a12 :
(a) a21
a33 ( 1
);
(b) a23
a31 ( 2
).
3. a13 :
(a) a21
a32 ( 2
);

40

(b) a22
a31 ( 3
).
, 3! , . 4.
(+)
v
v
v

a11

a12

a13

()
v
v
v

a21

a22

a23

a31

a32

a33

. 4
(3.4).
3.2

2
2 = |A| =
1

. : 2 = 2 5 3 1 = 7.


3
.
5

3.3

. :



1 1 1


1 1 .
3 = |A| = 2
1
1 2

3 = +1 1 2 + 2 1 1 + (1) 1 1 1 1 1 2 (1) 2 1 1 1 = 5 .
1,
2 3 (n) .

41

|A| n A = (aij ), n , ,
n! , n ,
,
N
(1) , N ,
n :

a11

a21

n = .
..

an1

a12
a22
..
.

...
...
..
.

a1n
a2n
..
.

an2

. . . ann




X

N
(1) a11 a22 . . . ann ,
=


(3.6)

1 , 2 , . . . , n
1, 2, . . . , n.
|A| A =
= (aij ) 5 det A det (aij ).
3.1 ,
( ) , .
3.4 a13 a24 a41 a23 a55


a11 a12 a13 a14 a15


a21 a22 a23 a24 a25


5 = a31 a32 a33 a34 a35 ?
a41 a42 a43 a44 a45


a51 a52 a53 a54 a55
.

a13 a24 a41 a23 a55


(a24 a23 ) , ,
.
5

determinant

42

3.5 a23 a31 a42 a56 a14 a65




a11 a12 a13 a14 a15 a16


a21 a22 a23 a24 a25 a26


a31 a32 a33 a34 a35 a36
?

6 =

a41 a42 a43 a44 a45 a46
a51 a52 a53 a54 a55 a56


a61 a62 a63 a64 a65 a66
.

a23 a31 a42 a56 a14 a65 = a14 a23 a31 a42 a56 a65

, , .
3.6 6

a23 a31 a42 a56 a14 a65 ?


.
, : a14 a23 a31 a42 a56 a65 .
4, 3, 1, 2, 6, 5 .
. :
4, 3, 1, 2, 6, 5 2 1 ,
4, 3, 2, 6, 5
2 2 ,
4, 3, 6, 5
1 3 ,
4, 6, 5
0 4 ,
6, 5
1 5 ,
6
0 6 .
, N (4 3 1 2 6 5) = 2+2+1+0+1+0 = 6. , a23 a31 a42 a56 a14 a65
+.

43

3.7 , aij = 0 i > j:




a11 a12 . . .
a1(n1)
a1n

0 a22 . . .
a2(n1)
a2n



(>)
..
..
..
..
(3.7)
tr (n) = ...
.
.
.
.
.



0
0 . . . a(n1)(n1) a(n1)n

0
0 ...
0
ann

. .
(3.7), n . ann . .
(n 1) : a(n1)(n1)
a(n1)n . , a(n1)n ,
ann
(3.7). , (3.7) a(n1)(n1) ann .
, (n 2) a(n2)(n2)
.
, , (3.7)

a11 a22 . . . a(n1)(n1) ann ,
+, . .
, . :
(>)

tr (n) = a11 a22 . . . a(n1)(n1) ann .

(3.8)

3.2 , (3.8)
:

44

a11
0
..
.

0
a22
..
.

0
0

0
0

...
...
..
.

0
0
..
.

. . . a(n1)(n1)
...
0

0
0
..
.
0
ann







= a11 a22 . . . a(n1)(n1) ann .



, n
En , . . |En | = |1 1{z
. . . 1} = 1.
n

n n!. .
, . .

4
4.1

4.1

: AT = |A| .

. , AT |A|
,
n , . ,
.
,

a11

a12
T
A = .
..

a1n

a21
a22
..
.
a2n

45

...
...
..
.
...

an1
an2
..
.
ann

(4.1)



a11

a21

|A| = .
..

an1

a12
a22
..
.
an2

...
...
..
.
...

a1n
a2n
..
.
ann

(4.2)


.
, II IV (. . 5). M (x, y) XOY . ,
II IV M (x , y ) = M (y, x). ,
.
Y
6

M (x, y)
`b
O

M (y, x)
`b

. 5
AB XOY (.
. 6). II

46

IV A B . y1 < y,
x1 > x, AB . x = y, y = x, x1 = y1 ,
y1 = x1 , y1 < y , x1 > x , . . A B . , ,
. , ,
, . . . , . , .
.
Y
6

A(x, y)
b

A (x , y )

B (x1 , y1 )

B(x1 , y1 )
b
X

. 6

4.1 4.1
. .

47

4.1 , aij = 0 i < j:




a11
0
...
0
0

a21
a22
...
0
0


(<)
.
.
.
.. .
..
..
..
..
tr (n) =
.
.

a(n1)1 a(n1)2 . . . a(n1)(n1)

0


an1
an2
...
an(n1)
ann
(<)

. 4.1, tr (n)
,
, . . :


a11 a21 . . .
a(n1)1
an1

0 a22 . . .
a(n1)2
an2

..

(<)
.
.
..
..
..
..
tr (n) = .
.
.
.


0

0
.
.
.
a
a
(n1)(n1)
n(n1)

0
0 ...
0
ann
, (3.8) 3.7, ,
(<)

tr (n) = a11 a22 . . . a(n1)(n1) ann .

4.2

4.2 ,
.
. , , i (i + 1). , , ,
, . ,
, , , i (i + 1) .

48


a11 a22 . . . aii a(i+1) (i+1) . . . ann .

(4.3)

i (i + 1)
a11 a22 . . . a(i+1) i ai (i+1) . . . ann .

(4.4)

, , ,

. , (4.4) a(i+1) i ai (i+1) .
, (4.4)

(4.5)
a11 a22 . . . ai(i+1) a(i+1) i . . . ann .
, i > (i+1) , , i
(i + 1) i (i+1) 1 , 2 , . . ., i , (i+1) , . . ., n , . ,
i < (i+1) , , i (i + 1)
i (i+1)
1 , 2 , . . . , i , (i+1) , . . . , n , . (4.3) (4.5) ,

1 , 2 , . . ., n ,
i (i+1) , ,
, .
,
. , , aii a(i+1) (i+1) , , , i (i + 1)
, (. . 7a),

(. . 7b). , .

49

(a)

(b)
a(i+1) (i+1)

ai i
i
i+1

w
w

a(i+1) (i+1)

i+1
i

ai i

. 7

, , i (i + 1)
, , , i (i + 1) .
, i (i + 1) 1 , 2 , . . . , i , (i+1) , . . . , n , , . , ,
.
, , , i (i + k)
,
k i (i + 1), (i + 2), . . ., (i + k),
(k1) (i+k) (i+k1), (i+k2), . . ., (i+1)
. k +(k 1) =
= (2k 1) , , .
. 8 , i (i + 4) . i (i + 1), (i + 2),
(i + 3) (i + 4) (. 8()). (i + 4)
(i + 3), (i + 2) (i + 1) (. 8(b)). 4 + 3 = 7
, i (i + 4)
(. 8(c)).

50

(a)

(b)

(c)

i+4

6
?

i+4

6
i+4
i

. 8
, ,
.
. . , ,
. , = , , = 0.

4.3

4.3 i |A|
(1)

(2)

aij = 1 bij + 2 bij

(j = 1, 2, . . . , n)

1 2 , |A| :








(4.6)
|A| = 1 B (1) + 2 B (1) ,

, i, ,

-
|A|, i- B (1) B (2)
(2)
(1)
bij bij , .
51

. , . 42,
|A| :
X
N
|A| =
(1) a11 a22 . . . a(i1)(i1) aii a(i+1)(i+1) . . . ann , (4.7)

1 , 2 , . . . , (i1) , i , (i+1) , . . . n ,
N .
,
(1)

(2)

(4.8)

aii = 1 bii + 2 bii .


(4.8) (4.7), :

X
(1)
N
|A| =
(1) a11 a22 . . . a(i1)(i1) 1 bii +

(2)
+ 2 bii a(i+1)(i+1) . . . ann =
X
(1)
N
= 1
(1) a11 a22 . . . a(i1)(i1) bii a(i+1)(i+1) . . . ann +
X
(2)
N
+2
(1) a11 a22 . . . a(i1)(i1) bii a(i+1)(i+1) . . . ann =








= 1 B (1) + 2 B (2) .

4.2 4.3


: i A(M) M

M
X
(l)
(M)
(j = 1, 2, . . . , n)
(4.9)
l bij
aij =
l=1



l (l = 1, 2, . . . , M ), A(M)
:
M




(M) X (l)
l B ,
A
=

(4.10)

l=1


, i, , A(M) , i B (l)
(l)
bij .
52

. (4.9)
:
(M)

aij

M1
X

(l)

(M)

l bij + M bij

(M1)

= aij

(M)

+ M bij

(4.11)

l=1

j = 1, 2, . . . , n. , 4.3,





(M) (M1)


A
= A
+ M B (M) ,

(4.12)







(1)
A = 1 B (1) .

(4.13)

(4.12) .
(4.11) (4.13) :









(2) (1)






A = A + 2 B (2) = 1 B (1) + 2 B (2) ,











(3) (2)








A = A + 3 B (3) = 1 B (1) + 2 B (2) + 3 B (3) .. .
(4.14)
(4.13)(4.14) ,
M = 1, 2, . . .
M




(M) X (l)
l B .
A
=

(4.15)

l=1

, . , (4.15) M M + 1.

(M+1)

aij

M
X

(l)

(M+1)

l bij + M+1 bij

(M)

= aij

(M+1)

+ M+1 bij

l=1

j = 1, 2, . . . , n.
,


(M+1)
A
=
=

4.3 (4.15)



(M)


A
+ M+1 B (M+1) =

M
X
l=1




M+1

X





l B (l) + M+1 B (M+1) =
l B (l) .
l=1

53

(. . 28)
, (4.15) M = 1, 2, . . ..
1 . ,
.
, A
, |A| = n |A|, n |A|.
. 4.3 2 = 0.
2 , .
. 1, .
, 4.2 .
3 , , .
. , 4.3
, ,
2
4.2 .
4.3 2
: -
, .
. i |A| l, m, . . . , s :
aij = alj + amj + . . . + asj

(j = 1, 2, . . . , n; l, m, . . . , s 6= i) .

54

4.2,

|A| = |Al | + |Am | + . . . + |As |
|Al |, |Am |, . . . , |Am | , i
l, m, . . . , s , . 4.2
. |A| = 0.
4.4 3 :
, i
l ,
, m , , . . . ,
s , (l,m,. . . ,s 6= i).
. , 3,
.
4.2 , x


1
1
1
1

1 1x
1
1
=0.
(x) =
1
2x
1
1
1
1
1
3x

. 4.3, (x) ,
. 4.2, . :



1 1
1
1
1
1 1 1

1 1
0
0
1
1 0 x
=
+
(x) =

1
1 1 1 2x
1 1 2x



1 1
1 1
1
3x
1
3x





1 1 1
1
1
1 1 1

0 x 0
0
0
0 0 x
=
+
=

0
1 0 0 1x
1 1 1
1 1 1 3x 1 1
1
3x
55

1 1
1
0 x
0
0 0 1x
1 1
1




=

1
0
0
1

1
0
0
0

1 1
1
0 x
0
0 0 1x
0 0
0

1
1
1
x
0
0
0 1x
0
0
0
2x
1
0
0
2x

, (3.7),
(3.8),
(x) = x (1 x) (2 x) .
, (x) = 0 :
x = 0, 1, 2 .
, , 1
2, 3 4 .
3,
.
4.3


a a a


3 = a a a ,
a a a

a .

. .
1 1
2 3 . :


a a
a

3 = 0 2a 2a = 4a3 .
0 0 2a
4.4


x 1
x

3 = 0 x 1 ,
x
1 x
56

x .
. 1 3 :


x 1
1

3 = 0 x 1 .
0
2
0
2 3 . 4.2 4.1, :


x 1
1

(4.16)
3 = 0 1 x = 2x .
0
0
2

(4.16) , . 3 = (x)(1)2 = 2x.

4.4

4.4
A B :
|AB| = |A| |B| .
(4.17)
. AB A B:
!
n
X
det AB = det
ai bj =
=1

n
P

a b
1 =1 11 1 1
n
P

a22 b2 1

= 2 =1

..

.
n
P

=1 ann bn 1
n

n
P

1 =1
n
P

2 =1

n
P

n =1

a11 b1 2

...

a22 b2 2

...

..
.

57

1 =1
n
P

2 =1

..

ann bn 2

n
P

...

n
P

n =1

a11 b1 n
a22 b2 n
..
.
ann bn n

(4.18)

(4.18)
4.3, 4.2, :
det AB =

n
X

a11

1 =1

n
X

a11

1 =1

n
X

2 =1

n
P

b1 1

2 =1

n
P

n =1

a22

a22 b2 1
..
.
ann bn 1
b1 1
b2 1
..
.
n
P

n =1

n
P

2 =1

n
P

n =1

ann bn 1

b1 2

...

a22 b2 2

...

..
.

n
P

n =1

n
P

2 =1

..

ann bn 2

b1 n

...

n
P

..
.

n =1

b1 2
b2 2
..
.

...
...
..
.

ann bn 2

...

a22 b2 n

ann bn n
b1 n
b2 n
..
.
n
P

n =1

ann bn n

= ... =

b1 1 b1 2 . . . b1 n

n
n
n
b2 1 b2 2 . . . b2 n
X
X
X

ann
a11
a22 . . .
=
..
..
..
..

.
.
.
.
n =1
1 =1
2 =1

b
bn 2 . . . bn n
n 1


b1 1 b1 2 . . . b1 n


n

b
b
.
.
.
b
2 n
2 2
X
2 1

=
a11 a22 . . . ann
.
.
.
.
..
..
..
..


.
1 , 2 , ... , n =1


b

b
... b
n 1

n 2

(4.19)

n n

, (4.19)
a11 a22 . . . ann A,
i (i = 1, 2, . . . , n)
. , - i
j (i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n) (4.19)
, .
, (4.19)
1 , 2 , . . . , n
1,2,. . ., n, (4.19) n! , n
A, .
(4.19) ,
1 ,2 , . . .,n 1,2,. . .,n,

58

1 ,2 ,. . .,n . ,
(4.19) B.
- i j (i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n)
1 , 2 , . . . , n ,
(4.19) i j ,
1
B, (1) .
1 , 2 , . . . , n , , (4.19), B,
2
(1) .
, , (4.19) (1)N |B|, N 1 , 2 , . . . , n .
|B| (4.19) , :
X
(4.20)
det AB = |B|
(1)N a11 a22 . . . ann ,
1 , 2 , . . . , n .
(3.6) ,
|A| A. ,
det AB = det A det B .
1 n A1 , A2 , . . . , An
, . .
|A1 A2 . . . An | = |A1 | |A2 | . . . |An | .

(4.21)

.
C (n) = A1 A2 . . . An1 An ,

C (n) = C (n1) An ,

C (1) = A1 .

59

(4.22)



(1)
C = |A1 |

4.4



(n) (n1)
C = C
|An |
(4.24) :


(2)
C =


(3)
C =


(4)
C =

(4.23)

n 6= 1 .



(1)
C |A2 | = |A1 | |A2 | ,


(2)
C |A3 | = |A1 | |A2 | |A3 | ,


(3)
C |A4 | = |A1 | |A2 | |A3 | |A4 |

(4.24)

(4.25)
.. .

(4.23) (4.25) , n = 1, 2, . . .


(n)
(4.26)
C = |A1 | |A2 | . . . |An | .
, ,
(4.26) n
n + 1:



(n+1) (n)
C
= C |An+1 | = |A1 | |A2 | . . . |An | |An+1 | .
(. . 28) , (4.26) n =
= 1, 2, . . ..

2 A |A| , . .
|An | = |A|n
n = 1, 2, . . . .
. , (4.21)
A1 = A2 = . . . = An = A ,
:







n

. . . |A| = |A| .
|An | = AA
.
.
.
A
| {z } = ||A| |A|{z
}
n
n

4.5 4.4 , |AB| = |BA|,


AB 6= BA.

60

Mij aij
n A (n 1) , A i j
( , aij ).
Aij aij n A ,
Aij = (1)i+j Mij .

(5.1)

, - , , ,
, , .
5.1 M23

a11 a12 a13


A = a21 a22 a23
a31 a32 a33

M23


a
= 11
a31


a12
= a11 a32 a12 a31 .
a32

, (. . n2 n ).
5.2 (. 3.3)

1 1 1
1 1 .
A= 2
1
1 2

61

. :


1 1

= 1,
M11 =

1 2
2 1
= 1,
M13 =

1 1
1 1
= 1,
M22 =

1 2
1 1
= 2 ,
M31 =

1 1
1 1
= 3.
M33 =
2 1

M12
M21
M23
M32



=


=


=


=


2 1
= 3,
1 2
1 1
= 3 ,
1 2
1 1
= 2 ,
1 1
1 1
= 1 ,
2 1

5.1 Aij n A ATij AT


Aij = ATji

(i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n) .

(5.2)

. , (5.1) Aij A
Aij = (1)i+j Mij ,
Mij (n 1) M ,
A i j .
,
ji ,
ATji = (1)j+i M
ji (n 1) M
,
M
T
A j i .
j AT j
=
A, i AT i A. M
T
M , 4.1,


ji = M T = |M | = Mij .
M
, Aij = ATji .

62

5.1 6 n
, . .
n
X
ais Ais
(i = 1, 2, . . . , n) .
(5.3)
n =
s=1


a11

a21

n = .
..

an1

a12
a22
..
.

...
...
..
.

a1n
a2n
..
.

an2

. . . ann

(5.4)

a1j (j = 1, 2, . . . , n).
, (5.4)
n = a11 A11 + a12 A12 + . . . + a1n A1n .

(5.5)

A11 a11 . , (n 1)! , (n 1) ,


,
a11 . ,
: a22 a33 . . . ann . a11 (1 = 1)
1 , 2 , . . . , n , a11 a11 a22 a33 . . . ann
n , ,
N
A11 (1) , N 2 , 3 , . . . , n (n 1)
a22 a33 . . . ann ,
(n 1) (2, 3, . . . , n).
A11 , (n 1) , 1 1
, . . a11 : A11 = M11 .
6

63

A12 a12 (5.5).


1 2 (5.4).
a12 a11 . 4.2, 4.1
(5.5) (5.4), :


a12 a11 . . . a1n


a22 a21 . . . a2n


..
.. = n = a11 A11 a12 A12 . . .a1n A1n . (5.6)
..
..
.
.
.
.

an2 an1 . . . ann

, A11 , , A12 = M12 .


, , , A13 = M13 .
, , A1,j = M1,j ,
, j 1,
1, 2, . . . , (j 1) , A1,j = M1,j . j
, . ,
A1j (j = 1, 2, . . . , n) n (5.4) 1
:
A1,j = (1)1+j M1,j .

(5.7)

, , , ,
. (5.4) . (5.5) (5.4)
(5.7),


a21 a22 . . . a2n


a11 a12 . . . a1n

n = .
..
..
..
..

.
.
.


an1 an2 . . . ann

n = a21 (1)1+1 M21 + a22 (1)1+2 M22 + . . . + a2n (1)1+n M2n .

64


n = n =
= a21 (1)1+1 M21 a22 (1)1+2 M22 . . . a2n (1)1+n M2n =
= a21 (1)2+1 M21 + a22 (1)2+2 M22 + . . . + a2n (1)2+n M2n =
= a21 A21 + a22 A22 + . . . + a2n A2n ,

A2,j = (1)2+j M2,j .

, n .
,
. :
n = a31 A31 + a32 A32 + . . . + a3n A3n ,

A3,j = (1)3+j M3,j .

, i
:
n =

n
X

ais Ais

(i = 1, 2, . . . , n) .

s=1

n :
i+j
Ai,j = (1) Mi,j = Ai,j .

n
b 1 , b2 , . . . , bn


(b)
n n n , n b1 , b2 , . . . , bn .
(b)

. , n , b1 , b2 , . . . , bn ,
.

65

5.2
-
n
, . .
n
X

ais Ajs = 0

i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n

i 6= j .

(5.8)

s=1

.

a11

a21

...

a
n = i1
...
aj1

...

an1

a12
a22
...
ai2
...
aj2
...
an2



a11 a12

a21 a22

... ...

a
ai2
n = i1
.
.
.
...

ai1 ai2

... ...

an1 an2

. . . a1n
. . . a2n
... ...
. . . ain
... ...
. . . ajn
... ...
. . . ann

. . . a1n
. . . a2n
... ...
. . . ain
... ...
. . . ain
... ...
. . . ann

n j i.
4.2, n = 0 . , ,
j . 5.1, :
n =

n
X

ais Ajs = 0

i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n

i 6= j .

s=1

5.2 5.1 5.2


n
X
ais Ajs = n ij
i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n ,
(5.9)
s=1

66

ij :

1
ij =
0

i=j
i 6= j

(5.10)

5.3 4.1, 5.1 5.2


, .
(5.9) :
n
X

asj Asi = n ij

i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n .

(5.11)

s=1

5.3 , .
. :


a11 a12

= a11 A11 + a21 A21 =
2 =
a21 a22
=

a11 (1)1+1 M11 + a21 (1)2+1 M21 =

a11 a22 a21 a12 = a11 a22 a12 a21 .

(3.3).
5.4 , .
. :

a11

3 = a21
a31

1+1

= a11 (1)

a
= a11 22
a32

a12
a22
a32

a13
a23
a33




= a11 A11 + a12 A12 + a13 A13 =


1+2

M11 + a12 (1)




a
a23
a12 21
a33
a31

1+3

M12 + a13 (1)


M13 =



a21 a22
a23

=
+ a13
a33
a31 a32

= a11 (a22 a33 a23 a32 ) a12 (a21 a33 a23 a31 ) + a13 (a21 a32 a22 a31 ) =
= a11 a22 a33 + a12 a23 a31 + a13 a21 a32 a13 a22 a31 a12 a21 a33 a11 a23 a32 .
(3.4).

67

, ,
3 4. .

6.1

. 4 , (3.7). C
(3.8),
.
4.2 4.3.

a11

a21

a31

n =
..

.

a(n1)1

an1

a12
a22
a32
..
.

a13
a23
a33
..
.

...
...
...
..
.

a(n1)2
an2

a(n1)3
an3

a1(n1)
a2(n1)
a3(n1)
..
.

. . . a(n1)(n1)
...
an(n1)

a1n
a2n
a3n
..
.
a(n1)n
ann








, (6.1)




, , , .
, , 3.1, .
, . 4.2, ,
. ,
(6.1), a11 6= 0.
ak1 /a11 k ( k=2,3,4,. . . ,n).
3 4.3,

68

.








n =





a11
0

a12
(1)
a22

0
..
.
0

a32
..
.

(1)

(1)

a(n1)2
(1)
an2

a13
(1)
a23

...
...

a1n
(1)
a2n

(1)

a1(n1)
(1)
a2(n1)

...
..
.

a3(n1)
..
.

a3n
..
.

a33
..
.
(1)

a(n1)3
(1)
an3

(1)

(1)

. . . a(n1)(n1)
...

(1)
an(n1)

(1)

(1)

a(n1)n
(1)

ann

(1)

akl = akl

ak1 a1l
a11

(6.2)

(k, l = 2, 3, 4, . . . , n)

, (6.1) .
, (6.2) , , .
(6.2).
(6.2), (1)
(1)
(1)
(. . a22 , a32 , . . . , an2 )
, . , (1)
(6.2) , : n = a11 n ,

(1)
n

(1)


a(1)
22


a(1)
32


..
=
.

a(1)
(n1)2

a(1)
n2
(1)

(1)

...

(1)

...
a3(n1)
..
..
.
.
(1)
. . . a(n1)(n1)

a23

a33
..
.
(1)

a(n1)3
(1)

an3

...

(1)

(1)

(1)

a2n

(1)

a3n
..
.

a2(n1)

(1)

an(n1)

(1)

(1)

a(n1)n
(1)

ann

(1)

a22 = a32 = . . . = an2 = 0, , 3.1, n = 0


, , n = 0.

69

(1)

, a22 ,
(1)
(1)
a32 , . . . , an2 . (6.2)
4.2 ,
. , (6.2),
(1)
(1)
(1)
a22 6= 0. ak2 /a22
k (
k=3,4,. . . ,n).








n =





a11
0

a12
(1)
a22

a13
(1)
a23

...
...

0
..
.
0

0
..
.
0

a33
..
.

a(n1)3

an3

(2)

a1(n1)
(1)
a2(n1)
(2)

(2)

(2)

...
a3(n1)
..
..
.
.
(2)
. . . a(n1)(n1)
...

(2)

an(n1)

a1n
(1)
a2n
(2)

a3n
..
.
(2)

a(n1)n
(2)

ann

(2)

(1)

akl = akl

(6.3)

(1) (1)

ak2 a2l

(k, l = 3, 4, . . . , n)

(1)

a22

, . ,
(6.3)
, , .

, (6.3).
, , (r 1) (r n) :

70











n =







a11
0

a12
(1)
a22

a13
(1)
a23

0
..
.
0
0
..
.

0
..
.
0
0
..
.

a33
..
.
0
0
..
.

(2)

...
...

(r2)
akl

. . . a1(n1)
(1)
. . . a2(n1)

(2)

. . . a3(n1)
..
..
.
.
(r1)
. . . ar(n1)
0
0
..
..
.
.
0
0

...
a3r
..
..
.
.
(r1)
0 arr
0
0
..
..
.
.
0
0

(r2)

(r1)
akl

a1r
(1)
a2r

(2)

a1n
(1)
a2n
(2)

a3n
..
.
(r1)
arn
0
..
.
0

(6.4)

(r2)

ak(r1) a(r1)l
(r2)

a(r1)(r1)

(k, l = r, r + 1, . . . , n) .

r < n n = 0, ,
. r = n, (6.4)


a11 a12 a13 . . .
a1n

(1)
0 a(1) a(1) . . .
a2n

22
23


(2)
(2)
0
a33 . . .
a3n
n = 0
(6.5)

..
..
..
..
..

.
.

.
.
.


(n1)
0
0
0
0 ann

, 3.7, :
(1) (2)

(n1)
n = a11 a22 a33 . . . ann
.

6.2

(6.6)

5.1 n
n (n 1) ,
, , (n 1) (n 2) . .. ,

71

( ), .
, , ,
, -
. ,
5.1, n
(n 1) , , . ,
n (6.1) (6.2) 5.1
:

a(1)
22


a(1)
32


..
n = a11
.

a(1)
(n1)2

a(1)
n2

a2n

(1)

a3n
..
.

...

(1)

...
a3(n1)
..
..
.
.
(1)
. . . a(n1)(n1)

a33
..
.

(1)
a(n1)3
(1)
an3

...

(1)

(1)

(1)

a23

a2(n1)

(1)

an(n1)

(1)

(1)
a(n1)n
(1)
ann

(6.7)

(6.1) (6.7)

(1)

n1

(1)
a
22

0


= ...

0


0

(1)

(1)

...

(1)

a2n

(2)

a2(n1)

...
..
.

a3(n1)
..
.

(2)

a3n
..
.

...

(2)
a(n1)(n1)
(2)
an(n1)

(2)
a(n1)n
(2)
ann

a23

a33
..
.

(2)
a(n1)3
(2)
an3

...

(2)



(2)
(2)
a(2)
a3n
...
a3(n1)

33

..
..
..
..

.
(1)
(1)
.
.
n1 = a22 (2).
(2)
(2)
a
(n1)3 . . . a(n1)(n1) a(n1)n

(2)
(2)
a(2)
ann
...
an(n1)
n3
72

(6.8)

(6.9)

, n (6.6).
6.1 5


2
5
0 1
3

1
0
3
7 2

0
5 5 .
5 = 3 1
2
6
4
1
2

0 3 1
2
3

.
. ,
3 ,
4 . :


2
5
0 1
3

1 9
0 13
7

0
5 5 .
5 = 3 1
2 18
0 7 10

0 3 1
2
3


2
5


1
9
5 = (1)3+5 (1)
3 1
2 18

2
5 1
3

1 9 13
7
=
5 5
3 1
2 18 7 10

:

1
3
13
7
=
5 5
7 10




.


.
2 . 3 . ,
2 . .
:


0 13
25
17

1 9
13
7
=
5 =
26 34 26
0

0
36 33 24
73


13
25
17
1+2
26
34
26
= (1)

36 33 24


13
25
17

= 26 34 26

36 33 24


2, 3.
, :


13
25
17

5 = 2 3 13 17 13 .
12 11 8
:


0
8
4

5 = 6 13 17 13 .
12 11 8

4,
:


0
2
1

5 = 6 4 13 17 13 .
12 11 8
:




13 17
13 13
.



+ 1
5 = 24 2
12 11
12 8

2 13,
4.
, :




1 1 13 17
+

5 = 24 2 13 4
3 2 12 11
= 24 [104 + (143 + 204)] = 1032 .

74

6.2 4


4
6 2 4

1
2 3 1
.
4 =
1 0
4 2

6
4
4 6

. ,
3
. 3 4 1 ,
3 2 2 .
3- , :




12
2 2 4
12

2 4

13 4 3 1
3+3
13 4 1 .
= 1 (1)
4 =


0
0
1 0
10 12 6

10 12
4 6

3 ,
, . 3, 5.1. , , ,
, 2
. 3
13
1 , 3 4
2 . 3 , :




40 18 4
40 18


.
0 0 1 = 1 (1)2+3
4 =
88 36
88 36 6
1 2 8, 18.
, :


5 1
= 8 18 (10 11) = 144 .

4 = (1) (8) 18
11 2

75

a 6= 0 a1 , ,
aa = a1 a = 1.
. A n ,
E .
B
A, A B
, A, . .
1

AB = E .

(7.1)

C
A, A C
, A, . .
CA = E .

(7.2)

, B C , A.
( ), ,
, . , , , (7.1) (7.2) B C ,
, . . C = B.
, . . B, C E , (2.12)
CE = C

EB = B .
,
(. . 18), :
C = CE = C (AB) = (CA) B = EB = B .
, B,
AB = BA = E ,
.
, Q 6= B, AQ =
= QA = E. Q = QE = Q (AB) = (QA) B = EB = B, . .

76

. , Q 6= B, AQ = QA = E, .
B,
, A, ,
A1 . , (7.1) (7.2), :
A1
A, A A1 ,
, , A, . .
AA1 = A1 A = E .

7.1

(7.3)

a 6= 0 a1 .
.
.
A, |A|
(|A| =
6 0), ;
(. . |A| = 0) 7 .
1 4.4
, ,
;
.
7.1 A1
, A .
.
. ,
A A1 . , (7.3),
7 ,

77

A1 A = = AA1 = E. A1 A (4.17),

1


A |A| = A1 A = |E| = 1 .


, A1 6= 0 |A| =
6 0.
. |A| =
6 0. ,
A1 , (7.3).
(5.9) (5.11) :
n
X

ais Ajs =

s=1

n
X

asj Asi = |A| ij

(i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n) .

(7.4)

s=1

(7.4) |A|
B=

1
A.
|A|

(7.5)

n A = (
aij ) a
ij = Aji , Aij A (i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n),
. :

A11 A21 . . . An1


A12 A22 . . . An2

(7.6)
A = .
..
.. .
..
..
.
.
.
A1n A2n . . . Ann
(7.5) (7.4)
n
X
s=1

ais bsj =

n
X

bis asj = ij

(i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n) .

(7.7)

s=1

8 :
AB = BA = E .

(7.8)

(7.3) (7.8) ,
A1 , , , , A1 =
B. .
8 (2.13) (5.10) ,
n E = (eij ) : eij = ij
(i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n).

78

, , A , AT aTij ATij . ,
5.1 ATij = Aji i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n,
(7.6).
:
1. |A| A. |A| = 0,
A , , A1
. |A| =
6 0, A A1 .
2. A.
3. A AT
aTij ATij .

A.
4. A1 A 1/ |A|:
A1 =

1
A.
|A|

(7.9)

5. A1 , (7.3).
7.1 ,

1 1 1
A= 2 1 1 .
1 1 2

(7.10)

1. |A| = 5 6= 0 (. 3.3), . .
A A1 .

79

2. A:
A11 = 1, A12 = 3, A13 = 1, A21 = 3, A22 = 1,
A23 = 2, A31 = 2, A32 = 1, A33 = 3 .
3. (7.9) (7.6):

1
3 2
1
1 .
A1 = 3 1
(7.11)
5
1 2 3
4. (7.10) (7.11),
.
. , A n , A1
n n2 , .
. (n 1) .

7.2

,
, .
A. i (i = 1, 2, . . . , n) ii , (j) (j = 1, 2, . . . , n; j 6= i) i , ij . ,
A F = A, = (ij ):
ii ais +

n
X

j=1
(j6=i)

ij ajs =

n
X

ij ajs = fis

(s = 1, 2, . . . , n) .

(7.12)

j=1

(7.12).

80

1. ij = ii ij , . . . ,
(7.12)
ii :
fis = ii ais .

2.

1
ij =

i = j ,
i = k, j = l ,
,

, k l
, 1, 2, . . . ,n, k 6= l.


aks + als i = k ,
fis =
ais
i 6= k ,
. . ,
k
l , .
3.

1
ij =
1

i = k, j = l ,
i = l, j = k ,
i = j 6= k, l ,
,

k l , 1, 2,. . . ,n, k 6= l.

als i = k ,
aks i = l ,
fis =

ais i 6= k, l ,

. . ,
k l, l
k. , k l
.

81

ij ,
:
F =E.
(7.13)
,
fij = ij

(i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n) .

(7.14)

:
ij (i, j = 1, 2, . . . , n), A ? ,
, (7.13) F :
A = E .
(7.15)
, (7.12), (7.14) , , (7.15). (7.3) A1 ,
7.1, , (7.12), (7.14)
, A ,
= A1 .
(7.16)
(A|E), A E ,
A. (A|E) . (7.16)
(7.3), :

(A|E) = (A|E) = (E|) = E|A1 ,

. .,
(A|E)

E|A1 :


(A|E) E|A1 .

, A, ,
, A.
:
1. 6= 0.
2. , ,
. .

82

3. .
.
(A|B) (A1 |B1 )

(A|B) (A1 |B1 ) ,


(A1 |B1 ) (A|B)
13.
7.2
, (. 7.1):

1 1 1
1 1 .
A= 2
(7.17)
1
1 2
.

1
2
1


1 1 1 0
1 1 0 1
1 2 0 0

0
0 .
1

(7.18)

, (7.18)
. , , a11 = 1. (7.18) 2
. , 1
.

1 1
1 1 0 0
0
3 1 2 1 0 .
(7.19)
0
2
1 1 0 1
(7.19) 3, :

1
0 0
1 1
1
0
1 1/3 2/3 1/3 0 .
0 1
0
2
1 1
83

(7.20)

(7.20) , , a22 = 1,
. (7.20) , ,
2, . :

1/3 0
1 0
2/3 1/3
0 1 1/3 2/3
1/3 0 .
(7.21)

0 0
5/3 1/3 2/3 1
(7.21) 3/5:

1/3
0
1 0
2/3 1/3
0 1 1/3 2/3
1/3
0 .

0 0
1 1/5 2/5 3/5

(7.22)

(7.22) , , a33 = 1
. (7.22)
2/3 . ,
1/3, . :

3/5 2/5
1 0 0 1/5
0 1 0 3/5
1/5
1/5 .
(7.23)


1/5 2/5
3/5
0 0 1
(7.23) . ,
(7.23) A . 1/5 A1 , :

1
3 2
1
A1 = 3
1
1 .
5
1 2
3

7.1.
7.3
, :

1 1
B= 0 1
0 0
84

0
1 .
1

(7.24)

1 1 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 1 0 .

0 0 1 0 0 1

(7.25)

, (7.25)
. , , a11 = 1. (7.25) 1
:

1 0 1 1 1 0
0 1
1 0 .
1 0
(7.26)

0 1
0 0
1 0
, (7.26), a33 = 1.
(7.26)
, :

1
1 0 0 1 1
0 1 0 0
1 1 .
(7.27)

0
1
0 0 1 0
(7.27) , ,
(7.27) , (7.24):

1 1
1
1 1 .
B 1 = 0
0
0
1

B B 1 , ,
.
7.4 ,


0 1
C=
.
1 2

85

.



0 1 1 0
.
1 2 0 1

(7.28)

, (7.28)
. 1 2
:



1 2 0 1
.
(7.29)
0 1 1 0
, (7.29),
a33 = 1, .
(7.29) 2 :



1 0 2 1
.
0 1 1 0
,

C 1 =

2 1
1 0

C C 1 , CC 1 = E.
7.5
,

1 2
D= 2 3
1 2
.

1
2 ,
1

1 2 1 1 0 0
2 3 2 0 1 0 .

1 2 1 0 0 1

(7.30)

(7.31)

, (7.31)
. , , a11 = 1. (7.31) 2

86

. (7.31)
1 . :

1
2 1 1 0 0
0 1 0 2 1 0 .
(7.32)

0
0 0 1 0 1

(7.32) .
, , . ,
(7.30) . , (7.30) 4.2,
. , (7.30) . 7.1,
.
7.6
,

a 0 0 0
0 b 0 0

(7.33)
F =
0 0 c 0 ,
0 0 0 d
a, b, c d .

. (7.33) :
|F | = abcd .
(7.33) , ,
, a 6= 0, b 6= 0, c 6= 0, d 6= 0.

a 0 0 0 1 0 0 0
0 b 0 0 0 1 0 0

(7.34)
0 0 c 0 0 0 1 0 .

0 0 0 d 0 0 0 1
, (7.34)
. (7.34)

87

a, b, c
d.

0
0
0
1 0 0 0 (1/a)
0 1 0 0 0
(1/b)
0
0
,

0 0 1 0 0
0
(1/c)
0

0
0
(1/d)
0 0 0 1 0

1
0
a

0 1

b
1
F =

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

1
0

c
1
0
d

(7.35)

(7.33) (7.35) , F F 1 = E.

7.3

(A|E) , .
, ,
, .
:


1
0
0
0
0
0 1 0
0 0


0 0 1
0 0


.. , .. , .. , . . . , .. , .. .
. . .
. .


0 0 0
1 0
0
0
0
0
1

88

7.1
, ,

, :



1 0 0 0
0 1 0 0



0 0 0 0



E= . . . . . .
(7.36)
.. .. . . .. ..



0 0 1 0




0 0 0 1
, .
(A|E)
, i r j s
A E (i, j, r, s = 1, 2, . . . , n, i 6= r, j 6= s):

..
.
...
..
.

..
.
aij
..
.

. . . arj

..
..
.
.

.
...
..
.

..
.
ais
..
.

..
.
...
..
.

...
..
.

ars
..
.

...
..
.

..


..
..
.
.

. . . eij

..
..
.
.

. . . erj

.
..
..
.

..

.
...
..
.

..
.
eis
..
.

. . . ers
..
..
.
.

..
.
...
..
.

...

..
.

(7.37)

, . 82, (7.37) ,
.
, A = (aij )
. ,
3.1, A , , . , ,
ars , r s A
: ars 6= 0. (. (7.37)) .
, , .

89

, . :
.
..
..
.

. . . aij

..
..
.
.

. . . a(1)
rj

..
..
.
.

..
.
.
. . . ais
..
..
.
.
... 1
..
..
.
.
..

(1)

arj =

..
.
...
..
.
...
..
.

arj
,
ars

.
..
.
.
.

. . . eij

..
..
.
.

. . . e(1)

rj
.
..
..
.
(1)

erj =

..

.
...
..
.
...
..
.

erj
,
ars

..
.
eis
..
.
(1)
ers

..
.

e(1)
rs =

..
.
...
..
.

...

..
.
ers
.
ars

(7.38)

(7.39)

, i (7.38) r , ais .
, :

..
..
.
.
(1)
. . . aij
..
..
.
.
(1)
. . . arj
..
..
.
.

..
.
... 0
.
..
. ..
... 1
.
..
. ..
..

..
.
...
..
.
...
..
.


..
..
.
.

. . . e(1)

ij
.
..
.
.
.

. . . e(1)
rj

.
..
..
.

..

..
.
(1)

. . . eis
..
..
.
.
(1)
. . . ers
..
..
.
.

..
.
...
..
.
...
..
.

(7.40)

(7.39), :

(1)

ars aij ais arj


ais arj
=
,
ars
ars
ars eij ais erj
ais erj
=
,
= eij
ars
ars
ais ers
ars eis ais ers
= eis
=
,
ars
ars

(1)

aij ais arj = aij

(7.41)

(1)

eij ais erj

(1)

(7.42)

(1)

eis ais e(1)


rs

aij

eij

eis

90

(7.43)


 (A|E) E|A1 .
, (7.41) , (7.40), (7.37) . , , aij ars . aij , ais , arj , ars
(. . 9). , (7.41)
, ,
. , , (+),
(). (1)
ars aij (7.40).

(+)

()

aij

arj

aij

ais
r

r
arj

ars

ais
r

r
ars

. 9

(1)

eij (j = 1, 2, . . . , n), (7.40) (7.42), (7.43),


(.
. 10).

91

(+)

()
eij

ais

ars

eij

ais

erj

ars

r
erj

. 10
, (7.37) (7.40)
.
1. .
2. 1.
.
3.
.
(7.40) . , A , , (1)
. , , apq ,
r s (1)
(7.40) : apq 6= 0 (p 6= r, q 6= s).
. ,
(7.44) , (q)
. , s (7.44) . , ,
(A|E) ,
i, p, r j, q, s
A E (i, j, p, q, r, s = 1, 2, . . . , n; i 6= p, r, j 6= q, s,
p 6= r, q 6= s):

92

..
.

...

.
.
.

...

.
.
.

...

..
.

..
.

..

..
.

..

(1)

...
..
.

aij
..
.

(1)

...
..
.

..
.
0
..
.

apq

(1)

...

apj

(1)

...

..
.

..

..
.

..

(1)

...
..
.

(1)

...
..
.

..
.
1
..
.

aiq
..
.

arq
..
.

arj
..
.

..
.
...
..
.


.
..


...

.
.
.

. . . . . .

.. ..
. .

. . . . . .
.. ..
.
.

..
.
(1)
eiq

..
.
(1)

epq
..
.
(1)
erq
.
..

..

..
.

...
..
.

(1)
eij

...
..
.

epj
..
.
(1)
erj
.
..

...
..
.

..
.
(1)

..

..
.

...
..
.

(1)
eis

...
..
.

eps
..
.
(1)
ers
.
..

...
..
.

..
.
(1)

..
.
...
..
.
...
..
.
...
.
..

(7.44)

(7.41) (7.39):
(1) (1)

(1) (1)

(2)

ais

a(2)
ps

apq ais aiq aps


(1)

apq

(i = 1, 2, 3, . . . , n; i 6= p) ,

(1)

aps

(1)

apq

(1)

ais = ir i = 1, 2, 3, . . . , n. p 6= r
(2)

ais = ir ,

(i = 1, 2, 3, . . . , n) ,

..
(7.40) , .
(7.37) , n
, . 7.1,
. , ,
A1 , A.

(7.37) -

93

..
.
...
..
.

..
.
aij
..
.

. . . arj

..
..
.
.

.
...
..
.

..
.
ais
..
.

..
.
...
..
.

...
..
.

ars
..
.

...
..
.

..


..
..
.
.

. . . eij

..
..
.
.

. . . erj

.
..
..
.

..

.
...
..
.

..
.
eis
..
.

. . . ers
..
..
.
.










. . .
..
.
..
.
...
..
.

..
.
i
..
.
r
..
.

(7.45)
i (i = 1, 2, . . . , n)
i (7.37):
i =

n
X

aij +

n
X

eij .

(7.46)

j=1

j=1

..
..
..
.. ..
..
..
.. ..
..
..
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

. . . a(1) . . . 0 . . . . . . e(1) . . . e(1) . . . (1)

ij
is
ij
i
.
..
..
.. ..
..
..
.. ..
..
..
.

. .
.
.
. .
.
.
. . , (7.47)
.



(1)
(1)
(1)
. . . a(1)
. . . 1 . . . . . . erj . . . ers . . . r
rj

..
..
..
.. ..
..
..
.. ..
..
..


. .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

(1)

ars i ais r
ars

(i = 1, 2, . . . , n)

(7.48)

-
i (7.40). ,
ais
r =
ars

n
n
n
n
X
X
X
X
ais
erj =
arj +
eij
=
aij +
a
rs
j=1
j=1
j=1
j=1
(1)

= i

94

 X

n 
n 
X
ais
ais
eij
arj +
erj =
aij
ars
ars
j=1
j=1
=

n
X

(1)

aij +

n
X

(1)

eij .

j=1

j=1

7.7 ,
(. 7.1, 7.2):

1 1 1
1 1 .
A= 2
(7.49)
1
1 2
.


1 1 1 1 0
2
1 1 0 1
1
1 2 0 0

1 1
1
1
3 1 2
0
0
2 1 1

1 3 0
2 0
0 5 0 3 1
0
2 1 1 0

1/5
3/5
1 0 0
1/5
0 1 0 3/5
1/5 2/5
0 0 1

A1

2

5

5

0 0 2
1 0 1
0 1 3

1 1
1 4
1 3

2/5 7/5
1/5 4/5 .
3/5 7/5
0
0
1

1
3 2
1
3
1
1 .
=
5
1 2
3

, 7.1,
7.2.

95

7.8 ,
(. 7.3):

1 1 0
B= 0 1 1 .
(7.50)
0 0 1
.

1 0 1 0 0 3
1 1 0 1 0 3
0 1 0 0 1 2

0 1 1 1 0 0
1
1 0
1 0 3

0
0 1 2
0 1

1 2
0 0 1 1
1 1 1 .
1 0 0

0
0
1 2
0 1

1
0
0

1
0
0

1
0
0

B 1

1
= 0
0

1
1
1 1 .
0
1

7.3.
7.9 ,



0 1
C=
(7.51)
1 2
(. 7.4).
.

0
1


0
1
1
0




1 1 0 2

2 0 1 4



1
1 0 2
0 2 1 0



0 2 1 0
.
1 0 2
1
96

,
C

2 1
1 0

7.4.
7.10 ,

1 2 1
D= 2 3 2 ,
(7.52)
1 2 1
.
.

1 2
2 3
1 2

1
2
0 1
0
0








1
0
0
1
2
1

0 0 5
1 0 8
0 1 5

5
1 0 0
2 1 0 2 .
0
1 0 1
1
0
0

(7.53)

(7.53) .
, (7.52) (. 7.5).

7.4

:


1
1. A1 = |A| .

. 4.4, :
1


A |A| = A1 A = |E| .

(. . 45),
1
A |A| = 1


1
, A1 = |A| .
97

2. A1

1

= A.

. ,
A1 , A1 , :
1 1 
A1
A
=E.
(7.54)

, ,
A, ,

(7.55)
A A1 = E .

(7.54)
1
(7.55), , A1
= A.

m
3. (Am )1 = A1 .
. , , Am , ,
(Am )

Am = E

(Am )

AA
. . . A} = E .
| {z
m


m
1
= |A1 A1
A1
{z. . . A } .
m

(Am )

1
1
AA
. . . A} |A1 A1
{z. . . A } = A
| {z
m

m

, AA1 = E, : (Am )1 = A1
4. (AB)1 = B 1 A1 .

m

. , , (AB), ,
(AB)

98

(AB) = E .

B 1 A1 1
, BB 1 = E AA1 = E, : (AB) = B 1 A1 .
T
1
5. A1 = AT
.

. A1 A = E AA1 =
E, 4 (. . 32)
E T = E. :

T
T
E = A1 A = AT A1
E = AA1

T

= A1

T

(A) .

(7.56)
(7.57)

T
1
, (7.56) (7.57) , A1 = AT
.

A mn
k, , k min {m, n}. A (m k) (n k) ,
(. . , )
k . k
.
k 9 A k ,
k k A.
9 k . 61
.
n ,
(
). (n 1) .

99

k ,
k k
A m n, Cm
Cn ,
Cnk =

n!
k! (n k)!

n k.
, A 12 , 18
34

4 .
, , k , k , . .
, ,
.
8.1 2



2 2
3



M2 =
= 2 M2 =
2 3
2

1 6 8 7
0 2 2 4

0 2 3 2
5 3 2 2
3


1 6 8


M3 = 0 2 2 = 2
0 2 3


2
=2
2

8.1 k
. , k
A ,
mn

.
. k = min {m, n}, (k + 1) . k < min {m, n}, 5.1 (k + 1) (k + 1) (k + 1) k , , , . (k + 1)

100

. , ,
(k + 2), (k + 3) , , (k + l) , l =
= min {m, n} k.
aij (i = 1, 2, . . . , m, j =
= 1, 2, . . . , n) , r, :
1. A r .
2. A, r+1 (
), .
r, , A. ,
. A
r (A) rang A.
, :
1. A
:
r (A) min {m, n} .
2. A , .
3. A n ,
: r = n.
8.1 .
. A1

m1 n1

A . mn

, r (A) < r (A1 ). , r (A1 ) A1 A.


. , A r (A1 ).
, r (A1 ). , r (A) < r (A1 ) . ,
r (A1 ) r (A).

101

r (A1 ) r (A) , A
, A1 , , . ,
A , A1 ,
. A, A1 , .
,
.
r , , A. , , , , .
. ,

, , .
.
, A
, r.
- , . .
- ,
.

10.1.
A mn r,
r , A,
Cmr Cnr , , , .
. .
8.2

1 0 2
2 0 4
A=
3 0 6
4 0 8

0
0
.
0
0

. A , r (A) 4.
, . . , . . , . ,

102

3 ,
. . . , r (A) 2.
,
A

1 2
2 4

A =
3 6 ,
4 8

2. , ,
r(A)
( ) ,
( ) , , .
2 A . 1. , , A , r(A)
= r (A) = 1.
, r(A)
8.3

0 0 1
B= 5 0 0 .
0 0 0

. ()
(). ,
2


0 1
,
5 0
5. ,
2.
8.4

5
3
D=
0
2

6
4
1
0

0
0 1 2
1 2 0 0

1 3 1 1
2 1 0 1

103

(8.1)

. D 4. , r (D) 4. , (8.1)
:

(1)

(1)

5
3
0
2


0
0
1 2
= 45 .
1 3
2 1

6
4
1
0

, 4 6= 0 , , r (D) = 4.
4 ,
(8.1) , C44 C64 = 15. :

(2)

(4)

(6)

(8)

6
4
1
0
5
3
0
2


0
0 1
1 2 0
= 45 ,
1 3 1
2 1 0
6
4
1
0

6 0
4 1
1 1
0 2

5
3
0
2

0
1
1
2

1
0
1
0

0
2
2 0
3 1
1 1

6 0
2
4 2 0
1 3 1
0 1 1





= 12 ,






= 90 ,


(3)

(5)

(7)

0
0 1
1 2 0
1 3 1
2 1 0
5
3
0
2

6
4
1
0

0
2
1
0
1 1
2 1

5
3
0
2

6
4
1
0

0
2
3
1



5

0
0


3

1
2
(9)
= 60 , =
4
0 1 3



2 2 1

104

2
0
1
1

1
0
1
0





= 0,






= 15 ,






= 39 ,


1
0
1
0





= 30 ,


(10)

(12)

5
0 1 2
3 2 0 0
0 3 1 1
2 1 0 1
6
4
1
0

0
1
1
2

1
0
1
0

2
0
1
1





= 12 ,


(11)





= 9 ,


(13)

(1)

(2)

, 4 , 4
.

5
3
0
2

6
4
1
0

1 2
0 0
1 1
0 1





= 3,


5
0
0
2
3
1 2 0
0 1 3 1
2 2 1 1

(4)

(15)





= 60 ,


8.2
.
. , A r . ,

, .
A,
. ,
.
() A () , 4.2,
.

105

A =
mn

a11
a21
..
.

a12
a22
..
.

...
...
..
.

a1n
a2n
..
.

am1

am2

. . . amn

(9.1)

,
1 n. ,

r1
r2

(9.2)
A = .. ,
.
mn
rm

m :
r1 = (a11 a12 . . . a1n ) ,
r2 = (a21 a22 . . . a2n ) ,
........................
rm = (am1 am2 . . . amn ) .

(9.3)

(9.3) (9.2)
r 10 , , (9.2). ,
, , , , .
, . 5, , , . .
rk = rl , akj = alj j = 1, 2, . . . , n.
(
, ) , . 2:
rk = (ak1 ak2 . . . akn ) ,
10

row , .

106

(9.4)

rk + rl = (ak1 + al1 ak2 + al2 . . . akn + aln ) .

(9.5)

r s
r1 , r2 , . . . , rs , 1 , 2 , . . . , s ,
r = 1 r1 + 2 r2 + . . . + s rs .

(9.6)


( 1 = 2 = . . . = s = 1) (
s = 1).
(9.6)
1 = 2 = . . . = s = 0 ,
r = O,
O = (0, 0, . . . , 0)
. , (9.6)
i = 0, i =
= 1, 2, . . . , s. , r1 , r2 , . . . , rs
.
r1 , r2 , . . . , rs
, 1 , 2 , . . . , s , , r = 1 r1 + +2 r2 + . . . + s rs
, . .
1 r1 + 2 r2 + . . . + s rs = O .
9.1

5
1

9
3

2
3
7
8

(9.7)

1
3

5
7

,
4r1 r2 3r3 + 2r4 = O ,
. ,
, ,
2r1 + r2 r3 + 0r4 = O ,

107

0r1 + 3r2 + r3 2r4 = O .

9.2 , r1 ,
,
r1 = O.
. , r1 = O, , , 1 = 1
1 r1 = O. , 1 r1 = O 1 6= 0, , (9.4),
r1 = O.
, ,
. :

r = 1 r1 + 2 r2 + . . . + s rs
,
i = 0 (i = 1, 2, . . . , s), r1 , r2 , . . . , rs
.
9.3 ,

1 0
0 1

En = 0 0
.. ..
. .

0 ... 0
0 ... 0

1 ... 0

.. . .
. 0
.
0 0 0 ... 1

.
1 r1 + 2 r2 + . . . + n rn = O ,

r1 =
r2 =
r3 =

1 0
0 1
0 0

0 ... 0
0 ... 0
1 ... 0

........................

rn = 0 0 0 . . . 1
108

(9.8)

n .
(9.4) (9.5), ,


1 2 3 . . . n = 0 0 0 . . . 0 ,

. . (9.8) 1 = 2 = . . . = n = 0.
, .

9.1

. , rp ,
rq , . . . , rs A = (aij ) . ,
mn

p rp + q rq + . . . + s rs = O
(9.9)
, p = q = . . . = s = 0.
, , .
, , rp , rq , . . . , rs , , (9.4) (9.5)
(9.9) e ,
n
p apj + q aqj + . . . + s asj = 0

(j = 1, 2, . . . , n) ,

(9.10)

j, ,
. ,
j (9.10)
.
rp , rq , . . . , rs A ,
. , rp , rq , . . . , rs
, ,
,
A, . .
.

109

9.1
,
.
. , r1 , r2 , . . . ,
rs , , ,
. .
rs = 1 r1 + 2 r2 + . . . + s1 rs1 .
:
1 r1 + 2 r2 + . . . + s1 rs1 + (1) rs = O .

(9.11)

(9.11) ,
r1 , r2 , . . . , rs , (, rs 1) .
, r1 , r2 , . . . , rs .
: r1 , r2 , . . . ,
rs , . .
1 r1 + 2 r2 + . . . + s rs = O
i i = 1, 2, . . . , s, ,
. (9.7) s 6= 0.






2
s1
1
r1 +
r2 + . . . +
rs1 ,
rs =
s
s
s

1 r1 +
2 r2 + . . . +
s1 rs1 ,
rs =
i = (i /s ); i = 1, 2, . . . , (s 1). , s 6= 0,

s .
.
9.2 ,
.

110

. , , r1 , r2 , . . . , rs1
. ,
1 r1 + 2 r2 + . . . + s1 rs1 = O
, i .
1 r1 + 2 r2 + . . . + s1 rs1 + s rs = O
i (i = 1, 2, . . . , s 1),
, s = 0. ,
r1 , r2 , . . . , rs .
1 ,
.
. 9.2
9.2 ,
.
2 , .
. ri 6=
O rj 6= O , . . C,
rj = Cri .

(9.12)

C 6= 0
1rj Cri = O ,
. . ri rj .
, C = 1
: rj = ri .
9.2 , .
(9.1) ,
m 1. , A
A = (c1 c2 . . . cn ) ,

111

(9.13)

n :

a1n
a12
a11
a2n
a22
a21

c1 = . , c2 = . , . . . , cn = .
..
..
..
amn
am2
am1

(9.14)

(9.14) (9.13) c 11 , ,
(9.13). ,
, , , , .
, , .
. ck = cl , aik = ail i=1,2,. . . ,m.
:

a1k + a1l
a1k
a2k + a2l
a2k

ck + cl =
ck =
.
,
..
..

.
.
amk + aml
amk
k c1 , c2 , . . . , ck :
c =1 c1 + 2 c2 + . . . + k ck .
, , 9.1,
9.1, 9.2 , .
. .

11

column , .

112

10

10.1 ( )
1. .
2. .
. A r.
mn

(, , )
. 9.1 ( ). , , ,
, r :


a11 a12 . . . a1r


a21 a22 . . . a2r


r = .
..
.. 6= 0 .
..
..
.
.
.

ar1 ar2 . . . arr


, .
,
( r = n), , ( r < n).
, (9.4) (9.5), r .
, r . r , 9.1,
. 4.3 . , ,
. ,
.

113

, i
(r < i m) r .
(r + 1) , r
i j :


a11 a12 . . . a1r a1j


a21 a22 . . . a2r a2j



..
..
.. ,
..
r+1 = ...

.
.
.
.


ar1 ar2 . . . arr arj


ai1 ai2 . . . air aij
j =1,2,. . . ,n r+1 = 0. ,
j > r, r+1 (r + 1) A ,
, . j r, r+1
4.2
4.1.
r+1 (j) :
r+1 = a1j A1j + a2j A2j + . . . + arj Arj + aij Aij = 0 .

(10.1)

Aij 6= 0, . .
: Aij = r .


a11
a12
...
a1r

a21
a22
...
a2r



..
..
..
..


.
.
.
.



a(s1) 2 . . . a(s1) r
s+(r+1) a(s1) 1
Asj = (1)
a(s+1) 1 a(s+1) 2 . . . a(s+1) r As




..
..
..
..


.
.
.
.



ar1
a
.
.
.
a
r2
rr



ai1
ai2
...
air

s = 1, 2, . . . , r j.
As .
(10.1) Aij , :
aij =


r 
X
As
asj .

r
s=1
114

(10.2)

(10.2) j =1,2,. . . ,n,



ri =

r
X

s rs ,

(10.3)

s=1

s = (As /r ). , i .
10.1 , . ,

r1
r2
..
.

rl

..

l rl + p rp + . . . + q rq

..
A =
.

mn

r
p

..

r
q

.
..

r
m1

rm

1 ,
2 ,
..
.
l ,
..
.
i ,
..
.

(10.4)

p ,
..
.
q ,
..
.
(m 1) ,
m ,

l, p, . . . , q , i
:
ri = l rl + p rp + . . . + q rq .

(10.5)

, , l 6= 0. l
i, p, . . . , q
. , , i, p, . . . , q
. (10.5)
i ri + p rp + . . . + q rq = O .

115

(10.6)

:
i l rl + (i p + p ) rp + . . . + (i q + q ) rq = O .

(10.7)

l, p, . . . , q , , , (10.7)

i l = 0 ,

(i p + p ) = 0 ,

... ,

(i q + q ) = 0 .

(10.8)

, l 6= 0, (10.8) : i = p = . . . = q = 0.
, (10.6)
i , p , . . . , q . , i, p, . . . , q
.
, (10.5), l
:




 
p
q
1
ri +
rp + . . . +
rq .
rl =
l
l
l
,
.
, , ,
,
. ,
,
,
. ,
,
, .
10.1.
A r < m,
mn

. r
. 9.1 . r = m, ,
, . ,
1. A , ,
.
, .

116

2. r + 1 A r .
3.
.
10.1
. , ,
:
10.2
.
. A .
mn

l Ml (l min {m, n}) A.


A, .. A AT , A.
aij Ml , i j A, aji MlT
AT j i . , A
Ml MlT AT . A,
. 11, M3
3 , .
 1q

2q

3q

6q

q
1e
2e
3e

q
4e
5e
6e

q
7e
8e
9e

A =

4q

5q


. 11

117

AT , A, . 12.
 1q

2q

3q

4q

5q

6q

e 4e 7e q

e 5e 8e q

e 6e 9e q

AT =


. 12

, A M3
M3T AT .
T
4.1 Ml = |Ml | , , .
,
. , A , , ,
AT .
.
10.1 :
10.3 ,

.
. A n n = |A|. n = 0,
r (A) < n. r A , . 10.1

118

. ,
.
, ,
- , 4.3.
10.2 9.1,
, . 10.3 :
,
.
, 10.3
, .

11

.
A, A
. , 10.2,
,
. :
1. .
, , . . 1 9.2
, 10.1. 8.2.

119

2. .
.
8.2. 10.1,

. , .
3. 6= 0.
, 6= 0

, .
4. , .
10.1.
5. , 6= 0.
, , , q (10.4)
p , 6= 0.
A . q
p (10.4) ,
3 4.3 . p A , q
.
p () , . 4
. q
, p . rq rq + rp r (10.4)
r A , r , rq (1)
rq + rp . 4.3 r = r + r ,
(1)
r r r , q
rp . p , , r

120

(1)

, 10.3 r = 0 r = r . ,
rq rq + rp (10.4)
, , r (A) = r (A ).
6. .
10.2.
11.1 25
. 82 , .
 6.
AT |E 1
AT
:
1 
 
,
AT |E E AT
A1 T
A1 , 5
1
(. . 99) AT
.

A B
A B, B A
16.
A , :

a11 a12 . . . a1l . . . a1n


0 a22 . . . a2l . . . a2n

..
..
..
..
..
..
.
.
.
.
.
.

0 . . . all . . . aln
A= 0
(11.1)
,
0
0 ... 0 ... 0

.
..
..
..
..
..
..
.
.
.
.
.
0

...

...

aii 6= 0, (i = 1, 2, . . . , l; l n).
(11.1) ,
l . l

121


a11

0

..
.

0

a12
a22
..
.
0

. . . a1l
. . . a2l
..
..
.
.
. . . all

(3.8) a11 a22 . . . all .


, . . r = l.
, ,
. , m n.
. ,
. , (1.1)
, . ,
, : a11 6= 0. ,
, a11 . (1.1) ak1 /a11 k (k=2, 3, 4, . . ., m).

a11
a12
a13
...
a1(n1)
a1n
(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

0
a2n
a22
a23
...
a2(n1)

(1)
(1)
(1)
(1)

0
a3n
a32
a33
...
a3(n1)

(11.2)
,
..
..
..
..
..
..

.
.
.
.
.
.

(1)
(1)
(1)

0 a(1)

(m1)2 a(m1)3 . . . a(m1)(n1) a(m1)n


0

(1)

am2

(1)

am3

(1)

...

am(n1)

(1)

amn


(1)

aks = aks

ak1 a1s
a11

(k = 2, 3, 4, . . . , m ; s = 2, 3, 4, . . . , n)

, .
, (11.2) , a11 , .

122

(1.1).
, , , .
, , , , (1.1)
, 1.
, , , (1)
: a22 6= 0.
, (1)
, a22 , . (11.2)
(1)
(1)
ak2 /a22 k ,
k=3,4,. . . ,m.

a11
0

..
.

a12
(1)
a22

a13
(1)
a23

0
..
.
0

(2)
a33

a(m1)3

am3

..
.
(2)

(2)

...
...

a1(n1)
(1)
a2(n1)

(2)
a3(n1)

...
..
..
.
.
(2)
. . . a(m1)(n1)
...

(2)

am(n1)

(2)

(1)

aks = aks

a1n
(1)
a2n
(2)
a3n

..
.
(2)

a(m1)n
(2)

amn

(11.3)

(1) (1)

ak2 a2s
(1)

a22

(k = 3, 4, . . . , m ; s = 3, 4, . . . , n)

, . .
(11.3) (1)
, a11 a22 , .
, ,
, .
(1)
(l1)
, a11 , a22 , . . . , all , (l 1)

123

(l n) :

a11 a12 a13 . . .


a1l
0 a(1) a(1) . . . a(1)

22
23
2l

(2)
(2)
0
0
a
.
.
.
a
33
3l

.
..
..
..
..
..
.
.
.
.

(l1)
0
0
0
0 all

0
0
0
0
0

..
..
..
..
..
.
.
.
.
.
0
0
0
0
0

. . . a1(n1)
(1)
. . . a2(n1)
(2)

. . . a3(n1)
..
..
.
.
(l1)
. . . al(n1)
0
0
..
..
.
.
0
0

(l2)

= aks

(11.4)

(l2)

(l2)

(l1)

aks

a1n
(1)
a2n

(2)
a3n

..

.
,
(l1)

aln

..

ak(l1) a(l1)s
(l2)

a(l1)(l1)

(k = l, l + 1, . . . , m ; s = l, l + 1, . . . , n) .
12 r = l.
11.1

1
2

A=
3
2
1

2 2
1 1
1
1
0
2
3 1

7
5
4
6
4

. ,
, A:

1 2 3 2 1
2 1 1 0 3

A
(11.5)
2 1 1 2 1 .
7 5 4 6 4
(11.5) 2
. 2 . ,
12 . 6
.

124

7 .
:

1 2
3
2
1
0
3
7
4
5

(11.6)
A
0 3 5 2 3 .
0 9 17 8 11
(11.6) . 3 .
:

1 2 3 2 1
0 3 7 4 5

(11.7)
A
0 0 2 2 2 .
0 0 4 4 4
(11.7) 2
,

1 2 3 2 1
0 3 7 4 5

(11.8)
0 0 2 2 2 .
0 0 0 0 0

, 4
(11.8) , . . ,
. A 4. (11.8)
, r (A) = 3, . .



1 2 3


0 3 7 = (1) 3 2 = 6 6= 0 .


0 0 2

11.2

4 0 1
B= 0 2 4 .
4 4 1

. B, 1, . :

4 0 1
B 0 2 4 .
0 4 2
125

4 0
B 0 2
0 0

2
1
4 .
6

, 3 , 4 2 (6) = 48 6= 0. , r (B) = 3.

11.3

2
1 2
2 1 ,
C = 1
2 1 2
.

. C 1, .

1
2 1 +
2
1 2 .
2 1 2

2
. (2 )
. :

1
2
(1 + )
0
=
3
3
0 + 2 (2 ) 1 2 (1 + ) (2 )

1
2
1+
.
3
3
= 0
2
0 4 1 3 +
3:

1
2
1+
0
.
1

0 4 1 3 + 2
126

(4 ) :

1 2
1+
1 2 1 +
0 1
= 0 1

.
2
0 0 1 3 + + (4 )
0 0 1 +
, C

2 = 1 ,
r (C) =
3 6= 1 .

11.4

1
4
D=
2
5

2
5
4
7

3
6
6
9

4
7
.
8
11

(11.9)

. . D 4
, 2 , , 5
. :

1 2
3
4
0 3 6 9
.
(11.10)
D
0 0
0
0
0 3 6 9

(11.10) 1
.

1 2
3
4
0 3 6 9
,
D
0 0
0
0
0 0
0
0
. , ,
D,


1 2


0 3 = 3 6= 0 .
127

, r (D) = 2.
(11.9) ,
,
C 42 = 6. (11.9),
:
r1 , r2 ;

r1 , r3 ;

r1 , r4 ;

r2 , r3 ;

r2 , r4 ;

r3 , r4 .

(11.9)
D 1. ,


r1 = 1 2 3 4

r2 = 4 5 6 7
(11.11)
(11.9) , . .


1 2


4 5 = 3 6= 0 ,

, .

r1 , r2 ,



1

4


2
= 3 ,
5


4

2


5
= 6,
4


1

5

r1 , r4 ,

r2 , r3 ,


4

5

r2 , r4 ,


2

5

r3 , r4 ,

1.

128


2
= 3 ,
7


5
= 3,
7


4
= 7 ,
7

, r1 r3 ,
: r3 = 2r1 . r1
r3 .
11.5 (8.1) 8.4.
. (8.1) 4 6.
8.4, 4.
. 10.2, (8.1) 4.
C 64 = 15 4 . 8.4. ,
(8.1) :
c1 , c2 , c3 , c4 ;
c2 , c3 , c4 , c6 ;

c2 , c3 , c4 , c5 ;
c1 , c2 , c4 , c5 ;

c1 , c2 , c3 , c5 ;
c1 , c2 , c4 , c6 ;

c1 , c2 , c3 , c6 ;
c1 , c3 , c4 , c5 ;

c1 , c4 , c5 , c6 ;
c1 , c3 , c5 , c6 ;

c1 , c2 , c5 , c6 ;
c2 , c4 , c5 , c6 .

c2 , c3 , c5 , c6 ;

c1 , c3 , c4 , c6 ;


(1)
(2)
(4)
(15)
4 , 4 4 4 8.4.

c3 , c4 , c5 , c6
(3)

, . . 4 ,
, .
11.6 45, r = 2.
. 2 5 ,
,

1 2 3 4 5 ,
r1 =

1 2 3 4 5 ,
r2 =
:

r2 = 1 5 3 4 5 .
129

r1 r2 , .. r1 6= Cr2 , C
. r3 r4
r1 r2 , ,
r3
r4

=
=

1 2
1 5
F =
3 12
3 9

r1 + 2r2 ,
2r1 + r2 .

3
3
9
9

4 5
4 5
,
12 15
12 15

(11.12)

2.
, (11.12) , 1, , 2.

1 2 3 4 5
1 5 3 4 5

(11.13)
F
0 0 0 0 0 .
3 9 9 12 15

, (11.13) ,
2, , 1. :

1 2 3 4 5


1 5 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5

.
(11.14)
0 0 0 0 0
1 5 3 4 5
0 0 0 0 0
(11.14) , 1,


1 2 3 4 5
F
0 3 0 0 0

11.7 45, r = 1.
. 5 , ,

r1 = 1 2 3 4 5 .
130

r1 , , 2:

r2 = 2 4 6 8 10 .

r3 r4 r1 r2 , ,
r3

r1 + 2r2 ,

r4

2r1 + r2 .

1 2 3 4 5
2 4 6 8 10

G=
5 10 15 20 25 ,
4 8 12 16 20

(11.15)

1.
, ,
(11.15) , , ,
2, 5, 4. ,

1 2 3 4 5
0 0 0 0 0


G=
0 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 5
0 0 0 0 0
.

131


1. . . , , .: , 1971.
2. . . , . . , , .: , 1974.
3. . . , (
), .: , 1969.
4. . . , . . , . . , . . ,
, .: ,
, 1997.
5. . , . , :
( ), : , 1998.

132