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1. Define pseudo-noise (PN) sequence.

A pseudo noise code (PN code) or pseudo random noise code (PRN code) is one that has a
spectrum similar to a random sequence of bits but is deterministically generated. The most
commonly used sequences in direct-sequence spread spectrum systems are maximal
length sequences
2. State the balance property of random binary sequence
Equal number of ones and zeros which it should have no DC component to avoid a spectral spike
at DC or biasing the noise in de-spreading.

3. Mention about the run property
The run length is generally short.



4. What is the Modulation Technique used in GSM
The modulation used in GSM is Guassian minimum-shift keying (GMSK), a kind of
continuous-phase frequency shift keying. In GMSK, the signal to be modulated onto the
carrier is first smoothed with a Guassian low-pass filter prior to being fed to a frequency
modulator, which greatly reduces the interference to neighboring channels (adjacent channel
interference).
5. Draw the block diagram of GMSK Modulator





6. Draw the block diagram of GSM demodulator





7. What is meant by hybrid spread spectrum system?
The DS/FH Spread Spectrum technique is a combination of direct-sequence and frequency
hopping schemes. One data bit is divided over several carrier frequencies As the FH-sequence
and the PN-codes are coupled, a user uses a combination of an FH-sequence and a PN-code.
8.Write the Shannons formula for finding the Channel Capacity
C = B * log2(1+ S/N) where C is the achievable channel capacity, B is the
bandwidth of the line, S is the average signal power and N is the average noise
power.The signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) is usually expressed in decibels (dB).