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D-Link


, 2004


1.
1.1 LAN
2.
2.1.1 2-
2.1.2 3-
2.1.3 4-
2.2
2.2.1
2.2.2
2.2.3 ,
2.3 ,
3. D-Link
3.1
3.2 D-Link
4. .
4.1
4.1.1
4.2
4.3 Web-
5.
6. VLAN
6.1 VLAN
6.2 VLAN
6.3 VLAN -
6.4 VLAN 802.1q
6.5 VLAN CLI
6.6 VLAN
7.
7.1 CLI
8. Spanning Tree (802.1d)
8.1 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)
8.2 SPT CLI
9. (QoS)
9.1 (802.1)
9.1.2 (QoS) CLI
9.2
9.2.1 CLI
10.
10.1 Port Security
10.1.2 Port Security CLI
10.2
10.2.1 Traffic Segmentation CLI
10.3 IEEE 802.1
10.3.1
10.3.2 802.1X
10.3.3 802.1 CLI
10.4 Access Control Lists (ACL)
10.4.1 ( Web-)
10.4.2
10.4.3 Access Control Lists (ACL) CLI
11.
11.1

11.2 -
11.3
11.4 2
11.5 IGMP- snooping CLI
12.
. .
. .

1.
(),
( ) ,
, . , ,
,
.
.
,
.
(
, ). , ,
, .
, .
. ,
,
(LAN Switches).
.
1.1 LAN

. ,
:
(Scalability) , ,

,
, .
(Latency) , ,
. .. ,
,
.
(Network failure) , , ,
, -
(100 / 10 /
) (broadcast).

.
(Collisions) Ethernet Carrier Sense
Multiple Access /Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)
. ,
, , . ,
,
. Ethernet,
, ,
(collision domain). Ethernet, ,
.

,
. ,
.


.
, ,
. ,
, .
,
.
.
, , .
(
) ,
.
, 10 / 10 ,
1 / (10/N /, N-
), .
, 10
/.
, Ethernet , ..
.
Ethernet .

" " - .
, ..
,
. ,
, ,
.
.

.

2.
2.1.1 2-
OSI.
, - ,
.
. .. 2- ,
OSI.
2- . ,
.
, Application-Specific Integrated
Circuits (ASIC). , ,
.
2 2-
.

.
( ),
, , .

2- ,
.
(broadcast) , .
, ,
3- OSI .
2.1.2 3-
3- ,
ASIC. 2- , 3 , . 3- 2-
. 3-
, :
3- ( )

3- ,


(Management Information Base
-MIB)
( )
(QoS)

3-
, 3- .
. ..
3- ,
.
3- D-Link DES-3326S
DES-3326SR, DES-3350SR, DES-6300, DES-6500.
2.1.3 4-
4- ,
4- .
, 3- , (TTL)
. ,
.
4-
, IP , 4-
, TCP/UDP.
,
.
(extended access lists).
4- , TCP UDP
, .


.
. , 4-
, , , ,
, FTP.
4- ,
,

. , ,
4- ,
,
.
2.2
, ,
. ,
.
,
. MAC .
.
.

ASIC,
( -) . ,
(), , , RISC .
ASIC 2 - ASIC,
( )
ASIC,
.
/ ASIC , , .
3 :
(cross-bar);
(shared memory);
.
.

(cross-bar) -
,

. ,
,
.
- ,
.
( ).
. ,
cross-bar ,
( 1).
, cross-bar

Ethernet Token Ring ATM FDDI.

1.

.
. ,
, 2
,

.

2.

(backplane)
, . 3
- , ASIC.
, ,
.

3 .
, ,
, , N/2
. , ,
,
, .
.
,
"" (non-blocking), .. .
2.2.1
.
(store-and-forward)
.
, ,
. ,
, , , .
.
(cut-through)
( 6 )
, . ,
. :
(fast-forward switching)
, ,
. .
, , ,
.
.
(fragment-free switching)
, . ,
64 . , , 64
. ,
, , .

2.2.2
:

;
;
, .


.

. - ,

.
hot swap, ,
,
.
. D-Link
DES-1200M, , DES-6000, DES-6300, DES-6500, DES-7000.

4. DES-7000

. ,
, , ,
,
. , . DLink 2- 3- ,
DES-3226S, DES-3326S, DGS-3312SR, DES-3624 .
2 .
1:
DES-3326S.
, - ,
.
1 /.
D-Link DES-3326S,
, 6.

5. DES-3326S

6. ,
( )
2: - -
, D-Link DGS-3212SR / DGS-3312SR
. 12 DES3226S 288 10/100 / Fast Ethernet 12
Gigabit Ethernet, .
, ,
- 2/ .

7. DGS-3212SR ( ) DES-3226S
2.2.3 ,
.

, Web- , (CLI),
Telnet, SNMP, TFTP . D-Link DES-3226,
DES-3226S, DES-3250TG, DES-6300, DGS-3212SR, DGS-3224SR .
.
D-Link DxS-10xx.
.
,
SNMP Telnet. DES1218R/26R/26G.


Web,
, Web-, .

( ). , ..

, , ..
, .

,
.
2.3 ,
,
.
, ,
:
;
;
;
.
, ,
. :
- ;
() ;
;
;
.

-
. ,
, .
(filtering) ,
:
;

;
,
.
.
(forwarding) ,
.
;

;
.

,
. ,
,
, Ethernet
, 64 ( ) 46
.
,

.

,
.

( ), .
,
,
Ethernet, Fast Ethernet .. .
,
, ,
,
, .
,
.
,

. , ,
, , - ,
.
.
, 5 40
, - 50 200 ( ).
- ,
( ) .
-
, - , .

.

MAC, .
, .
- ,
, . D-Link
4 8.
8
16, , 16 32 .

.
, ,

-
. ,
,
. ,
.
, ,
, .


, .
.
,
,
, .
,
,
.

(
50-100) .
. ,
,
. (Flow control).
, ,
. ,
,
.
.
.

3. D-Link
3.1

8. .


( 8):
;
;
.
.
.
OSI, .
OSI ,
. ,
, ,
, .


. , ,
.
, , , .
,
.
.
, ,
. ,
:
,

(, 100Base-TX 1000Base-T)

.


. /
. :
( )

()

.
3.2 D-Link


.
.
D-Link :
DES-1010G/1026G ,
10/100/, 2 1000/ 26
.
DGS-1005D/08D/16TL/24TL ,
.

DES-12xxR DGS-12xxT ,
10/100 / 10/100/1000/ 24
2 Gigabit Ethernet .
DES-3226/3226S/DHS-3226 ,
192 10/100 /
8 Gigabit Ethernet.
DGS-3212SR/3312SR- ,

(Master Switch), ,
12 Gigabit Ethernet.



.
D-Link:
DES-3226S/3326S, DES-3250TG, DES-3350SR, DGS-3324SR ,
, 24 48 10/100/ 2 4
10/100/1000/.
DGS-3212SR/3312SR- ,
(Master Switch)
12 DES-3226S, 288
10/100BASE-TX 12 Gigabit Ethernet.
DES-6000/6300 128 10/100 /,
96 100Base-FX, 16 Gigabit Ethernet.
.
,
, (,
, ).

.
:
DES-6000/6300 ,
.
DES-7000 Ethernet/EoVDSL
,
.

4.
4.1
, ,
.
, .
( ), Ethernet ( Telnet
Web-).
. ,
Ethernet, IP-.
Ethernet Ethernet ,
, UTP 5,
5. D-Link
(MDI/MDI-X), ( ).

9.

UTP
5, 5, ,
.
.

10. ( -Uplink)
.
.
,
. , ,
,
. , ,
( /
). (
).
4.1.1
D-Link ,
RS-232, ,
. Out-of-Band .
, (
Ethernet).
, .

(, HyperTerminal Windows).
:
Baud rate:
9,600
Data width:
8 bits
Parity:
none
Stop bits:
1
Flow Control:
none
(
, CLI):

11. .
, , DES-3226, DHS-3226
. , ,
.

12. .
, ..

.
, Ctrl+r , .
.
, Enter,
, DES-3226S#. .

13. CLI .
4.2

CLI. , ,
, , .
? ,
.

14. ?
? , .
, config,
:
DES-3226S#config +
? Enter.
. TAB,
.

15. config
.
1. .

.
.
, : Admin User.
Admin .
CLI:
DES-3226S# create account admin/user <username>
( / , )
:
Enter a case-sensitive new password:
Enter the new password again for confirmation:
0 15 .
Success.
Admin
Username dlink:
DES-3226S#create account admin dlink
Command: create account admin dlink
Enter a case-sensitive new password:****
Enter the new password again for confirmation:****
Success.
DES-3226S#

,
:
DES-3226S# config account <username>
dlink:
DES-3226S#config account dlink

Command: config account dlink


Enter a old password:****
Enter a case-sensitive new password:****
Enter the new password again for confirmation:****
Success.

:
DES-3226S# show account.
.
DES-3226S#show account
Command: show account
Current Accounts:
Username
--------------dlink

Access Level
-----------Admin

, delete account <username>.


dlink.
DES-3226S#delete account dlink
Command: delete account dlink
Success.

2. IP-.
web-
Telnet, IP- ,
. IP-
DHCP BOOTP , CLI:
DES-3226S# config ipif System dhcp,
DES-3226S# config ipif System ipaddress xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/yyy.yyy.yyy.yyy.,
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx IP-, yyy.yyy.yyy.yyy. ,
System- .
:
DES-3226S#config ipif System ipaddress 10.48.74.122/8
Command: config ipif System ipaddress 10.48.74.122/8
Success

3. .
D-Link
(). ,

.
D-Link
config ports.
10/,
, 1 3.
DES-3226S#config ports 1-3 speed 10_full learning enable state enable
Command: config ports 1-3 speed 10_full learning enable state enable
Success

show ports < >


. show ports.
DES-3226S#show ports
Command show ports:
Port

Port

Settings

Connection

Address

State Speed/Duplex/FlowCtrl Speed/Duplex/FlowCtrl Learning


------ -------- --------------------- --------------------- -------1

Enabled Auto/Enabled

Link Down

Enabled

Enabled Auto/Enabled

Link Down

Enabled

Enabled Auto/Enabled

Link Down

Enabled

Enabled Auto/Enabled

Link Down

Enabled

Enabled Auto/Enabled

Link Down

Enabled

..
10 Enabled Auto/Enabled

100M/Full/802.3x

Enabled

4.
NVRAM. save.
DES-3226S#save
Command: save
Saving all settings to NV-RAM... 100%
done.
DES-3226S#

5. reboot.
DES-3226S#reboot
Command: reboot
Are you sure want to proceed with the system reboot? (y/n)

Please wait, the switch is rebooting...

reset.
DES-3226S#reset config
Command: reset config
Success

6. .
( )
show switch.
DES-3226S#show switch
Command: show switch
Device Type :

DES-3226S Fast-Ethernet Switch

Module Type :

DES-332GS 1-port GBIC Gigabit Ethernet and 1 Stacking Port

Unit ID :

MAC Address :

DA-10-21-00-00-01

IP Address :

10.41.44.22 (Manual)

VLAN Name :

default

Subnet Mask :

255.0.0.0

Default Gateway :

0.0.0.0

Boot PROM Version : Build 0.00.001


Firmware Version :

Build 4.00-B30

Hardware Version : 1B1


Device S|N :
System Name :

DES-3226S_#3

System Location :

7th_flr_east_cabinet

System Contact :

Julius_Erving_212-555-6666

Spanning Tree :

Disabled

GVRP :
IGMP Snooping :

Disabled
Disabled

TELNET :

Enabled (TCP 23)

WEB :

Enabled (TCP 80)

RMON :

Enabled

Asymmetric VLAN : Enabled

4.3 Web-
D-Link Web- ,
(GUI),
-, .
Web-

, , ..
TCP/IP
80.

,
, :
1. IP- , :
DES-3226S# config ipif System ipaddress xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/yyy.yyy.yyy.yyy.,
xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx IP-, yyy.yyy.yyy.yyy.
2. IP- :
DES-3226S# show ipif
3. Web-,
IP- .

5.
,
,
,
, , ,
. , ,
,
. :
1.
VLAN
2.
Spanning Tree IEEE 802.1d
Rapid Spanning Tree IEEE 802.1w
3.
Ethernet
4.
SNMP
5.
Port Security, MAC-

6.
802.1
7.

8.
.



,
.
, ,
.

6. VLAN
.
, ,
. ( "-")
, (
). , .
, ARP, BOOTP DHCP,
,
-
. ,
. ,
(
) -
(Virtual LAN, VLAN).

, ,
,
. ,
MAC- , - ,
.
, , .
,
,
.
, VLAN :
. VLAN
,
.
VLAN ,
, .
VLAN , ,
,
.
6.1 VLAN
VLAN:
1. VLAN
2. VLAN MAC-.
3. VLAN
IEEE 802.1q
6.2 VLAN .
VLAN ,
VLAN, , .
, , , VLAN.
.

16. VLAN .
:
1. .
,
, , VLAN
.
2. .
-

, VLAN,
VLAN (VLAN ID) .
3.
, VLAN
(, VLAN ) (VLAN )

VLAN. , VLAN ,
.
4. VLAN.
,
, . VLAN
,
(IP ).

17. VLAN 3- .
, VLAN
, ,
. : , ,
VLAN.
3- .
6.3 VLAN MAC-.
, ,
-.
.

, . -
, ,
-
.
MAC-,
( ),
-
MAC- , VLAN 1000 . ,
MAC- " " ,
, .

18. VLAN -.

6.4 VLAN 802.1q.




. VLAN
,
.
IEEE 802.1q Ethernet,
VLAN .
Ethernet . 2
08100 , 802.1q/802.1p. 2
:
3 ( 0 7,
7- ), 802.1;
1 Canonical Format Indicator (CFI),
(Token Ring, FDDI), Ethernet;
12- VLAN, , VLAN
.

DA

8100

SA

Tagged

Priority CFI

15

Data

CRC

VID

18 19

31

19. Ethernet.
, VLAN
. :
1.
VLAN , ,
802.1q.
VLAN 802.1q .

2. (Spanning Tree)
. Spanning Tree
,

.
.

, ,
,
. Spanning Tree
, ..,
.
3. VLAN 802.1q
VLAN
, .
4. ,
, .. - .
5. , ,
VLAN
. , VLAN,
, .

IEEE 802.1q.
, VLAN
,
, .
IEEE 802.1q VLAN:
1. VLAN- - Port VLAN ID (PVID)
2. VLAN ID (VID)
PVID , VLAN
, .
, , VLAN,
,
VLAN . ,
VID Ethernet, , VLAN .
, VLAN
VLAN..
( 19): 1 VLAN 1
PVID=1. , 3 (
), , ,
3 VLAN 1, ,
VLAN. 3 VLAN 1,
. 3 VLAN 1,
. , 1 VLAN 1, ..
PVID=1. 3, PVID , VLAN 1, ..
VLAN, VLAN 1, PVID
1.

VLAN A
: B1, B2,
C1, C2 & -

VID : 3

:1, 2, 3, 4 & 5
3
PVID = 3

VLAN B

VLAN C

: C1, C2
& -

: B1, B2
& -
VID : 1

B1

B2

: 1, 2, 3
1 & 2 PVID = 1

C1

C2

VID : 2

: 3, 4, 5
4 & 5 PVID = 2

19. .
VLAN .
: -, IEEE 802.1q
VLAN- Tagged Untagged.
, VLAN :

Tagging ( )
802.1q VLAN . , ,
VID,
. ,
VLAN.
,
802.1q VLAN.

20. .


, ..

21. , .

Untagging 802.1q VLAN . ,


, , VLAN
, , , .
VLANa, .
,
802.1q , .

22. .


,
..

VID
PVID

,
..

23. ,
.
, 802.1 Q,
, ,
.

(Ingress Port). ,
, , . " " (
) VLAN.
VLAN .
VLAN, ,
VLAN. , . , ,
VLAN.
VLAN, .
VLAN, ..
(untagged),
PVID ( (tagged)). ,
VLAN ( VID).
, . , .
,
, VLAN.
ingress filtering( )
.
(Egress Port).
, .
"", ( )
, 802.1q. ,
VLAN
802.1q, ,
, .
, 802.1q,
, VLAN
. ,
802.1q, ,
Ethernet .

VLAN 802.1q-
, 802.1q
VLAN, .
802.1q VLAN ,
, 802.1q, .
, 802.1q
, .
, VLAN
VLAN, 3-
, . ,
, 3- .
6.5 VLAN CLI
CLI , ,
.

create vlan

<vlan_name 32>
tag <vlanid>
advertisement
<vlan_name 32>
<vlan_name 32>
add [tagged|untagged|forbidden]
delete <portlist>
advertisement [enable|disable]
<vlan_name 32>
delete <portlist>
<vlan_name 32>
<portlist>
all
state [enable|disable]
ingress_checking [enable|disable]
acceptable_frame
[tagged_only|accept_all]

VLAN

delete vlan
config vlan

config vlan
config vlan
config gvrp

enable gvrp
disable gvrp
show vlan

<vlan_name 32>

show gvrp

<portlist>

VLAN
VLAN


VLAN
GVRP

GVRP
GVRP
VLAN

GVRP

1. VLAN .
VLAN v1 (PVID) 2.
DES-3226S#create vlan v1 tag 2
Command: create vlan v1 tag 2
Success.

2. VLAN.
VLAN v1.
DES-3226S#delete vlan v1
Command: delete vlan v1
Success.

3. VLAN.
4 8 VLAN v1. .
DES-3226S#config vlan v1 add tagged 4-8
Command: config vlan v1 add tagged 4-8
Success.

4. VLAN .
DES-3226S#show vlan
Command: show vlan
VID :

VLAN Name :

VLAN TYPE :

static

Member ports :

1-26, 1-26

Static ports :

1-26, 1-26

Untagged ports :

1-25, 1-25

default

Advertisement : Enabled

Forbidden ports :
VID :

VLAN TYPE :

static

Member ports :

26, 26

Static ports :

26, 26

VLAN Name :

v1

Advertisement : Disabled

Untagged ports :
Forbidden ports :
Total Entries :

6.6 VLAN
,
- , D-Link
Asymmetric VLAN.
, ( )
. , ,
. , VLAN
,
. ,
,
.
802.1q VLAN
VLAN VLAN , .
VLAN ,
VLAN-.
VLAN
, . ,
( ) . ,
, VLAN, , ,
, ..
(PVID).
VLAN :

VLAN .
.
GVRP IGMP Snooping .
VLAN, PVID ,
VLAN . ,
VLAN . VLAN .
VLAN
CLI.

enable asymmetric_vlan

disable asymmetric_vlan
show asymmetric_vlan


VLAN.
PVID
, VLAN
.

VLAN. Asymmetric VLAN
.
Asymmetric VLAN.

1. VLAN.
DES-3226S#enable asymmetric_vlan
Command: enable asymmetric_vlan
Success.

2. VLAN.
DES-3226S#disable asymmetric_vlan
Command: disable asymmetric_vlan
Success.

3. VLAN.
DES-3226S# show asymmetric_vlan
Command: show asymmetric_vlan
Asymmetric Vlan : Enabled

7.



.
:
1.
, ,
"" Spanning Tree.
2.
;

.

(Port Trunking) -
(Link Aggregation) .

.
STP (Spanning Tree ),
,
.
, ,
.

24. .
.
.
,
, ,
. ,
.

.
,
OSI. ,
, -
, -
, .
,
, ..
.
.

(
). , - , .

25. .
,
- .
,
- -,
, .
.
( , 1
), .
D-Link DES-3226S, DES-3326S, DES-3250TG,
DGS-3324SR . :
. ( ),
.
IEEE 802.3ad,
(Link Aggregation Control Protocol) ,
. ,
LACP .
, ,
,
. LACP
. , LACP,

, .. .
LACP .
IEEE 802.3ad Ethernet-,
,
Gigabit Ethernet.

7.1 CLI
, Ethernet.

create
link_aggregation
delete
link_aggregation
config

group_id <value>
{type[lacp/static]}
group_id <value>

group_id <value>

link_aggregation

show
link_aggregation
config lacp_ports

master_port <port>
ports <portlist>
state [enabled|disabled]
mac_source
mac_destination
mac_source_dest
ip_source
ip_destination
ip_source_dest
group_id <value>
algorithm
<portlist> mode [active|passive]

show lacp_ports

{<portlist>}


LACP

config
link_aggregation
algorithm



LACP

1. .
DES-3226S#create link_aggregation group_id 1
Command: create link_aggregation group_id 1
Success.

2. .
DES-3226S#delete link_aggregation group_id 1
Command: delete link_aggregation group_id 1
Success.

3. . 5-7, 9
1, 5 .
DES-3226S#config link_aggregation group_id 1 master_port 5 ports 5-7,9
Command: config link_aggregation group_id 1 master_port 5 ports 5-7,9
Success.

4. .
,
- .
DES-3226S:4#config link_aggregation algorithm
mac_source_dest
Command: config link_aggregation algorithm mac_source_dest
Success.

5. .

DES-3226S:4#show link_aggregation
Command: show link_aggregation
Link Aggregation Algorithm = MAC-source-dest
Group ID :
Master Port :

1
5

Member Port : 5-7, 9


Status :

Disabled

Flooding Port : 5

6.
802.3ad.
*. , LACP,
IEEE 802.3ad.
DES-3226S#create link_aggregation group_id 1 type lacp
Command: create link_aggregation group_id 1 type lacp
Success.

7. LACP .
DES-3226S#config lacp_port 1-12 mode active
Command: config lacp_port 1-12 mode active
Success.

8. LACP.
DES-3226S#show lacp_ports
Command: show lacp_ports
Port Activity
------ -------1

Active

Active

Active

Active

Active

Active

Active

Active

Active

10

Active

11

Active

12

Active

8. Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1d)


,
, Spanning Tree Protocol. , 1983 .,
. Ethernet, ,
.. . ,
, ,
Ethernet.
Spanning Tree (STA)
.
, STP
.
- Spanning Tree ( ).


STP.
STA , .
8- , 2- : 2-
, 6 - .
, ,
-. ,
.
(root
switch), .
. (, ,
, 32768. ,
-.) ,
.
( ),
,
.
STP (root port)
.
,
.
STP .
(designated port).
, ..
.
,
(designated bridge) .
, , .
.
, .
.
.
,
, ,
. , ,
.
.
STA (Path Cost)

.
.
IEEE 802.1d:

4 /
10 /
16 /
100 /
1 /
10 /

250
100
62
19
4
2

100-1000
50-600
40-400
10-60
3-10
1-5

1-65535
1-65535
1-65535
1-65535
1-65535
1-65535


.
, ,
- BPDU (Bridge Protocol Data Unit).
BPDU ,
:
,

- (
)

BPDU , ,
Ethernet.
BPDU ( 1-4).
( ) ,
BPDU (Max Age), .

26. BPDU.
BPDU :
STA - 2 .

STA,
.
STP 1 .
BPDU - 1 . BPDU - BPDU,
,
, BPDU
, , ,
- , ,
.
- 1 . , -
.
- 8 .
- 2 .
- 8 .
- 2 .
- 2 . 0.5 ,
. BPDU ,
.
- 2 . BPDU ,
, .
hello ( ), BPDU.

- 2 .

. ,

.

BPDU :
STA - 2 .
STP 1 .
BPDU - 1 .

STP
3 , (
27). .., . , LAN1 .
,
, , . B
. ,
. , A
. .., ,
. STP
B.
LAN 1
Port Cost=19

Port 3

Bridge ID=15

Port 1

Port 2

Port Cost=4

Port Cost=4

Port 1

Bridge ID=30
Port 2

Port 3

Port Cost=19

LAN 2

Port Cost=19

Port 1

Bridge ID=20

Port 2

Port 3

Port Cost=19

LAN 3

27. Spanning Tree.


,
. BPDU ( hello),
, 0,
,
BPDU.
BPDU,
, ,
BPDU,
. ,
BPDU, , .

.

, - ,
.
27.
A ( ) BPDUs,
0. B BPDU,
Port 1 (4) , BPDU (0). B
4 BPDUs 4 Port 3
Port 2.
C BPDU B,
23 (4 + 19). C BPDU
Port 1. BPDU 0 C
4 ( Port 1 4). C
. C Port 1 ,
. C
4 .

Port 1 4.

LAN 1

A
Designated Port

Port 3

Root Bridge

Port 1

Port 2

Designated Port

Root Port

Root Port

Port 1
Port 2

Port 3

LAN 2

C
Blocked

Port 1

Desigmated Bridge

Port 2

Port 3

LAN 3

28. Spanning Tree.


, .
,

. , ,
.
, STP

.
,
.
Port 1 ( 4).
, Port 1 .
Port 1 ( 4).
, Port 2 .

Port 3 Port 2 ,
23. STP
. (20)
(30), Port 2
. Port 3 .
,
:

1) .
2) .
3) .
4) .
5) .

29. .

Blocking - ( )
.
BPDU. .
Listening
BPDU.
, BPDU ,
(, ).
, ,
.
Learning
.
. STA, BPDU
. ,
,

.
Forwarding -
. ,
BPDU.
Disable .
STP, .
Blocking.

BPDU,

.
( 20 )
BPDU,
.
D-Link Rapid STP (IEEE 802.1w),
STP ( 1 ). 802.1w
802.1d.

8.1 Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (IEEE 802.1w)


D-Link
Spanning Tree Protocol, Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP),
IEEE 802.1w , IEEE 802.1d STP. RSTP
, STP,
.
IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP)
802.1d STP. STP,
, , 3 , Ethernet.
STP 802.1d RSTP 802.1w
,
. RSTP Disabled, Blocking Listening,
STP Discarding (),
.

STP
DISABLE
DISABLE
BLOCKING
LISTENING
LEARNING
FORWARDING

. STP RSTP.


RSTP

?
Disabled
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled
Enabled

Discarding
Discarding
Discarding
Discarding
Learning
Forwarding

(Disabled)
(Disabled)
(Alternate, Backup)
(Root, Designated)
(Root, Designated)
(Root, Designated)

RSTP
.
. RSTP 2 (Alternate)
(Backup), STP
.

.

30. .

,
. ,
( ).

31. .
. ,
RSTP,
.
, . ,
, RSTP :
(edge port) - (point-to-point , P2P).
(Edge) ,
, . ,
. , ,
, .

, BPDU.
P2P , ,
. RSTP ,
, 2, ,
.

802.1d/802.1w
RSTP , STP ,
, BPDU 802.1d.
, (
) .
,
RSTP.
8.2 STP CLI
STP Rapid STP CLI.

config stp

maxage <value>
hellotime <value>
forwarddelay <value>
priority <value>
fdpdu [enable|disable]
txholdcount <1-10>
version [rstp|stp]
<portlist>
cost <value>
priority <value>
migrate [yes|no]
edge [true|false]
p2p [true|false|auto]
state [enable|disable]


STP

config stp ports

enable stp
disable stp

STP
STP

show stp
show stp ports

<portlist>

STP
STP

1. STP () .
DES-3226S#enable stp
Command: enable stp
Success.

2. STP :
(path cost) 19, (priority) 16, (state) enabled 1-5
.
DES-3226S#config stp ports 1-5 cost 19 priority 16 state enabled
Command: config stp ports 1-5 cost 19 priority 15 state enabled
Success.

3. STP .
STP : maxage 18 hellotime 4.
DES-3226S#config stp maxage 18 hellotime 4
Command: config stp maxage 18 hellotime 4
Success.

4. STP .
DES-3226S#disable stp
Command: disable stp
Success.

5. STP .
DES-3226S#show stp
Command: show stp
Bridge Parameters Settings
STP Status : Enabled
Max Age : 20
Hello Time : 2
Forward Delay : 15
Priority : 32768
STP Version : STP compatible
TX Hold Count : 3
Forwarding BPDU : Enabled

Bridge Current Status


Designated Root Bridge : 00-00-51-43-70-00
Root Priority: 32768
Cost to Root : 200000
Root Port : 10
Last Topology Change : 53sec
Topology Changes Count : 1
Protocol Specification : 3
Max Age : 20
Hello Time : 2
Forward Delay : 15
Hold Time : 3

6. STP .
DES-3226S#show stp ports
Command: show ports
Port

Designated Bridge State Cost Pri Edge P2P Status Role

------ ------------------

----- ---------- ---- ---- ---

---------- ----------

N/A

Yes *200000 128 No Yes Disabled Disabled

N/A

Yes *200000 128 No Yes Disabled Disabled

N/A

Yes *200000 128 No Yes Disabled Disabled

.
9

N/A

Yes *200000 128 No Yes Disabled Disabled

10

N/A

Yes *200000 128 No Yes Forwarding NonStp

11

N/A

Yes *200000 128 No Yes Disabled Disabled

..

9. (QoS)
9.1 (802.1)

, .
, .
,
, .
, , ,
10 .
,

.
,
,
, /
:
(best effort service).

. Qos
.
(differentiated service).

.
QoS (
, , ).
CoS
(Class of Service).
.
, .
.

,
.

(guaranteed
service).



.


. ,
Frame Relay RSVP TCP/IP.
,
.

.
, , Ethernet ,
-
. -
.
, .
, - ,
, .

IEEE 802.1. 802.1q.
Ethernet,
. , ,
3 . ,
.
802.1,
.
, ,
.
, 802.1,
.
,
, CoS,
, , .
.
(packet classification) ,

.

D-Link
. , :
802.1
TOS, IP-
(DSCP)
I-
TCP/UDP.

, CoS
(, DES-3226S 4 CoS ,
DGS-3212SR 8 ). , ,
, , ,
(Weighted Round Robin, WRR).
32
CoS. 1 2 Q0,
0 3 Q1, 4 5
Q2, 6 7
Q3.

. D-Link 2 :
(Strict Priority Queuing) (Weighted
Round Robin).
, ,
. ,
. WRR
,
.
, ,
. : 0
255. : 0 255 ( 16).

31. .

9.1.2 CLI

CLI.

config scheduling

<class_id 0-3>
max_packet <value 0-255>
max_latency <value 0-255>

show scheduling
config 802.1p

<priority 0-7>

user_priority

show 802.1p
user_priority
config 802.1p
default_priority
show 802.1p
default_priority

<class_id 0-3>


802.1p
,
.

<portlist>
all
<priority 0-7>

,


.
802.1,

.

<portlist>

1. . Q0
100 150
DES-3226S# config scheduling 0 max_packet 100 max_latency 150
Command: config scheduling 0 max_packet 100 max_latency 150
Success.

2. .
DES-3226S# show scheduling
Command: show scheduling
QOS Output Scheduling
MAX. Packets MAX. Latency
------------------- -----------------Class-0

50

Class-1

100

Class-2

150

Class-3

200

1
1

3. 1
Q3.
DES-3226S# config 802.1p user_priority 1 3
Command: config 802.1p user_priority 1 3
Success.

4.
.
DES-3226S# show 802.1p user_priority
Command: show 802.1p user_priority
COS Class of Traffic

Priority-0 -> <Class-1>


Priority-1 -> <Class-0>
Priority-2 -> <Class-0>
Priority-3 -> <Class-1>
Priority-4 -> <Class-2>
Priority-5 -> <Class-2>
Priority-6 -> <Class-3>
Priority-7 -> <Class-3>

5. .
,
5.
DES-3226S#config 802.1p default_priority all 5
Command: config 802.1p default_priority all 5
Success.

6. , .
DES-3226S# show 802.1p default_priority
Command: show 802.1p default_priority
Port Priority
------- ----------1

..

9.2

.

32.

9.2.1 CLI

CLI.

config
bandwidth_control

<portlist>
rx_rate
no_limit
<value 1-1000>
tx_rate
no_limit
<value 1-1000>
<portlist>

show
bandwidth_control

1. 1 10 , 10 /.
DES-3226S#config bandwidth_control 1-10 tx_rate 10
Command: config bandwidth_control 1-10 tx_rate 10
Success.

2. .
DES-3226S:4#show bandwidth_control 1-10
Command: show bandwidth_control 1-10
Bandwidth Control Table
Port RX RATE (Mbit|sec) TX_RATE (Mbit|sec)
----

------------------------ ----------------------

no_limit

10

no_limit

10

no_limit

10

no_limit

10

no_limit

10

no_limit

10

no_limit

10

no_limit

10

no_limit

10

10

no_limit

10

10.
10.1 Port Security
,
MAC- ,
MAC-.
,
-.
-,
, MAC-, ..
, .
-, MAC- ,
MAC--,
. D-Link
-, 256 .
MAC-,
MAC- ,
.
, ,
. , MAC ( ,
) , ,
.
,
, ..
. MAC-, ,
, IP-, ,
.
10.1.2 Port Security CLI
Port Security CLI.

config port_security
ports

[<portlist>| all ] {admin_state [enable | disable]


|max_learning_addr <max_lock_no 0-10> |
lock_address_mode[Permanent|
DeleteOnTimeout|DeleteOnReset]}

clear
port_security_entry

vlan_name <vlan_name 32> mac_address


<macaddr> port <port>

Show port_security

{ports <portlist>}

,

portlist

VLAN, MAC
.

1. Port Security 1-5,


- 5
- .
DES-3226S#config port_security ports 1-5 admin_state enable max_learning_addr 5 lock_address_mode
DeleteOnTimeout
Command: config port_security ports 1-5 admin_state enable max_learning_addr 5 lock_address_mode DeleteOnTimeout
Stacking port 5 can not be a port-security port

2. Port Security.
DES-3226S#show port_security ports 1-24
Command: show port_security ports 1-24
Port# Admin State Max. Learning Addr. Lock Address Mode
----

----------- ------------------- -----------------

Disabled

DeleteOnReset

Disabled

DeleteOnReset

Disabled

DeleteOnReset

Disabled

DeleteOnReset

Disabled

DeleteOnReset

Disabled

DeleteOnReset

Enabled

10

DeleteOnReset

3. Port Security .
DES-3226S#clear port_security_entry port 15:1
Command: clear port_security_entry port 15:1
Success.

10.2
2.
, ,
,
.
.

33. Traffic Segmentation.


(PC2 - PC24) uplink,
.
:
1. ETTH
2.

10.2.1 Traffic Segmentation CLI


Traffic Segmentation CLI.

config
traffic_segmentation

<portlist>
forward_list
null
<portlist>

show
traffic_segmentation

<portlist>

1. 1 10 , 11
15.
DES-3226S# config traffic_segmentation 1-10 forward_list 11-15
Command: config traffic_segmentation 1-10 forward_list 11-15
Success.

2. , .
DES-3226S#show traffic_segmentation
Command: show traffic_segmentation
Traffic Segmentation Table
Port

Forward Portlist

----

-------------------------------------------------

9-15

9-15

..
11

1-26

12

1-26

13

1-26

10.3 IEEE 802.1


IEEE 802.1 /
,
. (RADIUS)
, ,
, .
, ,
802.1 Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPOL)
, . ,
.

34.


802.1 ,
.

35.

,
.
802.1x, , Microsoft Windows
XP.

35.

.

. RADIUS /,
RADIUS. ..
, .

36.

( (authenticator))
, .
,
,
, . RADIUS,
EAP
.
.
, EAPOL-start,
.
, ,
.
, .
.
, ,
One-Time-Password (OTP) RADIUS.

37.
802.1 -,
:
802.1x MAC-
/, MAC-,
. , MAC-.
802.1x , , ,
, , .

10.3.1
,
. .

802.1. ,
, .
, 802.1.
, 802.1,
802.1, . ,
,
.
, 802.1 ,
802.1, , EAPOLstart. , .
, , , ,
.
, 802.1,
,
. ,
, .
, .
,
- .
, EAPOL-logoff,
.

(up) (down),
EAPOL-logoff, .

10.3.2 802.1
802.1 :
(Trunk port)
EtherChannel , 802.1 ,
EtherChannel.
10.3.3 802.1 CLI
: 802.1x,
( 802.1x Window XP).
Radius: Windows NT Windows 2000 Server Radius Server Service.
:
802.1x
802.1x
Radius
802.1 CLI.

enable 802.1x
disable 802.1x

802.1

802.1


802.1x

show 802.1x

[auth_state | auth_configuration] {ports


<portlist>}

config 802.1x
capability

ports <portlist>|all
authenticator
none

802.1
:

.

config 802.1x
auth_parameter

ports <portlist>|all
default
direction [both|in]
port_control
[force_unauth|auto|force_auth]
quiet_period <sec 0-65535>
tx_period <sec 1-65535>
supp_timeout <sec 1-65535>
server_timeout <sec 1-65535>
max_req <value 1-10>
reauth_period <sec 1-65535>
enable_reauth [enable|disable]
[port_based |mac_based]


802.1x
.
Default -

802.1x .

config 802.1x
auth_mode
config 802.1x init

config 802.1x
reauth

config 802.1x init [port_based ports


[<portlist|all>] |mac_based ports
[<portlist>|all]
{mac_address <macaddr>}]
[port_based ports [<portlist|all>]
|mac_based
ports [<portlist>|all] {mac_address
<macaddr>}]


802.1x:

-.

802.1x

-.

config radius add

config radius delete


config radius

<server_index 1-3>
<server_ip>
key <passwd 32>
default
auth_port <udp_port_number>
acct_port <udp_port_number>
<server_index 1-3>
<server_index 1-3>
ipaddress <server_ip>
key <passwd 32>
auth_port <udp_port_number>
acct_port <udp_port_number>

show radius

.


RADIUS.



RADIUS.


RADIUS.

RADIUS
.

1. 802.1x .
DES-3226S#enable 802.1x
Command: enable 802.1x
Success.

2. 802.1 .
DES-3226S#show 802.1x auth_state ports 1-5
Command: show 802.1x auth_state ports 1-5
Port Auth PAE State Backend State Port Status
------

--------------

-------------

------------

ForceAuth

Success

Authorized

ForceAuth

Success

Authorized

ForceAuth

Success

Authorized

ForceAuth

Success

Authorized

ForceAuth

Success

Authorized

3. 802.1.
DES-3226S#show 802.1x auth_configuration ports 1
Command: show 802.1x auth_configuration ports 1
802.1X : Enabled
Authentication Mode : Port_based
Authentication Protocol : Radius_Eap
Port number : 15:1
Capability : None
AdminCrlDir : Both

OpenCrlDir : Both
Port Control : Auto
QuietPeriod : 60 sec
TxPeriod : 30 sec
SuppTimeout : 30 sec
ServerTimeout : 30 sec
MaxReq : 2 times
ReAuthPeriod : 3600 sec
ReAuthenticate : Disabled

4. 802.1x 1 10.
DES-3226S#config 802.1x capability ports 1 10 authenticator
Command: config 802.1x capability ports 1-10 authenticator
Success.

5. 802.1 .
DES-3226S#config 802.1x auth_mode port_based
Command: config 802.1x auth_mode port_based
Success.

6. 802.1 1-18.
DES-3226S#config 802.1x reauth mac_based ports 1-18
Command: config 802.1x reauth mac_based ports 1-18
Success.

7. Radius:
DES-3226S#config radius add 1 10.48.74.121 key dlink default
Command: config radius add 1 10.48.74.121 key dlink default
Success.

10.4 Access Control Lists (ACL)


(Access Control Lists)
. ,
, .
, , .

, (ACL) .
D-Link :
Ethernet IP. -
, VLAN, IP-, .
, (Profile
ID). , ,

. ,
. , ,
.

10.4.1 ( Web-)
2 :
1) :
, IP .
2) : ,
( ).
1: (Access Profile Mask)
1. Web- . Advanced
Setup/ Access Profile Mask Setting.
2. New Access
Profile Mask Setting. .
, . ,
.

38.

39. MAC

40. IP
3. :
1) (Profile ID):
, Auto
Assign. 1 255.
2) (Access Profile): Ethernet IP.
(. ).
Ethernet, , 2-
. IP, , IP
.
3) VLAN: , , VLAN

.
Ethernet:
4) MAC (Source MAC Mask): MAC
MAC MAC .
5) MAC (Destination MAC Mask):
MAC MAC MAC .
6) 802.1p: , ,
802.1p
.
7) Ethernet Type: ,
Ethernet .
IP:
4) IP (Source IP Mask): IP -
IP IP .
5) IP (Destination IP Mask): IP IP IP .
6) DSCP: , , DiffServ Code
Point (DSCP)
.
7) Protocol: ,
(ICMP, IGMP, TCP, UDP) .

TCP UDP
. , ,
.
Source Port Mask Ox TCP/UDP
(hex 0x0-0xffff).
Destination Port Mask Ox TCP/UDP
(hex 0x0-0xffff).
8) Permit/Deny ( ).
Permit , ,
.
Deny , ,
.

2: .

41.
1.
Edit Rule.
2. , New. ,
, , Delete.

42.

3. .
, , 802.1p
, . priority
. 0, 7.

10.4.2
1)
,
: Ethernet IP.
2) .
3) , , Access Profile
Mask
4) Access Profile Rule .
10.4.3 Access Control Lists (ACL) CLI
ACL CLI.

create
access_profile

ethernet
vlan
source_mac <macmask>
destination_mac <macmask>
802.1p
ethernet_type
ip
vlan
source_ip_mask <netmask>
destination_ip_mask <netmask>
dscp
icmp
type
code
igmp
type
tcp
src_port_mask <hex 0x0-0xffff>
dst_port_mask <hex 0x0-0xffff>
udp
udp src_port_mask <hex 0x0-0xffff>
dst_port_mask <hex 0x0-0xffff>
protocol_id
user_mask <hex 0x0-0xffffffff>
permit
deny
profile_id <value 1-255>}
Profile_id <value 1-255>



,

.
,


.

delete
access_profile
config
access_profile
profile_id <value 1255>

access_profile
profile_id <value 1-255>
add access_id <value 1-255>
ethernet
vlan <vlan_name 32>
source_mac <macaddr>
destination_mac <macaddr>
802.1p <value 0-7>
ethernet_type <hex 0x0-0xffff>
ip
vlan <vlan_name 32>
source_ip <ipaddr>
destination_ip <ipaddr>
dscp <value>


.


,


. ,
create access_profile,

,
,

.

icmp
type <value 0-255>
code <value 0-255>
igmp
type <value 0-255>
tcp
src_port <value 0-65535>
dst_port <value 0-65535>
udp
src_port <value 0-65535>
dst_port <value 0-65535>
protocol_id <value 0-255>
user_define <hex 0x0-0xffffffff>
priority <value 0-7>
replace_priority
replace_dscp <value 0-63>
delete <value 1-255>

* :
, . , , DES-3226S
10 , 50 (50
10 ).

Internet
DES-3226S

PC-1


43.

1.

-. .
-:
IP=10.254.254.251/8
: 00-50-BA-00-00-19

PC1:
IP: 10.1.1.1/8,
: 0050ba6b18c8
Gateway=10.254.254.251

( )
IP: 10.x.x.x/8

( CLI).
:
MAC- = MAC- =
, ( ,
)
MAC- = , .
,
:
# 0050ba6b18c8
DES-3226S# create access_profile ethernet source_mac FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF destination_mac FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF permit
profile_id 10
DES-3226S# config access_profile profile_id 10 add access_id 11 ethernet source_mac 00-50-ba-6b-18-c8
destination_mac 00-50-ba-00-00-19

#
DES-3226S#create access_profile ethernet destination_mac FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF deny profile_id 20
DES-3226S# config access_profile profile_id 20 add access_id 21 ethernet destination_mac 00-50-ba-00-00-19

2.

-. .
-:
IP=10.254.254.251/8
: 00-50-BA-00-00-19

PC1:
IP: 10.1.1.1/8,
: 0050ba6b18c8
Gateway=10.254.254.251

( )
IP: 10.x.x.x/8

:
MAC- = MAC- =
, ( ,
)
,

:
# MAC 0050ba6b18c8 .
DES-3226S#create access_profile ethernet source_mac FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF destination_mac FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF deny
profile_id 10
DES-3226S#config access_profile profile_id 10 add access_id 11 ethernet source_mac 00-50-ba-6b-18-c8 destination_mac
00-50-ba-00-00-19

#
( , )

3.

IP-. .

Internet

.1 - .63


44.

-:
IP= 192.168.1.254/32

: 192.168.1.x
:
192.168.1.1 - 192.168.1.63


:
1. DestIP=192.168.1.254/32 SrcIP=192.168.1.1/26,
2. DestIP=192.168.1.254/32 SrcIP=192.168.1.1/24,
3. ,

:
# 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.63 192.168.1.254
DES-3226S#create access_profile ip destination_ip_mask 255.255.255.255 source_ip_mask 255.255.255.192 permit
profile_id 10
DES-3226S#config access_profile profile_id 10 add access_id 11 ip destination_ip 192.168.1.254 source_ip 192.168.1.1

# 192.168.1.1192.168.1.253 192.168.1.254
DES-3226S#create access_profile ip destination_ip_mask 255.255.255.255 source_ip_mask 255.255.255.0 deny profile_id
20
DES-3226S# onfig access_profile profile_id 20 add access_id 21 ip destination_ip 192.168.1.254 soruce_ip 192.168.1.1

# ,

4 ( 3- ).
. 1(192.168.1.x)
2, 3, 4. 2, 3, 4
.

DES-3326S

Net4:
192.168.4.x
Gateway:
192.168.4.1

Net3:
192.168.3.x
Gateway:
192.168.3.1

Net2:
192.168.2.x
Gateway:
192.168.2.1

Net1:
192.168.1.x
Gateway:
192.168.1.1

45.
:
1. Dest. IP=192.168.1.x,
2. Src. IP=192.168.1.x,
3. DestIP=192.168.2.x SrcIP=192.168.2.x,
4. DestIP=192.168.3.x SrcIP=192.168.3.x,
5. DestIP=192.168.4.x SrcIP=192.168.4.x,
6.
:
# 192.168.1.x
DES-3226S#create access_profile ip destination_ip_mask 255.255.255.0 permit profile_id 10
DES-3226S#config access_profile profile_id 10 add access_id 11 ip destination_ip 192.168.1.2

# 192.168.1.x
DES-3226S#create access_profile ip source_ip_mask 255.255.255.0 permit profile_id 20
DES-3226S#config access_profile profile_id 20 add access_id 21 ip source_ip 192.168.1.2

# 192.168.2.x, 192.168.3.x 192.168.2.x.


DES-3226S#create access_profile ip source_ip_mask 255.255.255.0 destination_ip_mask 255.255.255.0 permit profile_id
30
DES-3226S#config access_profile profile_id 30 add access_id 31 ip source_ip 192.168.2.2 destination_ip 192.168.2.2
DES-3226S#config access_profile profile_id 30 add access_id 32 ip source_ip 192.168.3.2 destination_ip 192.168.3.2
DES-3226S#config access_profile profile_id 30 add access_id 33 ip source_ip 192.168.4.2 destination_ip 192.168.4.2

#### ,
# .
DES-3226S#create access_profile ip source_ip_mask 0.0.0.0 deny profile_id 40
DES-3226S#config access_profile profile_id 40 add access_id 41 ip source_ip 0.0.0.0

5.
show access_profile.
DES-3226S# show access_profile
Access Profile Table
Access Profile ID:1

Mode : Deny
TYPE : IP

====================================================
MASK Option Source IP MASK
255.255.255.0
-------------------- ---------------------Access ID
-------------------- ---------------------1
10.42.73.0

11.
(Multicast) ,

.
, , .
,

.
IP-
.
: . ,
,
( ) IGMP.
IP, ,
.

11.1
IP-,
.
IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority,
).
IP- D. ,
224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255.
IANA IP 224.0.0.0-224.0.0.255
.
. 224.0.1.0-224.0.1.255
,
.
11.2 -
,
- -
- . ,
.
IP -
IP . 24 .
01-00-05 Ethernet.
24 - .
-, 25- ( ) 0,
23 IP- 23 -.
.

01005E
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0

24- -
OUI ( )
D

23

1 1 1 0 x x x x y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y

5 -
23
46. IP- Ethernet.

5 1- IP-,
. - 32
.
11.3
, .
.
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol,
)
. , IGMP-

. IGMP
IGMP- ,
, .
IGMP v1
1 IGMP IGMP-:
;
.
IGMP-,
, .
IGMP-, ,
, .
IGMP-,
.
IGMP v2
2 IGMP IGMP-:
;
1;
2;
.
IGMP 2 IGMP 1.
.
.
, , ,
. ,
. ,
, IGMP 1.
.

47. IGMP.
, .
11.4 2
2-
, -
. , -
, .
,

,
.

48.
.

:
VLAN
. ,
.
, D-Link IGMP (IGMP-snooping). IGMP-
IGMP-, ,
3- . IGMP-
,
. IGMP-
, .
IGMP- ,
2- . ,
IGMP-,
, . IGMP-
.
,
IGMP- .

49. IGMP-snooping.
11.5 IGMP- snooping CLI
IGMP-snooping CLI.

config
igmp_snooping

<vlan_name 32>
all
host_timeout <sec 1-16711450>
router_timeout <sec 1-16711450>
leave_timer <sec 1-16711450>
robustness_variable <value 1-255>
last_member_query_interval <sec 125>
state [enable|disable]
<vlan_name 32>
all
query_interval <sec 1-65535>
max_response_time <sec 1-25>
robustness_variable <value 1-255>
last_member_query_interval <sec 125>
state [enable|disable]
<vlan_name 32> [add|delete]
<portlist>

IGMPsnooping .

config
igmp_snooping
querier

config router_ports

enable igmp
snooping

forward_mcrouter_only



,



.

.
,


..
IGMPsnooping .
forward_mcrouter_only
,


.
,
IP
.

disable igmp
snooping
show igmp
snooping
show igmp
snooping group
show router ports

vlan <vlan_name 32>


vlan <vlan_name 32>

vlan <vlan_name 32>


static
dynamic

IGMPsnooping .

IGMP-snooping .

IGMPsnooping
.



.

1. IGMP-snooping.
DES-3226S#config igmp_snooping default host_timeout 250 state enable
Command: config igmp_snooping default host_timeout 250 state enable

Success.

host_timeout <sec> - ,

. 260 .

2. IGMP-snooping querier .
DES-3226S#config igmp_snooping querier default query_interval 125 state enable
Command: config igmp_snooping querier default query_interval 125 state enable
Success.

3. IGMP-snooping .
DES-3226S#enable igmp_snooping
Command: enable igmp_snooping
Success.

4. .
DES-3226S#config router_ports default add 1-10
Command: config router_ports default add 1-10
Success.

5. IGMP-snooping .
DES-3226S#show igmp_snooping
Command: show igmp_snooping
IGMP Snooping Global State : Disabled

Multicast router Only : Disabled


VLAN Name : default
Query Interval : 125
Max Response Time : 10
Robustness Value : 2
Last Member Query Interval : 1
Host Timeout : 260
Route Timeout : 260
Leave Timer : 2
Querier State : Disabled
Querier Router Behavior : Non-Querier
State : Disabled
VLAN Name : vlan2
Query Interval : 125
Max Response Time : 10
Robustness Value : 2
Last Member Query Interval : 1
Host Timeout : 260
Route Timeout : 260
Leave Timer : 2
Querier State : Disabled
Querier Router Behavior : Non-Querier
State : Disabled
Total Entries: 2

:
1. D-Link DES-3226S.
2. D-Link.
3. . , , . .. , .. .
:, 2000.
4. , 3- .: . .
.: , 2002.
5. IP.: . . . .:
, 2003.
6. . http://www.routers.ru

. .

. CLI ,
.
: . ,
Caps Lock , .

< >

,
.

[ ]

.
.
|


, .
{ }

1
10Base-F. IEEE 802.3 Ethernet .
10Base-T. IEEE 802.3i Ethernet
(" ").
100Base-T. IEEE 802.3us Ethernet 100 /
(" ").
100Base-TX. IEEE 802.3u Ethernet 100 /
2- 5.
100Base-FX. IEEE 802.3u Ethernet 100 /
FDDI TP-PMD PMD ( ).
10Gbase-ER. 10G Ethernet,
10 / 40 (25 )
1550 .
10Gbase-LR. 10G Ethernet,
10 / 10 (6 )
1310 .
10Gbase-SR. 10G Ethernet,
10 / 300 (990 )
850 .

A
Access method. . ,
. CSMA/CD (Ethernet)
(Token Ring).
Address. . ,
, .
Address mask. . ,
Internet . 32
Inetrnet .
.
Address resolution ( ).
(Network Layer) (media-specific) . . ARP.
Agent . . SNMP .
- - ,
.
Aggregate link. .
.

Application Layer. . OSI,


, .
ARP: Address Resolution Protocol. . Internet,
Internet ()
. ARP
, IP-.

B
Backbone. , ,
.
Backplane. .
,
.
Bandwidth. , ,
. ().
Bridge. . ,
. OSI .
Bridge Protocol Data Unit (BPDU). .
(Spanning Tree Protocol),
.
Broadcast. . ,
, .
Ethernet.
Bus topology. . ,
( ),
.

C
Channel. . []
. : link, line, circuit facility
Chassis. . ,
.
.
CLI. Command Line Interface , .
.
Client. . ( ),
.
Collision. . Ethernet, .
.

Collision domain. . Ethernet,


, .
CoS. Class of Service, . , ,
.
ToS.
Crossover. . ( )
.
CSMA/CD. Carrier sense multiple access/collision detection -
. ,
, , .
,
. ,
. , ,

. CSMA/CD Ethernet IEEE 802.3.
Cut-through packet switching. . ,
,
, .
,
.
.

D
Data Link Layer . . 2 OSI,
.
, , ,
, . IEEE
: LLC.
Designated bridge. . ,
.
DHCP. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol, .

IP-.

E
EIA RS-232. EIA 25- ,
(DTE) (DCE)
.
EMI. Electromagnetic interference, .
, -
.
Encapsulation. . , ,
(protocol data unit - PDU )
. Internet - ,

(IP), -
(TCP), .
Ethernet. (), IEEE
. IEEE 802.3. Ethernet 10 /
CSMA/CD. Ethernet 10Base-T.
Ethernet Fast Ethernet (100 /) Gigabit Ethernet (1000 /).
Ethernet address. Ethernet. 48- ,
( Ethernet) . 12
.

F
Fault management. . ISO
. ,
.
Fault tolerance. .
.
, , ..
Fiber optic cable. . ,
.
Filtering. .
( , )
. , .
Flooding. . ,
,
.
Flow control. . ,

.
Forwarding table. .
.

, ,

Frame. . .
MAC ,
. ,
.
, , ,
.
Full duplex. . - .

G
GUI. Graphical User Interface, .
,
, () .

H
Half Duplex. .
. , ,
.

I
IEEE. Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers,
. , 1963
.
802 . 802
(Technical Committee for Computer Communications),
1980
. IEEE ANSI ISO.
IEEE 802. IEEE 802. IEEE,
.
Ethernet, Token Ring, Wireless LAN.
IEEE 802.3. IEEE CSMA/CD.
IGMP. Internet Group Management Protocol, .
, IP-
.
IP. Internet Protocol, IP- . TCP/IP, RFC 791 .
.
IP.
.
IP address. IP-. IP - 32 (4 ) ,
STD 5 (RFC 791) TCP/IP. IP-
(network portion) (host portion) -
. IP-
. IPv6
128- ,
.

L
LAN. Local Area Network,
.

,
.
, , ,
.
LLC. Logical Link Control, .
, IEEE. , ,
, -. LLC IEEE 802.2. IEEE 802.2
.

M
MAC. Media Access Control, .
, IEEE. -
.
MAC address. -. ,
, .
,
. - 6 ,
IEEE. -
.
MAC address learning. -. ,
- .
,
.
. .
- IEEE 802.1.
MIB. Management Information Base, . ,
,
SNMP. MIB-
SNMP (, D-Link D -View) GUI. MIB- ()
() .
MTU. Maximum Transmission Unit, .
( ) , .
Multicast. .
.
(Destination address field).
Multicast address. . ,
.
Multicast group. . IP-,
IP-.
Multicast router. . ,
IGMP- . ,
, IGMP-
, .
, .

N
Network . .
1. ( ).
2. , ,
, .

Network Address. . , ,
. (protocol
address).
Network Layer. . 3 OSI, ,
OSI.
Node. . , , .
NVRAM. NonVolatile RAM, . ,
.

P
Packet. . , ,
, . .
3 : (
, ..), ,
. 3 () OSI.
PDU. Protocol Data Unit, . OSI .
Physical Layer. . 1 OSI. ,
, ,
.
Ping. Packet INternet Groper, . - ICMP
. , IP-.
Port density. . .
Port security. . ,
.
Proxy ARP. Proxy Address Resolution Protocol, .
ARP, (, )
ARP .

Q
QoS. Quality of Service, .
, .

R
RADIUS. Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service,
. IETF, ,

.
Redundancy. . , .
,
.

Redundant system. . , ,
, ,
, .
Reliability. .
. , .
RMON. Remote MONitoring, . MIB-,
RFC 1271, .
RMON ,
.
,
.
Router. . ,
.
.
Routing. . .

S
Segment. . 1. , ,
. 2. LAN ,
. 3. ,
TCP .
Session Layer. . 5 OSI,
.
SNMP. Simple Network Management Protocol, .
, TCP/IP. SNMP

,
,
, .
SOHO. Small Office, Home Office, .
.
Spanning Tree. . .
Spanning Tree Algorithm. . ,
.
STA.
Spanning Tree Protocol. . ,

.
BPDU
.
Store and forward packet switching. .
,
. CRC
. , ,

(, ) .
(cut-through packet
switching).
Switch. . , ,
. OSI.
Switch LAN. . .

T
Tag. . , .
TCP. Transmission Control Protocol, .
,
. TCP /IP.
TCP/IP. Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol , / Internet
. ,
1970- . .
Telnet. TCP/IP.
Telnet ,
,
.
TFTP. Trivial File Transfer Protocol, .
FTP, .
Throughput. . , , ,
.
Traffic segmentation. . ,
2.
Transport Layer. . 4 OSI,
.
Trap. . (alarm message), ,
, .
, ,
.
Trunk. . ,
.

.

U
UDP. User Datagram Protocol, .
, . TCP/IP. UDP
.

V
VLAN. Virtual LAN, . ,
(
), ,
,
. VLAN .

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