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7.

4 African Americans and the War


Summary:
Over the years, many African Americans fought in the war. Even before independence
was declared, many African Americans joined the patriot cause. Black militiamen fought
at Leington, !oncord, and Bunker "ill. "owever, early in the war, blacks were banned
from the continental army. But after they changed the rules, by #$$%, #&' of the cont.
army soldiers were African Americans. (o, whites began to )uestion their own beliefs. By
the time the war ended, *ermont, !onnecticut, +assachusetts, ,ew "ampshire, -hode
.sland, and /ennsylvania had taken steps to end slavery.
3 Important Notes:
Even before independence was declared, a number of African Americans joined
the patriot cause.
Early in the war, blacks were banned from the cont. army.
By #$$%, about #&' of the soldiers in the continental army were African
Americans.
7.4 Defeat in New York
Summary:
On August 0$, #$$1 the British and the Americans fought a war in Brooklyn ,ew 2ork.
3eorge 4ashington led the Americans with some of 5homas +iffin6s help, while "owe
led the British. 5he British were desperate to get the Americans out of ,2. 5hey killed
over #777 of 4ashington6s men and chased them out of ,2 and ,2 and across the
8elaware -iver into /ennsylvania. .n conclusion, 4ashington had to retreat.
3 Important Notes:
August 0$, #$$1, Americans fought against the British in ,ew 2ork.
Americans lost #,97$ and the British only lost :$$.
Americans were losing too many troops so they had to retreat.
7.4 adin! "opes
Summary:
5he section ;ading "opes is about the dire time for American troops after battling the
British army in ,ew 2ork !ity. 5he British forces chased the continental army from ,ew
2ork to /ennsylvania. Along the way the Americans soldiers were tired, hungry and
wanted to go home. By the time the cont. army reached /ennsylvania, there were non
more than a few thousand men left and most troops had little to no clothing. As 3eorge
4ashington noted, the Americans need more troops, or they would not end up victorious
in the -evolutionary 4ar.
3 Important Notes:
After the defeat in ,ew 2ork, British Army chased the colonists through the
colonies.
/eople thought that those who joined the army were cra<y.
5roops had to travel over muddy roads and icy streams, which added to their
misery.
7.# $ictory in %renton
Summary:
On 8ecember 0&
th
, #$$1 3eorge 4ashington6s army crossed the free<ing 8elaware -iver
to get to 5renton. 5he Americans surprise attacked the "essians while they were sleeping.
Because the "essians were so surprised, they surrendered and 3eorge 4ashington took
=1= prisoners. 5he Americans lost no men. so, the Americans captured :77 troops at
/rinceton ,.>. the net week. 5hese successes gave the patriots hope to keep on fighting.
3 important notes:
4on in 5renton against the "essians
5ook =1= prisoners
3ave patriots hope to keep on fighting