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(C) = Chris asking question, (D) = Drake answering question

(C)- Constitutional government in the United States has changed over time as a result of
amendments to the U.S. Constitutional, Supreme Court decisions, legislation and informal
practices. (D)- The processes to amend the Constitution: Formal method: ratification of a
Constitutional Amendment by the Legislative Branch (2/3 majority in each house), then
ratification by the states (3/4 of the states must ratify). Informal method: This isn't really
amending the Constitution, because only the formal method does that, but if the makeup of the
Supreme Court changes, or the Supreme Court decides that differences in society must be
accounted for, the laws can be interpreted differently and be deemed "constitutional" in different
ways by different courts, which, some would argue, has the same effect as amending the
document itself. There have been times when it seems as though the Supreme Court amended the
Constitution by the way it construed the language of the Constitution in certain cases and in the
way court decisions are overruled from time to time. This is sometimes referred to as an
"informal amendment," a misleading term. (For example) In the cases of Marbury v. Madison,
(1803) where the Supreme Court ruled that it had the judicial power to determine whether or not
a particular law or governmental action is proper under the Constitution. The English Bill of
Rights is the base of the Bill of Right and The Declaration of Independence. The rights that the
U.S has today are based off of the English Bill of Rights that are changed and reword to make
more sense to Americans.
(C)- The Reconstruction Era prompted Amendments 13 through 15 address the aftermath
of slavery and the Civil War. (D)- The Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution
officially abolished and continues to prohibit slavery to this day. The Fourteenth Amendment
declared that all persons born or naturalized in the United States are American citizens including
African Americans. The Fifteenth Amendment prohibits each government in the United States
from denying a citizen the right to vote based on that citizen's race, color, or previous condition
of servitude. These Amendments crated all men are equal no matter their race and color. (For
example) In the cast of Jones vs Alfred H. Mayer Co. (1968) arose when the developer of a
suburban St. Louis subdivision refused to sell Joseph Jones a home because he was black. Jones
sued the developer, alleging a violation of 42 U.S.C. 1982 which granted "all citizens of the
United States...the same right as is enjoyed by white citizens...to purchase...real property." The
14
th
amendment has been used to extended rights to other minority groups throughout history is
that everyone has the right to own property no matter their race.
(C) - Amendments 16 through 19 responded to the calls for reform during the Progressive
Era.
(D) - The 16
th
amendment made it for government to pass taxes. The 17
th
amendment made to
were The Senate and the House of Representatives amount of people per state. The 18
th

amendment is the amount of time for a bill or law to be passed. The 19
th
amendment is it that
anybody has the right to vote no matter the sex. These amendments had changed the Constitution
by the amount of people in congress who are able to add an amendment to the Constitution. If
there were too directly election for senators would be unfair because the election for the
president isnt direct. On the other hand if there was a direct election the people will vote for
who they want as there senators. The government wanted an easier way and these amendments
reflect that because the people also wanted and easier way.
(C) - Four amendments have provided for extensions of suffrage to disenfranchised groups.
(D) - The 15
th
amendment the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or
abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of
servitude. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. The
19
th
amendment the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged
by the United States or by any State on account of sex. The 24
th
amendment the right of citizens
of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for
electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not
be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or
other tax. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Also
the 26
th
amendment the right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or
older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of
age. Those amendments helped by saying the age you can vote and that sex and race dont matter
as long as youre a citizen and the age of 18. The extension of suffrage for African Americans,
females and 18 year olds was different. 18 year olds are now adults so they should be able to
vote because of being an adult. African Americans were set free form slavery so why shouldnt
they be able to vote if they now have equal rights. Female should have the right to vote because
they have been here as long as males so why should they not be able to vote.

(C) - Five amendments have altered provisions for presidential election, terms and
succession to address changing historical circumstances. (D) The 12
th
amendment the way
the President and Vice-President are chosen by the Senate and House of Representatives are
collected and counted from each state. The 20
th
amendment is presidential, congressional terms
is when the presidential term starts and ends. Also when the congressional terms starts and ends.
The 22
nd
amendment is the presidential term limits which is 2 terms. The 23
rd
amendment
presidential vote for District of Columbia. The 25
th
amendment is presidential disability and
succession. They changed the way the president and congress it pick to take office. The change
needed to elect a president and vice president were on the same ticket together because the 2
people are running together. The reason for limiting the president terms because at first the past
presidents only lasted 2 terms as presidents so they made an amendment. The 23
rd
amendment
made it to where the voting can be fair. Succession might be used when the president dies,
assassinated or is impeached.
(C) - Amendments 11, 21 and 27 have addresses unique historical circumstances. (D) The
11
th
amendment was made to set limits on when a state can be sued. In particular it gave
immunity to states from law suits from out-of-state citizens and foreigners not living within the
state borders. The 21
st
amendment was made to repeal the 18
th
Amendment. The 27
th
amendment
States that Congressional salary changes cannot take effect until the beginning of the next
session of Congress. The 21
st amendment
addresses a change in societal attitudes because it was
made to repeal the 18
th
amendment. The benefits of postponing Congressional pay raises helps
with the debt can be lowered.
(C) - In the United States, people have rights which protect them from undue governmental
interference. Rights carry responsibilities which help define how people use their rights
and which require respect for the rights of others. (D) The changes to the Constitution with
the 1
st
amendment made it able to where we added the Bill of Rights. By giving individual
freedoms to Americans limits the power of the government because the Americans have more
control over themselves. The government keeps order and balanced civil liberties because there
are limits to some of the rights. For example a person and say Do weed. They can say that but
not at the wrong time or place can affect the people around. The 2
nd
amendment gives American
citizens the right to bear arms. For example a person and carry a gun on them. The 3
rd

amendment says that you dont have to house a solider of war because they say you have to.
People say that strict gun control is wrong and shouldnt be there. Arguments for the strict gun
control is smart and useful for American citizens. The changes from the 4
th
amendment the
police can search and seize a person as long as they have a warrants unless the police see the
person as a threat. for example if a person is walking in front of a store and looks like they are
going to do something the can search the person. Probable cause is if a person gives the officer a
reason to search a person. A reasonable suspicion is if the officer see a person and they seem like
they are going to do something an officer and search for a weapon or object they think the person
may have. The exceptions to a warrant requirement of the 4
th
amendment is if an officer has a
warrant to check a closet but if they see a drug or something that is illegal out in to open but isnt
in the area of the warrant the officer can still take the object. If the officer had given to the courts
that is illegally they cant use the evidence because they dont have a warrant to prove that it was
really true evidence. The 4
th
amendment protections are different for students in school because
more than one person can be affected, and the parents or students sign away their rights to a
degree. The 5
th
amendment is criminal proceedings; due process; eminent domain; double
jeopardy; protection from self-incrimination. The 6
th
amendment is criminal proceedings; must
inform defendant of charge/s; right to attorney; right to fair impartial jury. Those 2 amendments
changed the Constitution by making it to where the people have a fair trial. The 5
th
amendment
protect people from arbitrary government actions by having it to where a person cant be trialed
twice for the same crime, an officer has to tell them there rights when they are arrested. The 6
th

amendment maintain rights of people accused of a crime by having to tell the person accused of
the crime the charge or charges being held against them and having a jury of the people of the
state in which the person is charged in. Public trials secure a fair trial because the jury is made up
of people in that state in which the person is charged in, also who dont know the person and the
facts of the case before the trial. The 7
th
amendment is jury trials in civil cases. The 8
th

amendment is prohibits excessive fines and excessive bail, as well as cruel and unusual
punishment. The 9
th
amendment is protects rights not enumerated in the Constitution. The 10
th

amendment is reinforces the principle of federalism by stating that the federal government
possesses only those powers delegated to it by the states or the people through the Constitution.
Those amendments changed the Constitution by the treatment of criminals, by saying the powers
the federal government powers they possess, jury trials and the rights of the people. The 8
th

amendment limits the governments powers by prohibiting cruel and unusual punishment to
Americans. Also the 9
th
amendment secures civil liberties by not denying people their rights
because they have earned them just by being a citizen of the U.S. The 10th amendment tells the
federal government the powers they possess and which ones the state governments possess. All
of the amendment rules for the 4
th
, 5
th
, 6
th
and 8
th
amendments apply to the police, they also
apply to the courts as well so that the people on trial are judge fairly.

(C) - Historically, United States has struggled with majority rule and the extension of
minority rights. As a result of this struggle, the government has increasingly extended civil
rights to marginalized groups and broadened opportunities for participation. (D) The
concept pf majority rules and minority rights is that in just about every genuine democracy
today, majority rule is both endorsed and limited by the supreme law of the constitution, which
protects the rights of individuals. Also, majority rule is limited in order to protect minority rights,
because its not checked correctly then would be used to oppress persons holding unpopular
views. The government has increasingly guaranteed rights for different minority groups
throughout history by adding the voting rights and by saying all men were created equal.