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Delhi Public School Rohini Intra School Model

United Nations 2014

Security Council
Background Guide
Delhi Public School Rohini Intra School Model
United Nations 2014
Security Council
Background Guide
Delhi Public School Rohini Intra School Model
United Nations 2014
Security Council
Background Guide
Letter from the Chairperson
Greetings delegates. I welcome your participation in the Security Council at DPSR Intra Model United
Nations Conference 2014.
The Security Council tends to be one of the most challenging committees at any conference. The
Security Council, due to its small size and the delicate military and political nature of its function,
requires its delegates to be extremely well read in the subject matter. This implies that delegates not
only need to be well researched on the details and nuances of the agenda, but also that they need to
understand how to use that knowledge effectively.
Having said that, participation in the committee must, and will, go beyond the direct use of research. As
previously mentioned, the Security Council is a small committee; there will be plenty of chances for each
of you to speak. To sustain yourself, avoid reputation and remain relevant, you will need to look beyond
your research to interpret and comprehend statements made and positions taken by other delegates
and use that understanding to provide fresh insights into the topic form your countrys perspective.
This brings me to another crucial point: foreign policy. The UNSC is a committee in which accurate
representation of your countrys interests is of paramount importance. A Security Council agenda is,
almost always, unforgivingly political; any misrepresentation of foreign policy will be costly.
Every aspect of every agenda must be looked at through the lens of your countrys foreign policy.
Though you must be willing to negotiate and, sometimes, even compromise, your countrys ideology,
vested interests, foreign relations and long-term strategic game must all be important considerations.
The agenda is an enormous one and cant possibly be comprehensively covered in 1 or 2 days. You are
advised to research as deeply and widely as possible and, although technically the committee can
discuss whichever aspect of the agenda it chooses, try to limit your deliberations to the following
Appropriate and proportionate response to contemporary terrorist groups, in particular,
the Islamic State (ISIS)
Reviewing the effectiveness of the existing international inter-terrorism framework (The
work of international agencies and committees, and existing treaties and resolutions and
states compliance with them)
Remember to participate enthusiastically, yet sincerely. Model UN is activity that, if done properly, has a
big cognitive and intellectual demand, but can also be addictive and thoroughly enjoyable. My final
advice, to sum up, will be this:
1) Research actively and comprehensively. Dont just read, understand
2) Keep your eyes and ears open in committee, research can only take you so far. Try to take notes
3) Be careful with foreign policy
4) Be cogent and confident while speaking
5) No matter what, stay chill in committee.
Raghav Gupta
Chairperson, UNSC
The Security Council has primary responsibility, under the Charter, for the
maintenance of international peace and security. It is so organized as to be able
to function continuously, and a representative of each of its members must be
present at all times at United Nations Headquarters. On 31 January 1992, the first
ever Summit Meeting of the Council was convened at Headquarters, attended by
Heads of State and Government of 13 of its 15 members and by the Ministers for
Foreign Affairs of the remaining two. The Council may meet elsewhere than at
Headquarters; in 1972, it held a session in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and the
following year in Panama City, Panama. When a complaint concerning a threat to
peace is brought before it, the Council's first action is usually to recommend to
the parties to try to reach agreement by peaceful means. In some cases, the
Council itself undertakes investigation and mediation. It may appoint special
representatives or request the Secretary-General to do so or to use his good
offices. It may set forth principles for a peaceful settlement.
When a dispute leads to fighting, the Council's first concern is to bring it to an end
as soon as possible. On many occasions, the Council has issued cease-fire
directives which have been instrumental in preventing wider hostilities. It also
sends United Nations peace-keeping forces to help reduce tensions in troubled
areas keep opposing forces apart and create conditions of calm in which peaceful
settlements may be sought.
The Council may decide on enforcement measures, economic sanctions (such as
trade embargoes) or collective military action. The Presidency of the Council
rotates monthly, according to the English alphabetical listing of its member
Functions and Powers
Under the Charter, the functions and powers of the Security Council are:
to maintain international peace and security in accordance with the principles
and purposes of the United Nations;
to investigate any dispute or situation which might lead to international friction;
to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement;
to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments;
to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to
recommend what action should be taken;
to call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not
involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression;
to take military action against an aggressor;
to recommend the admission of new Members;
to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in "strategic areas";
to recommend to the General Assembly the appointment of the Secretary-
General and, together with the Assembly, to elect the Judges of the International
Court of Justice.
Structure of the Security Council
Standing Committees -- There are three committees at present, and each
includes representatives of all Security Council member States.
Security Council Committee of Experts
Security Council Committee on Admission of New Members
Security Council Committee on Council meetings away from Headquarters
Ad Hoc Committees -- They are established as needed, comprise all Council
members and meet in closed session.
Governing Council of the United Nations Compensation Commission established
by Security Council resolution 692 (1991)
Committee established pursuant to resolution 1373 (2001) concerning
Committee established pursuant to resolution 1540 (2004)
Sanctions Committees
Subsidiary Bodies Bureaux 2011
Security Council Committee pursuant to resolutions 751 (1992) and 1907 (2009)
concerning Somalia and Eritrea
Security Council Committee pursuant to resolution 1267 (1999) and 1989 (2011)
concerning Al-Qaida and associated individuals and entities
Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1518 (2003)
Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1572 (2004)
concerning Cte d'Ivoire
Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1591 (2005)
concerning the Sudan
Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1636 (2005)
Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1970 (2011)
concerning Libya
Security Council Committee established pursuant to resolution 1988 (2011)
Working Groups:
Security Council Working Group on Peacekeeping Operations
Security Council Ad Hoc Working Group on Conflict Prevention and Resolution in
Security Council Working Group established pursuant to resolution 1566 (2004)
Security Council Working Group on Children and Armed Conflict
Security Council Informal Working Group on Documentation and Other
Procedural Questions
Peacekeeping Operations
Since 1948 there have been 66 United Nations peace-keeping operations.
General Information:
Acceptable Sources of Information
Within the committee information can be quoted from the following sources:
1. News Sources:
a. Reuters ( Any Reuters article which clearly makes
mention of the fact or is in contradiction of the fact being stated by a delegate in
b. State operated News Agencies These reports can be used in the support of or
against the State that owns the News Agency. These reports, if credible or
substantial enough, can be used in support of or against any Country as such but
in that situation, they can be denied by any other country in the council.
The Executive Board shall remain neutral towards the credibility of these
reports. Some examples are,
i. RIA Novosti (Russia)
ii. IRNA (Iran)
iii. BBC (United Kingdom)
iv. Xinhua News Agency and CCTV (P.R. China)
2. Government Reports: These reports can be used in a similar way as the State
Operated News Agencies reports and can, in all circumstances, be denied by
another country. However, the essential difference is that if a government report
is being denied by a certain country, it can still be accepted by the Executive
Board as a credible source of information.
Examples are,
a. Government Websites like the State Department of the United States of
b. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of various nations like India
Peoples Republic of China ( ),
France (,
Russian Federation (
c. Permanent Representatives to the United Nations Reports
(Click on any country to get the website of the Office of its Permanent
d. Multilateral Organizations like the NATO
3. UN Reports: UN Reports and publications are considered as credible
sources of information
a. UN Bodies: Like the SC (, GA
HRC ( etc.
b. UN Affiliated bodies like the International Atomic Energy Agency
(, International Committee of the Red Cross
(, etc.
Introduction to the Topic
According to scholars, terrorism is the systematic use of violence to create a
general climate offear and thereby bring about a particular political objective. In
particular, it refers to the military tacticof targeting innocent civilians to
persuade leaders to change their policies.
Unlike scholars, UN member states have been unable to define terrorism. This is
not due to lackof effort. Before World War II, League of Nations members tried to
define terrorism. Since 2001, aspecial UN committee has also attempted the task,
with no progress as of this writing.
In the meantime, the international community adopted a series of sectoral
conventions that define and criminalize various types of terrorist activities. In
addition, since 1994, the United Nations General Assembly has condemned
terrorist acts using the following political description of terrorism: "Criminal acts
intended or calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public, a group
of persons or particular persons for political purposes are in any
circumstance unjustifiable, whatever the considerations of a political,
philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or any other nature that may be
invoked to justify them.
Nevertheless, many UN member states have negotiated and ratified international
treaties thatattempt to eliminate terrorism by considering it a crime. Today, 13
international treaties call on stateparties to pass laws against terrorism, arrest
people accused of the offense (however it is defined by eachstate), and assist one
another by arresting people accused of terrorism in other states and
extraditing(transferring) them to the state in which they are charged so they can
be tried and punished.To date, all of the treaties related to terrorism deal
exclusively with terrorist acts by non-stateactors such as individuals, social
groups, and militias. This is because most states prefer a definition thatignores
state acts of terror, either against one another or against individuals and groups
within theirborders.
UN Actions with regards to Terrorism
United Nations General Assembly Adopts Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy
The United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy was adopted by Member
States on 8 September 2006. The strategy, in the form of a resolution and an
annexed Plan of Action(A/RES/60/288), is a unique global instrument that will
enhance national, regional and international efforts to counter terrorism. This is
the first time that all Member States have agreed to a common strategic
approach to fight terrorism, not only sending a clear message that terrorism is
unacceptable in all its forms and manifestation but also resolving to take practical
steps individually and collectively to prevent and combat it. Those practical steps
include a wide array of measures ranging from strengthening state capacity to
counter terrorist threats to better coordinating United Nations systems counter-
terrorism activities. The adoption of the strategy fulfils the commitment made by
world leaders at the 2005 September Summit and builds on many of the elements
proposed by theSecretary-General in his 2 May 2006 report, entitled Uniting
against Terrorism: Recommendations for a Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy.
Helping Member States to counter terrorism
Combating terrorism is integral to the entire mandate of the United Nations.
The UN Charter sets out the purposes of the Organization, which include the
maintenance of international peace and security, to take collective measures to
prevent threats to peace and suppress aggression and to promote human
rights and economic development.
As an assault on the principles of law and order, human rights and the peaceful
settlement of disputes, terrorism runs counter to the principles and purposes that
define the United Nations. The United Nations has been taking concrete steps to
address the threat of terrorism, helping Member States to counter this scourge.
The recently adopted Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy further develops and
strengthens those steps and brings them into a focused concrete plan of action.
Universal condemnation of terrorism
In a resolution adopted on 9 September 2010, the General Assembly reiterated its
strong and unequivocal condemnation of terrorism in all its forms and
manifestations, committed by whomever, wherever and for whatever purposes,
as it constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and
The United Nations serves as a unique global forum that provides the highest
level of universal legitimacy for Member States to send a unified, clear, principled
and immutable message that terrorism is unacceptable no matter who commits it
and for whatever reason. Member States through the General Assembly and
the Security Council, as well as the Secretary-General and other UN officials have
been consistent in condemning all acts of terrorism. The United Nations through
its members and officials have been sending a clear message that terrorist acts
are unacceptable and can never be justified. The United Nations global counter-
terrorism strategy reiterates this condemnation and its operational aspects rest
on this principle. Through the consistent and systematic condemnation of
terrorist acts, the United Nations aims to continuously undercut whatever appeal
terrorism as a tactic may have for any group of people and clearly show that it is
not an effective tool to address real or perceived grievances.
Creating the global legal foundations
One of the more powerful achievements of the United Nations system has been
the establishment of a regime of international treaties and conventions. It is these
international treaties that provide the legal framework for the suppression of
terrorist acts and the pursuit of perpetrators of terrorism, and set out ways to
limit illicit access to the tools terrorists need. UN anti-terrorism treaties that
predate 11 September 2001 range from the UN International Civil Aviation
Organization 1963 Convention on Offences and Certain Other Acts Committed on
Board Aircraft, to the International Convention for the Suppression of the
Financing of Terrorism, drafted in 1999. Since 11 September 2001, Member States
agreed on a new convention dealing with the threat of terrorists using nuclear
materials. Most importantly, adherence to the existing 13 international
treaties has increased dramatically since 2001. The United Nations is strongly
promoting ratification and implementation of the existing conventions. Not only
does the United Nations monitor implementation of the treaties by Member
States but UN programmes such as the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
(UNODC) provide practical legal assistance for countries on how best to
implement the provisions of the treaties into national legislation.
Addressing the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism
There is wide agreement among countries that the fight against terrorism must include
an approach that also looks at its long-term components. This agreement is reflected in
the global counter-terrorism strategy which addresses the conditions conducive to the
spread of terrorism. Its near universal membership and its global mandate make the
United Nations a tool for Member States through which to address the complex, longer
term aspects of terrorism. The United Nations places its counter-terrorism actions within
its broader work framed by its overall efforts to promote peace, security, sustainable
development, human rights and the rule of law. The multitude of offices, programmes
and specialized agencies of the United Nations system works to address conditions
conducive to the spread of terrorism including but not limited to prolonged unresolved
conflicts, dehumanization of victims of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, lack
of the rule of law and violations of human rights, ethnic, national and religious
discrimination, political exclusion, socio-economic marginalization and lack of good
Preventing terrorist acts
Since 2002 the International Atomic Energy Agency, (IAEA) has helped States to
improve nuclear security inter alia through providing training to over 10,000 individuals,
securing over 5,700 radioactive sources in nearly 40 States, upgrading the physical
protection at over 100 sites in more than 30 States and providing 56 States with
approximately 4,000 instruments for radiation detection activities.
The Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) inventoried and
inspected chemical agents in different countries. So far, more than 60 percent of the
71,194 metric tones of the declared stockpile of chemical agents have been destroyed.
More than 45 %, of the 8.67 million chemical munitions and containers have also been
Through action taken by the General Assembly and the Security Council, Member
States are not only creating and strengthening the legal foundations of the fight against
terrorism but also taking practical measures of cooperation to restrict terrorists in their
actions by denying them the financial means for their actions, denying them their
freedom to move about to commit their acts and denying them the weapons to use in
committing terrorist acts. The International Convention for Suppression of Terrorist
Financing requests all countries ratifying the convention to deny all financial possibilities
to potential terrorists. Security Council resolution 1373makes it mandatory for all states to
eliminate the financing of terrorism, while resolution 1267 along with subsequent related
resolutions freeze all the financial assets of Al Qaida and Taliban associates. Both
those resolutions call for strict travel bans against potential terrorists.
Subsequent Security Council resolutions also place Al Qaida and Taliban members under
a strict arms embargo. The recently concluded International Convention for the Suppression
of Nuclear Terrorism aims to prevent potential terrorists from acquiring nuclear weapons
while resolution 1540 of the Security Council creates a mandatory set of measures for
countries to implement in order to prevent terrorists from acquiring weapons of mass
Curbing Terrorist Financing
The Al-Qaida Sanctions Committee has imposed an asset freeze, travel ban, and arms
embargo with respect to approximately 250 individuals and 90 entities associated with
the Al-Qaida organization.
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime has organized specialized briefing and
training for approximately 12,000 national criminal justice officials from 2003 to June
The international conventions and relevant Security Council resolutions create a restrictive
environment not only for terrorists but also for states that may intend to support
terrorism. All states must prevent terrorist groups from operating on their territory or
using it as a training centre to prepare or launch an attack on another country. The
Security Council has the means to impose strict punitive measures on states who
disregard this obligation. In the past, Sudan, Libya and Afghanistan were targeted by
sanctions for harboring and/or assisting terrorist groups.
Developing state capacity to counter terrorism
The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime has assisted 168 countries in becoming
parties to and implementing the universal instruments related to the prevention and
suppression of international terrorism, and provided advice on counter-terrorism
legislation to 81 countries as of June 2011.
The World Health Organization developed a global laboratory network to respond to
outbreaks and biological threats.
The Counter-Terrorism Committee and its Executive Directorate (CTED) has made 213
referrals for technical assistance since June 2008; donors agreed to follow up on 92;
and there were 42 successful deliveries. CTITF, CTED and UNODC/TPB have also
formed partnerships with three Member States within the context of the Integrated
Assistance for Countering Terrorism (I-ACT) initiative, to facilitate the provision of technical
assistance to Member States in an integrated fashion.
While the major international conventions and Security Council resolutions create
obligations for states, UN offices and agencies provide assistance for states to be better
able to fulfill those obligations individually as well as collectively. This work aims at
providing practical help to build state capacity to prevent terrorism. The Security
Councils counter-terrorism bodies along with the Terrorism Prevention Branch of
the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime have been assisting countries in drafting
appropriate national counter-terrorism legislation. The United Nations Development
Programme assists Member States through its network of over 166 country offices with
practical advice on strengthening the rule of law and promoting good governance.
The Department of Peacekeeping Operations assists countries emerging from conflicts with
training of their national police force. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization promotes religious and cultural tolerance through its educational assistance
work to Member States. The International Monetary Fund and the World Bank provides
practical assistance to counter money laundering and terrorism-financing.
The International Maritime Organization and the International Civil Aviation
Organization work with state authorities to strengthen transport security for both people
and goods. The work of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Organization for the
Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and the World Health Organizationinclude strengthening
state capacity to prevent terrorists from acquiring nuclear, biological, chemical or
radiological materials and ensuring preparedness for an attack with such materials.
Security Council Actions to Counter Terrorism
Since the early 1990s, the Security Council has been consistently dealing with terrorism
issues. Its actions took the form of sanctions against States considered to have links to
certain acts of terrorism: Libya (1992); Sudan (1996) and the Taliban (1999- expanded
to include Al-Qaida in 2000 by resolution 1333). A precursor to the intensification of its
counter-terrorism work since 2001 9/11 was the adoption in 1999 of resolution 1269, in
which the Council urged countries to work together to prevent and suppress all terrorist
Prior to the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks against the United States, the Security
Council had established a strong counter-terrorism tool: the 1267 Committee -- made up
of all Council members -- established in 1999 by resolution 1267 and tasked with
monitoring the sanctions against the Taliban (and subsequently Al-Qaida as of 2000). At
the Security Councils request, the Secretary-General appointed an Analytical Support
and Sanctions Monitoring Team to assist the Committee. The Team comprises experts in
counter-terrorism and related legal issues, arms embargoes, travel bans and terrorist
In the aftermath of 9/11, the Security Council established a Counter-Terrorism
Committee also comprising all members of the Security Council, under resolution 1373.
The resolution obliges Member States to take a number of measures to prevent terrorist
activities and to criminalize various forms of terrorist actions, as well as to take
measures that assist and promote cooperation among countries including adherence to
international counter-terrorism instruments. Member States are also required to report
regularly to the Counter Terrorism Committee on the measures they have taken to
implement resolution 1373.
To assist the Committees work, in 2004 the Council adopted resolution 1535, which
called for the setting up of aCounter Terrorism Committee Executive Directorate (CTED) to
monitor the implementation of resolution 1373 and to facilitate the provision of technical
assistance to Member states.
Through resolution 1540 (2004), the Council established an additional counter-terrorism
- related body: the1540 Committee - with the task of monitoring Member States
compliance with resolution 1540, which calls on States to prevent non-State actors
(including terrorist groups) from accessingweapons of mass destruction.
The Council in a subsequent resolutions urged Member States to take action against
groups and organizations engaged in terrorist activities that were not subject to the
1267 Committees review. Resolution 1566 (2004) established the 1566 Working
Group made up of all Council members to recommend practical measures against such
individuals and groups, as well as to explore the possibility of setting up a compensation
fund for victims of terrorism.
On the margins of the 2005 World Summit, the Security Council held a high-level meeting
and adoptedResolution 1624 (2005) condemning all acts of terrorism irrespective of their
motivation, as well as the incitement to such acts. It also called on Member States to
prohibit by law terrorist acts and incitement to commit them and to deny safe haven to
anyone guilty of such conduct.
Through a number of additional resolutions, the Council has in the past years
strengthened the workof its counter-terrorism bodies.
On the heels of the General Assemblys second review of the implementation of the
United Nations Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy (A/RES/60/288) and the related
adoption of General Assembly resolution 64/297, the Security Council convened on 27
September 2010 an open debate on the threats to international pace and security by
terrorist acts.
During the meeting, Council members highlighted the need for a comprehensive,
multifaceted approach and for enhanced cooperation within the international community
to effectively fight terrorism.
In an ensuing presidential statement (S/PRST/2010/19), the Council expressed concerns
that the threat posed by terrorism had become more diffuse, with an increase, in various
regions of the world, of terrorist acts, including those motivated by intolerance or
extremism, and reaffirmed its determination to combat this threat.
Noting that terrorism would not be defeated by military force, law enforcement
measures and intelligence operations alone, Council members emphasized the need to
address the conditions conducive to the spread of terrorism. In particular, they called for
sustained international efforts to enhance dialogue and broaden understanding among
civilizations, in an effort to prevent the indiscriminate targeting of different religions and
cultures, could help counter the forces that fuelled polarization and extremism.
In its statement, the Council reaffirmed that all terrorist acts were criminal and
unjustifiable, regardless of their motivations, whenever and by whomsoever committed,
and that terrorism could not and should not be associated with any religion, nationality
or ethnic group
Case Study: ISIS
On 29 June 2014, ISIL removed "Iraq and the Levant" from its name and began to refer
to itself as the "Islamic State", simultaneously giving itself the governmental status
of caliphate and naming Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi as caliph. The declaration of a caliphate
has been criticized and ridiculed by Muslim scholars and rival Islamists inside and
outside the occupied territory.
Analysts observed that dropping the reference to region in its new name widened the
groups scope, and terrorism analyst Laith Alkhouri concluded that after capturing many
areas in Syria and Iraq, the Islamic State felt that this was a suitable opportunity to take
control of the global jihadist movement;
A week before it changed its name to the "Islamic State", ISIL captured the Trabil
crossing on the JordanIraq border, the only border crossing between the two
countries. ISIL has received some public support in Jordan, albeit limited, partly owing
to state repression there, but has undertaken a recruitment drive in Saudi Arabia, where
tribes in the north are linked to those in western Iraq and eastern Syria.
In June and July 2014, Jordan and Saudi Arabia had moved troops to their borders with
Iraq, after Iraq lost control of, or withdrew from, strategic crossing points that had then
come under the control of the Islamic State. There was speculation that al-Maliki had
ordered a withdrawal of troops from the IraqSaudi crossings in order "to increase
pressure on Saudi Arabia and bring the threat of Isis over-running its borders as well".
In July 2014, Boko Haram leader Abubakar Shekau declared support for the new
caliphate and Caliph Ibrahim.[121] In August, Shekau announced that Boko Haram had
captured the Nigerian town of Gwoza. Shekau announced: "Thanks be to God who
gave victory to our brethren in Gwoza and made it a state among the Islamic
states". Boko Haram launched an offensive inAdamawa and Borno States in
northeastern Nigeria in September, following the example of the Islamic State.
The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights claimed that the Islamic State had recruited
more than 6,300 fighters in July 2014 alone, some of them coming from the Free Syrian
In August 2014, the Islamic State captured Kurdish-controlled territoryand massacred a
large number of Yazidis. In response, the US launched an aerial bombing
campaign against the Islamic State and a humanitarian mission to aid the Yazidis.
There have been many complaints of the Islamic States use of death threats, torture
and mutilation to compel conversion to Islam, executions of clerics who refused to
pledge allegiance to the Islamic State, mass executions of prisoners of warand
civilians, and sexual enslavement of Iraqi women and girls, predominantly from the
minority Christian communities.
Raghad Hussein, the daughter of Saddam Hussein, now living in opulent asylum in
Jordan, has publicly expressed support for the advance of the Islamic State in Iraq,
reflecting the Baathist alliance of convenience with ISIL and its goal of return to power
in Bagdad.