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The First War of Independence: The Revolt of 1857

*Political Causes:-
1) Lord Dalhousies Policy of the Doctrine of Lapse:-if the ruler of a subordinate state
died without a heir , his adopted son was not allowed to occupy the throne and the state
was annexed to the British Empire in India. Lord Dalhousie annexed the states of Jhansi,
Satara and Nagpur.
2) Ill treatment of Nana Sahib and Rani of Jhansi:Baji Rao II: The last Peshwa adopted
Nana Sahib as his son who was denied access to the annual pension of his father. Rani of
Jhansi Laxmi Bai was also not allowed to adopt a son.
3) Annexation of Awadh on the pretext of misgovernment in 1856.
4) Disrespect shown to the Mughal Emperor: (i) Lord Dalhousie had insulted the Emperor
by asking him and his successors to leave the Red Fort in Delhi. (ii) Lord Canning declared
that the title of the Mughal emperor would be abolished after the death of Bahadur Shah
and his fort would be takrn over by the British.
5) Disbanding the armies of the annexed states: as a result thousands of families lost their
means of livelihood.
6) Unpopular administration: The British abolished few Zamindars,and taluqdars which
created suspicion among them. The British administration in India was corrupt and
inefficient.
Social and Religious causes:-
1) Fear of the conversion: (i) The Missionaries showed them the lure of money, jobs and
honour for accepting Christianity.(ii) The prisoners who accepted Christianity were
released. (iii) The study of Bible was made compulsory in the institutions established by
missionaries in the backward areas.
2) Introduction of new laws: (i) Lord Bentinck prohibited the practice of Sati in 1829.
(ii)The Religious Disabilities Act of 1856 also decided that noone would be deprived of his
hereditary property on the ground of changing his religion. (iii) In 1856, the Widow
Remarriage Act was passed by Lord Canning. (iv) The government taxed lands belonging
to the temples and the mosques or charitable institutions.
3) Fear of western innovation: (i) The introduction of Railways and Telegraph had also
created suspicion and fear in the minds of the people. They thought that these measures
were introduced to propogate Christianity,if not followed, would be thrown before the
railway engines or hanged by the Telegraph poles.(ii) The introduction of Railways was
resented on the ground that people of all castes would have to travel in the same
compartments.
4) Humiliation in the name of race: (i) The British regarded the Indians as belonging to an
inferior race and looked down upon them socially. (ii) The Indians could not travel in the
first calss compartment of the Railways. (iii) They were kept away from all social
gatherings and were not allowed to mix up with the Englishmen.
5) General Service Enlistment Act: Passed in 1856, made it compulsory for the Indian
soldiers in the service of the Company to serve wherever required. In those days , sea
voyages were considered against the religious customs and therefore, resented by the
soldiers.
(III)Economic Causes:-
1) Heavy land taxes: (i) During Lord Bentincks reign, the zamindars were forced to
pay heavy land revenue and many were deprived of their land. (ii) The appointment
of the Inam Commission also created a problem. It was appointed to look into
proprietary rights of the landlords, in turn, it increased the hardship of the
landlords and peasants.
2) Ruin of handicraft industries: (i) The British imposed heavy import duties on the
manufactured aricles of India entering Britain and charged nominal duties on raw
products going out of India. (ii) As per the Act of 1720 passed by the british
government,prohibited the use of Indian Silk and Calicoes in England. (iii) All the
machine made goods from Britain took over the Indian market which led to the
impoverishment of the craftsmen.
3) Displacement of zamindars and taluqdars: (i) The British confiscated the lands and
properties of many zamindars and talukdars, especially of Awadh. (ii) Lord
Bentincks resumption of rent free tenures reduced the landowners to poverty. (iii)
Thousands of jagirs belonging to the jagirdars in the deccan were confiscated by
Lord Dalhousie.
4) Loss of jobs: (i) Thousands of soldiers who were employed under the native states
suddenly became jobless when the states were annexed to the British dominion. (ii)
Many pensioners lost their pension but the English offered them no alternative
employment. (iii)Only the English were offered high posts and were given handsome
salaries in comparison to the Indians.
5) British policy towards tribes: (i) Commercialization of agriculture, tightening of
control over forest zones for revenue purposes and utilization of forest wealth for
the benefit of the urban population resulted in penetration of tribal areas by
outsiders. (ii) The Christian Missionaries were also active in some of the tribal areas
and created hostile feelings among the tribes. (iii) Outsiders like money- landers,
contractors, traders, government officials, for their own interest, disturbed the
social, cultural and economic lives of the tribes and exposed them to exploitation.
6) Inhuman treatment towards indigo cultivators: (i) British planters forced peasants
in some parts of Bihar and Bengal to cultivate indigo. (ii) These planters provided
loans to the farmers at very high interest rates which forced them to remain
indebted for the whole of their life. (iii) After the crop, the farmers were paid only
2.5 percent of the market price. (iv) The property of the farmers who refused were
either mortgaged or destroyed.
(IV) Military causes:-
1) Low salary and poor prospects of promotion: (i) All the high ranks in the army were
reserved for the British only. (ii) The native sepoys could not rise above the rank of
Risaldar or Subedar.(iii) An English soldier was paid more than 8times the Indian
sepoy while their duties were of similar nature. (iv) The Indian sepoy had to pay for
his food and clothes ,for which the English were paid extra.
2) Annexation of Awadh: (i) Three-fourth soldiers became unemployed. (ii) The
disbanded soldiers were ready to join in any activity to overthrow the British power.
3) Disproportion between Indian and British troops: Indian sepoys were four times
more in number as compared to the English soldiers which gave courage to Indian
soldiers to take up arms against the English.
4) Loss of British prestige in the Ist Afghan War: (i) The defeat of the British exposed
thir weakness. (ii) This increased the self confidence of the Indian sepoys to
challenge the so called mighty Britishers.
5) Effects of the Crimean War: A number of British soldiers were engaged in Europe
,in the war between England and Russia.
6) Discontent and disaffection in the Bengal army: (i) The sepoys and officers of the
Bengal Army were mainly high-caste Hindus of Awadh. They refused to cross the
River Sindhu to take part in the Anglo-Afghan War because sea voyage was
forbidden by their religion.
7) General Service Enlistment Act( refer the para above for explaination)
(v) Immediate cause: (i) The greased cartridges to be used in the Enfield Rifle. (ii) Before
loading , the soldiers had to bite the tip with their teeth. (iii) A rumour spread out that
these cartridges were greased with the fat of cows and pigs (iv) Both the Hindus and
Muslims were enraged and thought that the English Government wanted to defile their
religions
EVENTS:
(1) Meerut: On May 6, 85 soldiers refused to use the cartridges and were send to 10 years
imprisonment.May 10, the soldiers released the prisoners, killed many European officers
and marched towards Delhi This was the beginning of the revolt of 1857.
(2) Delhi:The soldiers reached Delhi and proclaimed Bahadur Shah as the Emperor of
India. Sir John Nicholson with the help of Sikh soldiers besieged Delhi. Bahadur Shah was
deported to Rangoon where he died in 1862. The Mughal Empire came to an end.
(3) Kanpur: Nana Sahib ,the adopted son of Peshwa Bajirao II,was denied the right to get
the pension of his father so he with the help of Tantiya Tope started the revolt. General
Havelock defeated Nana Sahib who fled away to Nepal.
(4) Lucknow: The last Nawab of Awadh Nawab Wazid Ali Shah was exiled in Calcutta so
his wife Begum Hazrat Mahal crowned her son Birjis Qadr as the ruler of Awadh and
started the revolt.
(5) Central India: Rani of Jhansi took part in the revolt because her adopted son was not
recognized as apparent king to the throne. Tantiya Tope provided full support to her.
(6)Bihar: Kunwar Singh in Jagdishpur Bihar.
Causes of the failure of the revolt of 1857:
(1) Lack of a common goal and unity of purpose: (i) Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar, Begum
Hazrat Mahal, Nana Sahib , Tantia Tope, Rani Laxmi Bai neither planned nor cooperated
with one another as one unit. (ii) The British acted under one command, one direction and
with one fixed aim.
(2) Better resources of the British: (i) The rebels were fighting with swords and spears,
while the English were using newly introduced rifles. (ii) The British possessed good
artillery while the rebels either lacked it or could not utilize it in battlefield. (iii) The
Telegraph proved very useful to the English.
(3) No unified leadership: (i) There was an absence of a capable leader who could organize
the scattered forces of the rebels into one unit. (ii) The revolt failed to get national
involvement whereas the English had military commanders like Havelock, Neil, Nicolson
and Hugh Rose. (iii) The English got support from the tribes in the territory of the north-
west and the Afghans to defeat the rebels.
(4) No support of native rulers: (i) Many native rulers, instead supporting the rebels,
helped the British in suppressing the revolt. (ii) The rulers of Patiala, Jind, Gwalior,
Hyderabad etc. supported the British by all possible means. (iii) The King of Nepal also
helped the British by putting his army under the command of the English.
(5) Non participation of the Middle Class: (i) The educated Indians and the middle class
also did not support the cause of the rebels. (ii) On the contrary, their feelings were against
it therefore, the revolt neither could be organized nor could found support on intellectual
and emotional grounds.
Consequences of the revolt:-
(1) End of the Company Rule: (i) The Government of India Act 1858 or the Queens
Proclaimation saw the end of the rule of the British East India Company. (ii) A new
government department , the India Office, was creayted, to handle the be governance of
India.(iii) It was headed by the Secretary of State for India. (iv) He was assisted by a
Council of fifteen members.
(v) The Governor- General of India now became the Viceroy of India.
(2) Appeasement of the native rulers:- (i) The British assured them that their territories
would never be annexed. (ii) The Doctrine of Lapse was abandoned and the right to
adoption was recognized. (iii) The British declared that they would honour all treaties and
agreements entered into by the East India Company.
(3) Policy of integration:- (i) The Act of 1861 was passed which allowed the Indians to be
elected to the Legislative Council. (ii) Through the Indian University Act, universities were
opened at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.
(4) Rise of nationalism:- (i) The revolt ignited the desire among the Indians
To fight against the social, economic and political exploitation by the British.
(ii) The sacrifices made by thousands of people left an indelible mark on the minds of the
Indians eg. Rani of Jhansi, Tantya Tope etc.
(5) Military reorganization:- (i) The Indians were divided into martial and non-martial
races and regiments. (ii) The regiments were raised on caste, religious or regional basis
such as the Sikh Regiment, The Jat Regiment, the Gurkha Regiment etc. (iii) The ratio of
British to Indian soldiers was also increased within India.
(6) Economic exploitation:- (i) The Indian taxpayers paid the salaries of army and
administrative personnel. (ii) More than half of the taxes collected in India now went to
England in the name of the Home charges. (iii) India became the largest market of the
British goods.
Nature of Revolt of 1857:-
1. Sir John Lawrence described the revolt as mutiny of the sepoys.
2. Vir Savarkar described the revolt as a planned war of national independence.
3. Indian historian Tara Chand described the revolt as a war for national independence.
4. S N Sen however feels that despite the absence of national feeling among the Indians, the
revolt was a war of independence.

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Ch.2- Rise of Nationalism

Factors responsible for the growth of nationalism

1) Impact of the Revolt of 1857 or Nineteenth Century nationalism:-

(i) It made Indians aware of the true nature of the British rule and generated faith
in their own capability to fight against oppression. (ii) In April 1860, the cultivators of
Bengal and Bihar refused to sow indigo. (iii)The Kuka Movement in Punjab began as
an attempt to purify the Sikh Religion but gradually by 1863, it assumed a political
character under its leaders-Balak Singh and Ram Singh.(iv) The Wahabi movement led
by Syed Ahmad Barelvi generated a feeling of hostility against the British. (v) An
armed revolt in the deccan led by Vasudeo Balwant Phadke and Munda rebellion in
Chota Nagpur regions were important outburst of anti-british feelings.

2) Introduction of Western education:
(i) It instilled in the minds of the educated classes the Western ideas of liberty and
equality.(ii) It also gave them a common language which made it possible for them to
understand each other and plan a common programme of action. (iii) The British
introduced the English in India to serve their administrative and political needs. (iv) They
also thought that English educated Indians would be loyal to the British. (v) New ideas of
nationalism,democracy,liberalism and humanism inspired the Indians. (vi) The writings of
John Mill,Rousseau, Voltaire, Thomas Paine, Spencer also inspired the Indians in their
struggle for independence.

3) Socio-Religious Reform Movement:
(i) The movement was progressive in its character and aimed to remove social evils
from the society. All reformers denounced untouchability and rigidities of the caste
system.(ii) Raja Rammohan Roy is regarded as the father of Indian Renaissance
founded Brahma Samaj and helped in the abolition of Sati. (iii) When nation was seized
with despair and idleness, these reformers preached the gospel of strength and self
reliance.(iv) All these reformers gave importance to women.(v) Swami Dayanand was
first to proclaim that India was for Indians.(vi) Vivekanadas message Arise,awake
and stop not till the goal is reached.

4) Rediscovery of Indias past:-
(i) James Princep deciphered the Asokan inscription. (ii) Max Muller,William
Jones, Charles Wilkins helped in restoring the rich heritage of the Sanskrit literature. (iii)
Sir Alexander Cunninghams excavations at Sarnath and Sanchi brought to light the glory
of the past. (iv) Warren Hastings set up the Sanskrit College at Calcutta and encouraged
the british officials to learn Indian History and language.


5) Rise and growth of an educated Middle class:-
(i) The emergence of the class consisting of lawyers,journalists,doctors,
professorsetc.was a significant factor in the growth of nationalism in India.(ii) They were
aware of the evils inherent in the Indian society and began to take initiative against
imperial domination. (iii) The role of the new classes in the growth of the national
movement was firm and decisive. (iv) They knew that the British rule was a hindrance to
social and political development.

6) Role of the press and the Indian literature:-
(i) A number of newspapers in English and in Vernacular languages criticized the
government policies and revealed the evil effects of foreign domination.(ii)Raja Rammohan
Roys Samvad Kaumudi;Dadabhai Naorojis Rast Goftarin gujarati and Ishwarchand
Vidyasagars Shome Prakashcriticised official policy of racial arrogance, economic
explitation, personal behaviour etc. towards Indians. (iii) Through his writings in the
Kesari and the Mahratta, Tilak spread the Gospel of freedom and basic rights. (iv) This
period witnessed the production of outstanding works of Bhartendu
Harishchandra,Bankim Chandra Chatterjees Anand Math,Tagoreetc. (v) Many
newspapers were published such as Amrit Bazar Patrika, The Hindu, The Patriot, The
Maratha, The Kesari, The Tribune, The Kohinoor etc.

7) Policy of economic exploitation of the Britishers:
(i) Dadabhai Naorojo in his book Poverty and Unbritish rule in India, drew the
attention of the Indians to the Massive drain of Indias wealth to Britain. (ii) The peasantry
was impoverished because a large part of their produce was taken as land revenue. (iii) The
British took no measures to improve irrigation or keep a buffer stock to sustain the poor
people during famines. (iv) India, which was once the producer of the best textiles in the
world, now became the buyer of the british machine made goods. (v) Artisans and
craftspeople could not compete with machine made goods. (vi) The pace of industrial
development in India was rather slow , the british invested in plantations of tea,jute,coffee
and indigo and the cultivators in these plantations were like bonded labour. (vii) The
expenses of the Second Afghan War, The Third Anglo- Burmese War were borne by
Indians. (viii) Salaries of the British officials in England and the cost of buying raw
materials from India were all paid from the Indian revenue. (ix) Though the taxes kept
increasing but the british paid no attention to raise the standard of living, providing
education ,health or sanitation.

8) Racial discrimination of British rulers:-
(i) Chief positions were reserved for the british. (ii) The Vernacular Press Act and
The Arms Act of 1878 deprived the Indians of their right to freedom of expression and
safety. (iii) For the same crime under similar circumstances, an Indian was punished more
heavily than a british. (iv) Indian judges were not allowed to hear cases related to the
Europeans. (v) The Englishmen looked upon Indians as niggers who could be treated
only with contempt. (vi) There were exclusive residential areas popularly known as Civil
Lines where only Europeans could live.

9) Lord Lyttons unjust policies-
(i)As per the Vernacular Press Act , no article highlighting the disaffection against
the Government , was allowed to be printed in any vernacular languages of India. It was
not applicable for the papers published in English or any other European language.This
act was termed as Gagging Act.(ii) The age limit for taking the Indian Civil Service
Examination was reducd from 21 years to 19 years. (iii) The Arms Act of 1878 forbade
Indians to keep arms without a licence but the Europeans were an exception to this rule.
(iv) The Imperial Durbar in Delhi (1877) was held at a time when millions in south India
were affected by a terrible famine.

10) Ilbert Bill controversy:-
(i)Lord Ripon, who succeeded Lord Lytton, tried to pass a bill , which would
empower the Indian judges to hear the criminal cases against the Europeans. (ii) The
Europeans opposed this bill and it could not be passed. (iii) The racial bitterness and
injustice horrified the Indians and intensified the Indians against the foreign rule and led
to the rise of political awakening.

11) Means of transport and communications:-
(i) Means of communication knit up the vast country and gave to our people a sense
of oneness. (ii) The provincial or regional loyalities began to disappear and patriotic
notions gained ground. (iii) Railways enabled them to interact and to mix with each other
that helped in ending untouchability. (iv) Some Indians went abroad and saw the
functioning of free and democratic governments in England, France, USA and Switzerland.

Forerunners of the Indian National Congress:
(i) The Landholders Society was set up in Bengal in 1837 to protect the interests of
the landholders of Bihar, Bengal and Orissa.
(ii) The East India Association founded by Dadabhai Naoroji in 1866. It aimed at
providing members of the British Parliament information regarding Indias
genuine grievances.
(iii) Poona Sarvajanik Sabha- was started under the leadership of Justice Ranade in
1870.
(iv) Bombay Presidency Association (1870) sent a petition to the British House of
Commons against the increased taxes on salt and sugar.
(v) The Indian Association set up by Surendranath Bannerjee in 1876. Aims-
Carried out agitations against the Arms Act and the Vernacular Press Act.
Organised a national conference on national problems under Anand Mohan
Bose.
(vi) Indian National Conference by Surendra Nath Banerjee in 1883 and it was the
forerunner of the INC founded in 1885 because it was merged with the Indian
National Congress in 1886.

Formation of the Indain National Congress:A.O.Hume, a retired servent, with the support
of Lord Dufferin- the Viceroy set up the Indian National Congress in 1885. Lord Dufferin
felt that a safe outlet should be provided to vent the intense anti-British feelings of the
Indians and congress was to be used as a safety valve. He termed it a microscopic
community signifying it a group of few where major part of the population was not
involved. The first session of the INC was held in December 1885 at Bombay under the
Presidentship of W.C. Bonnerjee. A.O.Hume is considered to be the Father or the Founder
of the INC.

Immediate objectives of the Congress:
1) Promotion of friendly relations among nationalist workers in different parts of the
country.
2) Development and consolidation of the feeling of national unity irrespective of
religion or region.
3) Formulation of popular demands and their presentation before the government.
4) Training and organization of public opinion in the country.

Demands of the Congress in the beginning:
1) Expansion of Legislative Assemblies
2) Holding of simultaneous ICS examination in England and India\
3) Inclusion of a greater number of Indians in the administration,
4) Reduction of the military expenditure,
5) Socio-economic development of India.

By the end of the 19
th
century, it became critical of the governments policies. The first
session of INC was attended by 72 delegates which was increased to 600 by the year 1887.

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Ch.3- The Moderates

*Why were the early nationalists known as moderates?
(i) They were moderate in their approach.
(ii) It was a liberal organization and followed a middle path position.
(iii) They felt that by remaining loyal to the british they could convince them of their
genuine need for reform and british government would concede to their demands. (iv) They
had faith in the british sense of justice and fair play.
(v) The moderate leaders were from the educated middle class.

*Demands of the moderates:-
1) Constitutional Reforms:-
(i) Expansion of the Legislative Council and Legislative Assemblies.
(ii) Indian representatives in the Council.
(iii) Abolition of India Council.
(iv) Separation of judiciary from the executive.
(v) Colonial self government like in Canada.
2) Administrative Reforms:-
(i) Indianization of higher grades of services.
(ii) Holding of ICS examination simultaneously in England and in India.
(iii) Raising the age of eligibility for the ICS examination.
(iv) Increase in the power of local bodies and giving them more autonomy.
(v) Extension of education, health and medical facilities.
3) Socio-economic reforms:-
(i) Introduction of modern industries through tariff protection and under direct
government control.
(ii) Reduction in land revenue and easy loans through agricultural banks.
(iii) Abolition of salt tax and duties on sugar.
(iv) Improvement of labour conditions in the plantations.
(v) Reduction of expenditure on the army.
(vi) Protection of peasants from the exploitation of landlords.
4) Demand for Civil Rights:-
Freedom of the press, expression and association.

*Beliefs/Objectives:- (i) To build up strong public opinion leading to the growth of political
consciousness.
(ii) To educate and unite people for a common political programme.
(iii) To persuade the british government to introduce reforms as desired by the nationalists.

*Methods of the Moderates:-
(i)Adopted constitutional means to put forward their demands and worked within the
framework of the law.
(ii) They believed in passing resolutions and sending petitions and appeals to the british.
(iii)Regular meetings and lectures were organized by the moderates in different parts of
England towards the grievances of the Indians.
(iv) Preparing memorandum for the Government Committees.



*Achievements of the Moderates:-
(i) Giving political training to the people.
(ii) Exposing the exploitative nature of British rule,eg. Drain of Wealth Theory of
Dadabhai Naoroji.
(iii) Uniting them under one organization and for one political programme.
(iv) Making them aware of common bonds and common nationhood.
(v) Creating political consciousness and strong public opinion.
(vi) Laying the foundation of the future national movement which finally led India to
freedom.
(vii) The Indian Council Act of 1892 was passed.
(viii) Due to the efforts of Ranade and Gokhle , the Age of Consent Bill became an Act was
passed in 1891.
Failures/Limitations:-
(i) They lacked wide social basis and represented a small section of society.
(ii) The patience and gentleness of the moderates were taken as their weakness. It was
criticized by the Radicals as a Policy of Mendicancy.
(iii) They represented a small section, mainly the Indian intelligentsia, which was
criticized by Lord Dufferin as representing a microscopic minority.

Attitude of the government towards the INC in the beginning:-
(i) The Government wanted to use it as a safety valve to ease out the discontent
among the Indian people.
(ii) IN 1886, Lord Dufferin invited the members of the Congress to a garden party
in Calcutta but gradually the attitude of the government changed because the
Congress began to demand more rights for the people. Lord Dufferin passed
orders forbidding the Government servants to attend the meetings of the
Congress.
(iii) The british office relied on the policy of Divide and Rule to weaken the
National movement.
:-Eminent Moderate Leaders:-
(1) Dadabhai Naoroji:
(i) Known as the Grand Old man of India.
(ii) Founded the Bombay Association and edited the newspaper Rast Goftar and supported
Naoroji Furdoonji to remove social evils from the Parsi Community. (iii) Was elected the
President of INC thrice in 1886,1893 and 1906respectively.
(iv) He set up the East India Association in London in 1866.
(v) He was the first nationalist to propound the drain theory and exposed the british
exploitation of the Indian economy.
(vi) Was the first Indian to be elected to the House of Commons in 1892 and became the
first Indian member of the British Parliament.
(vii) Started a magazine Dharma Marga Darshak in which he advocated the first political
system.

(2) Gopal Krishna Gokhle:-
(i) He acknowleged Justice Ranade as his political and spiritual mentor and joined
the Deccan Education Society.
(ii) pointed out the shortcomings of the Act of 1892. Delivered some of his finest
speeches on budget in the Central Legislative Council in 1902.
(iii)He strove hard for the abolition of Salt Law, introduction of compulsory primary
education, inclusion of Indians in senior posts and reduction of government
expenditure.
(iv)He presided the INC session in the year 1905 and gave full support to boycott
movement.
(v) In 1906, he was sent to England to apprise the British public over the Bengal
partition.
(vi) In 1905, Gokhle started Servants of India Society.
(vii) He was the political guru of Mahatma Gandhi.
(viii) He played a significant role in the passing of the Minto- Morley Reforms. (ix) He
also served as a member of the Public Service Commission from 1912-15. (x) He edited
Sudharak, the quarterly journal of the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha. (xi) Tilak though
critical of his ideology, described him as the diamond of India, the jewel of
Maharashtraand the prince of workers.

(3) Surendra Nath Bannerjee :-
(i) Passed ICS examination at the age of 20.
(ii) In 1882, he set up Ripon Collegre.
(iii) He edited a Bengali newspaper which served as a powerful medium for mobilizing
public opinion and political consciousness.
(iv) In 1886, with the cooperation of Ananda Mohan Bose , he founded the Indian
Association.
(v) He protested against the Vernacular Press Act, Arms Act, reducing the age limit for the
ICS examination, Licence Act and opposed separate electorates for Hindus and Muslims.
(vi) He was elected to the Calcutta Corporation and remained its member for nearly two
decades.
(vii) He was elected to the Bengal Legislative Council four times in 1884,1896,1898 and
1900 respectively.
(viii) In 1883, he set up the Indian National Conference.
(ix) He was elected the president of INC twice-1895,and in 1902.
(x) He said Opposition where necessary, cooperation where possible.
(xi) He spoke against the Partion of Bengal and supported the Swadeshi and Boycott
Movements
(xii) His book Nation in the Making gives an account of his political concern. He is also
known as the Father of Indian Nationalism.

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Ch.3-The Radicals
*Why were they called the Radicals?
(i) They stood for complete Swaraj.(ii) They encouraged radical methods in politics, such as
boycott of british goods, government services and titles.(iii) They believed that for any
success, boldness was required.
*Causes of the rise of Radical Nationalism:
1) Non-fulfillment of the demands of the Moderates:
(i) The only act passed by the Government in 1892 was inadequate and disappointing.
(ii) The radical nationalists mocked at the moderate methods of persuasion and petition as
a policy of mendicancy.
(iii) The discontentment with the failure of the moderates to secure any concessions from
the British government.
2) Impact of colonial exploitation:-
(i) The radicals blamed the British for gradual impoverishment of the masses, deterioration
of the agriculture and industries and recurrent droughts and famines.
(ii) Increasing unemployment made the youth restless.
(iii) Famine in 1896-97 killed nearly 45 lakh deaths and Government machinery was slow
in providing relief.
(iv) Tilak wrote article highlighting it. As a result, Tilak was arrested and sentenced to 18
months imprisonment.
(v) The Chapekar brothers killed the Plague Commissioner, Rand.
3) Impact of international events:-
(i) The defeat of the Italians by the Ethiopians in 1896 and of the Russians by the Japanese
in 1905 encouraged the Indians to fight against foreign domination.
(ii) In Ireland people were launching Home Rule agitation.
(iii) Revolutionary movements had also begun in Russia, Turkey and Iran.
(iv) The victory of Afro-Asian forces over western powers shattered the myth of European
superiority and invincibility.
4) Ill treatment of Indians in South Africa:-
(i) In South Africa, the Indians were subject to racial discrimination.
(ii)The Indians were denied the right to vote and couldnot enter the buses and railway
coaches reserved for the whites.
(iii) They were subject to unfair taxation.
(iv) The Registration Act required them to carry their Identity Cards.
5) Repressive policy of Lord Curzon:-
(i) He passed The Official Secrets Act which curtailed the liberties of the people.
(ii) The Municipal Act(1899) which reduced the number of Indian members in Calcutta
Corporation.
(iii) The University Act (1904) aimed at the official control of University senates.
(iv) The Partion Of Bengal which was enforced on 16
th
October 1905 was to check the
growth of Indian Nationalism and to create division among Hindus and Muslims.
6) Teachings of Social Reformers:-
(i) The teachings of Swami Dayanand , Swami Vivekanand and annie Besant reminded the
people of their glorious past.
(ii) Their teachings inculcated pride in Indian Culture and generated a spirit of
nationalism.
(iii) In Bengal, the worship of Goddess Kali and Durga was revived to inspire the people to
take up arms against evil.
(iv) The heroic tales of Shivaji, Rana Pratap and Rani Lakshmi Bai were narrated by most
of the leaders.
(v) Bankim Chandras novel Ananda Math with its song, Vande Matram inspired the
youth.
The Congress attitude and the Surat split (1907):-
(i) In the Calcutta session in 1906, the moderates and the radicals sank their
differences and passed a resolution condemning the Partition Of Bengal and
favouring the Swadeshi and Boycott Movements.
(ii) Dadabhai Naoroji, who was respected by both the groups, became the President
in 1906; and declared Swaraj as the goal of the INC.
(iii) The Moderates were not in favour of adopting revolutionary means as
announced by the Radicals in 1906 session on the issue of swadeshi, swaraj and
national education.
(iv) When the Moderates nominated Ras Behari Ghose as the INC President and
Tilak was not allowed to speak, led to clashes in between these two groups.
Beliefs:-
(i) The radical nationalists denounced British rule and defied it. They held them
responsible for the backwardness and poverty of the Indian people.
(ii) Acc. to Tilak, freedom had to be fought for.
(iii) They believed in self reliance, self confidence and self respect as a weapon
against domination.
(iv) They aimed at nothing short of Swaraj.
Principles of the Radicals:-Complete Swaraj, National education, Self reliance and to
drive the British out of India.
Methods:
(i) Aggressive political actions and continuous struggle.
(ii) Wanted to cripple the British administration by using such weapons as
swadeshi, boycott and non-cooperation.
(iii) Drew their support from the masses.They had a wider social base.
(iv) They rejected British rule and held it responsible for the backwardness and
poverty of the Indian people.
(v) They revived the Ganapati and Shivaji festivals to inculcate pride in Indias
glorious culture to generate the spirit of nationalism.
Achievements of the Radicals:-
(i) Mobilization of the masses:- particularly the youth;For the first time, people
from all sections participated in anti-british agitations providing a wide social
base to the struggle for freedom.
(ii) Inculcated self-reliance and national pride by extolling Indias past.
(iii) Raised the slogan-Swaraj is my birthright.
(iv) Organized Swadeshi and Boycott Movements to pressurize the British
government and it encouraged Indian handicraft industries.
(v) Swadeshi Bhandars selling Indian goods were set up every where.
(vi) National College with Aurobindo Ghosh as its Principal was set up to train
Indian youth,both physically and mentally, to fight for freedom.
The Radical Nationalists: (1) Lala Lajpat Rai:
(i) Known as the lion of Punjab.
(ii) He started various newspapers like Punjabi, VandeMatram(urdu),People
(English).
(iii) He wrote various books like Young India, Englands Debt to India, Political
Future of India and Unhappy India.
(iv) He wrote biographies of Mazzini, Garibaldi, Swami Dayananda, Shivaji and
Pandit Gurudatta.
(v) During his exile in Mandalay, he wrote his autobiography, The Story of My
Deportation.
(vi) In 1907, he along with Sardar Ajit Singh led an agitation against the
Colonization Bill.
(vii) Lala Lajpat Rai was sentenced to six months imprisonment at Mandalay without
a trial.
(viii) He cooperated with the Ghadar Party and also started a Home Rule League in
USA.
(ix) He was opposed to capitalism and became the first President of the All India
Trade Union Congress.
(x) In 1920, he was elected President of the INC, and opposed the Non-cooperation
movement proposed by Gandhiji.
(xi) In 1928, while leading a procession at Lahore against the all white Simon
Commission, he was severely wounded in a lathi charge by a police officer
named Saunders. He succumbed to his injuries on 17 November 1928.
(2) Bal Gangadhar Tilak:-
(i) The true exponent of the Indian Radical National Movement; was one of the
founder members of the Deccan Education Society and the Fergusson College.
(ii) With a view to inculcating courage, self defence and patriotism, he organized
many akharas and lathi clubs where physical training was imparted.
(iii) In 1893 and 1896, Tilak revived the Ganpati and Shivaji festivals respectively to
instill national feeling among the Indians.
(iv) He started two newspapers- Maratha (English) and Kesari(Marathi)- which
soon became the vehicles of his ideas.
(v) He opposed the enactment of the Age of Consent Bill on the grounds that a
foreign government had no right to interfere with Indian social and religious
customs.
(vi) In 1897, when Maharastra was with famine and plague, he set up relief camps
and organized no-rent campaigns.
(vii) He was imprisoned for 18 months for his suspected involvement in the murder of
Plague Commissioner, Rand and other anti-government activities.
(viii) He advocated boycott of foreign goods and the use of indigenous goods as a
political weapon for achieving goals.
(ix) He said-Swaraj is my birthright and I shall have it.
(x) Tilak was sent to Mandalay jail for 6 years where he wrote two works- Gita
Rahasya and Arctic Home in the Vedas.
(xi) In 1916, he started the Home Rule League in Maharashtra.
(xii) At the Congress Session in Lucknow (1916), he played an important role in
formulating the Lucknow Pact which symbolized Hindu- Muslim unity.
(xiii) In 1918, he criticized the Montague Chelmsford Reforms as unsatisfactory.
(xiv) The Non cooperation Movement of Gandhiji was launched on the ideas of Tilak-
swaraj,swadeshi and boycott.
(xv) People called himLokmanyaand Sir called him-the most dangerous pioneers
of disaffection and truly the Father of Indian Unrest.
(3) Bipin Chandra Pal:-
(i) In 1876, he joined Brahma Samaj.
(ii) He delivered forceful speeches condemning the Arms Act and spread the
message of Swaraj and freedom.
(iii) He stressed on swadeshi and boycott as instrumental form of freedom struggle.
(iv) During the Anti-Partition movement, he took active role in popularizing the
radical nationalist ideals.
(v) He emphasized the importance of self-reliance and national pride.
(vi) In 1906, he was imprisoned for 6 months for his refusal to give evidence against
Aurobindo Ghosh who was charged with sedition.
(vii) Initially Pal considered Surendra Nath Banerjee as his political mentor but
gradually drifted from the moderate group and joined Lala Lajpat Rai and
Tilak in the freedom struggle movement.
(viii) He was an educationist ,writer and journalist rolled into one. He wrote books on
Hindu Philosophy and Indian Nationalism.
(ix) He wrote articles in The Englishman,The Statesman and Modern Review.
He also wrote The spirit of Nationalism.
(x) In 1911, he advanced the concept of an Imperial Federation.
(xi) In 1918,he and Tilak went to England as members of the Home Rule League
deputation.
(xii) Bipin Chandra Pal was in favour of aggressive methods to be used as weapons in
the Non-cooperation Movement started by Gandhiji. He had to leave the
Congress because of these differences.
(xiii) He advocated the promotion of industries in India,48 hours of work in a week
and higher wages for workers.
(xiv) He proposed to tax the rich to secure more resources to help the poor.
(xv) His economic theories are expressed in his book The New Economic Menace to
India.
*********************************************************************
Chapter 6

FORMATION OF THE MUSLIM LEAGUE
*Formation:- The All India Muslim League was founded by Agha Khan, Waqar-ul-mulk,
Mohsin ul-mulk and Nawab Salimullah of Dhaka on December 30
th
, 1906 at Dhaka.
*Factors responsible for the growth of communalism and the formation of the Muslain
League:

1] The British policy of Divide and Rule:
(i) After the revolt of 1857, the British followed the policy of divide and rule; to keep
themselves in power by causing disagreements within various sections.
(ii) The Muslims were kept out of services and the army
(iii) The government branded the Congress as a Hindu movement and encouraged the
upper class Muslims to start their own organization
2] Educational and economic backwardness of the Muslims:
(i) In the first seventy years of the 19
th
century, Islam had almost declared a war against
western education .
(ii) The government declared that people with the knowledge of English would be
preferred in government services
(iii) With the efforts of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan and Tyabji, the Muslims also took to new
learning but the process was slow as compared to other communities.
3] Economic backwardness of the Muslims:
(i) The Muslims were not recruited to civil and military services.
(ii) Unemployment and poverty increased and an intense competition for jobs began.
(iii) The crippling of arts and crafts in villages also led to the poverty among the
Muslims.
4] Distorted manner of teaching history:
(i) British historians divided history into two parts- Hindu period and Muslim Period;
glorifying the achievements of Shivaji and Rana Pratap while ignoring the achievements of Sher
Shah or Akbar.
(ii) They tried to depict ancient India under Hindu rulers as the most glorious part of
Indian History.
(iii) They gave detailed account of the cruelty inflicted by Muslim rulers on their Hindu
subjects.
5] Role of Radical Nationalists:
(i) They identified Indian culture with Hindu culture.
(ii) Tilaks idea of reviving Ganpati and Shivaji festivals, nationalists invoking Goddess
Kali before taking an oath and bathing in the Ganges did not appeal to the Muslim
fundamentalists.
(iii) Bipin Chandra regarded Krishna as Indiaa soul;Aurobindo considered India as
mother and nationalism as religion.
6] Role of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan:
(i) He was a great educationist and social reformer of the muslim community who laid
the foundation of the Mohammedan Anglo- Oriental College at Aligarh in 1875 with the aim of-
spreading scientific and western learning among the Muslims;to promote loyalty towards the
rulers and win their favours. The college became the centre of Aligarh Movement with the theme
loyalty,approval and support of the government.
(ii) He started a paper- Loyal Mohammedan of India to convince the British that the
Muslims had reconciled to the British rule.
(iii) Principal Beck of MAO College influenced upon him so much that he advised
Muslims to remain away from Congress as it is a Hindu party.
(iv) He established Anglo- Oriental Defence Association in 1893 with the object to
promote loyalty towards the rulers and to prevent muslims from participating in any political
movement.
Events leading to the formation of the Muslim League:
1] The Hindi Urdu controversy:
(i) In UP, the petitions only in Urdu could be submitted to the offices and courts.
(ii) The Hindus protested so the British allowed that the offices and courts should
entertain petitions written in Hindi in Devanagiri script.
(iii) This angered the muslims so they called protest meetings so the Hindus also held
meetings to meet the challenge.
2] Partition of Bengal:
(i) Its creation strengthened Muslim aspirations for aseparate region for themselves as
well as ensured their loyalty to the British.
(ii) It gave a crushing blow to the national movement led by INC.
(iii) The new province of Eastern Bengal with Dacca as its capital demarcated it as a
predominantly Muslim area.
3] Deputation send to Viceroy Lord Minto:
A delegation led by Agha Khan met the Viceroy Lord Minto in Shimla on 1
st
October 1906 and
put forward their demands-
(i) Representation of muslims in elected bodies on the basis of its political importance not
on the numerical strength.
(ii) Separate electoral constituency for the muslims.
(iii) Reservation of seats for muslims in the state services.
(iv) More state aid for promoting new muslim universities.
(v) Preference to muslims while nominating members of the Viceroys Council.
Reaction of Lord Minto to the demands:
Lord Minto gave assurance that the political rights and interests of Muslims would be
duly safeguarded.
Formation of the Muslim League:
The Muslim League was established on 30
th
Dec. 1906 at Dacca. Nawab Salimullah was the
leader of the Muslim League.
Aims and objectives:
(i) To promote among muslims a feeling of loyalty to the British.
(ii) To protect and advance the political rights and interests of the muslims.
(iii) To prevent the rise of feelings of hostility among the muslims towards other
communities.


Direct results of the formation of the League:
1) The league leaders were trying to cut off the muslim masses from the national movement.
2) The British welcomed the formation of the League; to provide an effective answer to the
Congress.
Attitude of the Nationalist muslims:
1) They believed that there could be no future for India unless cooperation was
established between the two major communities.
2) M. Rashid Ahmad of the Deoband School urged the Muslims not to be afraid of the
Hindus because of thir majority
3) Habibur Rahman founded Masjlis-Ahrar[The Society of Freemen]
Impact of the Muslim League on the national movement:
1) The formation of the party on the basis of religion was an unhealthy sign in the
political life of the people.
2) Though the Muslim League preferred to serve the interests of its community, it
actually served the interests of British rulers.
3) The Act of 1909 was incorporated to please the muslims.
4) In 1940, Jinnah put forward his two nations theory which ultimately came to
realty in the form of the partition of the country.
5) Because of the Jinnahs indifferent attitude towards Congress as the leader of the
League, resulted in the form of communal riots till the partition .



Chapter 7
NATIONAL MOVEMENT(1914-17)

First World War and the Indian National Movement:
* The First World War broke out in 1914, India being a dependency of the British empire at that
time automatically got involved in the war.
* Indian leaders supported the war efforts in the hope that the British Government would be
sympathetic to Indias demand for self government.
* Tilak was released in 1914, after 6 years of imprisonment at Mandalay, also extended support
to the British.
Hindu- Muslim Relations:
1) Increasing numbers of Muslims were now drawn into the national movement because
Britain was fighting the war against Turkey whose ruler, the Caliph, was the spiritual
head of all muslims.
2) During the Balkan Wars between 1912-13, Britain maintained an indifferent attitude
towards Turkey.
3) Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and the Ali brothers spread nationalist ideas among the
muslims.
4) Azad started the Urdu newspaper Al Hilal and the Ali brothers started Hamdard in Urdu
and Comrade in English to mobilize public opinion in favour of self government.
5) Annie Besant and Tilak played a significant role in bringing the two organizations
together ie.INC and the Muslin League.
LUCKNOW PACT:
In 1916, both INC and the Muslim League prepared and put forward a
joint scheme of political reforms which was passed by the two parties is known as the Lucknow
Pact.
Main features and terms of the Lucknow Pact:
(i) Independent unit:
1) India was to be treated as an independent unit of the Empire.
2) A self autonomous state with equal rights and responsibilities.
(ii) Provincial legislature:
1) Four- Fifth members were to be elected and one fifth nominated.
2) One third of the elected members to be the Muslims.
(iii) Powers of the Imperial Legislative Council:
1)Defence, foreign affairs and political relations of India were to be excluded from the
control of the Imperial legislature.
2) No bill could be produced in the Legislative Council if it affects the interests of any
community.
(iv) Viceroys executive council:
Half of the total members should be Indians elected by the elected members of the
Imperial Legislative Council.
(v) Separation of Judiciary from Executive.
(vi) Abolition of the Council of the Secretary of State.
Significance of the Pact:
1) It symbolized Hindu-Muslim unity.
2) Both the Congress and the League adopted and demanded self-government which
could not be ignored by the government easily.
3) It was also symbolic of the unity between the radical nationalists and the moderates.
4) The radical nationalists, who were expelled from the Congress in 1907, were
welcomed back within the Congress.
5) It led to the gradual development of self governing institutions.
Criticism:
1) It provided for muslim representation in the Councils far in excess of their population
in the total population.
2) It did not involve the masses of both the communities.
3) By accepting the demands of the Muslims for separate electorates, the Congress
paved the way for future communal tension.
4) It introduced communal veto in legislation when 3/4
th
of the members of a
community can reject a bill.
FORMATION OF THE HOME RULE LEAGUES:
In April 1916, Tilak established Home Rule League at Poona and in September
,1916 Mrs. Annie Besant established it at Madras(Adyar).
Factors responsible for its formation:
1) The first world war broke out in 1914 and India was forced to be a part of this without
even discussing any leader.
2) Tilak was released in 1914 from prison so he decided to form Home Rule league.
3) Mrs. Annie Besant entry into the national movement played a big role in the
establishment of Home Rule League who derived inspiration from the Irish
Movement.
Aims and objective of the Home Rule Movement:
1) Aimed at achieving :self government
2) To make people politically aware.
3) Wanted to popularize the idea of self government through tours all over the
country.
4) It raised the slogan of swadeshi, natonal education and home rule for India.
Programme:
1) Tilaks League worked in Maharashtra and Central Provinces wheras Annie Besants
League in the rest of India.
2) The Main aim was to attain Swaraj by using constitutional methods.
3) Organised discussion groups, mass distribution of pamphlets and books.
4) Both the leaders toured the country and created a lot of enthusiasm among the people.
Tilak wrote articles and preached in his two newspapers- The Kesari and the
Mahratta while Annie Besant in New India.
5) They were also critical of the foreign policy and the land revenue policy of the
government.
Governments reaction:
1) Tilak was prosecuted for the third time on charge of treason.
2) His entry in Punjab was banned.
3) The Madras government issued orders of the arrest of Mrs. Besant and her two
colleagues B.P. Wadia and G. S. Arundale.
Importance of the Home Rule Movement:
1) Infused new life in the national movement.
2) Womens participation and the revival of the Swadeshi spirit.
3) I Commonwealth and New India.t transformed the national movement into peoples
movement.
4) It brought together the moderates and the radicals together.
5) The Secretary of State, Mr. Montague announced in August 1917 about gradual
developments of self governing institutions in India.
6) The Government of India Act of 1919.
Tilak and Home Rule Movement:
1) He established the Home Rule league at Poona in April, 1916.
2) Areas were Maharashtra and the Central provinces through six branches at various
places.
3) The District Magistrate of Poona served him notice to execute a bond for Rs. 20,000
and two securities of Rs. 10,000 each but he ignored and continued the movement
vigourously.
4) It was during this movement , he gave the slogan- Swaraj is my birthright and I
shall have it.
Annie Besant :
1) She became the President of the Theosophical Society in Madras and set up a
Central Hindu School at Benaras.
2) After joining the Congress ,she published in the English dailies New India and
Commonweal.
3) The Madras government issued orders of the arrest of Mrs. Besant and her two
colleagues B.P. Wadia and G. S. Arundale.

AUGUST DECLARATION
The Secretary of State, Mr. Montague announced in August 1917 about
gradual developments of self governing institutions in India.
Essential features or importance of the August Declaration:
1) Increasing association of Indians in every branch of administration.
2) Gradual development of self governing institutions.
3) Progressive realization of responsible government in India.
4) India was to remain an integral part of the British Empire.
Reaction to the August Declaration:
1) The moderates welcomed it as Magna Carta of India.
2) The Radicals doubted whether thee government would be able to implement it.
3) The Congress and the League had agreed on sharing of seats in legislative councils
4) The leaders of the depressed classes felt that the new system could perpetuate Hindu
rule.
5) The Sikhs wanted to have one third of the seats in the Punjab Legislative Council.
The Montague-Chelmsford Reforms or The Act of 1919:
Main features:
4) Dyarchy in the provinces means the subjects to be dealt by the provincial
Government were divided into:
a) Reserved subjects.
b) Tranfered subjects.
5) Distribution of powers between the Central Government and provincial
governments.
6) Central government remained responsible to the British Parliament.
7) The Provincial subjects were divided into two parts- transferred and reserved
subjects.
8) Many Indians were granted the voting rights.
Criticism of the Act:
1) The system of dyarchy was a total failure.
2) British continued their policy of divide and rule as the communal
representation was now extended to other communities too.
3) The British were reluctant to give their unlimited powers.
4) No time limit for establishing self governing institutions in India.
************************************************************************

Ch.8 THE NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1919-1934)
Mahatama Gandhi:
He was born in 1869 at Porbandar in the kathiawad district of
Gujarat.From 1893 to 1914 the field of Gandhijis activity was South Africa. To begin with
his involvement in the Indian politics-In 1917 , he organized a satyagraha at Champaran in
Bihar against the oppression of the indigo planters.In 1918, on behalf of the workers of a
mill in Ahmedabad, for a raise in their wages; same year he organized another satyagraha
in Kheda district of Gujarat for remission of the taxes.
Gandhis methods:
1)Satyagraha:
(i) which literally means holding on to the truth.It is a combination of two Sanskrit words-
satya(truth) and agraha(eagerness, insistence to hold fast).
(ii) This technique was evolved by Gandhiji during his stay in South Africa and later applied to
the Indian national Movement.
(iii) It is based on the twin principles of truth and non-violence.
(iv) A satyagrahi would be a person of actions who are spiritually and morally strong.
2) Swadeshi:
(i) Swadeshi means use of the goods produced within ones own country and by ones own
countrymen.
(ii) Gandhiji favoured it to get rid of poverty and unemployment.
(iii) It also aimed at hampering British trade in India.
(iv) He emphasized the use of Charkha and Khadito help the poor.
3) Stress on Non-violence:
(i) It involved defiance of laws, peaceful demonstrations, boycott of foreign goods and
institutions, picketing of shops selling foreign goods and non-payment of taxes.
(ii) True love , inner purity and feeling of selflessness form the basis of non-violence.
(iii) He inspired the unarmed people of India to fight against the mighty British empire and win
freedom.
(iv) It is not a negative but a positive and active force.
4) Faith in the masses:
(i) Gandhiji realized the power of the organized masses in South Africa.
(ii) Under his leadership, all sections of society- peasants, workers, women, lawyers and other
professionals participated in the freedom movement.
(iii) Under his leadership, the Indian National Movement got a new direction and adopted new
methods and techniques.
5) Doctrine of Trusteeship:
(i) According to him, the land belongs to God, so the wealth- owning classes should regard
themselves as Trustees.
(ii) They would hold their property in trust for their wards and use it primarily for their welfare.
(iii) He was opposed to the accumulation of wealth and economic inequality.
6) Social justice( concern for the oppressed):
(i) He considered untouchability as a curse to Hindu society and called them Harijans.
(ii) He wanted to spread education among women and wanted to promote basic education for all.
(iii) He promoted swadeshi and popularized the charkha and khadi because it would provide
jobs to thousands of weavers.
7) Hindu- Muslim unity:
(i)He led the nation towards communal harmony and Hindu- Muslim unity.
(ii) He sided with the muslims during the Khilafat Movement and they in turn supported the Non
cooperation Movement.
(iii) Whenever communal riots broke out in India he risked his own life to visit the riot-torn areas
and tried to restore peace there.


KHILAFAT MOVEMENT:
1) After the first world war, Turkish empire was broken up and its territories were
divided between the Britain and France.
2) Severe terms were imposed on the Sultan of Turkey, the Khalifa of the Sunni
muslims.
3) The muslims in India resented this and were led by Ali Brothers- Maulana
Muhammad Ali and Maulana Shaukat Ali.
4) Gandhiji saw an opportunity of uniting the Hindus and the Muslims.
5) The programme of the movement included resignation from government services,
boycott of Councils, refusal to join the army, and, refusal to pay the taxes.
Significance :
1) It exercised great influence over the muslim masses.
2) In 1922, Mustafa Kamal Pasha deposed the Sultan of Turkey and abolished the
Caliphate, the Khilafat movement was merged in the Non-cooperation Movement to
establish the Hindu-Muslim unity.
The Non-Cooperation Movement,1920
Meaning: Non-Cooperation is a way of protesting in which you donot cooperate with the evil-
doer.
Objectives: 1) restoring the old status of the Sultan of Turkey,
2) punishing those guilty of atrocities in Punjab;
3) attaining swaraj for India.
**Reasons or circumstances for launching the Non-Cooperation Movement:
1) Failure of the Act off 1919.
2) The Rowlatt Act.
3) The Jallianwala Bagh massacre.
4) The Khilafat Movement.
Methods:
1) boycott of Legislative Councils,boycott of the law courts,schools colleges.
2) Renunciation of titles and honours,
3) Boycott of british goods and promotion of Khadi.
4) Demonstrations, picketing and protests against the government actions.
5) Prohibition of intoxicating drinks and removal of untouchability.
Spread of the movement:
1) Eminent lawyers like Motilal Nehru, C.R.Das, Rajendra Prasad, C.
Rajgopalachari gave up their legal practice.
2) National institutions like Jamia Millia Islamia , Gujarat Vidyapith,Bihar
Vidyapith,and Kashi Vidyapith were established.
3) Nearly 150,000 young people joined as volunteers.
4) In November 1921, the Prince of Wales visited India, he was greeted by anti-
british slogans and demonstrations.
5) Firing took place; riots broke out at many places.
6) In Malabar, Moplahs(muslim peasants) started a powerful anti-zamindari
movement.
Chauri-Chaura incident and withdrawl of the movement:
1) On 5
th
Feb. 1922 a procession of 3,000 peasants was fired upon by police at
Chauri chaura, a village in Gorakhpur district in Uttar Pradesh.
2) An angry crowd set the nearby police station on fire, killing 22 policemen.
3) Gandhiji was shocked and suspended the law breaking part of the movement.
4) Gandhiji was sentenced to six years imprisonment but was released after two
years because of failing health.
5) C.R.Das, Motilal Nehru, Subhash Chandra Bose and Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru
considered it as a retreat.
Significance of the movement:
1) It converted the national movement into a mass movement.
2) It undermined the power and prestige of the British Government.
3) Repression failed to crush the spirit of the people.
4) It established Hindu- Muslim unity.
5) The weapons of Satyagraha and Non-Cooperation changed the character of
the Congress.
6) It provided political training to the Indians to join the freedom struggle.
SWARAJ PARTY
A section of the Congress led by Motilal Nehru and C. R. Das set up the
Swaraj Party in 1923 to participate in election, get elected and enter the Legislature. Their main
aim was to obstruct the proceedings of the Legislature from within. These leaders were called
pro-changers. Some leaders like Sardar Patel, Dr. Rajendra Prasad , C. Rajagopalachari who
opposed them were called no changers.
The elections of 1923:
1) Swarajists managed to secure 45 seats out of 105 seats in the Central
Legislature; and considerable number of seats in the provincial legislatures.
Achievements : 1) They drew attention of the government to some vital problems:labour
conditions, necessity of reducing railway fare.
2) They missed no opportunity to attack anti-people policies of the government.
3) Many of our leaders got familiar with rules and procedures of Legislative
Assemblies eg. Motilal Nehru, Lala Lajpat Rai,and Govind Ballabh Pant.
In 1925, with the death of C. R. Das , it lost its popularity and that was clear in the elections
of 1926 and Swaraj Party was merged with the Congress.
The Simon Commission:
Purpose/aim: To look into and examine the working of the reforms introduced in India through
the Act of 1919.
Reaction of Indians:
1) When the Commission arrived in India on 3
rd
Feb. 1928, it wasv greeted with black
flag and slogans and flags, with Simon Go Back written on it.
2) All parties in India protested against the all- British composition of the Commission.
3) It took a violent turn in Lahore where a huge demonstration was organized under Lala
Lajpat Rai, Saunders a british officer started assaulting the crowd brutally.Lala
lajpat Rai was succumbed to his injuries.
Recommendations:
1) Dyarchy would be abolished.
2) There should be Federal Government at the Centre
3) Provincial Legislative Councils should be enlarged.
4) The Governor General should be free to select his cabinet.
5) High Courts should be under the control of the government of India.
6) Communal representation was to continue.
All political parties condemned the Report as partial and inadequate.
The Nehru Report:
Lord Birkenhead, the Secretary of State for India challenged the Indian leaders to frame
the Constitution that would be acceptable to all the parties in India. Pandit Motilal Nehru
submitted a report which is known as Nehru Report.
Recommendations:
1) Dominion status was to be attained.
2) Executive was to be responsible to the Legislature.
3) Safeguard the interests of the minorities.
4) Proposed joint electorates with reservation to the minorities.
5) Emphasized the principle of universal adult franchise.
6) Proposed for a sovereign parliament.
Reaction of the Indians:
1) Gandhiji considered it as one of the big achievements of the year.
2) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose demanded Complete
Independence.
3) Jinnah demanded more representation for Muslims in the Legislatures and put
forward his Fourteen Points.
CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT
Reasons:
1) Reaction against the Simon Commission and anger born out of the death of Lala
Lajpat Rai.
2) The Nehru Report.
3) The Viceroys Declaration of October, 1929-summoning of a Round Table
Conference to consider the Simon Commission Report.
4) Lahore session of the Congress and the demand for Complete Independence.
5) On 30 Jan., 1930 Gandhiji wrote in Young India about eleven demands.
Circumstances leading to the CDM.:
The Dandi March: The Civil Disobedience Movement began with what is known as the Dandi
March . On March 12,1930 Gandhiji alongwith 79 satyagrahis, started from his ashram at
Sabarmati on a march to Dandi.
Main aim: 1) To break the Salt laws, it was a symbol of defiance of the laws made by the
Government.
2)To convert the national movement into a mass movement.
3) Gandhiji urged the people to celebrate the period between 6-13 April as the
national week.
Programme of the CDM:
1) Defiance of the salt laws
2) Boycott of liquor,foreign cloth and british goods of all kinds.
3) Non payment of taxes and land revenue and violation of laws of different kinds.
Course of the CDM :1) C.R.Rajagopalachari led a salt atyagraha from Trichinopoly to
Tanjore.Mrs. Sarojini Naidu reached Dharsana Salt Works.
3) Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan in the NWFP launched Red Shirts Movement through his
followersKhudai Khidmatgars. Garwah Rifles refused to fire on non- violent
demonstraters.
4) Women in large number picked the shops selling foreign cloth and liquor.
The repressive measures:
1) More than 60,000 persons were put behind the bars.
2) Satyagrahis were brutally assaulted.
3) Firing took place as a result of which hundreds of people died.
FIRST ROUND TABLE CONFERENCE:
Was held in London in 1930; the Congress boycotted it.
GANDHI-IRWIN PACT:
After the release of gandhiji, the famous Gandhi- Irwin Pact was signed on March, 1931.
1) To release all political prisoners.
2) To return the confiscated properties.
3) Peaceful picketing of liquor and foreign cloth shops
4) To permit such people as lived near sea shores to manufacture salt.
5) Gandhiji agreed to take part in the Second Round Table Conference and withdraw the
CDM.
SECOND ROUND TABLE CONFERENCE-1931:
1) The conference devoted most of the time to the communal question and the
representation of of minorities in Legislatures.
2) The question of independence receded into background.
3) Gandhiji felt disgusted and retiuned empty handed.
Renewal of the CDM:
1) On Jan. 1932, Gandhiji was arrested and Congress decided to adopt a resolution for
the renewal of CDM.
2) Congress flags were hoisted over government buildings.
3) Congress was declared as an illegal organization.
4) More than 1,20,000 persons were arrested and police methods were cruel.
Suspension and the end of the CDM:
1) Third Round Table Conference sat in London in Dec. 1932, Congress did not attend
it.Gandhiji was released in 1933.
2) Gandhiji decided to withdrew it because of the high handedness on Satyagrahis and
inhuman treatment of untouchables by the high caste Hindus.
THE COMMUNAL AWARD AND THE POONA PACT:
1)British Prime minister Ramsay McDonald announced a communal award in 1932.
2) Separate representation aws to be provided for the muslims, Sikhs etc.
3) Special constituencies for the Depressed classes.
4) Gandhiji was in jail so he started a fast unto death. Dr. Ambedkar, the prominent
leader of the Depressed Classes had a talk to Gandhiji.
5) The Poona Pact reserved seats for the Depressed Classes without the Hindu
community being further fragmented.
Significance of the CDM:
1) Strengthened the national movement.
2) Created political conscipousness and a deep sense of patriotism.
3) Created political awareness among the women.
4) The Government was convinced that Constitutional Reforms were now essential.
5) Made people understand the significance of the principle of Non-violence.

*The Communist Party of India was established in Dec. 1925.

*The Congress Socialist Party: Main members- Jayprakash Narayan, Jawaharlal Nehru,
and,Subhash Chandra Bose.

*The Revolutionary Movement:
1) On 9
th
August, 1925, Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqulla, Roshan Lal stopped a train near
Kakori in UP to loot the money for arms and bombs, and , later on were hanged.
2) Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Datt threw bombs in the Assembly. For the murder of
Saunders at Lahore in 1928- Bhagat Singh, Sukhdev and Rajguru were sentenced to
death.
3) In 1931, Chandrashekhar Azad was trapped by police in Alfred Park at Allahabad, he
was killed suffering bullet injuries.

************************************************************************


Ch.9 NATIONAL MOVEMENT (1935-1942)

THE ACT OF 1935:
On the basis of the white paper issued in the Third Round Table
Conference held in 1932, the Government of India Act was passed in 1935.

Main Provisions:
1)Creation of an All India Federation.
(2)Provision of Provincial Autonomy.
(3)Dyarchy was swept aside to be replaced by a system of responsible government in the
provinces.

Elections in 1937 witnessed Congress victory in 7 out of 11 British provinces and the
Muslim League formed the government in Sindh alone.

Deliverance Day (22
nd
Dec, 1939):
1) Muslim League under Jinnah declared 22
nd
Dec, 1939 as the Deliverance Day, A day of
relief from Congress as the Congress resigned from their concerned ministries.
2) Congress resigned because the British officials did not take the consent of Indian leaders to
take Indias support on behalf of Britain in World War II.
Demand for Pakistan: Mohammad Iqbal at the Allahabad session of the Muslim League
in 1930 conceived a plan of a Muslim state. Rahmat Ali had even found a name for this separate
state Pakistan. In 1940 Muslim League passed a resolution that the areas in which Muslims
were numerically in majority should be grouped to constitute an independent state.
Causes that led to demand of Pakistan:
1. Refusal of the Congress to form a coalition government in provinces where Congress was
in Majority.
2. Poor performance of Muslim League in the elections.
3. The gospel of Hindu Rashtra preached by V.D. Savarkar caused apprehension among the
Muslims.
4. Muslim Mass Contact Movement started by Congress before and after the elections
of 1937.
5. British policy of Divide and Rule
6. Highest personal ambitions of some leaders could only be satisfied by the creation of
Pakistan.
Jinnahs Two-Nations Theory:
1. Mr. M.A. Jinnah adopted the Two-Nation theory on 24
th
March, 1940 at Muslim League
session of Lahore.
2. He asserted that Hindus and the Muslims had nothing in common and were, therefore,
two separate nations and needed two separate states.
3. Punjab, Afghan province, Kashmir and Sindh and the Baluchistan were to be included in
Pakistan.

The August Offer of 1940:
Was made by Lord Linlithgow on 8
th
Aug, 1940 to end the
political deadlock which had occurred during the Second World War. Congress made an
offer of cooperation in the war, provided its demand for independence was conceded, so, in
response to this, the government made an offer known as August Offer.
Proposals:
1)After the war, the government would set up a Constitution Making Body to frame the
constitution of India.
2)War Advisory Council would be set up.
3)Viceroys Executive Council would be expanded to include Indian people.
4)India would be given Dominion status after the war.
5)Government would give due weightage to the minority demads in the new set of reforms.
Reasons for rejection:
1. Though the government proposed to set up a constitutional body, but no time was
given within which it was to be set up.
2. Their demand for provincial government was not accepted.
3. No provision for Muslim state.
Individual Satyagraha (1940)
1) The cold attitude of the government to the demands of the Congress compelled the latter
to withdraw the offer of cooperation.
2) Gandhiji favoured Individual Satyagraha. Acharya Vinobha Bhave inaugurated it.
3) He was arrested on 21
st
Oct, 1940. Later on, Patel, Rajagopalachari and Azad courted
arrest.
Cripps Mission (1942):
It was headed by Sir Stafford Cripps. British needed the help of
India to fight off Japanese army because the possibility of Indian soldiers supporting the
Japanese invaders posed as a threat to the British empire in India. So a mission was sent to
India to resolve the deadlock.
Proposals:
1. India would be given Dominion status immediately after the World War II.
2. Constituent Assembly would be set up.
3. The provinces not consenting to the new constitution would be free to have their own
constitution.
4. Provisions would also be made for the protection of the racial and religious minorities.
5. Viceroy was responsible for the defence of the country.
Reasons for rejection by Congress:
1. It contained provisions which would divide India into independent provinces.
2. No time limit was set for the formation of the Constituent Assembly.
3. All subjects including defense should be handed over to the national government.
4. People from the princely states had no right to send their representatives; they were to be
chosen by the rulers.
5. It did not safeguard their interests so Gandhiji too named it The Post Dated Cheque.
Muslim League: These did not contain acceptance of the demand for the creation of Pakistan
so the league also rejected it.
Quit India Movement (8
th
August, 1942) Slogan: Do or die[gandhiji]
Reasons:
1. Failure of the Cripps Mission-
(i) The Government was unwilling to give the right of self-government.
(ii) Indian leaders wanted that until the new Constitution was framed, the Viceroy
should act as a Constitutional Head but this was also not acceptable to the
British.
2. Japan posed a serious threat to India-
(i) Japanese threat to attack India left Indians helpless because they had no power
or means to resist the attack.
(ii) Gandhiji felt that the situation called for complete independence.
(iii) Gandhiji felt that an orderly and peaceful withdrawl of the British could save
India from internal anarchy and external aggression.
3. Demand of Pakistan by Jinnah.
4. Exploitation of the Indians.
Objectives:
1. To launch a massive non-violent movement for independence to end the British rule in
India.
2. It suggested the formation of Provincial Government to resist foreign aggression.
Consequences:
1. It demonstrated the depth of national feelings.
2. British realized that they would not be able to retain their hold on India.
3. Emergence of parallel government in Ballia(U.P.), Midnapur(Bengal),
Satara(Maharashtra).
4. Strengthening of the Congress Socialist Party.
Subhash Chandra Bose
Rift between Bose and Gandhiji
1. S.C. Bose became the Congress President in 1938, and was re-elected in 1939 by
defeating Gandhijis candidate, Pattabhi Sitaramayya.
2. On the question of the formation of the Congress Working Committee, Bose wanted
freedom to choose his own Working Committee as he was the President of Congress,
Gandhiji disapproved it.
3. Bose was in favour of rapid industrialization, but Gandhiji opposed it.
4. Bose wanted inclusion of radical members in the Working Committee of the Congress
but Gandhiji opted for equal representation of moderates as well.
5. Bose wanted to take advantage when Britain started facing difficulties due to German
threat. However Gandhiji had a soft corner for the Britishers.
6. Bose wanted to help the people of the Princely states but Gandhiji refused.
7. Nehru and Jayprakash Narayan made efforts to resolve the deadlock between Gandhiji
and Bose, but nothing helped so Bose resigned from Congress on 29
th
April, 1939 to
yield place to gandhian Dr. Rajendra Prasad as the next President.
Formation of the Forward Bloc (3
rd
May, 1939): S.C. Bose felt the need of an organized
and disciplined left wing party in the Congress, so after resigning he laid the foundation of
the Forward Bloc on 3rd May, 1939.
Objectives:
1) To mobilize the radical, progressive and left wing members of the Congress.
2) To liberate India with the support of workers, peasants, youth and other radical
organizations.
Main Ideals:
1)To develop the economy on socialistic ideals.
2)Abolition of landlordism.
3)A new monetary and credit system.
Indian National Army (INA) It was formally established on 1
st
Sept, 1942.
Following decisions were taken up at the Tokyo Conference:
1. To expand and strengthen the Indian Independence League.
2. To form under the overall command of the League an Indian National Army.
3. To hold a conference at Bangkok to consolidate these decisions.
Circumstances that led to the formation of INA:
1. Formation of Indian Independence league under the leadership of Rash Behari Bose.
2. The Tokyo conference met from 28th March to 31st March, 1942, attended by 120
delegates, passed a resolution to form Indian National Army.
INAs impact on the national movement:
1. INA had become the symbol of Indian unity, dedication and supreme sacrifice.
2. INA officers Shah Nawaz, G.S. Dhillon and Prem Sehgal were court-martialled due to
demonstrations all over the country but they were not punished by the government.
3. The Indian Navy and armed forces rose in revolt at Bombay in Feb, 1946.
4. Andaman and Nicobar islands were handed over to INA by Japan; renamed Shahid and
Swaraj islands by Netaji.
5. INA entered Indian territories and captured Mowdok and marched towards Kohima.
Contribution of S.C. Bose to the national movement:
1. He passed I.C.S. examination yet he decided to become a freedom fighter and popularly
was known as Netaji.
2. Formation of Forward Bloc.
3. He took charge of the INA in 1943.
4. On 21
st
Oct, 1943, announced the formation of the Provisional Government of free India.
5. Andaman and Nicobar islands were handed over to INA by Japan; renamed Shahid and
Swaraj islands by Netaji.
6. Delhi Chalo and Jai Hind became the battle cry of the INA.
7. INA under him with support from Rash Bihar Bose and Captain Mohan Singh,
hoisted tricolor flag for the first time in 1944 in South-East Asia.
Ch.10 Partion of India
The Wavell Plan: On June 1945, Lord Wavell invited all Indian leaders to attend a
conference in Shimla to discuss the provisions on the Interim Government, as promised
earlier.
Provisions of the Wavell Plan:
1) A new executive council would be formed.
2) Except the Viceroy and Commander-in-chief, all members of the Council
would be Indians.
3) There would be equal number of muslims and Hindus in the Council.
4) The executive council would work like a provisional national government.
Reaction:
1. It failed because Jinnah insisted that all Muslim members of the Executive
Council should be chosen by the Muslim League.
2. This was not acceptable by the Congress because it aimed at representing
both the Muslims as well as the Hindus.
3. Congress had agreed to Wavells Plan but the adverse attitude of the Muslim
League made it inoperative.
The Cabinet Mission (March, 1946): Was sent to facilitate the transfer of power and
to help the Indian leaders decide the form of government that would suit them.
1) The members of the mission were Lord Patrick Lawrence, Sir Stafford Cripps and A.V.
Alexander, who submitted their plan in March, 1946.
2) The two major parties Muslim League and the Congress failed to arrive at an
agreement. Congress wanted united India whereas Muslim League wanted creation of
Pakistan. Cabinet Mission was formed to shed the differences between the two.
Proposals:
1. India was to be a federation of all provinces and states.
2. Three Groups of Provinces:
Group A) U.P., M.P., Madras, Bombay, Orissa and Bihar.
Group B) Punjab, NWFP and Sind, Balauchistan
Group C) Bengal and Assam.
[M.P. was called Central Province and U.P. was called United Province.]
3. Any province could opt out of the group by a majority decision of the
legislature.
4. Separate constitution for each group.
5. A Constituent Assembly to be set up.
6. Till the new constitution would be framed, an Interim Government should be
created.
7. Federal Government to deal with defense, foreign affairs and communication.
All other subjects were to be looked after by the units of federation.
Reactions of the Congress, League and others:
A. Congress
1. Agreed to the constitution making plan.
2. Disagreed with the Interim Government as it said that it could not give up the
national character and share the government with the League.
3. Later due to overwhelming seats in the Constituent Assembly elections it
formed the Interim Government.
B. League
1. First accepted it because it had showed signs of creation of Pakistan.
2. Later on rejected it because Lord Wavell rejected its demand to frame the
government without the Congress and because of apprehensions due to
overwhelming strength of Congress members in the Constituent Assembly.
C. Sikhs -
1. Rejected it because they felt insecure under Muslim dominated provinces.
2. Punjab was grouped in Group B along with Muslim majority states so they felt
they would be at the mercy of the Muslims.
D. Depressed class -
1. Rejected it because there was no reservation of seats for them.
2. Had only one seat in the Interim Government.
Direct Action Day (1946)
1) The league declared 2
nd
Sept, 1946 as a day of mourning(day on which Congress
formed the government) .
2) On 26
th
Oct, 1946, the league joined the Interim Government to wreck it from inside.
Reasons:
1. Jinnah charged the Cabinet mission in general and Lord Wavell in particular
with playing into the hands of the Indian National Congress.
2. The Muslim League resolved that any participation by the muslims in the
proposed constitution-making body was full of danger.
3. Jinnah explained that while the British had machine-guns to enforce their will,
and the Congress the weapon of civil resistance, the Muslims alone remained
defenceless, with their hands and feet tied.
4. It was followed that they must bid final goodbye to the constitutional methods
and prepare themselves for self-defense by resorting to direct action.
5. The working committee of the Muslim League met on 3
0th
July, 1946 and
fixed 1
6th
August, 1946 as the Direct Action Day throughout the country to
demand the creation of Pakistan.
Events:
1. In Calcutta, August 16 began with public demonstrations, hartals and hoisting
of Muslim League flags.
2. Soon communal violence spread over many areas.
3. Mob fury continued for 4 days in Calcutta famous as The Calcutta Killing.
4. The Muslim League Ministry in Bengal proved utterly inefficient in meeting
the emergency.
5. The tragedy claimed 5000 dead and 15000 seriously injured in Calcutta alone.
6. This was followed by similar happenings in Noakhali and Tripura.
7. Gandhiji had to go on a fast to stop it.
8. The Congress formed the Government on 2
nd
Sept, 1946. The Muslim League
observed it as a day of mourning when Muslima all over the country were
asked to display black flags.
9. Violence broke out in Bombay, Punjab, Bengal and Bihar.
Later Occurrences:
On 13
th
Oct, 1946, Jinnah informed the Viceroy that the Muslim League had decided to join
the Interim Government. Accordingly on 26
th
Oct, 1946, the representatives of the League
were inducted into the Government. But they had only joined to wreck the Government from
inside.
Attlees Announcement of Feb, 1947:
The British P.M. Clement Attlee announced that the British Government would leave
India before June 1948 even if there is no agreement between the League and the Congress
and hand over power to one or more Central Government.
Mountbatten Plan (3
rd
June,1947)
Main Provisions:
1. Division of the country into India and Pakistan.
2. Referendum to be held in NWFP to decide whether people want to join India
or Pakistan.
3. Provinces of Assam, Bengal and Punjab to be partitioned.
4. Princely states will have to decide whether to join India or Pakistan.
5. On 15th August, 1947 the power will be transferred.
Reactions:
1. Both League and Congress accepted this plan.
2. Gandhiji accepted it with bitterness and said, A small but strong India was
better than a large and weak India.
Indian Independence Act (1947)
Provisions:
1. Two Dominions of India and Pakistan would be created on 15th August,
1947.
2. Pakistan to comprise Sind, Baluchistan, NWFP, West-Punjab and East
Bengal.
3. Viceroy to be replaced by a separate Governor-General for each dominion.
4. Princely states have the choice to join either of the two dominions.
5. Till the new constitutions are framed governments to rule according to the Act
of 1935.
6. The Constituent Assembly of each country would make its own constitution.
7. Decide whether to stay in British-Commonwealth.
8. Title Emperor of India was dropped.
9. Jurisdiction of the British Parliament over India would cease.
10. All the treaties and agreements between the British Government and native
Indian states would lapse.
11. The Indian army was to be divided into the two dominions.
12. Referendum to be held in Sylhet District,Assam.
Causes of creation of Pakistan [or] Causes for acceptance of MountbattenPlan
1. The Two-Nations Theory of M.A. Jinnah.
2. British policy of Divide and Rule.
3. To avert a civil war and establish law and order in India.
4. Notion of stronger, unified but smaller India preferable to weak, disunited and
larger India.
5. Attlees announcement of leaving India before June, 1948.
Causes for acceptance of Partition by Congress
1. Difficulties in administration due to obstructions from Muslim League.
2. A smaller, united and strong India was better than a bigger and weak India.
3. The large scale communal riots suggested that the only solution was partition
of India.
4. Attlees announcement of leaving India by June, 1948 even if there was no
agreement between Congress and the Muslim League.
Contribution of Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru to freedom struggle
1. Elected President of the Congress in 1929 and passed resolution of Purna
Swaraj in Lahore.
2. Head of Interim Government in 1946.
3. Great writer and democrat. Known internationally for Panchsheel and NAM.
4. Went to jail many times between 1917 and 1947.
5. Became 1
st
President of free India.
__________________________________________________________________*Lord
Mountbatten was the first Governor-General of free India.
*C. Rajagopalachari was the first Indian Governor-General of India.
*Jinnah was the first Governor-General of Pakistan.
*********************************************************************

Chapter 11,12 and 13
WORLD WAR I(1914-1919)
Reason why is it called a World War? It was fought on a wide scale on the land, the sea
and on the air. About 86 nations took part in this war. Because of the extent of its spread,
impact and its total nature, it was called World War.
*Causes of the war:
1) Franco-German rivalry:- (i) France defeated by Germany in Franco- Prussian
War in 1870-71. (ii) Alsace-Lorraine were taken away from France.(iii) The issue of
Morocco also created bitter feelings between the two.
2) Division of Europe:- (i) Britain , France and Russia had formed the Triple Entente
in 1907 A.D. Later Japan joined it. (ii) Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy had
formed a Triple Alliance in 1882A.D. Later turkey joined it.(iii) This secret
diplomacy gave rise to the feelings of mutual suspicion, distrust and hatred.
3) German ambition of a World Empire:- (i) Kaiser William was an ambitious ruler
who provoked the people for militarism. (ii) Sudden increase in its naval force and
large scale production of arms and ammunitions made England , France and Russia
his enemies.(iii) It resulted in a race for armaments among rival groups.
4) Role of newspapers:- (i) The war propaganda by newspapers in Germany
aggravated the tension, generating hatred, doubt and distrust among all powers.
5) Militant Nationalism:- (i) It was caused by narrow nationalism, economic
competition and international tension. (ii) Kaiser William wanted to establish a vast
German Empire. (iii) The French,wanted to take a revenge; The Italians looked
discontended and the Balkan States were unsatisfied.
6) Race for armament :- (i) Germany had acquired her colonies in Africa and few
islands in the Pacific Ocean and she made more warships and developed a powerful
navy. (ii) Germany also dug the Keil Canal deeper for the war ships. (iii) It resulted
a race for armaments. The defence spending had increased between 1908 and 1914.
7) Imperialistic interests clashed:- (i) France wanted Alsace Lorraine back from
Germany. (ii) Britain and France made a secret agreement in 1904-Britain was to
have Egypt and France was to take over Morocco but it was opposed by Germany
which declared that all the nations had equal opportunities to trade with it.(iii)
Germany had planned the construction of a railway line from Berlin to Baghdad to
control the economy of Ottoman Empire.(iv) Russia had her ambition in Iran. (v)
Japan had plan to hold the Far East.
8) Balkan issues:- (i) The Balkans was a region comprising modern Romania,
Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Crotia, Servia and Montenegro whose
inhabitants were known as Slavs. (ii) With the disintegration of the Ottoman
Empire, which was keeping control over it, made this region an area of intense
conflict. (iii) Austria annexed Bosnia and
Herzegovina.(iv)Serbia,Bulgaria,Montenegro and Greece started a war against the
Turks.
9) Pan-Slavic Movement:- (i) Means the independence of the Slavic people in Austro-
Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire under Serbia. (ii) Austria feared that
such movements would endanger its empire as it included people from a different
nationality. (iii) Serbia was supported by Russia who wanted to dominate the
Balkan region, a move which created tension between Austria and Russia.
10) No effective International organization for the preservation of peace
11) Immediate cause:- The Sarajevo Incident:-(i) On 28
th
June 1914, Archduke
Ferdinand along with his wife , were assassinated in Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia-
Herzegovina. (ii) Austria, suspecting the Serbian involvement, sent a ten point
ultimatum to Serbia. (iii) On 28th July 1914, Austria declared war on Serbia. Russia
came to help Serbia. ON 1
st
August Germany declared war on Russia and on 3
rd
on
France. On 4
th
Britain declared war on Germany.
Though it was a war between the Allied Powers (France,
England, Russia, America, Japan and Turkey) and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-
Hungary, Italy and Bulgaria)
Events of the World War I:-
1) Machine Guns, poisonous gas were introduced as new techniques of warfare.
2) The French used trench warfare on a large scale (Battle of Marne).
3) Britain, for the first time, used tanks.
4) Germany introduced U-boat or submarines
5) Both parties practiced blockades, that is, to block the supply of food, manufactures
and arms.
6) The year 1917 proved to be a turning point because on 6
th
April, USA declared a
war on Germany because Britains fastest Atlantic liner- carrying many American
and European passenger was struck by a U-Boat thereby sinking all its passengers.
7) In November1917, after the Russian Revolution, Russia withdrew from the
war.Russia also proposed of peace, in Jan. 1918, Woodrow Wilson, the President of
USA proposed his 14 points peace programe. One of the proposals was to set up an
international organization for maintaining peace and security in the world.
Results/ Consequences:-
1)Death and destruction:- (i)Nearly 9 million people were killed. (ii) Millions were
wounded, injured and disabled. (iii) Many more lost their lives in epidemics, famines and
diseases during the course of the war. (iv) The total expenditure was $ 18.6 billion. (v) The
economy of most of the European countries were shattered resulting in unemployment and
social tension.
2) Victory of democracy over autocracy:- (i) The end of the war saw the end of the major
ruling dynasties of Europe, eg.-Russia,Austria,Germany.
3) Territorial Changes:- (i) A new state of Czechoslovakia was formed out of Bohemia,
Moravia and Silesia.(ii) Yugoslavia was created . (iii) Romania and Poland were enlarged.
(iv) Out of the Russian Empire, four independent republics of Finland, Estonia, Latvia and
Lithuania were created.(v) Alsace and Lorraine were given back to France.
4) Victory of Nationalism:- (i) Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, Finland, Latvia and Poland
were created on the principle of nationality.
5) Emergence of USA and USSR as Superpowers:- (i) The end of the first world war also
saw the end of European supremacy. (ii) Economically and militarily , both these nations
emerged as World Powers which England has long held as Creditor of Europe.
6)Rise of Dictatorship:- (i)The Fascist ideology of Mussolini in Italy and the harsh
treatment meted out to Germany in the Treaty of Versailles finally brought the world on
the verge of the Second World War.
Treaty of Versailles:- Signed on 28
th
June 1919 with Germany.
Provisions:- (i) Germany had to pay war indemnity of $6,50,00,00,000.
(ii) Alsace and Lorraine were to be given back to France. (iii) The coal mines of Saar Valley
in Germany were to be given to France for 15 years. (iv) German army was reduced to
1,00,000 soldiers only. (v) The German navy was reduced and the German High Sea Fleet
was surrendered to Britain. (vi) Germany was dispossessed of all its colonies which were
divided among the victorious powers. (vii) German colonies of South- West Africa and East
Africa were given to Belgium, Portugal and South Africa. (viii) Danzig was made a free
port in the Polish territory. (ix) Germany lost some territories to Poland, Romania and
Czechoslovakia. (x) Its spheres of influence in China were given to Japan.
*Treaty of Saint Germain:-Allied Powers with Austria Hungary in 1919.
*Treaty of Nevilly:- Allied Powers with Bulgaria in 1919.
*Treaty of Trianon:- Allied Powers with Hungary in 1920.
*Treaty of Sevres :-Allied Powers with Turkey in 1920.
*The League of Nations:
Based on the 14 Pointsproposal of Woodrow Wilson, the President Of United States, it was
set up for preservation of peace and security and peaceful settlement of international
conflicts.
*Aims and objectives:- (i) to stop wars, (ii)to encourage disarmament, (iii)to make the
world a better place by insproving peoples working conditions and by tackling diseases.
*Membership:- (i) Original membership was 42.(ii) new members required not less than a
two-thirds vote of the Assembly.
Its organs:- (i) The Assembly (ii) The Council (iii) The Secretariat (iv) The Court of
International Justice (v) ILO.
*Reasons for failure:- (i) Russia and Germany were not made members. (ii) It did not have
army to enforce its decisions. (iii) USA did not join it. (iv) When any country resorted to
aggression, the League either ignored it or defied it.


Rise of Fascism and Nazism:
The dictatorship that grew in Italy is referred to as Fascism. It
was led by a powerful leader Benito Mussolini.The word Fascism is derived from the
term fasces which means a bundle of rods.Fascism sifnifies Unity,Strength and
Authority.Fascism was intensely nationalistic,anti-communistic and anti-democratic
movement. It is one party system controlled by a dictator, not allowing any opposition or
any personal freedom.
Causes for the rise of Fascism in Italy:-
1. Dissatisfaction with the peace treaties:- (i) Italy lost 700,000 soldiers in the war. It
was promised big territorial gains after the war. (ii) They were disappointed with
their government and its weak foreign policy.
2. Economic crisis:- (i) The prolonged war resulted in a serious economic crisis leading
to scarcity, poverty and unemployment. (ii) Thousands of young people were
deployed in the army and the industries and trade declined. (iii) The liberal
democratic government failed to cope with the economic crisis.
3. Failure of the Democratic government to cope with situation:- (i) Italy had unified
under a democratic government only in 1860. (ii) The Democratically-elected
government failed to solve post-war problems and bring stability.
4. Resistance Movement:- (i) The activities of the Socialists, Communists and other
similar groups aggravated the unrest in the country. (ii) They incited revolution and
brought Italy on the verge of anarchy. (iii) Strikes and demonstrations were
organized against industries. (iv) In rural areas, peasants ousted the landlords and
seized lands.
5. Support given by Landlords, industrialists and Army personnel to Fascism:- (i) To
satisfy their ambitions. (ii) They felt that Fascism was the only force that could save
them from the grip of the socialist movement which was opposed to upper class
aristocrats.
6. Emergence of Mussolini:- (i) Fascist Party was formed in November 1921 under
Mussolini. (ii) The Italian ruler Victor Emmanuel II invited Mussolini to form the
government on 29
th
October 1922.
Reforms introduced in Italy under Fascism:-(can be referred for Nazism too except the
last one)
(i) Mussolini promoted agriculture, trade and commerce.
(ii) Factories were set up and strikes were totally banned.
(iii) Unemployment was solved by public work programmes like bridges, roads,
canals , railways, schools,and hospitals.
(iv) Military training was compulsory. Many schools and colleges were opened up.
(v) Treaty of Lateran recognized the Mussolini led Italian government and the Pope
was recognized as head of the Vatican and Catholicism became the state religion.
Nazism in Germany:-
1. Humiliation Treaty of Versailles:- (i) This had shattered Germany politically
and economically and the Nazis promised to avenge the humiliation of the
German defeat. (ii) They got full support from military personnels, industrialists
and landlords who wanted to use the Nazis to crush the communists whom they
feared.
2. Failure of the Weimar Republic to solve Post-War problems:- (i) The Weimar
Republic had accepted the humiliating terms of the treaty of Versailles which
was a great deal of national shame, anger and resentment in Germany. (ii)
Germany had to pay heavy reparations, in money and in kind, for causing the
war.
3. Economic Crisis:- (i) After the war, money lost its value and inflation,poverty,
scarcity and unemployment hit the people of Germany hard. (ii) The economic
depression of 1929 forced US to withdraw the money it had loaned to Germany.
(iii) 8million that is half of the working population of Germany were
unemployed. (iv) The Nazi Party promised employment and in return got
support from them.
4. Failure of the opposition parties to pose a united opposition:- (i) Instead of
joining hands to check the growth of the Nazis, they failed to unite against them.
(ii) The election in 1932 announced the Nazi Party as the single largest party. (iii)
President Hindenburg had to change three chancellors in one year as there were
no stability in the country.
5. Support given by existing government:- (i) In 1933, Hindenburg appointed
Hitler as the Chancellor of Germany. (ii) Hitler dissolved the Reichstag
(Parliament) which was later on fired. (iii) After the death of Hindenburg,
Hitler became the President of Germany and assumed the title of Fuhrer., the
leader of Germany.
Main features of Fascism and Nazism Or Similarities between these two:-
(i)State to have all powers. (ii) Control over education, press, radio etc. (iii) No opposition
parties allowed. (iv) Against of Communism and Liberalism. (v) Development of
agriculture and industries. (vi) Against of the Treaty of Versailles.
Differences between Nazism and Fascism:-
(i) Fascism originated in Italy and did not become as strong as Nazism in Germany. (ii)
Fascism could not create self-sufficiency or eliminating unemployment. (iii) The Nazis were
more ruthless compared to the fascists in Italy Eg. The Jewish treatment in Germany. (iv)
Though the fascists were in absolute control of state, the monarchy still remained in Italy
whereas the Nazis had ruthlessly crushed any opposition to their rule.
*Domestic Policy of Hitler:- (i)Created National Socialist German Workers Party in
1919.in 1919.(ii) The basis of his administration was one party, one leader and strict
discipline. (iii) The Gestapo (secret Police) helped Hitler to eliminate all communist and
socialist leaders. (iv) radio, newspapers, press, magazine, books, theatre were controlled
and supervised by government agencies. (v) Hitler followed the policy of anti-Semitism or
policy of hatred towards the Jews. (vi) Strikes were forbidden. (vii) Jews were sent to the
concentration camps. (viii) In 1935, the Jews were deprived of their citizenship.(ix) Under
Ghetto Laws of 1937, Jews were not allowed to marry Germans and were forced to live in
isolation.(x) Hitler wrote Mein Kamph in jail, which contains principles, aims, programmes
of the Nazi Party.
*Foreign Policy of Hitler:- (i) Hitler started a programme of militarization and preparation
for another war. (ii) Between 1935 and 1939, Germany occupied Rhineland, Austria and
Czechoslovakia and signed Rome-Berlin- Tokyo Axis. (iii) Germany signed Anti-
Comintern Treaty with Japan bringing world on the verge of World War II.(iv) He
conquered Denmark, Norway, Luxembourg and Belgium.
*Mussolinis domestic and foreign policies:- (i) He tried to put Italy on a strong economic
footing by his theory of a Corporate State. (ii) Mussolini was the head of the Ministry of
Corporations. (iii) Abyssinia was annexed in 1936 to divert peoples attention from internal
problems and economic insecurity.
The Second World War (1939-1945):-
Causes:- 1)Treaty of Versailles:- (i) Germany was forced to accept the unjust terms of
the treaty of Versailles which was not acceptable to the people like Hitler. (ii) Hitler
adopted a massive programme of militarization and war to denounce the terms of the
treaty. (iii) Italy too was not happy about the peace settlement. (iv) Italy joined hands
with Germany and Japan to fulfill her ambitions.
2) Improper behavior of France:- (i) Germany had taken away the Valley of Saar and
the industrial zone of Ruhr in 1923 from Germany. (ii) France acted in a spirit of
revenge and was harsh.
3) Rise of Fascism and Nazism:- (i) The growth of dictatorship in Italy and Germany
was greatly responsible for turning Europe into a war camp. (ii) All the powers in
Europe secretly launched programmes of rearmament and defence.
4) Emrgence of Japan as an imperial power:- (i) In Asia, Japan was the first to become
industrialized and begin the policy of expansion.(ii) japan signed the Anglo-Japanese
Treaty in 1902 by which Britain recognized Japan as equal to other European powers.
(iii) In 1904-05, Japan defeated Korea. (iv) In 1937, it again attacked China and signed
treaties with Italy and Germany forming the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis.
5) Fear of Communism and Anti-Comintern Pact:- (i) In 1935 Comintern (Communist
International) was held which brought the communist parties of all countries together.
(ii) It prompted Germany, Italy and Japan to sign the Anti- Comintern Pact in 1937.
(iii) Germany declared that its ambition was to conquer the vast resources and
territories of the Soviet Union.
6) Policy of Appeasement:- (i) Britain and France the policy of appeasement and had
agreed to the transfer of Sudetantland to Germany as per the Munich Pact of 1938. (ii)
Hitlers demands grew shockingly excessive and he was aiming at European mastery.
7) Aloofness of USA:- (i) After the First World War, USA kept aloof from European
politics. (ii) USA did not join the League of Nations though the plan to establish was of
the Us President only. (iii) Us helped France to ill treat Germany. (iv) It provided loans
to Italy and Germany to strengthen their military power.
8) Race for armaments:- (i) Hitler had begun to rearm his nation in violation of the
Treaty of Versailles. (ii) Britain and France did not give any heed to it. (iii) The
democratic governments also started arming themselves.
9) Failure of League of Nations:- i) Failed to maintain peace. (ii) Did not take any action
against Italys aggression in Ethiopia and Japans invasion on Manchuria.
10)Immediate Cause- The German invasion of Poland and Demand for the Danzig
Corridor:- (i) Hitler demanded for the Danzig Corridor for two reasons-Danzig was
inhabited mainly by the Germans and through this , they could connect East Prussia
with Germany (ii) Britain and France pledged assistance to Poland against German
aggression.(iii) In 1939, Germany signed a Non-Aggression Pact with Russia. (iv) On 1st
September, 1939 German troops stormed into Poland. (v) On 3
rd
September, Britain
and France declared war on Germany. Thus the World War II began.
Events:- (i) The US entry into the war:- On 7
th
December 1941, Japan attacked the US
Fleet based at Pearl Harbour. USA declared war on Japan and the other Axis powers.
(ii) Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki:- On 6
th
August 1945,America dropped the
bomb on Hiroshima and on 9
th
August over Nagasaki, thereby killing thousands of
people. Japan officially surrendered on 15
th
August 1945. With that war came to an
end.
*Hitler committed suicide on April 30, 1945.

Results/Consequences of the World War II:-
1. Death and devastation:- (i) 40 to 60 million people were killed in the war. (ii) The
European economy was shattered. (iii) The cities and industrial towns of
Germany, Russia and France were ruined.
2. Rise of Communism:- Russia under Stalin was successful in establishing
communist countries- Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, Albania and
Czechoslovakia.
3. Cold War:- (i) US and Russia emerged as great powers in the world. (ii)Because
of the ideological differences between them , they divided the world into two
camps.
4. Creation of UNO:- (i) To avoid any future wars, UNO was created. (ii) It
emerged as the successors of the League of Nations.
5. Decolonisation and the rise of Independent Nations:- (i) European powers were
weakened by World War II (ii) Many countries like India, Myanmar and Sri
Lanka became independent.
6. Use of Nuclear Energy :- (i) Cobalt-60 and Caesium-137 which was obtained
from the atomic furnaces as ash can be helpful in fighting Cancer. (ii) Nuclear
Energy contributed to growth in industry and agriculture.
7. Effects on Germany:- (i) Germany was partitioned into four zones, each under
the control of Britain, France, USA and Soviet Union. (ii) The Nazi party was
banned and Germany was disarmed. (iii) It led to the formation of the Federal
Republic of Germany in 1948 and the German Democratic Republic in 1949.
8. Effects on Japan:- (i)Japan was brought under the control and supervision of
the American General, MacArthur. (ii) With American help, Japan made rapid
progress in industry and its economy recovered.
9. Effects on Italy:- The Communist Parties gained popularity in Italy, which
became a republic in 1946.

[Ch. 13,14& 15] UNITED NATIONS
*Circumstances surrounding the establishment of the United nations:-
1) Fear of death and destruction as witnessed in World War II.
2) Failure of League of Nations.
3) To avoid third world war.
4) Development of Nuclear weapons-(MAD-Mutually Assured Destruction).

*Origin of UNO:
1) The London Declaration- June 1941, the representatives of Britain, Canada, New
Zealand, Australia and South Africa met and discussed of a world organization which
would be effective than the League of Nations.
2) The Atlantic Charter:- August 1941, US President Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime
Minister Winston Churchill signed it.
Aims- (i) Maintaining international peace and security.
(ii) recognizing the equal status of all nations.
(iii) encouraging international cooperation and friendly relations in social, cultural
and economic spheres.
(iv) upholding the right to equality.
3) Washington Declaration:- January 1942, the representatives of 26 nations issued and
signed the Declaration of United Nations- to defeat the common enemy Germany and
cooperate with each other for the purpose. The term United nations was devised by the
US president Roosevelt and was used for the first time in the Washington Conference.
4) Moscow Declaration:-October 1943,The Foreign Ministers of UK,USA, the Soviet
Union and China were held at Moscow and issued a Four-Nations Declaration for the
establishment of an international organization to be based on sovereign equality of all
nations - open to all-big or small for maintenance of peace and security.
5) Dumbarton Oaks Conference:- Sep.- Oct. 1944, representatives of UK,USSR,USA and
China met and prepared the draft of the future world organization which was a major step
towards the formation of the UN.
6) Yalta Conference:- February 1945, held discussions about the nature and structure of the
UN.
7) San Francisco Conference:- April 1945, decided to draft the UN Charter by 26
th
June.
The Charter was ratified by 50 original members on 24
th
October 1945,Poland signed it
later and become 51 member country. Since then, 24
th
October is celebrated as United
Nations Day.
* UN Charter:-It contains the aims, proposals and principles of the United Nations.
* Aims:- 1) To save succeeding generations from the scourge of war,
2) To reaffirm faith in fundamental human rights,
3) To promote social progress and better standard of life.
*Purpose:- 1) To maintain international peace and security,
2)To develop friendly relations among nations based on the principles of equality,
3) To achieve international cooperation in solving international problems,
4) To be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations in attainment of these common needs.
* Principles:- 1) All members are considered equal.
2) They must accept the decisions of the UN in all respects.
3) All of them have to fulfill their agreements as set forth by the Charter.
4) UN and its members will not interfere in the internal affairs of any country.
* Membership:-
1) Is open to all peace loving nations who believe in the principles of the UN.
2) Who accept the obligations of the UN Charter.
3) Names are recommended by Security Council and are appointed by the
General Assembly.
* Headquarter:- Manhattan, New York-USA. The European office is in Geneva.
* UN Flag:- 1) It was adopted on 20
th
October 1947.
2) Its a light blue flag with the UN emblem in white in the centre of the flag
3) The emblem depicts the world held between two olive branches which symbolize
peace.
* Official Languages:- Arabic, Chinese, English, Russian, French and Spanish.
* Finance:- Contribution from member states.
* Principal Organs of the UN:
* General Assembly [Composition]-
1) is the main deliberative organ of the UN; also called a Parliament of Nations.
2) Composed of all member states, each of which has one vote
3) Decisions on important matters require two-thirds majority while other matters are
reached by a simple majority.
Sessions:-
1) Regular session begins each year on the third Tuesday in September and continues
until mid- December.
2) Special session at the request of the Security Council if a majority of the members
agree.
3) An emergency session may be called within 24 hours if 9 out of 15 members vote in
favour of it.
Functions:-
1) To consider and make recommendations for the maintenance of international peace
and security;
2) To promote international political cooperation, development and codification of
international law,
3) To receive and consider reports from the Security Council and other organs of the
UN.
4) To consider and approve the budget of the UN;
5) To elect the non-permanent members of the Security Council, the Economic and
Social Council and the Trusteeship Council;
6) To appoint the Secretary General on the recommendation of the Security Council.
7)Uniting For Peace Resolution, in 1950- if Security Council is unable to reach a decision
because of lack of unanimity among the permanent members, the General Assembly can deal
with the problem[use of armed forces in case of aggression or breach of peace].
* Security Council:- is the executive body of the United Nations.
Composition: 1) It consists of 15 members.
2) It has five permanent members- USA,UK,China, France and Russia.
3) The ten non-permanent members are elected by a two third majority for a term of 2 years.[in
an alphabetical order]
4) A retiring member is not eligible for immediate re- election.
Voting Power:- 1) Each member has one vote.
2) Decision on important matters by an affirmative vote of nine members, including all five
permanent members.
3) The negative vote of a permanent member of Security Council is called a veto power, but
abstention from voting does not amount to a negative vote or veto.
Session:- 1) Regular session every month.
2) Session can be arranged even before the regular session, if required
Functions: 1) to maintain international peace and security;
2) To investigate any dispute which might lead to international friction; To make plans to
regulate armaments;
3) To take military action against an aggressor;
4) To recommend admission of new members;
5) To exercise trusteeship functions of the UN in strategic areas
6) To determine the existence of threat to peace.
*International Court of Justice:- the principal judicial organ of the UN.
Composition:- 1) It is composed of 15 judges elected by General Assembly and
Security Council for a term of 9 years.
2) No two judges of can be of one State only.
3) The President and the Vice President of the Court are elected for a term of 3 years.
4) They can be re-elected.
Headquarter:- Hague, Netherlands but it can hold its meetings elsewhere, if it, so decides.
Functions:- 1) It renders advice to General Assembly and the Security Council
On legal matters.
2) It interprets international laws.
3) The Court decides on reparation- the compensation to be made by a party for a breach of an
international agreement.
4) It solves all disputes pertaining to the interpretation of international laws.
5) Decides disputes by applying international conventions.
*The Economic and Social Council:- is the principal organ to coordinate the economic
and social functions of the UN.
Composition:- It consists of 54 members who are elected for a term of 3 years.
Session:- generally holds a five week long session each year alternating between
Geneva and New York.
Functions:- 1) serves as the central forum for the discussions on international economic and
social issues of global nature;
2) Formulate policy recommendation;
3) Helps in promoting respect for and observance of human rights and
fundamental freedom.
*Trusteeship Council:- performs the task of supervising the administration of the 11Trust
Territories placed under its care.
Composition:- It is made of the five permanent members of the Security Council.
Functions:- 1) The Trust territories should attain self government either as separate states or
by joining in neighboring independent countries.[Palau in Pacific Island was the last in the list
who has gained independence and is a UN member country now]
2) To help newly independent States through economic assistance.
*Secretariat:- is the administrative body of the UN.
Is headed by Un Secretary General- Ban Ki- Moon of South Korea.
*Agencies of UN-
*UNDP- United Nations Development Programme was created in 1965.
Composition- It is governed by a 36-member executive body.
Funds- Voluntary contributions of member states.
Headquarter- New York.

Functions:- 1) provider of grants for technical assistance.
2) Focuses on elimination of poverty, generating employment, advancing
womens status and protecting the environment.
3) Assistance to develop their capacity for sustainable use of natural resources and
development and advancement of women.
4) Expansion of education so as to make it technology oriented.
5) Helps in adaptation and transfer of technology.
UNICEF- United Nations International Childrens Emergency Fund: was established in
1946 to meet emergency needs of children in post-war Europe and in China. It is referred as
United Nations Childrens Fund. Its headquarters is at New York. UNICEF was awarded Nobel
Prize in 1965.
Functions:- 1) it provides services in primary healthcare, nutrition, basic education and
sanitation.
2) Conducts universal immunization programmes and prevents diarrhoel deaths
by rehydration therapy.
3) It builds schools and helps to train teachers; supplies paper to publish text
books.
4) It provides emergency services during natural calamities or war.
5) It supplies pipes for clean drinking water and also provide low cost community
based services.
WHO-(World Health Organization):-
The Constitution of WHO was formally adopted on 7
th
April 1948- the day which is celebrated
all over the worlds as World Health Day.Its headquarter is at Geneva.
Functions:- 1) it coordinates research and provides technical cooperation to strengthen health
services.
2) it publishes journals like Bulletin of the World Health Organization to inform
people about its activities.
3) It organizes health services and immunizations-disease control campaigns.
4) it helps to provide safe drinking water and makes arrangement for proper
disposal of waste.
5) Health For All by 2000focused its attention on:
a) education about prevailing health problems.
b) maternal and child health care.
c) provision for essential drugs.
d) universal immunization against infectious diseases.
e) safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
Achievements:- 1) Smallpox has been eradicated.
2) Cholera and Plague epidemics are getting rarer.
3) Guinea worm has been nearly eliminated and Leprosy is being better managed.
4) The infant mortality rate dropped from 107 deaths per 1000live births in the 1980s to
71 in the 1990s in India.
5) Over the last 30 years, life expectancy has increased by six and seven years globally.
UNESCO- [United Nations Educational, Scientific And Cultural Organization]
Its headquarters is at Paris. It came into force on 4
th
November 1946.It aims at peace
based on respect for human rights; peace through education, science and culture.
Functions:- [Education]-
1) it aims at promoting education among children as well as adults
2) Financial assistance is being given for the education of disabled children [UNESCO and Lok
Jumbish-a NGO at Kaman village in Rajasthan, started a project to put children with disabilities
into neighborhood schools.
3) It provides grants and fellowships to teachers and scholars.
4) Provides advice and expert assistance in school construction and preparing curriculum and
textbooks.
5) Organizes book fairs.
6) Development of library system [eg.Delhi Public Library established in 1951 with UNESCO].
[Science]-
1) Encouraging science education by providing regional training centers.
2) It promotes social sciences as an instrument for the realization of human rights, justice and
peace.
3) It organizes regional and world conferences to bring together scientists and technicians.
Culture:- 1) protects historical monuments e.g. The Asian Temple of Abu has been saved
with the help of the UNESCO.
2) It encourages cultural interchange.
3) It arranges for translation of masterpieces in literature and manuscripts.
************************************************************************
Add the following points in your notes (as per the chapter specified):-
Ch.- SECOND WORLD WAR
Munich Pact:- Was signed in 1938 regarding the Sudantland which was mainly inhabited by
Czech Germans.Hitler declared that Germans were being forced against their will to live in
Sudentland. As per the Munich Pact- signed by Germany, France, Britain and Italy permitted
German annexation of Czechoslovakias Sudentland.
Czechoslovakia was not invited to the conference,thats why it is also called Munich Dictate.
Policy of Appeasement:- It was the foreign policy of Britain and France towards the Nazi
Germany between 1937 to 1939. Under this, they allowed the German troops in the Rhineland.
They allowed Hitler to annex Austria. They also allowed to take Sudentland from
Czechoslovakia.
Ch.- Cold War
Impact of Cold War-
6) Berlin Blockade:- (vi)As per the Berlin Accord, signed in 1971, allowed the citizens of West
Berlin to visit East Berlin on the condition that they would not indulge in any political activity
there.


NON-ALIGHNED MOVEMENT:
Meaning:- It does not meanisolation or neutrality.It is an independent movement stressing
that nations should follow their own policies without joining any of the power blocs. It upholds
the rights of all states to freedom of choice and action in an international field.
Features of NAM:-
(i) It does not support power blocs.
(ii) It was against the cold war.
(iii) Member nations judged each issue on merit.
Factors which led to the formation of NAM:-
1. Global tention caused by Cold War.:- (i) Newly independent countries of Asia and
Africa realized that joing any of the power bloc would result in danger world peace. (ii)
They opted to remain away from the danger of a world war and decided to promote world
peace.(iii) They adopted the policy of keeping out of alliances in general and military pacts
in particular.
2. Struggle against imperialism and neo-colonialism:- (i) Newly independent countries
opted for non alignment because most of these countries were under the
big powers. (ii) They wanted to enjoy their freedom and the power that had come
with it.
3. Right of independent judgement:- (i) They wanted to solve their problems themselves
without any outside interference or influence.(ii) Newly independent nations were able to
keep their own identity by not aligning with any of the power blocs.
4. Economic development:- (i) Newly independent countries were facing the problemsof
poverty and slow economic development. (ii) They needed financial and technical
assistance from both the power blocs.

Formation of NAM:-
(1) The Asian Relations Conference:- In New Delhi in March-April 1947; hosted by Pt.
Nehru- was the first attempt to assert the Asian unity.
(2) Panchsheel:- It was a part of a resolution signed by Pt. Nehru(India) and Chou-En-Lai
(China) , containing five principles collectively known as Panchsheel.These were-
(i) Mutual non- interference in each others internal affairs;
(ii) Mutual Non-Aggression;
(iii) Equality and mutual benefit;
(iv) Mutual respect for each others territorial integrity and sovereignity;and
(v) Peaceful co-existence.
(3) Bandung Conference:- An Afro-Asian Conference was held at Bandung in Indonesia
which was attended by the representatives from 23 Asian and 6 African countries. Jawaharlal
Nehru (India), Sukarno (President of Indonesia) and Chou En Lai (Prime Minister of China)
(4) Founding Fathers:- They are Jawaharlal Nehru (India), Sukarno (President of
Indonesia),Tito of Yugoslavia, Abdul Nasser of Egypt and Nkrumah of Ghana.
(5) Belgrade Conference:- The first summit of NAM was held at Belgrade in 1961, was
attended by leaders of 25 countries.
(6) 27-Point Declaration:- The Belgrade Conference adopted a 27- point declaration which
contained an appeal to the super powers to maintain peace and security in the world. It
condemned all forms of colonialism. It called for complete disarmament. It condemned the
policy of racial segregation being practiced in South Africa.
(6) Objectives:-
1. Stabilization of peace.
2. End of colonialism and imperialism.
3. Peaceful coexistence among nations.
4. Condemnation of racial discrimination.
5. Opposition to military alliances and the armaments race.
6. Protection of the environment.
7. Promotion of human rights.
(7) Nehrus role in NAM:-
(i) During the Korean Crisis of 1950, when North Korea attacked South Korea,India under the
leadership of Nehru strongly condemned it.(ii) In spite of its friendly relations with Russia, she
condemned the appearance of the Soviet Russian forces and tanks in the streets of
Budapest(Hungary).(iiiIn Indo- China crisis of 1956, India under Nehru stood by the Democratic
Republic of Ho Chi Minh. (iv) In 1957, India condemned the Anglo- French attack on Egypt
over the Suez Canal issue.(v)In theCuban crisis of 1962, India supported the popular leader Fidel
Castro to set up the peoples government there. (vi) Nehru had always condemned the aggressive
policies of Israel and insisted upon the vacation of Arab territories occupied by Israel. (vii) He
strongly advocated the principles of Democratic socialism.
(8)Role of NAM:-
1. From only 25 members in 1961 it has now grown into a large body of 118 members.
NAM nations appealed to all powers to give up the policy of the confrontation when the
problems of Berlin Blockade, Vietnam War and the Congo civil war was goingon.
2. The Belgrade Summit demanded freedom for all colonial people. More than 100
countries got their freedom in the decade of 1960 only.
3. In the decade of 1970, NAM showed concern on economic development.
4. Disarmament was the main focus of the New Delhi Summit(1983). Apartheid and racial
discrimination Were condemned at the 8
th
summit held at Harare in 1986.
5. During 1990s, main issues which were discussed in the NAM Summits were-
condemning terrorism,calling for an expansion of the Security Council and a Plea for
Economic Cooperation.
6. The Tenth Summit at Jakarta (1992) condemned state sponsored terrorism.
7. The Eleventh Summit(1995) held in Columbia called for the reform of the World Bank
and IMF, where the developing countries have no voice.
8. The 13
th
Summit was held at Havana in Sep. 2006- global poverty,unfair trade practices
and arbitary actions of powerful nations to control the UN.
Relevance of NAM in the Post Cold War Period:-
1. It is free and equal association of states united by common interests.
2. Is the largest political formation in the world, next only to the UN.
3. The member countries are against the race for armaments.
4. With the emergence of neo-colonialism,NAM provides a strong base for the small
and weak countries to seek economic justice.
5. NAM represents the Third World Countries
6. Since US has become the only super power in the world has not dissolved the NATO
pact and can dictate terms to other nations.of the world.
7. NAM has taken up the issue of reshaping the UN Security Council in order to make
more democratic,representative and an effective body.
8. UN is controlled by big powers whereas NAM give equal opportunity to everyone.
Achievements of NAM:-
1. Played an important role in bringing about an end of the Cold War.
2. Played a major role in promoting disarmament.
3. Check over US over the issues of Iran, North Korea.
4. Proposed reforms at improving the transparency and democracy of UN
Decision making.
5. It has advocated New International Economic Order based on greater economic
cooperation and justice.
6. It condemned Colonialism, Imperialism and Racial Discrimination.
7. 12
th
Summit at Durban in 1998,called for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
(CTBT).
*** Fifteenth NAM Summit was held at Sharm-el-Sheikh, Egypt where 118
countries participated.

***************************************************************
The Cold War:-The term cold war was first used by an American Statesman Bernard
Baruch in his speech in 1947.
Meaning:- an atmosphere where there is no armed struggle but there is an ideological
hatred and political distrust. It was the state of conflict, tension and competition that
existed between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies.
Origin of cold war: Division of the world into two power blocks:- (i) After the end of the
Second World War, the USA and the Soviet Union emerged as two super powers. (ii) The
bloc led by USA was of the Capitalist nations comprising of USA, Britain, France and other
countries while the bloc led by the Soviet Union was of the Communist nations which
included Poland, Hungary, Bulgaria and Romania.
Causes of the Cold War:-
1) Ideological confrontation:- (i) The Us bloc considered communism as a potential
danger to freedom, liberty, democracy and open society. (ii) The Soviet bloc
branded the USA and the capitalist nations as the imperialist; they regarded their
democratic institutions as a means to exploit the poor workers.
2) Emergence of Communist Governments in Eastern Europe:- (i) Soviet Union set up
Communist Governments in Poland, Czechoslovakia, Bulgaria, Romania and
Hungary(ii) This led to mutual distrust because it was against to the Yalta
Declaration of 1945, signed by Winston Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin to create a
liberated Europe.(iii) The countries of the Soviet Bloc were called iron curtain by
Winston Churchill.
3) Soviet Russias grievance:- (i) USA did not take Soviet Union into confidence before
taking a decision on dropping of bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (ii) USA
emerged as the first nuclear power of the world by violating the norms of the
Potsdam Conference. (iii) Soviet Union wanted to impose heavy reparations on
Germany but Britain and US opposed this. (iv) The German lands east of Order
Nisse line were under Polish administration, which Soviet Union considered as final
whereas the US and Britain regarded it as a provisional settlement.
4) Truman Doctrine or Policy of Containment:- (i) On March , 1947 President Truman
announced in the Us Congress that America should provide moral and financial
support to countries whose political integrity was threatened by communism. (ii)
The Policy of containment meant keeping Russias power or area of control within
acceptable limits or boundaries. (iii) Us gave huge financial and military aid to
Greece and Turkey to contain communism. (iv) In response, Soviet Union in 1947
formed Cominform- an organization of various communist parties in Europe to
strengthen its grip on Eastern European countries.
5) Marshal Plan:- (i) The US Secretary of State, George C. Marshal, announced the
European Recovery Plan in June 1947. (ii) Main emphasis was to increase financial
aid to European countries so that they could be saved from the communist influence
and to integrate the European economies. (iii) It was an economic counterpart of
Truman Doctrine- to fight against poverty and hunger. (iv) US gave aid of about 12
billion dollars to 16 European countries. (v) To counter this,USSR announced the
Molotov Plan to provide economic aid to rebuild the countries in Eastern Europe.
(vi) Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov rejected the Marshal Plan as Dollar
Imperialism.
6) Formation of military alliances:- (i) In 1949-NATO (North Atlantic Treaty
Organisation)US, Canada,UK, France Holland. (ii)In 1954-SEATO (South East
Asia Treaty Organisation)US,UK,France, New Zealand, Australia, Pakistan. (iii)
1955-The Baghdad Pact which was renamed as CENTO (Central Treaty
Organisation)UK,Turkey,Iran,Pakistan (iv) To strengthen its position ,Soviet Union
and its allies signed the Warsaw Pact binding them against the western powers.
Main crises:- The Berlin Blockade(1948-49),the Korean War, The Berlin crisis, the
Vietnam War, the Soviet- Afghan War and the Cuban Crisis.
Consequences/Impact/Results of the Cold War:-
1) Arms race and militarization:- (i) Race for armaments was justified by (MAD)
the Doctrine of Mutually Assured Destruction and Nuclear Competitions. (ii)
Russia exploded its first Atom Bomb in 1949.
2) Proxy Wars:- (i) Ware were fought between two powers using third parties as
substitutes rather than fighting each other directly. (ii) US and Soviet Union did
not engage in direct military action since that would have the risk of nuclear
warfare. (iii) The super powers did their utmost to capitalize upon regional
conflicts such as the Korean War, the Vietnam War and Arab-Israel conflict.
3) United Nations remained ineffective:- (i) UN was created to maintain peace in
the world but it was not allowed to function independently. (ii) The big five with
their veto power tended to become a hurdle while taking decisions. (iii) Because
of the opposition of the western powers, entry of Albania, Bulgaria and Somalia
were not allowed in the UN. (iv) Entry of China was prevented till 1971.
4) Emergence of NAM:- (i) Most of the newly independent Asian countries wanted
to retain their freedom and decided to establish NAM to help each other rather
than taking support from any of the two existing blocks. (ii) NAM was
established in 1961.
5) Division of Germany:- (i) At the Potsdam Conference, the Allies divided
Germany into four military zones- French in the southwest, British in the
northwest, United States in the South and Soviet Union in the east. (ii) In 1948,
the western zones merged into one state- the Federal Republic of Germany with
Bonn as its provisional capital. Soviet Union opposed this and retaliated by
blocking all communications to West Germany. (iv) Supplies of food and
essential commodities had to be air lifted to save West Germany from
destruction.(v) The Berlin Blockade was lifted on May 1949 and within few
months The Soviet occupied Germany was formed into the German Democratic
Republic with Berlin as its capital.
6) Berlin Blockade:- (i) It was one of the first major international crisis of the cold
war. (ii) It was to force West Berlin people to join the Soviet Zone and did not
allow the circulation of Deutsche Mark from entering Berlin. (iii) Aim was to
force the western powers to allow the Soviet controlled regions to start supplying
Berlin with food and fuel, thereby giving them nominal control over the entire
city. (iv) The Westers Allies formed the Berlin Airlift to supply food, fuel,
medicines. (v) The Blockade was made unsuccessful by the Western Powers and
was lifted in May 1949.
7) Fall of the Berlin Wall:- (i) The West German economy progressed so Germans
from the Soviet zone began to pour into Western Germany which annoyed
Russia. (ii) A wall (43 km. long) was built to prevent people getting into or
outside Germany. (iii) Several meetings were held to discuss about the German
Unifications in the year 1961, 1971 and 1972. (iv) The Berlin Wall was pulled
down in 1989. (v) With the breaking of the Berlin Wall, the iron curtain was
removed.
8) Reunification of Germany:- (i) The Foreign Minister of US, Britain, France and
Russia signed the Treaty for Germanys Unification. (ii) The Chancellor of the
Federal Republic of Germany was chosen as head of the State of unified country.
(iii) The Union symbolized the unity of the Eastern and Western powers. (iv) The
government of the unified introduced western type of democratic election and
adopted the policy of freemarket economy.
9) Eastern European Countries:- (i)Eastern Europe rejected the uniparty system of
communist governments. (ii) They demanded liberalization, democratic
governments and multiparty system as found in western Europe. (iii)
Czechoslovakia was divided into the Czech and Slovak Republics in 1993.
10) Paris Pact:- (i)On 19
th
November 1990, a historic pact was signed by the heads of
34 states belonging to the NATO and Warsaw Pact alliances. (ii) They agreed to
reduce arms and improve trade among themselves. (iii) It marked a new phase
of peace, free from the tension of the cold war.
11) Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty:-(i)President Gorbachev and US President
George Bush signed START- a pact to reduce the production of long range
nuclear weapons by 30%. (ii) START II between them announced that by 2003
nuclear weapons would be reduced by two thirds.
12) Collapse of Communism :- (i) 1991is the year that witnessed the collapse of the
erstwhile Soviet Union. (ii) Economy was facing low growth rate, high inflation,
unemployment and the agriculture, industrial output was declining.(iii) The
President of Soviet Union Gorbachev introduced Glasnost and Perestroika-
the people were allowed freedom of speech, publication of banned items was
permitted and economy was being opened up. (iv) In 1991, Gorvachev was
arrested then he resigned, and Yeltsin became the President.
In February 1992, Us President George Bush and Russian President Yeltsin
formally announced that the cold war was over.

******************************************************************

UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS
The General Assembly of the United Nations adopted the Universal Declaration of Human
Rights on 10
th
December 1948. The day has since been observed as the Human Rights Day.
Article 1- All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.
Article 2-Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in the Declaration,
without distinction of any kind.
Importance/Significance of the Article 1 and 2:-
(i) They assure equality to all.(ii) The Rights are universal. (iii) They assure the dignity,
integrity and liberty of mankind. (iv) They promote harmony and brotherhood amongst
all. (v) They assure the weaker sections of the society the protection of their rights.
Article 3 to 21 set forth the civil and political rights to which all human beings are entitled
including:
1. The Right to life, liberty and security.
2. Freedom from slavery and servitude.
3. Freedom from torture.
4. The right to recognition as a person before the law,
5. Freedom from arbitrary interference with privacy,
6. Freedom of movement.
7. The right to property and to own property,
8. Right to peaceful assembly and association,
Article 22 to 27 set forth economic, social and cultural rights:-
1. Right to social security,
2. Right to work,
3. Right to rest and leisure,
4. Right to a standard of living,
5. Right to education,
6. Right to participate in the cultural life of the community.
Article 28 to 30 recognize that everyone is entitled to a social and international order.
Importance of Human Rights: 1) Universal:- (i) Is applicable to all nations and territories.
(ii) Accepted by all whether they are self governed or governed by other countries.
2) Common standard:- (i) Aim at eradicating the social and political inequalities. (ii) It has
almost become a part of the fabric of the UN itself. (iii) It contains common understanding
of the basic rights of all people.
3) Impact on the constitution of the World :-(i) The constitutions of India, Indonesia, Costa
Rica, Haiti,Cameroon, Nigeria, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan.
(ii) The Indian Constitution has included the Fundamental Rights in Part III of the
Constitution:Right to Equality;Right to Freedom;Right against Exploitation;Right to
Freedom of Religion; Cultural and Educational Rights; Right to Constitutional Remedies.
Human Rights monitoring agencies:-Many countries including India have set up human
rights commissions for the protection of human rights in their respective countries.
International Organisations for Human Rights:-
1. United Nations Commission on Human Rights-a subsidiary body of the UN
Economic and Social Council(ECOSOC). It intended to examine, monitor and make
report on human rights. It comprise of 53 members which were elected by the
members of ECOSOCfor a three year term. The Commission meet in Geneva.In
2006, the General Assembly decided to replace UNCHR with the UN Human Rights
Council.
2. UN Human Rights Council:-It has 47 members elected by the UN General Assembly
for a term of three years. No member can occupy a seat for more than two
consecutive terms.
3. United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights:- Works to promote and
protect human rights. Created by Un General Assembly in 1993, the office is headed
by the High Commissioner for Human Rights who works under the UN Secretary
General.
Objectives:-enhancing international cooperation for promotion and protection of
human rights and helping the Centre for Human Rights in its activities.
4. Centre for Human Rights:- is located at Geneva, Switzerland.
5. Commission on the status of women:- Is a 45 member commission of the ECOSOC;
established in 1946; works to promote and monitor issues related to the political, economic,
civil, social and educational rights of women.
National Organisations for Human Rights:- The National Human Rights Commission of
India was established in 1993. It is an autonomous statutory body established as per the
Paris Submit.
Functions:- (i) inquire into violations of human rights. (ii) intervening in any proceeding
involving any allegation of violation of Human Rights. (iii) to study the living conditions of
the inmates in jails. (iv) review the safeguards provided for the protection of human rights
by the Constitution. (v) study international treaties on human rights.
*National Commission for Women:- Was set up in Jan.1992under the provisions of the
National Commission for Women Act, 1990.
Functions:- (i) review the constitutional and legal safeguards for women. (ii) recommend
remedial legislative measures. (iii) facilitate redressal of grievances. (iv) advise the
government on all policy matters affecting women.
Non-Governmental Organisation:-
1)*Amnesty International:- It is the largest non-political voluntary organization with its
headquarter at London. It was founded by Peter Benenson a British lawyer in 1961, to
bring relief to individual victims of injustice. It mainly aims to prevent indiscriminate
detention of people for political and religious opinion, for prevention of torture and
execution ,to abolish the death penalty, ensures fair and prompt trial for all political
prisoners and to help refugees in getting asylum etc.It was awarded the 1977 Nobel Peace
Prize for its campaign against terror.
2)*Vigil India Movement:- Works for the protection of human rights in India; established
in 1977.
3)*Peoples Union for Civil Liberties ( PUCL)-India.
4)*Peoples Commission.-India.
*Vienna Conference:- Held in 1993; its declaration to protect human rights was adopted by
171 States and endorsed by General Assembly in December 1993.
*Declaration on Elimination of All forms of Racial Discrimination -was adopted by
General Assembly in 1963(with special reference to South Africa).
*Rights of the Child:- The Declaration of the Rights of the Child was adopted by the
General Assembly in 1959, affirms the right of children to special protection, opportunity
and facilities for a healthy, normal development. It got legal binding with a Convention of
the Rights of the Child by the General Assembly.
Violation of Human Rights:
APARTHEID:- meaning separateness. It was a form of legal racial segregation enforced
by the National Party Government in South Africa between 1948 and 1994.
(i) People were classified and separated on the basis of race and the colour of the skin. (ii)
There were separate schools, market, coaches for whites and blacks. (iii) There were no
freedom of movement nor did they enjoy political rights. (iv) The minority government
controlled 80% of the population which included the blacks and browns like Indians.
UN efforts to end Apartheid:- (i) General Assembly ,in 1950, appealed to South African
government to abandon apartheid. (ii) In 1960, following Sharpville incident,when 69
blacks were killed, Security Council called on South Africa to end this. (iii) From 1962-88,
the General Assembly urged Security Council to impose mandatory sanctions against
South Africa. (iv) In 1977, the General Assembly adopted the International Declaration
against Apartheid on sports. (v) The year 1982 was declared as the International Year of
Mobilization of Sanctions against South Africa.
*Afghanistan:-
(i)For nearly 20 years , it suffered discrimination first during the Communist regime
under the occupation of Soviet Union and then under the Taliban rule. (ii) On 26
th
Sep.
1996, the former President Najibullah took refuge at the Un premises but he was forcibly
dragged out by Taliban forces, next morning his dead body with his brothers were
found.(iii) There were restrictions on women and girls on their movement without a veil,
they couldnot accept any job, could not go to a school.(iv) The Taliban destroyed the world
famous Buddhist statue at Bamiyan. (v) The Secretary General of UN has appointed an UN
envoy in Afghanistan, to monitor the conditions. Afghanistan Independent Human Rights
Commission(AIHRC) inaugurated a monument which was decorated with human rights
message and it was installed in the compound of the medical institute.
Other countries:-
1) Bosnia and Herzegovina- where in the name of the ethnic cleansing the Bosnian Serbs
were committing atrocities on Bosnian Muslims.
2)*Sri Lanka-when the Sinhalese majoritarian government discriminated against Tamil Sri
Lankans.
3)*Myanmar- Democratic leader Aung San Suu Kyi had a victory but the Military Junta
did not allow her to form the government.

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Union Parliament
Parliament is the legislative organ of the government; consists of Lok Sabha,Rajya Sabha and
the President. India has federal form of government means distribution of legislative, executive
and financial powers between the Union and the States.
Universal Adult Franchise:- All those who have attained age of 18 (earlier it was 21) are
elligible to use the right to give vote to person of his choice by secret ballot system means
without any fear or favour. Oath by Members:- By the President of India . (i) he will bear true
faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India,(ii) will faithfully discharge the duty upon which
he is about to enter. Sessions:- period during which the House meets to conduct its buisness,gap
between two session should not be more than 6 months, three sessions are- Budget
session,Monsoon session,Winter session. Salary and allowances: Salary 50,000 per month,
2000/ allowance, 45,000 Constituency allowance,45,000 office allowance,Rs. 5 Crore per M.P.
as Local Area Development Fund. Languages to be used in Parliament: Buisness is transacted in
Hindi and English. Leader of Opposition:- Leader of the largest among the opposition parties is
regarded as the leader of Opposition and enjoy same status as a Union Cabinet Minister.
Lok Sabha: 0r lower house,consists of directly elected representatives.Term:-5 years unless
dissolved earlier, can be extended for one year by a law of Parliament during Emergency.
Composition:- consists of not more than 552 members-530 from States and 20 members from
Union Territories and 2 members of Anglo Indian community in case of inadequate
representation. U.P. sends maximum members and Mizoram Nagaland and Sikkim send only one
member. Some seats are reserved for the Scs and STs. Present strength of Lok Sabha=
545.Presiding Officer is Speaker,in case he is not present then Deputy Speaker and in the
absence of both Protem Speaker. Qualifications: 1. Citizen Of India, 25 years of age, mentally
sound, not holding any office of profit, should not be proclimed offender. Vacation of seats: (i)
resignation,(ii) absent for a period of 60 days,(iii) if member becomes subject to any
disqualification, (iv) member is disqualified on ground of Defection. Importance of Lok
Sabha:- 1. Mirror and Voice of Nation- (i) Universal Adult Franchise means all those who are
18 years of age are elligible to take part in electing the members of Lok Sabha.2. Maker of the
Government- (i) President invites leader of majority to come and frame the government.(ii)Many
Cabinet Ministers are members of Lok Sabha. 3. The Council of Ministers are responsible to Lok
Sabha. 4. Controller of the National Purse.
Rajya Sabha: Elections to Rajya Sabha are indirect. Consists of not more than 250 members,
238 are elected representatives of the States and Union Territories with the system of
proportional representational by means of single transferable vote. 12 members are nominated by
the President from among the persons having special knowledge in literature,science,art and
social science. Present strength of Rajya Sabha= 245.Presiding Officer is Ex officio
Chairman and Deputy Chairman. Ex-officio Chairman is Mr. Hamid Ansari (Vice President).
Functions of Chairman is same as of Speaker. Qualifications:- Citizen of India,30 years of age,
not holding any office of profit, should not be an insolvent. Term:- Rajya Sabha is a permanent
body, it cannot be dissolved. The term of office for its members is six years, one third retire
every second year.Members can be re elected.
Speaker: The members of Lok Sabha elects one person among themselves as Speaker and one
as Deputy Speaker. The Speaker can be removed from office by a resolution passed by the
majority of the members of the Lok Sabha. If he resigns then letter should be addressed to the
Deputy Speaker. His tenure is for 5 years but he continues until a new Speaker is elected.Meera
Kumar(Congress) is the Speaker of Lok Sabha. Functions: 1.Regulates Proceedings: Presides
over the meetings,interprets the rules of procedure,decides whether a bill is a money bill or an
ordinary bill,decides the admissibility of questions and resolutions,signns bills passed by House
before they are sent to the Rajya Sabha or to the President.Disciplinary Functions: Maintains
order and decorum, decides matters related to a breach of priviledge or contempt of the
House.Administrative Functions: communicates the decisions of the House to the concerrned
authorities, regulates admission of visitors and Press people. Parliamentary Functions: ex-
officio chairman of some of Parliamentary Committees,appoints Chairman of all Committees.
Miscellaneous Functions: presides over joint sessions of both the Houses of
Parliament,nominates personnels for Parliamentary delegation to other countries, presides over
the conference of Presiding Officers of Legislative bodies in India, he recognizes members or
allows them to speak, ask a member to yield the floor i.e. stop speaking, decides about Contempt
of the Lok Sabha.
Powers of Parliament:- 1. Legislative powers:- (i) exclusive power over 97 subjects of the
Union List (ii) legislate on subjects given in Concurrent list along with State Legislature but in
case of a conflict parliament law prevails(iii) can legislate on subjects of State list when- Rajya
Sabha passes a resolution by 2/3
rd
majority that a subject in State List has assumed national
importance.,when 2 or more states want Parliament to legislate on a State subject,During
Presidents Rule,if it require to fulfill international commitments, Residuary subjects means
which are not mention in any of three list i.e. Union list, State List and Concurrent list,are
decided by Parliament.(iv) The President may promulgate ordinance when the Parliament is not
in session but all ordinances must be approved within six weeks from the re assembly of
Parliament. 2. Financial Powers:- (i) No money can be spent or raised as taxes without the
consent of the Parliament. (ii) Union Budget which contains the estimate of receipts and
expenditure of the Government of India.3. Judicial powers:- (i) power to impeach and remove
the President, (ii) can remove judges of the Supreme Court, High Court, Election Commissioner,
Comptroller and Auditor General of India- when a resolution by 2/3
rd
majority is passed in both
the Houses.(iii) to try a person for its contempt.4. Elective Functions:- (i) Along with State
Legislature elects the President. (ii) elects the Vice President. 5.Constitution Amendment
powers: (i) Articles related to qualification for citizenship,creation of new states, abolition or
creation of upper chamber in States by simple majority. (ii) Articles by 2/3
rd
majority. (iii)
Articles related to election and powers of the President, Union Judiciary, legislative relations
between the Union and the States and Representation of States in Parliament by 2/3
rd
majority
and ratification by half of the federating states. [ The President is bound to give assent to the
Constitution Amendment Bill.He cannot even return the Bill for reconsideration by the
Parliament. In 1973, Supreme Court in the famous case of Keshvanand Bharati v. State of
Kerala, held that Basic Structure should not be changed.5. Other powers:- (i) composition and
powers of the Supreme Court. (ii) May altar the name or boundaries of any State. (iii) to set up a
common High Cort for two or more States.6. Control over executives: (i) Right to Interpellation
means to question ministers (any flaws or the inefficiency of the Government). (ii) Adjournment
Motion to discuss urgent matters (about inefficient handling by the Govt.of any urgent matter).
(iii) Cut Motion means when the budget is under consideration, the Parliament shows its
displeasureby reduction of a Demand of Grant. (iv) No confidence Motion against the ministry
will leads to its resignation. (v) Censure Motion can be passed to show the strong disapproval of
their deeds.(vi) The Miniteries can continue in office as long as they have the confidence of the
Lok Sabha.
Importance of Rajya Sabha: (i) If Rajya Sabha passes a resolution by 2/3
rd
majority that a
subject in State List has assumed national importance then Parliament can make law. (ii) It is

apermanent house, cannot be dissolved even when Lok Sabha is dissolved and can approve the
proclaimation of General Emergency or Presidents Rule in a State. (iii) May create a new All
India Service. (iv) checks hasty law making (v) it has more mature and eminent Indians as
members.
Differences in between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha:- Lok Sabha:- Members are directly
elected, Minimum age is 25,Tenure is for 5 years, Prime Minister and his Council Of Ministers
are responsible to it,Money Bill can be introduced in Lok Sabha only, In case of a dispute over
an Ordinary Bill, the wishes of Lok Sabha prevails because of its numerical strength.Rajya
Sabha:- Members are indirectly elected, Minimun age is 30 years,Even if Rajya Sabha passes a
Vote of No Confidence against the Council of Miniters it does not have to resign, Money Bill
can be retained by Rajya Sabha for 14 days during this time either they accept it, reject it or keep
it for more than 14 days it is considered to be passed by Rajya Sabha.Similarities in between
Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha:- In the election of the President, and the Vice President, Any
house can introduce an Ordinary Bill.
Priviledges of the Members of Parliament(MP):-
(i) Freedom of Speech:- No member shall be liable to proceedings in any court for
anything said or any vote given by h im in Parliament.
(ii) Freedom from Arrest:- During continuance of the Parliament session and during a
period of 40 days before and after such session.
(iii) Freedom from Jury services:- Freedom from attendance as Jurors and witnesses.
(iv) Power to regulate the Affairs of the House:- To regulate the internal affairs,
strangers from the galleries,to punish members for contempt of the house.
Parliamentary Procedures:-
1. Quoram- Minimum members to remain present to conduct the day to day buisness of the
Parliament,1/10the of the total membership.Lok Sabha=55,Rajya Sabha=25.
2. Casting Vote:- If votes in favour or against a proposal are equal then it is decided by
casting vote of the Speaker.
3. Question Hour:- 11 to 12 noon- First hour is kept to put questions. Questions are of thre
types- (i) Starred Questions:- marked with an asterik , oral answers would be accepted)
Unstarred Questions:- without any asterik mark,answers to be given in writing. (iii) Short
Notice Questions:- donot require notice, (I but the concerned minister has the choice to
either accept and answer at that time or not.
4. Zero Hour:- followed by Question Hour when M.P.s can ask questions of any type.(12
to 1p.m.)
5. Motion:- A proposal made in the House of a Legislature to get its decision on a subject.
6. Resolution:- Majority opinion of the House.
7. Adjournment Motion:- To adjourn or suspends the Days agenda and discuss an
important matter. To get the government to take proper action immediately on an urgent
matter or to highlight any wrong decision or inaction of the government.
8. Cut Motion:- When the Budget is under consideration , amotion for the reduction of a
Demand of Grant may be introduced.Three kinds-(i) Disapproval of policy cut-amount
to be reduced to Rs.1(ii) Economy Cut-Amount to be reduced by..(specified amount(iii)
Token Cut-amount of the demand be reduced by Rs.100.
9. Motion of Thanks: passed after the Presidents Address is debated and approved.
10. Summoning of the House:The President summons the House to meet at such time and
place as he thinks fit.
11. Presidents Address: (i)At the commencement of the first session after each General
election and First session i.e. Budget Session every year.(ii) Policy Statement of the year.
(iii) Drafted by the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers.
Parliamentary Committees:-1)Three Financial Committees-Public Account Committee,
Committee on Public Undertaking(Rajya Sabha also a part of these two), Committee on
Estimates( only Lok Sabha members).2)Departmentally Related Standing Committees-24
in number for agriculture, communication , defence,Commerce and HRD.3) Standing
Committee examin Bills and consider the Demands for Grants of the
concernedminitries.Buisness Advisory Committee advice on allocation of time for
discussion, Rules Committee-procedure and conduct of buisness, Committee on Priviledges-
inquires into any breach of Privileges of Parliament. 4) Ad hoc Committee- inquire and
report on specific subjects ex. JPC to probe the 2G Spectrum Scam.
Legislative Procedure: 1) Ordinary Bill into an Act:- A Bill is a legislative proposal
passed by both Houses and assented by the President becomes an Act. Public Bill related to a
matter applying to public in general and can be introduced by a Council of Minister only
whereas Private Bill relates to a person , corporation or institution can be introduced by any
MP. Procedure:- (i) First Reading- introduction of the bill stating main features.. (ii)
Second Reading-consideration stage or referred to Standing Committee which examines the
Bill clause by clause and submits its report and all clauses are put to vote. (iii) Third
Reading-confined only to arguments either in favour or for its rejection. Once it is passed it
is sent to another House.(iv) Procedure in the other House-It goes through all the stages
mentioned above but if the bill passed by one is amended by the other house it goes back to
the house where it was originated. If amendment is rejected in the first house then it shall be
deemed that the two houses have finally disagreed. (v) Joint sitting of both houses- In case
of disagreement or when more than six months elapse without the bill being passed by the
other House, the President may summon a joint sitting of the two Houses.(presided by
Speaker) (vi) Presidents assent- gives assent and it becomes an Act,or withholds assent
there is an end of the Bill or he suggests some changes. If the bill is passed again by the
Houses with or without an amendment the President cannot withhold assent.
2. Money Bill:- It is recommended by the President. If passed by Lok Sabha, goes to Rajya
Sabha for 14 days. Money Bill can be retained by Rajya Sabha for 14 days during this time either
they accept it, reject it or keep it for more than 14 days it is considered to be passed by Rajya
Sabha. Budget is a money bill. Budget:- Annual financial statement of income and expenditure
of the Government of India. It is presented in two parts-the Railway Budget and the General
Budget. Introduction of the budget is followed by discussion then followed by voting of demands
for grants. Estimates of expenditure in the budget are in two groups-(i) Expenditure charged
on the Consolidated Fund of India is not voted for. ii) other expenditure are in the form of
demands for grants which are debated and voted in the house.(iii) separate demand by each
ministry which is voted for or cut motion showing displeasure.(iv) When all demands are voted
these are placed in bill called the Appropriation Bill. (v) Proposals for taxation about the
income for the Government are placed together in a Bill called the Finance Bill. (vi) Presidents
Assent to the Appropriation Bill and Finance Bill means the passing of the Budget.
___________________________________________________________________________
UNION EXECUTIVE- THE PRESIDENT
The President of India is the head of state and the supreme commander of the armed forces.
He/she is the first citizen of India. But, the President is the nominal head of the country with the
real powers being exercised by the Council of Ministers headed by the Prime Minister.
Qualifications(Article 58)(i). an Indian Citizen, (ii) thirty five years of age, (iii) Must be
qualified to be a member of the Lok Sabha, (iv)must not hold any office of profit if he is the
President or Vice President, Governor or a Union or the State Minister or Speaker- he can
contest presidential election.
Proposers and seconders: According to the ordinance of 1997- (i) The Presidential candidate
will have to be proposed by 50 members and seconded by another 50 members of the Electoral
College (Mps and MLAs) (ii) Security Deposit is Rs. 15,000 and it would be forfeited if the
candidate fails to get one-sixth of the total votes.
Election :The President is elected indirectly by the members of the electoral college .that
consists of the elected members of the State legislative assemblies including Delhi and the Union
Territory of Pondicherry and the elected members of the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha.
Value of votes: (i) Legislative Assembly:- Total population of the State
----------------------------------------- 1,000
Total number of elected members.

(ii)Union Parliament:- Total value of votes cast by the elected members of Legislative
Assemblies
Total number of elected members of both Houses.
(iii) The election is held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means
of single transferable vote through secret ballot. A requisite quota is determined by dividing the
number of valid votes by one and by adding 1 to the quotient
The candidate who gets fixed requisite quota of votes is declared elected. If nobody gets it then
the candidate who gets least number of preference votes is eliminated and the second preference
votes on his ballot are transferred to the remaining candidates. Until one secures the required
number of votes.
(iv) All disputes arising in connection with the election of the Indian President shall be decided
by the Supreme Court of India and its decision will be final.
Reasons for indirect election of the Indian President:- (i) In Parliamentary setup, power is
vested in the directly elected members so it would be an anomaly if a person is directly elected
but doesnot have any power.
(ii) A lot of time , money and energy is involved in the direct election.
(iii) It would involve campaigns of different parties, it would be difficult for the President to
forget his party affiliations.
Oath:- The President takes oath in the presence of the Chief Justice of India.He promises to
preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of India and law.
Term:-is elected for 5 years. He may stand for re-election. The seat may fall vacant under the
following conditions(i) Death,(ii) resignation addressed to the Vice President,(iii)
impeachment.
Salary:-Rs.1.5lakh and other emoluments including free residence Rashtrapati Bhawan.
Impeachment:- (article61) (i) The resolution may originate in any house either in Lok Sabha
and Rajya Sabha. (ii) A 14 days notice ,signed by at least one-fourth of the total number of the
members of the House, is required. (iii)It must be passed by a majority of not less than two-
thirds of the total membership of the House.(iv) Same procedure be adopted in the other House,
if passed by majority, the president stands impeached.
Powers of the President:- [EXECUTIVE POWERS] -
(I) The President appoints the Prime Minister and he in turn appoints the Council of
Minister.
(II) He appoints the Attorney- General of India, the Comptroller and Auditor General of
India, Judges of the Supreme Court and High Courts, Governors of States and
Ambassadors of India.
(III) He appoints the members of the Finance Commission, the Union Public Service
Commission, the Chief Election Commissioner and other members of the election
commission.
(IV) All agreements and contracts made by the union government would be made in the
name of the president.
(V) He is responsible for the administration of the Union Territories through an
administrator.
Legislative powers:- (i) power to summon or prorogue the houses of the Parliament. (ii)
may address a joint session of both the houses. (iii) No bill can become law without the assent of
the President. (iv) The money bill cannot be introduced without the prior approval of the
President. (v) Has the power to issue ordinances when the Parliament is not in session.
Financial Powers:- (i) No money bill can be introduced without the prior recommendation of
the President. (ii) He causes the annual budget and the supplementary budget to be laid before
the Parliament. (iii) The Contingency Fun d is placed at the disposal of the President. (iv) The
Financial commission is appointed by the President after every five years.
Judicial powers:- (i) To grant pardon or reduce the punishment received by an individual if (a)
the punishment is awarded as court martial,(b)is given for offences made against the union
laws,(c)if the punishment is a death sentence.
(ii) No criminal suit can be initiated against the President in any court during his tenure.
Military powers (i) He is the supreme commander of all the defence forces of India. (ii) He
appoints the chiefs of the Army, Navy and Air force. (iii) He has the power to declare war or
conclude a peace treaty with any foreign nation on the advice of the council of ministers.
Diplomatic powers:-(i) sends ambassadors to other countries and receives ambassadors. (ii) He
enters into treaties and agreements with other countries.
Emergency powers:- (1)Due to war or external aggression (Article 352):-
When there is grave danger to the security of India due to war, external aggression or armed
rebellion. Duration:-It must be passed by both the houses of the Parliament by not less than two-
thirds of the members or else it would cease to operate after one month. Once it is passed, it can
operate for a period of six months.
Effects: (i) The union can give directions to the states regarding the executive powers. (ii) The
Governor act on behalf of the President and act in accordance with the instructions and directions
issued by the President from time to time. (iii) The term of lok Sabha and the State Legislature
can be extended for a year at a time. (iv) Some fundamental rights remain suspended like
freedom of speech, to assemble, of movement etc.
(2) Emergency in States or Presidents rule ( article 356)- If the President, on the report
submitted by Governor, is satisfied that the government of a particular state cannot function
according to the provisions of the Constitution.
Effects:- (i) The state is governed by the Governor on behalf of the President. (ii) The legislative
power of the state is exercised by the Parliament. (iii) The annual budget of the state is passed by
the Parliament.
(3) Financial emergency (Article 360):- If the President is convinced that the financial stability
or credit of India or any of its part is threatened, he may proclaim a financial emergency.
Duration:- ceases to operate after two months, unless approved by both the Houses of
Parliament. It continues till it is revoked by the President.
Effects:- (i) The union can give directions to states on financial matters. (ii) The Parliament can
also reduce the salaries and allowances. (iii) Money bills and bills related to article 207 should
be kept for the consideration of the President.
Discretionary Powers:- (i) If no party gets clear majority, he can invite leader of the party as per
his choice, to frame the government and prove majority.
(ii) He can withhold assent to a bill when it comes to him for the first time. (iii) When the Prime
Minister has lost confidence of the Lok Sabha and ask for the dissolution of the House, the
President is not bound to act on the advice of the prime Minister.
Actual position of the President:- (i) The President is the nominal head of the Government. (ii)
A wise and tactful President can help mould the Indian policy without violating the spirit of the
Constitution. (iii) If the Parliament is satisfied that the President is violating the principles of the
constitution, it may impeach the President. (iv) The President acts on the advice of the Council of
Ministers, even the proclaimation of emergencies has to be laid before the Parliament and passed
by both the Houses.
Vice President:- Qualifications- (same as the President ; only one difference that he should
have qualifications required for a member of Rajya Sabha).
Term:- as that of the President.
Election:- (i) elected by the electoral college comprising of the members of the Parliament by
proportional representation with single transferable vote.(ii) absolute majority is necessary.
Removal:- A resolution to remove the Vice President may be passed by the Members of Lok
Sabha and Rajya Sabha is required.
Salary:- Rs.1,25,000 as the Chairman of Rajya Sabha.
Functions:- (i) As the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha he regulates the proceeding of the House,
decides the order of the House, admissibility of a resolution or questions.
(ii) If the office of the president is vacant due to death, resignation or impeachment he discharges
his duty as the President. (iii) He remains as the acting President till a new President is elected.
This period can be extended for a period of six months.
President of India is Mrs. Pratibha Patil and the Vice President is Shri Mohammad Hamid
Ansari.



The Prime Minister
The Constitution of India provides for the council of ministers to be headed by the Prime
Minister. He is the head of the union government while the President is the head of the state.
Appointment:- (i) by the President of India. Leader of the party in majority in the Lok Sabha
is appointed as Prime Minister otherwise if no party has a majority, the President can appoint
the leader of the largest single party as the Prime Minister.
(ii) If he is not a member of parliament then he should get himself elected from any house
within six months.
Position,Powers and Functions:- 1)Prime Minister and the President-
(i) He is the link between the Cabinet and the President. (ii) On his advice the President
summons and prorogues Parliament and dissolves the Lok Sabha. (iii) He conveys
cabinets decisions to him.
2)Prime Minister and the Cabinet:- (i) Formation of the Cabinet- The President appoints
them and allocates work among them on the advice of the Prime Minister. (ii)He can choose
and dismiss the Ministers. (iii) He is not the dictator, he is the key stone of the Cabinet
Arch. (iv) He directs and co-ordinates policy. (v) He is the link between the Cabinet and the
President.
(3)Prime Minister inside the Parliament- (i) He is the principal spokesman and defender of
the Government in Parliament.(ii) defends his government and its policies and makes a
concluding speech. (iii)Makes policy statements.
(4)Prime Minister represents India at International Conferences.
(5)Prime minister as leader of the Nation: (i) represents our nation at all international
conferences like the commonwealth Summit,Nam Summit, and on SAARC nations. (ii) He
can sign treaties with other nations.
Limitations on Prime Ministers position and authority:-
(i) He has to secure the willing co-operation of all important persons of his party.
(ii) Opposition parties never miss an occasion to grill the Prime Minister.
(iii) In a coalition government, he has to satisfy the leaders of various parties.
(iv) The press and public opinion act as effective checks on Prime Ministers authority.
(v) His authority is often checked by the press and public opinion.
Deputy Prime Minister:-
COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
After the election, the President of India, on the advice of the Prime Minister appoints the
council of ministers.A non member can be appointed but he must get elected to either of the
Houses of the Parliament within a period of six months.
Oath:- by the President of India.
Size:- Article 75 restricts that the number including the Prime minister should not exceed 15
% of the total members of the Lok Sabha.
Category of ministers:- (a) Cabinet Ministers- (i)most important ministers of the
council.(ii) They hold important portfolios and are entitled to attend the cabinet meetings.(b)
Ministers of State- (i) they belong to the second category of ministers in the council.(ii)
They assist the cabinet ministers. (iii) They are not entitled to attend the cabinet meetings. (c)
Deputy Ministers:- (i) They are the lowest ranked ministers in the cabinet. (ii) They assist
the cabinet ministers and the minister of state. (iii) They do not participate in the meetings of
the cabinet.
(d) Cabinet Secretariat:- (i)It complies under the direction of the Prime Minister the agenda
for Cabinet meetings and issues summons for such meetings.(ii) The Secretariat takes down
and communicates to the ministers the decision of the Cabinet. (e) Cabinet Committees:- (i)
The committees are decision-making bodies. (ii) The Prime- Minister is the Chairman of
important committees. (iii) Ex. Are Defence Committee, the Foreign Affairs Committee, The
Political Affairs Committee and the Policy Planning Committee.
Term:- (i) Five years. (ii) holds office at the Presidents pleasure. (iii) They may continue in
the office as long as they enjoy the confidence of the lower house. (iv) If Lok Sabha passes
the no-confidence motion against them, the entire council resigns.
Cabinet and Council of Ministers:- (i) The Council of ministers is a wider body than all
other categories of ministers.(ii) the cabinet is only a part of the council. (iii) It consists of the
most important ministers of the government and is always consulted by the prime minister.
(iv) The Prime Minister may or may not consult all the ministers of the council on every
matter.(v) All the decisions taken by the cabinet are binding on the entire council.
Powers and functions of Cabinet:-[Executive powers]-
(i)formulates the general policies of the country. (ii) All decisions related to domestic and
foreign policies are made by the cabinet. (iii) entire council of ministers is bound by the
decisions of the cabinet.
[Legislative powers]- (i) They prepare the bills and present them before the Parliament for
its approval. (ii) The Cabinet advices the President to promulgate ordinances when the
Parliament is not in session. (iii) The Cabinet decides on the dates for summoning and
proroguing the Parliament.(iv) The Cabinet prepares the Presidential address. (v) it also
prepares constitutional amendment bills.
[ Financial Powers]- (i) The Cabinet raises revenue to meet the expenses of the State. (ii)
Money Bill can only be introduced by a minister. (iii) The Cabinet can suggest suitable
changes in the budget.
[ Administrative powers:- (i) It coordinates the working of the various departments. (ii) It
formulates treaties with foreign countries. (iii) All important appointments like Governors,
Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts are made by the cabinet. (iv) The
President proclaims an emergency on the advice of the cabinet.
Ministerial Responsibility:- (1) Collective responsibility:- (i)indicates that all ministers of
the council are collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha. (ii) All decisions in the cabinet are
taken collectively by the ministers. (iii) The entire minitry is bound to resign if a no
confidence motion is passed against even one minister. (iv) The cabinet members swim and
sink together.
(2) Individual responsibility:- (i) A minister holds office during the pleasure of the
President. (ii) Every minister is obliged to answer questions pertaining to his department
(iii) The Ministers shall be liable to be dismissed by the President for their undesirable
activities ( not as per the Constitution).
Methods by which the Parliament ensures Ministerial responsibility:-
(i) Question Hour (ii) moving an adjournment motion (iii) Cut motion (iv) Censure Motion
(v) No- Confidence Motion.
Imp.*{ Refer these notes on council of minister for state too; change the words like
Union Parliament for State Legislature and Lok Sabha for Legislative Assembly]






State Executive [The Governor]
Appointment:- He is appointed by the President on the advice of the Union Council of
Ministers along with the Chief Minister of the concerned State and the State Council of
Ministers.
Qualifications:- (i) He is a citizen of India. (ii) He is not less than 35 years of age. (iii) He
shall not be a member of either Houses of Parliament or of legislature, if he is , he should
vacate his seat on the date on which he becomes the Governor. (iv) He should not hold any
office of profit.
Oath: (i) Chief Justice of High Court. (ii) In his absence, the senior most judge of the High
Court.
Tenure:- (i) Five years. (ii) He may be re appointed. (iii) The Governor holds office till the
pleasure of the President, so he can be removed by the President on the advice of the Union
Council of Ministers.
Salary:- Rs.1,10,000 along with other allowances.
Powers and functions:- [Executive powers]-
(i) He invites the leader of the majority to form the government. (ii) He appoints the
Advocate-General of the State and the members of the State Public Service Commission. (iii)
He nominates one member of the Anglo- Indian community to the Legislative Assembly. (iv)
He also nominates one-sixth members to the Legislative Council from those who are good in
the fields of art, literature and science.(v) He receives report from the Chief Minister
regarding the administrative matters.
[Legislative powers]- (i) The Governor summons and prorogues the session of the State
Legislature. (ii) The Governor addresses the opening of the new legislative assembly which
is known as Governors Address. (iii) No bill can become a law without the assent of the
Governor. (iv) The Governor may issue ordinances when the State Legislature is not in
session.
Financial Powers:- (i) Prior approval of the Governor is essential before the introduction of
a Money Bill. (ii) The Governor causes the presentation of the annual budget before the State
Legislature. (iii) The Governor is also the custodian of the Consolidated Fund of India.
Judicial powers:- (i) He is empowered to pardon, commute or reprieve punishments of any
person convicted of any offence against any law relating to a matter related to the state. (ii)
He appoints the judges of the District and subordinate courts in consultation with the High
Court. (iii) The President consults him before appointing the Chief Justice of the state High
Court. (iv) He is not answerable to any court of law for his actions or exercising his powers
while in office. (v) He appoints the attorney General of the State.
Discretionary powers:- (i) The Governor of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Nagaland and
Mizoram are allowed to use their discretion while dealing with the problems of the tribal
regions. (ii) To refuse his consent to a bill; may also send it back to the House for
reconsideration. (iii) To inform the President in case of a breakdown of the constitutional
machinery of the state. (iv) If no party gets majority, he may invite the party as per his
discretion, to come and frame the government. (v) He can dismiss the council of ministers if
the council has lost the confidence of the assembly and still refuses to resign.
Actual position of the Governor :- (i) The Governor is the constitutional or formal head of
state, but real powers are used by the Council of ministers and Chief Minister as its head. (ii)
In certain cases, when he uses his discretionary powers, he doesnt have to consult the
council of Ministers.
Governors role as an agent of the Union Government in the State:-
(i) Appointment of Governor by the president. (ii) Governor reserves certain Bills for
consideration of the President (iii) The Governor cannot promulgate some ordinances
without instructions from the president. (iv) Administration of the Tribal areas. (v) Special
powers of the Governor during the Presidents rule.
Role of Governor:- (i) Criticism against the Governor may disappear if proper persons are
chosen for appointment. (ii) The Chief Minister should be discussed before appointing
someone as Governor. (iii) When the Centre withholds assent to a Bill, the reasons should be
communicated to the State Government.
(iv) Political instability can be controlled by keeping a check on horse trading and political
bribery.
CHIEF MINISTER
The Chief Minister is the leader of the majority party in the state and also the head of the
council of ministers in the state.
Appointment:- (i) After the elections, the Governor invites the leader of the majority party
to form the government and appoints him as the Chief Minister.
(ii) If no party gets majority then the Governor uses his discretionary power and select the
chief minister.
Qualifications:- (i) He should be a member of either of the houses of the state legislature.
(ii) If not then he must get himself elected to one of the legislative houses within a period of
six months.
Tenure:- (i) Five years. (ii) They remain in the office during the pleasure of the Governor.
(iii) They remain in office till they enjoy confidence in the State Legislative Assembly.
Oath:- by the Governor.
Power and functions:-[ in relation to the council of ministers]-
(i) is the leader of the state and the head of the council of ministers.
(ii) May ask a minister to resign from the ministry if he is not satisfied with his
performance.
(iii) Distributes the portfolios to the ministers.
(iv) Presides over the cabinet meetings and prepare the agenda for the same.
(v) Coordinates the work of the various ministers and carries out the smooth working of
the government.
In relation of the state legislature:-
(i) decides on the introduction of a bill, and the entire process of voting.
(ii) The Governor summons or prorogues the state legislative assembly on the advice of
the Chief Minister.
(iii) He announces all the important policies of the Government.
(iv) The Governor dissolves the assembly on the recommendations of the Chief Minister.
(v) The Chief Minister acts as a link between the council of ministers and the assembly.
In relation to the Governor:-
(i) He is the actual executive head of the state, while the Governor is the nominal head of
the state.
(ii) All executive actions are carried out by the chief minister on behalf of the Governor.
(iii) He acts as a link between the Cabinet and the Governor and communicates all the
decisions taken by the cabinet to the Governor.
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