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Final Assignment: New Zealand

Maori Health and Government involvement

Brittany ey
%he &niversity o' G(el)h*H(m+er
St(dy A+road
Health )romotion is allowing )eo)le to have ,ontrol over their own health- .t ,an
o,,(r thro(gh develo)ing awareness and ed(,ation- .t is im)ortant to )reserve a ,o(ntries
,(lt(re and history/ this ,an +e ,om)leted +y )romoting health to a ,o(ntries native
)eo)le- New Zealand0s natives1 the Maori )eo)le are a ri,h ,(lt(re with a large history/ so
m(,h to o''er the world- 2reserving native health is +ene'i,ial to the ,o(ntries 'inan,ial
stat(s and ,(lt(ral +a,3gro(nd- 4ther ,o(ntries1 s(,h as 5anada1 have wor3ed with their
A+originals to ed(,ate and )romote heath and wellness- .t has ,ome to 5anadian
government0s attention that )romoting health to their natives will not only +ene'it their
)eo)le +(t their ,o(ntries standing- 5anadian A+original )o)(lations1 have the highest
o+esity rate o' 5anada at a 678- .t e9,eeds almost $$8 o' the 5anadian average 'or
ad(lts over the age o' $: ;B<langer*(,harme = %rem+lay1 600">1 o+esity is not only
detrimental to the )eo)le +(t the ,o(ntries 'inan,es as well- %he 5anadian government
wo(ld s)end more money on treating o+esity rather than ed(,ating ,iti?ens and
attem)ting to )revent it- 4+esity is a large 'a,tor is ,reating other health iss(es that ,o(ld
)otentially re@(ire more medi,al attention1 ,reating a larger ,ost 'or the government and
,iti?ens- Higher ta9es wo(ld +e im)lemented to ()3ee) the treatment 'or o+esity and
related illnesses- .n this )a)er1 Maori ,(rrent health will +e addressed and ,om)ared to
5anadian A+originals to o+serve a )attern in ,(lt(res- .t is im)ortant to )reserve the
Maori ,(lt(re A(st as 5anadians did their A+originals 'or many other )ast ,(lt(res and
,ivili?ations have +e,ome e9tin,t-
%hose with Maori des,ent ma3e () a+o(t $"-!8 o' New Zealand0s total
)o)(lation in 600$1 +(t Maori )eo)le have the worst health o(t o' any gro() in New
Zealand ;Medi,al 5o(n,il o' New Zealand1 600:>- %his wo(ld )la,e a large ,ost on New
Zealand0s so,iety1 +y 'inan,ial e9)enses lost 'rom in,reased health,are e9)enses s(,h as
medi,al ,are and em)loying )ro'essional sta'' as well as lost wor3 days- Having a )oor
health )o)(lation wo(ld ,ost the ,o(ntry money to treat1 whereas i' 'inan,es were )la,ed
into ed(,ation and )revention rather than treating with medi,al ,osts1 the o(t,ome wo(ld
,reate a healthier )o)(lation as well as a more sta+le ,o(ntry 'inan,ially- %he lower
standard o' health and negative o(t,ome 'rom one Maori ,o(ld )ossi+ly in'l(en,e the
+ehavio(r o' an entire ,omm(nity1 ,reating ,(lt(ral stereoty)es- Maori )eo)le tend to
have a higher mortality rate than those not o' Maori des,ent1 and have a higher rate o'
develo)ing illnesses- 5an,er deaths a,,o(nt 'or almost 6B3 o' the male deaths in Maori
)eo)le1 and a+o(t $B" are 'emale- Maori women are at a higher ris3 o' develo)ing ,an,ers
s(,h as ,ervi,al1 +reast1 and l(ng ,an,er ;Medi,al 5o(n,il o' New Zealand1 600:>- %he
high smo3ing rates 'or Maori women 'o(nd 'rom New Zealand0s Ministry o' Health
,on'irms the large rate o' l(ng ,an,er 'o(nd in this ethni, gro()- Ma3ing it more ,ostly
'or the ,o(ntry to treat1 not only are Maori ad(lts more li3ely to die 'rom disease +(t
Maori in'ants are at a higher ris3 o' dying 'rom low +irth weight and S.S than non*
Maori ,hildren ;Medi,al 5o(n,il o' New Zealand1 600:>- .' the government o' New
Zealand 'o,(sed on ed(,ating their national )eo)le1 their ,o(ntry wo(ld +e in a healthier
New Zealand0s Ministry o' Health ;600#> ,onsiders )eo)le with Maori ethni,ity
to +e at a high ris3 ,ategory d(e to the in,reasing amo(nt o' o+esity and illnesses-
Altho(gh Maori )eo)le only made () $"-78 o' the total New Zealand )o)(lation in
60071 they also ,ontri+(ted to +e 6"8 o' )eo)le with a BM. over 303gBm6 as well as
a+o(t 678 with a BM. over 353gBm6- %hose o' Maori heritage have +een noted to +e at
a larger ris3 o' develo)ing illnesses and have an in,reased li3elihood o' death in
,om)arison to non*Maori )eo)le- .t has +een estimated that the ris3 o' disease and death
are a res(lt o' " +ehavio(ral 'a,tors o+served 'rom Maori ,(lt(re/ o+esity1 smo3ing1
al,ohol (se and a,,idents 'rom re,3less +ehavio(r ;2erminder1 $##0>- .n this )a)er1 we
will dis,(ss 'ood ha+its1 )hysi,al a,tivity o+esityBweight gain1 illnesses s(,h as dia+etes
and mental illness1 as well as loo3 into the ,(lt(ral as)e,t and its toll on Maori health-
Adequate Fruit and Vegetable Intake
%a+le $: A s(rvey ,om)leted to o+serve the )o)(lation
o' Maori )eo)le who ,ons(med the ade@(ate amo(nt
o' 'r(its and vegeta+les-
So(r,e: Ministry o' Health ;600:>- Ministry o' Health: 6007B0!
New Zealand Health S(rvey-
As shown in the ta+le a+ove1 Maori women were more li3ely to ,ons(me
ade@(ate 'r(its and vegeta+les ,om)ared to Maori men in +oth 6006B03 to 6007B0!
;Ministry o' Health1 600:>- %hose who ,ons(me lower then the re,ommended allowan,e
o' 'r(its and vegeta+les are more li3ely to develo) health iss(es1 s(,h as stro3e1 heart
disease and some 'orms o' ,an,er- .n this ,ase men have a larger ris3 to develo) s(,h
adverse e''e,ts- From 6006B03 to 6007B0! the amo(nt o' Maori s(+Ae,ts who ingested the
re,ommended allowan,e o' 'r(its and vegeta+les in,reased 'rom 3"-!8 to 3:-$8- %he
in,rease in 3-"8 is an estimated three times the in,rease in the amo(nt o' the total
)o)(lation ingesting the re,ommended amo(nt o' 'r(its and vegeta+les1 whi,h is $-68
;Ministry o' Health1 600:>- %his s(ggests that the large )ortion on Maori men and women
who don0t ,ons(me eno(gh vegeta+les and 'r(its ,o(ld develo) health iss(es1 these iss(es
,o(ld ,ost the government money to treat- .' the New Zealand natives were ed(,ated on
the amo(nt1 ty)e1 and variety o' 'oods they sho(ld ,ons(me it wo(ld +e more li3ely that
less wo(ld e9)erien,e health )ro+lems- %he government ,o(ld loo3 into other ways to
im)rove health o' the Maori )eo)le1 rather than A(st treating the )ro+lems- 5oo3ing
,lasses ,o(ld +e )rovided to a gro() in the ,omities1 to allow those who have +een
ed(,ated a+o(t healthy 'ood ,hoi,es to ret(rn and '(rther ed(,ate others o' their tri+e-
%his is done 'or 5anadian A+original gro()s as well/ some health )romoters wo(ld ,ome
into reservations to tea,h the natives a+o(t smart ,hoi,es-
Note: .t is re,ommended that ad(lts ,ons(me at least 6 servings o' 'r(it and 3 servings o'
vegeta+les ea,h day-
Proportion Regularly Physically Active 2006/0
%a+le 6: A s(rvey ,om)leted to ,om)are the )er,entage
o' a,tive Maori s(+Ae,ts to the total )o)(lation-
So(r,e: Ministry o' Health ;600:>- Ministry o'
Health: 6007B0!
New Zealand Health S(rvey
.n %a+le 61 the data 'or 6007B0! estimated that 538 o' Maori ad(lts met the
g(idelines 'or +eing )hysi,ally a,tive on a reg(lar +asis/ ,om)ared to only 5$8 o' the
total )o)(lation- Meaning that the Maori )o)(lation is more a,tive than the )o)(lation o'
New Zealand as a whole1 th(s they are the most a,tive ,iti?ens ;Ministry o' Health1
Note: .t is re,ommended that ad(lts ,om)lete a minim(m o' 30 min(tes o' moderate
)hysi,al a,tivity li3e +ris3 wal3ing1 at least 5 days a wee3-
Maori (se to live s(,h a,tive lives +e'ore the times o' the C(ro)eans/ they wo(ld
h(nt1 'ish and garden1 tas3s that wo(ld re@(ire )hysi,al la+o(r and movement- %he
,hange over the years 'rom +eing a,tive to more sedentary 'rom the alteration in li'estyle
wo(ld en,o(rage the in,rease in +ody weight and 'at mass- Not only does the ,hange in
)hysi,al a,tivity alter +ody mass +(t the a,,essi+ility o' 'ood and n(trition o' 'oods- %o
this day 'ast 'ood is more a,,essi+le than healthy 'ood ,hoi,es1 and easier to a,hieve-
Maori (se to have to h(nt and gather 'oods that were nat(ral to the lands1 not )ro,essed
'oods- %he ,hange in n(tritional ha+its wo(ld also in,rease Maori o+esity rates over the
years- %his is seen in 5anadian A+originals as well/ natives to this date have the highest
o+esity rates in 5anada- %heir high o+esity rates A(st li3e the Maori )eo)le are d(e to the
,hange in their dietary inta3e1 whi,h originally were ,ro)s and h(nted animals- Also1
their ,hange in li'estyle has to do with the in,rease in weight- Both Maori and
A+originals were the h(nters/ they wo(ld wor3 'or their 'ood s())ly- Be'ore 5anadian
A+originals were )la,ed onto reserves1 they lived o'' h(nting1 'ishing1 and gathering
,ro)s- %o this day1 +oth native gro()s no longer ,om)lete these )hysi,ally demanding
tas3s and have +e,ome more sedentary- .t is im)ortant 'or the government o' New
Zealand to )rovide ways 'or the Maori to stay a,tive- Cven tho(gh they are the most
a,tive in New Zealand1 the )er,entages are still relatively low- %he government ,o(ld
s())ly ,hea) a,,ess to gyms1 or an o))ort(nity 'or 'ree mem+ershi)s/ even )rovide
in'ormation sessions in Maori meeting ho(ses on ways to +e more a,tive-
Prevalence o! "besity# 2006/0
%a+le 3: A s(rvey ,om)leted ,om)aring Maori men and women
o+esity )er,entages with total men and women-
So(r,e: Ministry o' Health ;600:>- Ministry o' Health: 6007B0!
New Zealand Health S(rvey
Altho(gh Maori )eo)le were seen to +e the most a,tive o' the New Zealand
)o)(lation1 the ta+le a+ove s(ggests that +oth Maori men and women were a+o(t $-!
times more li3ely to +e at a o+ese level than men and women in the total )o)(lation in the
year 6007B0! ;Ministry o' Health1 600:>- .n 600:1 ad(lts with Maori des,ent had a m(,h
larger rate o' o+esity than other New Zealanders- Maori o+esity rate almost do(+led
white New Zealanders1 "38 o' ad(lt Maori were ,onsidered to +e o+ese ,om)ared to
only 638 o' white ad(lts and $68 o' Asian New Zealanders ;Ministry o' Health1 600#>-
Another st(dy ,om)leted +y Met,al'1 S,ragg1 Dillo(gh+y1 Fina(1 and %i)ene*
Eea,h ;6000> dis,(ssed the BM. o' Maori1 C(ro)eans and 2a,i'i, .slanders in relation to
)er,e)tion and so,ioe,onomi, stat(s- .t was ,on,l(ded that Maori as well as 2a,i'i,
.sland women and men had a m(,h larger BM. rating than the C(ro)ean s(+Ae,ts- .t was
noted that +oth so,ial and ,(lt(ral 'a,tors in'l(en,e Maori dietary ha+its- S(,h that their
BM. has +een o+served to +e lower in relation to in,reasing amo(nt o' so,ioe,onomi,
stat(s and ed(,ation/ the Maori however1 were re,orded to have the lowest ho(sehold
in,ome and so,ioe,onomi, stat(s as well as no tertiary ed(,ation- Cd(,ation is im)ortant
in im)lementing a healthy li'estyle/ one needs to (nderstand how to ma3e healthy ,hoi,es
and the ris3s that are involved in living a sedentary li'e- %his is seen in 5anada as well1
A+originals are estimated to have the lowest ed(,ation and in,ome strata in the ,o(ntry
;B<langer*(,harme = %rem+lay1 600">1 A(st li3e the Maori )eo)le they too are
overweight- Both gro()s have less ed(,ation and money/ ma3ing the smart ,hoi,es to +e
healthy harder to ,om)lete- %hey may not +e aware on how to )revent ris3s asso,iated
with o+esity1 li3e heart disease1 ,an,er1 dia+etes1 and res)iratory diseases- Additionally1
the st(dy also loo3ed on weight gain a'ter 6$ years o' age1 it was noted that weight gain
a'ter 6$ was highest in +oth 2a,i'i, and Maori )eo)le- Both o' these gro()s )er,eived
themselves to +e at ideal weight whereas they were in the Fmoderately overweightG and
Fvery overweightG ,ategories o' the e9)eriment- %he )er,e)tion o' 2a,i'i, and Maori
s(+Ae,ts s(ggest that s)e,i'i, ,(lt(ral 'a,tors will in'l(en,e their )er,e)tions o' the ideal
weight and +ody si?e ;Met,al'1 S,ragg1 Dillo(gh+y1 Fina(1 = %i)ene*Eea,h1 6000>-
4+esity is ,(rrently Maori )eo)le0s +iggest health iss(e1 and the government o' New
Zealand has a h(ge o))ort(nity to lower their ,o(ntries o+esity rate and im)rove the
,o(ntries health stat(s and 'inan,ial state-
Prevalence o! $iabetes# 2002/0%&2006/0
%a+le ": A s(rvey ,om)leted on the )revalen,e o' dia+etes 'o(nd in
the total )o)(lation in ,om)arison to Maori )eo)le-
So(r,e: Ministry o' Health ;600:>- Ministry o' Health: 6007B0!
New Zealand Health S(rvey
%a+le " shows that those o' Maori des,ent are more li3ely to +e diagnosed with
dia+etes in ,om)arison to the total )o)(lation- .n 6007B0!1 Maori men and women were
!8 more li3ely to develo) the disease1 whereas the total )o)(lation was "-38- From
6006B03 to 6007B0! the Maori )o)(lation diagnosed to have dia+etes de,rease 'rom :8
to !8 +(t the total )o)(lation in,reased 'rom "-$8 to "-38 ;Ministry o' Health1 600:>-
Generally Maori )eo)le are more li3ely to develo) ty)e 6 dia+etes- %he e9,ess weight
li3e dis,(ssed +e'ore is a ris3 'a,tor in develo)ing high +lood )ress(re as well as ty)e 6
dia+etes mellit(s- %y)e 6 dia+etes ,o(ld res(lt in '(rther adverse health e''e,ts s(,h as
,ardiovas,(lar disease- Deight gain ;seen more in Maori s(+Ae,ts>1 in,reases the
li3elihood o' ins(lin resistan,e ;Ministry o' Health1 600#>- .n an additional st(dy is was
shown that Maori )eo)le tend to have a m(,h higher )revalen,e o' ty)e 6 dia+etes
mellit(s and o+esity when ,om)ared to s(+Ae,ts with C(ro)ean +a,3gro(nd- %y)e 6
dia+etes ,an res(lt 'rom an in,rease in +ody 'at1 a de,rease in energy e9)endit(re and an
in,rease in ones ,entral +ody 'at aro(nd vital organs- St(dies show that Maori s(+Ae,ts
have more +ody 'at and higher o+esity rates1 this ,o(ld res(lt in more ty)e 6 dia+etes in
those o' Maori heritage ;H(sh1 2lan31 Mit,helson and Ea(l(1 6006>- (e to the Maori
)eo)le having a higher )revalen,e o' o+esity and dia+etes1 they are +eing diagnosed at a
yo(nger age o' an average o' "3 years than 55 years o' age ;Medi,al 5o(n,il o' New
Zealand1 600:>- I(st li3e New Zealand natives1 5anadian A+originals s(''er 'rom
diseases li3e ty)e 6 dia+etes- %heir li'estyles added with )oor n(trition ,reate a large ris3
'or ty)e 6 dia+etes- Mainly it is d(e to the 'a,t they live on reserves and do less 'ishing
and h(nting- %he 'oods they ,ons(me are generally high in ,alories- As well in the )ast
their genoty)es were (se to storing energy d(ring times o' 'easts ;Millar = ean1 6006>/
meaning that A+originals are li3ely to get dia+etes in their li'etime A(st as the Maori
)eo)le- Both natives are more s(s,e)ti+le to this disease- S(,h diseases that res(lt 'rom
)oor eating ha+its and sedentary li'estyles ,ost the ,o(ntry money/ money that ,o(ld +e
(sed to +etter the ,iti?ens +y )roviding ade@(ate living s)a,es1 good @(ality 'oods1 new
roads1 et,-
Proportion o! Adult $aily '(okers# )**6/*# 2002/0% and 2006/0
%a+le 5: A s(rvey ,om)leted in ,om)aring the amo(nt o' Maori
smo3ers to the total )o)(lation 'rom $##7 to 600!-
So(r,e: Ministry o' Health1 600:- ata So(r,e: New Zealand Health
.n'ormation Servi,e-
A loo3 at %a+le 5 shows that a large amo(nt o' smo3ing is seen in the ,o(ntry o'
New Zealand- From $##7B#! to 6007B0! the amo(nt o' Maori smo3ers has de,reased
'rom "78 to 3:81 they still have the highest amo(nt o' smo3ers in ,om)arison to the
total )o)(lation- Smo3ing is a large ris3 'a,tor 'or develo)ing ,an,er as well as
res)iratory and ,ardiovas,(lar diseases- Maori women are more than two times more
li3ely to +e smo3ers than women in the total )o)(lation in the year 6007B0!- Similar to
Maori women1 Maori men in 6007B0! were a+o(t $-5 times more li3ely to smo3e than
men in the total )o)(lation ;Ministry o' Health1 600:>/ ma3ing Maori )eo)le more li3ely
to develo) vario(s diseases than the rest o' the New Zealand )o)(lation- Smo3ing ,o(ld
+e seen as a ,(lt(ral tradition1 this is seen in other natives as well- %he 5anadian
A+originals have a maAor )(+li, health iss(e with smo3ing to+a,,o- Altho(gh smo3ing is
a maAor ,ontri+(tor to diseases li3e ,an,er the (se o' to+a,,o in the a+original ,(lt(re is
o' s)irit(al im)ortan,e1 and is seen as ma3ing a s)e,i'i, ,onne,tion to their F5reatorG-
Altho(gh to this day to+a,,o smo3ing has ta3en on more o' a re,reational as)e,t and has
less o' a ,onne,tion to a+original s)irit(ality ;4risato3i1 60$6>- %he elders o' 5anadian
native tri+es +elieve that the non*traditional (sage o' to+a,,o is disres)e,t'(l to their way
o' li'e1 and is 'rowned ()on- As to+a,,o has +e,ome a way o' li'e 'or a+originals1 the ris3
involved with smo3ing s(,h s(+stan,e has in,reased their li3elihood 'or develo)ing
vario(s diseases- %heir ,(lt(re and traditions in,reases their ,hallenges with res)e,t to
health and 'itness1 the Maori )eo)le also wo(ld smo3e as )art o' their ,(lt(re and
Altho(gh the ,on'o(nding 'a,tors s(rro(nding Maori health have +een somewhat
eliminated1 s(,h as )overty1 )oor ed(,ation1 and )oor lo,ation/ the overall dis)arities in
their health still )ersist ;Medi,al 5o(n,il o' New Zealand1 600:>- %his s(ggests that
Maori ,(lt(re also )lays an inde)endent role in determining Maori health stat(s- 5(lt(re
and tradition are a Maoris way o' li'e/ most natives are 3een on 3ee)ing their ,(lt(re
alive- %ho(gh it is im)ortant to )reserve ones ,(lt(ral identity1 ones health is also
im)ortant and some traditions ,o(ld Aeo)ardi?e a healthy state- I(st as stated +e'ore
to+a,,o is a ,(lt(ral iss(e +oth ,(lt(res the Maori and A+originals loo3 at it as a normal
thing to do and 3ee)s them in good res)e,t in the s)irit world- Another ,(lt(ral iss(e that
,a(ses iss(es to Maori health is their views on hos)itals- Altho(gh Maori are most li3ely
to s(''er 'rom illness1 they also are rel(,tant to +e admitted into a hos)ital- %his is
+e,a(se the Maori )eo)le +elieve that hos)itals are a )la,e where )eo)le die- Maori
+elieve that the hos)itals are not )ro)erly ,leansed 'or their standards in ,(lt(re1 in their
,(lt(re d(ring ill times Maori are a,,(stomed to +eing s(rro(nded +y ,lose 'amily and
'riends ;Medi,al 5o(n,il o' New Zealand1 600:>- Many hos)itals )la,e restri,tions on
visitation ho(rs and n(m+ers1 es)e,ially when ill/ this ,o(ld ma3e a hos)ital stay more
(n)leasant 'or a Maori )erson-
&nli3e yo(r average New Zealander1 Maori tend to have less medi,al ,are a,,ess
as well as s)e,i'i, reha+ilitation assistan,e- %hey also have lower inA(ry ,laim rates in
,om)arison to non*Maori des,ent/ this ,o(ld mean that Maori )eo)le are not going to
see3 medi,al attention when needed d(e to little a,,ess to medi,al ,are- .t has +een
do,(mented that Maori have less diagnosti, tests and e9)erien,e less e''e,tive treatment
)lans to non*Maori ;Medi,al 5o(n,il o' New Zealand1 600:>- (e to the la,3 o' medi,al
,are1 Maori tend to die at an estimate o' : to $0 years earlier1 and are (s(ally m(,h si,3er
'or longer )eriods o' time than other ethni,ities- Same is seen in 5anadian A+originals/
they are less li3ely to go see3 medi,al hel) and are )rone to more illnesses/ tho(gh
5anadian health,are is 'ree so they have '(ll a,,ess-
Not only do Maori )eo)le s(''er 'rom )hysi,al health e''e,ts1 +(t mental health
iss(es as well- Mental illness is ,(rrently a h(ge health iss(e 'or the Maori )eo)le1 with
high rates o' )sy,hiatri, instit(tion admissions 608 o' whi,h are related to al,ohol and
dr(gs- MaAority o' the time1 Maori are ,ommitted to a hos)ital invol(ntary- %his is done
(nder the Mental Health Assessment and %reatment A,t1 whi,h en,o(rages the li3elihood
that a )atient will ,onsider hos)itali?ation rather than the thera)e(ti, a))roa,h- Mental
illness is seen in +oth men and women1 tho(gh women tend to have a high ris3 o' dr(g
and al,ohol a+(se/ whereas men are more li3ely to develo) s,hi?o)hrenia ;Medi,al
5o(n,il o' New Zealand1 600:>- Again1 Maori )eo)le ,an +e related to 5anadian
A+originals- A+originals also have +een re)orted to have mental health iss(es1 and are
more li3ely to s(''er 'rom de)ression as well as other so,ialBmental )ro+lems- 5anadian
natives have +een 3nown to have the highest s(i,ide and de)ression rates in 5anada-
A+original yo(th ,ommit s(i,ide an estimate o' 5 to 7 times more than a non*a+original
yo(th- %he s(i,ide rates 'or a+original yo(th are at $$ times the national average 'or
5anada ;Health 5anada1 60$3>- Both the Maori )eo)le and A+originals have +een treated
with little res)e,t in the )ast- Maori were ,heated o(t o' a treaty with land and reso(r,es1
m(,h li3e 5anadian natives- Both ,ases o' ine@(ality and treatment ,o(ld +e lin3ed with
mental illnesses and de)ression- For A+originals1 de)ression ,o(ld res(lt 'rom their loss
o' @(ality o' li'e d(e to treatment and their ,onditions on reserves- Mental health is a
maAor ,ontri+(tor to wellness and a healthy state/ it ,an a''e,t one )hysi,ally as well-
Being mentally (nsta+le ,an ,a(se the +ody to 'eel 'atig(ed and worn o(t1 whi,h ,o(ld
,a(se one to +e less )hysi,ally a,tive and a''e,t their )hysi,al health- Also +oth )arties
have iss(es with in,reased ris3 o' death 'rom al,oholism1 thro(gh s(+stan,e a+(se/
al,oholism ,o(ld +e ,a(sed 'rom de)ression or other mental health illnesses- Al,ohol
,o(ld even a''e,t their so,ial intera,tions and gro()s1 so,ial iss(es in their ,omm(nities
are lin3ed with (nem)loyment and 'amily violen,e- %his in t(rn ,an a''e,t ones mental
sta+ility and wellness ;Ma,Millan1 Ma,Millan1 4''ord1 = ingle1 $##7>-
New Zealand has always str(ggled to meet demands 'or high*@(ality health,are
that is o''ered 'or 'ree 'or the ,o(ntries ,iti?ens1 +(t at the same time +eing ,ost e''i,ient-
4ver the last eight years1 the ,o(ntries total health e9)endit(re do(+led in amo(nt to
aro(nd 3-7 +illion New Zealand dollars or aro(nd $0 +illion &S dollars- Many o' their
servi,es ,o(ld re,eive more '(nding over the years1 +(t some wo(ld +e ,(t drasti,ally
;Dorld Health 4rgani?ation1 60$0>- By ,(tting servi,es to in,rease 'inan,es to the
,o(ntries most im)ortant health servi,es wo(ld 3ee) the do,tor 'ees at a high e9)ense 'or
some ,iti?ens- (e to maAority o' the New Zealand )o)(lation not +eing a+le to a''ord to
attend the do,tors1 in,l(ding the Maori )eo)le who have the least amo(nt o' a,,ess to
medi,al ,are1 wo(ld ,reate a worse o(t,ome in their system- Eess wo(ld +e re,eiving
medi,al ,are1 meaning less money retrieved )er visit to go into medi,al '(nding- &s(ally1
)atients are e9)e,ted to )ay anywhere 'rom $!*65 New Zealand dollars )er visit to a
general )ra,titioner- A s(rvey o' world health systems dis,overed that nearly 368 o' low*
in,ome earners in 600# did not visit a do,tor d(e to these 'ees ;Dorld Health
4rgani?ation1 60$0>-
.n ,on,l(sion1 the Maori )eo)le1 A(st li3e other native ,(lt(res1 ;5anadian
A+originals are an e9am)le in this )a)er> health needs to +e monitored +y the
government- Cviden,e 'rom +oth New Zealand and 5anadian so(r,es )roves that natives
are generally the (nhealthiest in any )o)(lation1 and they m(st +e monitored and
ed(,ated to li'e +etter lives- .' the government 'o,(sed on )reventing diseases s(,h as
o+esity1 and dia+etes that res(lt 'rom )hysi,al ina,tivity and )oor diet1 mainly 'o(nd in
the Maori )eo)le1 their wo(ld +e less 'inan,ial iss(es and '(nding 'or s)e,i'i, health
servi,es wo(ld not have to +e drasti,ally ,(t- Maori )eo)le are seen to +e the (nhealthiest
o' the ,o(ntry1 and the most di''i,(lt to ,orre,t d(e to ,(lt(ral di''eren,es- .' the
government s())lies ed(,ation )rograms1 gyms1 and more a,,ess to healthier 'ood
,hoi,es their o+esity rate wo(ld li3e de,line- %he de,line in o+esity wo(ld ,reate less
illnesses 'or the ,o(ntry to treat and allow 'o,(s on other m(,h needed health servi,es-
Money ,o(ld then go +a,3 into the ,o(ntry and its )eo)le-
B<langer*(,harme1 F-1 = %rem+lay1 A- ;600">- 2revalen,e o' 4+esity in 5anada- The
International Association for the Study of Obesity, $:3*$:7- Hetrieved 'rom
Health 5anada- ;60$3>- First Nations = .n(it Health- Mental Health and Wellness.
Hetrieved 'rom www-h,*s,-g,-,a
Ma,Millan1 H-1 Ma,Millan A-1 4''ord 1- = ingle I- ;$##7>- A+original Health- CMAJ.
115;$$>: $57#*$5!:- Hetrieved 'rom
Met,al'1 2-1 S,ragg1 H-1 Dillo(gh+y1 2-1 Fina(1 S-1 = %i)ene*Eea,h1 - ;6000>- Cthni,
i''eren,es in 2er,e)tions o' Body Si?e in Middle*Aged C(ro)ean1 Maori and
2a,i'i, 2eo)le Eiving in New Zealand- International Journal of Obesity and
elated Metabolic !isorders" Journal of the International Association for the
Study of Obesity, #$;5>: 5#3*5##- Hetrieved 'rom
Medi,al 5o(n,il o' New Zealand- ;600:>- %est Health Outco&es for Maori" 'ractice
I&(lications. Hetrieved 'rom
Millar1 L-1 = ean1 H ;6006>- evelo)mental 4rigins o' %y)e 6 ia+etes in A+original
Mo(th in 5anada: .t is more than iet and C9er,ise- Journal of )utrition and
Metabolis&, $*!- doi:$0-$$55B60$6B$6!"56
Ministry o' Health- ;600:>- Maori Health. Hetrieved 'rom htt):BBwww-t)3-govt-n?BenBin*
Ministry o' Health- ;600#>- Clinical *uidelines for Wei+ht Mana+e&ent in )e, -ealand
Adults. Dellington: Ministry o' Health- Hetrieved 'rom htt):BBwww-moh-govt-n?
4risato3i1 H- ;60$6>- %he 2(+li, Health .m)li,ations o' the &se and Mis(se o' %o+a,,o
Among the A+originals in 5anada- *lobal Journal of Health Science. 5;$>: 6:*3"-
Hetrieved 'rom
2erminder1 S- ;$##0>- Behavio(ral Fa,tors A''e,ting 2hysi,al Health o' the New Zealand
Maori- Social Science . Medicine, /0;">: "3$*""0- Hetrieved 'rom
H(sh1 C-1 2lan31 E-1 Mit,helson1 C-1 = Ea(l(1 M- ;6006>- 5entral 4+esity and His3 'or
%y)e 6 ia+etes in Maori1 2a,i'i,1 and C(ro)ean Mo(ng Men in New Zealand-
1ood and )utrition %ulletin, :6*:7- Hetrieved 'rom
Dorld Health 4rgani?ation- ;60$0>- New Zealand 5(ts S)ending to 5ontrol 5osts-
%ulletin of the World Health Or+ani2ation" 'ast Issues, 33;$0>: !$!*!#7-
Hetrieved 'rom htt):BBwww-who-intB+(lletinBvol(mesB::B$0B$0*06$0$0BenB