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Final Assignment: New Zealand

Maori Health and Government involvement


AHSS*3500
Brittany ey
0!"#$$3
%he &niversity o' G(el)h*H(m+er
St(dy A+road
Health )romotion is allowing )eo)le to have ,ontrol over their own health- .t ,an
o,,(r thro(gh develo)ing awareness and ed(,ation- .t is im)ortant to )reserve a ,o(ntries
,(lt(re and history/ this ,an +e ,om)leted +y )romoting health to a ,o(ntries native
)eo)le- New Zealand0s natives1 the Maori )eo)le are a ri,h ,(lt(re with a large history/ so
m(,h to o''er the world- 2reserving native health is +ene'i,ial to the ,o(ntries 'inan,ial
stat(s and ,(lt(ral +a,3gro(nd- 4ther ,o(ntries1 s(,h as 5anada1 have wor3ed with their
A+originals to ed(,ate and )romote heath and wellness- .t has ,ome to 5anadian
government0s attention that )romoting health to their natives will not only +ene'it their
)eo)le +(t their ,o(ntries standing- 5anadian A+original )o)(lations1 have the highest
o+esity rate o' 5anada at a 678- .t e9,eeds almost $$8 o' the 5anadian average 'or
ad(lts over the age o' $: ;B<langer*(,harme = %rem+lay1 600">1 o+esity is not only
detrimental to the )eo)le +(t the ,o(ntries 'inan,es as well- %he 5anadian government
wo(ld s)end more money on treating o+esity rather than ed(,ating ,iti?ens and
attem)ting to )revent it- 4+esity is a large 'a,tor is ,reating other health iss(es that ,o(ld
)otentially re@(ire more medi,al attention1 ,reating a larger ,ost 'or the government and
,iti?ens- Higher ta9es wo(ld +e im)lemented to ()3ee) the treatment 'or o+esity and
related illnesses- .n this )a)er1 Maori ,(rrent health will +e addressed and ,om)ared to
5anadian A+originals to o+serve a )attern in ,(lt(res- .t is im)ortant to )reserve the
Maori ,(lt(re A(st as 5anadians did their A+originals 'or many other )ast ,(lt(res and
,ivili?ations have +e,ome e9tin,t-
%hose with Maori des,ent ma3e () a+o(t $"-!8 o' New Zealand0s total
)o)(lation in 600$1 +(t Maori )eo)le have the worst health o(t o' any gro() in New
Zealand ;Medi,al 5o(n,il o' New Zealand1 600:>- %his wo(ld )la,e a large ,ost on New
Zealand0s so,iety1 +y 'inan,ial e9)enses lost 'rom in,reased health,are e9)enses s(,h as
medi,al ,are and em)loying )ro'essional sta'' as well as lost wor3 days- Having a )oor
health )o)(lation wo(ld ,ost the ,o(ntry money to treat1 whereas i' 'inan,es were )la,ed
into ed(,ation and )revention rather than treating with medi,al ,osts1 the o(t,ome wo(ld
,reate a healthier )o)(lation as well as a more sta+le ,o(ntry 'inan,ially- %he lower
standard o' health and negative o(t,ome 'rom one Maori ,o(ld )ossi+ly in'l(en,e the
+ehavio(r o' an entire ,omm(nity1 ,reating ,(lt(ral stereoty)es- Maori )eo)le tend to
have a higher mortality rate than those not o' Maori des,ent1 and have a higher rate o'
develo)ing illnesses- 5an,er deaths a,,o(nt 'or almost 6B3 o' the male deaths in Maori
)eo)le1 and a+o(t $B" are 'emale- Maori women are at a higher ris3 o' develo)ing ,an,ers
s(,h as ,ervi,al1 +reast1 and l(ng ,an,er ;Medi,al 5o(n,il o' New Zealand1 600:>- %he
high smo3ing rates 'or Maori women 'o(nd 'rom New Zealand0s Ministry o' Health
,on'irms the large rate o' l(ng ,an,er 'o(nd in this ethni, gro()- Ma3ing it more ,ostly
'or the ,o(ntry to treat1 not only are Maori ad(lts more li3ely to die 'rom disease +(t
Maori in'ants are at a higher ris3 o' dying 'rom low +irth weight and S.S than non*
Maori ,hildren ;Medi,al 5o(n,il o' New Zealand1 600:>- .' the government o' New
Zealand 'o,(sed on ed(,ating their national )eo)le1 their ,o(ntry wo(ld +e in a healthier
state-
New Zealand0s Ministry o' Health ;600#> ,onsiders )eo)le with Maori ethni,ity
to +e at a high ris3 ,ategory d(e to the in,reasing amo(nt o' o+esity and illnesses-
Altho(gh Maori )eo)le only made () $"-78 o' the total New Zealand )o)(lation in
60071 they also ,ontri+(ted to +e 6"8 o' )eo)le with a BM. over 303gBm6 as well as
a+o(t 678 with a BM. over 353gBm6- %hose o' Maori heritage have +een noted to +e at
a larger ris3 o' develo)ing illnesses and have an in,reased li3elihood o' death in
,om)arison to non*Maori )eo)le- .t has +een estimated that the ris3 o' disease and death
are a res(lt o' " +ehavio(ral 'a,tors o+served 'rom Maori ,(lt(re/ o+esity1 smo3ing1
al,ohol (se and a,,idents 'rom re,3less +ehavio(r ;2erminder1 $##0>- .n this )a)er1 we
will dis,(ss 'ood ha+its1 )hysi,al a,tivity o+esityBweight gain1 illnesses s(,h as dia+etes
and mental illness1 as well as loo3 into the ,(lt(ral as)e,t and its toll on Maori health-
Adequate Fruit and Vegetable Intake
%a+le $: A s(rvey ,om)leted to o+serve the )o)(lation
o' Maori )eo)le who ,ons(med the ade@(ate amo(nt
o' 'r(its and vegeta+les-
So(r,e: Ministry o' Health ;600:>- Ministry o' Health: 6007B0!
New Zealand Health S(rvey-
As shown in the ta+le a+ove1 Maori women were more li3ely to ,ons(me
ade@(ate 'r(its and vegeta+les ,om)ared to Maori men in +oth 6006B03 to 6007B0!
;Ministry o' Health1 600:>- %hose who ,ons(me lower then the re,ommended allowan,e
o' 'r(its and vegeta+les are more li3ely to develo) health iss(es1 s(,h as stro3e1 heart
disease and some 'orms o' ,an,er- .n this ,ase men have a larger ris3 to develo) s(,h
adverse e''e,ts- From 6006B03 to 6007B0! the amo(nt o' Maori s(+Ae,ts who ingested the
re,ommended allowan,e o' 'r(its and vegeta+les in,reased 'rom 3"-!8 to 3:-$8- %he
in,rease in 3-"8 is an estimated three times the in,rease in the amo(nt o' the total
)o)(lation ingesting the re,ommended amo(nt o' 'r(its and vegeta+les1 whi,h is $-68
;Ministry o' Health1 600:>- %his s(ggests that the large )ortion on Maori men and women
who don0t ,ons(me eno(gh vegeta+les and 'r(its ,o(ld develo) health iss(es1 these iss(es
,o(ld ,ost the government money to treat- .' the New Zealand natives were ed(,ated on
the amo(nt1 ty)e1 and variety o' 'oods they sho(ld ,ons(me it wo(ld +e more li3ely that
less wo(ld e9)erien,e health )ro+lems- %he government ,o(ld loo3 into other ways to
im)rove health o' the Maori )eo)le1 rather than A(st treating the )ro+lems- 5oo3ing
,lasses ,o(ld +e )rovided to a gro() in the ,omities1 to allow those who have +een
ed(,ated a+o(t healthy 'ood ,hoi,es to ret(rn and '(rther ed(,ate others o' their tri+e-
%his is done 'or 5anadian A+original gro()s as well/ some health )romoters wo(ld ,ome
into reservations to tea,h the natives a+o(t smart ,hoi,es-
Note: .t is re,ommended that ad(lts ,ons(me at least 6 servings o' 'r(it and 3 servings o'
vegeta+les ea,h day-
Proportion Regularly Physically Active 2006/0
%a+le 6: A s(rvey ,om)leted to ,om)are the )er,entage
o' a,tive Maori s(+Ae,ts to the total )o)(lation-
So(r,e: Ministry o' Health ;600:>- Ministry o'
Health: 6007B0!
New Zealand Health S(rvey
.n %a+le 61 the data 'or 6007B0! estimated that 538 o' Maori ad(lts met the
g(idelines 'or +eing )hysi,ally a,tive on a reg(lar +asis/ ,om)ared to only 5$8 o' the
total )o)(lation- Meaning that the Maori )o)(lation is more a,tive than the )o)(lation o'
New Zealand as a whole1 th(s they are the most a,tive ,iti?ens ;Ministry o' Health1
600:>-
Note: .t is re,ommended that ad(lts ,om)lete a minim(m o' 30 min(tes o' moderate
)hysi,al a,tivity li3e +ris3 wal3ing1 at least 5 days a wee3-
Maori (se to live s(,h a,tive lives +e'ore the times o' the C(ro)eans/ they wo(ld
h(nt1 'ish and garden1 tas3s that wo(ld re@(ire )hysi,al la+o(r and movement- %he
,hange over the years 'rom +eing a,tive to more sedentary 'rom the alteration in li'estyle
wo(ld en,o(rage the in,rease in +ody weight and 'at mass- Not only does the ,hange in
)hysi,al a,tivity alter +ody mass +(t the a,,essi+ility o' 'ood and n(trition o' 'oods- %o
this day 'ast 'ood is more a,,essi+le than healthy 'ood ,hoi,es1 and easier to a,hieve-
Maori (se to have to h(nt and gather 'oods that were nat(ral to the lands1 not )ro,essed
'oods- %he ,hange in n(tritional ha+its wo(ld also in,rease Maori o+esity rates over the
years- %his is seen in 5anadian A+originals as well/ natives to this date have the highest
o+esity rates in 5anada- %heir high o+esity rates A(st li3e the Maori )eo)le are d(e to the
,hange in their dietary inta3e1 whi,h originally were ,ro)s and h(nted animals- Also1
their ,hange in li'estyle has to do with the in,rease in weight- Both Maori and
A+originals were the h(nters/ they wo(ld wor3 'or their 'ood s())ly- Be'ore 5anadian
A+originals were )la,ed onto reserves1 they lived o'' h(nting1 'ishing1 and gathering
,ro)s- %o this day1 +oth native gro()s no longer ,om)lete these )hysi,ally demanding
tas3s and have +e,ome more sedentary- .t is im)ortant 'or the government o' New
Zealand to )rovide ways 'or the Maori to stay a,tive- Cven tho(gh they are the most
a,tive in New Zealand1 the )er,entages are still relatively low- %he government ,o(ld
s())ly ,hea) a,,ess to gyms1 or an o))ort(nity 'or 'ree mem+ershi)s/ even )rovide
in'ormation sessions in Maori meeting ho(ses on ways to +e more a,tive-
Prevalence o! "besity# 2006/0
%a+le 3: A s(rvey ,om)leted ,om)aring Maori men and women
o+esity )er,entages with total men and women-
So(r,e: Ministry o' Health ;600:>- Ministry o' Health: 6007B0!
New Zealand Health S(rvey
Altho(gh Maori )eo)le were seen to +e the most a,tive o' the New Zealand
)o)(lation1 the ta+le a+ove s(ggests that +oth Maori men and women were a+o(t $-!
times more li3ely to +e at a o+ese level than men and women in the total )o)(lation in the
year 6007B0! ;Ministry o' Health1 600:>- .n 600:1 ad(lts with Maori des,ent had a m(,h
larger rate o' o+esity than other New Zealanders- Maori o+esity rate almost do(+led
white New Zealanders1 "38 o' ad(lt Maori were ,onsidered to +e o+ese ,om)ared to
only 638 o' white ad(lts and $68 o' Asian New Zealanders ;Ministry o' Health1 600#>-
Another st(dy ,om)leted +y Met,al'1 S,ragg1 Dillo(gh+y1 Fina(1 and %i)ene*
Eea,h ;6000> dis,(ssed the BM. o' Maori1 C(ro)eans and 2a,i'i, .slanders in relation to
)er,e)tion and so,ioe,onomi, stat(s- .t was ,on,l(ded that Maori as well as 2a,i'i,
.sland women and men had a m(,h larger BM. rating than the C(ro)ean s(+Ae,ts- .t was
noted that +oth so,ial and ,(lt(ral 'a,tors in'l(en,e Maori dietary ha+its- S(,h that their
BM. has +een o+served to +e lower in relation to in,reasing amo(nt o' so,ioe,onomi,
stat(s and ed(,ation/ the Maori however1 were re,orded to have the lowest ho(sehold
in,ome and so,ioe,onomi, stat(s as well as no tertiary ed(,ation- Cd(,ation is im)ortant
in im)lementing a healthy li'estyle/ one needs to (nderstand how to ma3e healthy ,hoi,es
and the ris3s that are involved in living a sedentary li'e- %his is seen in 5anada as well1
A+originals are estimated to have the lowest ed(,ation and in,ome strata in the ,o(ntry
;B<langer*(,harme = %rem+lay1 600">1 A(st li3e the Maori )eo)le they too are
overweight- Both gro()s have less ed(,ation and money/ ma3ing the smart ,hoi,es to +e
healthy harder to ,om)lete- %hey may not +e aware on how to )revent ris3s asso,iated
with o+esity1 li3e heart disease1 ,an,er1 dia+etes1 and res)iratory diseases- Additionally1
the st(dy also loo3ed on weight gain a'ter 6$ years o' age1 it was noted that weight gain
a'ter 6$ was highest in +oth 2a,i'i, and Maori )eo)le- Both o' these gro()s )er,eived
themselves to +e at ideal weight whereas they were in the Fmoderately overweightG and
Fvery overweightG ,ategories o' the e9)eriment- %he )er,e)tion o' 2a,i'i, and Maori
s(+Ae,ts s(ggest that s)e,i'i, ,(lt(ral 'a,tors will in'l(en,e their )er,e)tions o' the ideal
weight and +ody si?e ;Met,al'1 S,ragg1 Dillo(gh+y1 Fina(1 = %i)ene*Eea,h1 6000>-
4+esity is ,(rrently Maori )eo)le0s +iggest health iss(e1 and the government o' New
Zealand has a h(ge o))ort(nity to lower their ,o(ntries o+esity rate and im)rove the
,o(ntries health stat(s and 'inan,ial state-
Prevalence o! $iabetes# 2002/0%&2006/0
%a+le ": A s(rvey ,om)leted on the )revalen,e o' dia+etes 'o(nd in
the total )o)(lation in ,om)arison to Maori )eo)le-
So(r,e: Ministry o' Health ;600:>- Ministry o' Health: 6007B0!
New Zealand Health S(rvey
%a+le " shows that those o' Maori des,ent are more li3ely to +e diagnosed with
dia+etes in ,om)arison to the total )o)(lation- .n 6007B0!1 Maori men and women were
!8 more li3ely to develo) the disease1 whereas the total )o)(lation was "-38- From
6006B03 to 6007B0! the Maori )o)(lation diagnosed to have dia+etes de,rease 'rom :8
to !8 +(t the total )o)(lation in,reased 'rom "-$8 to "-38 ;Ministry o' Health1 600:>-
Generally Maori )eo)le are more li3ely to develo) ty)e 6 dia+etes- %he e9,ess weight
li3e dis,(ssed +e'ore is a ris3 'a,tor in develo)ing high +lood )ress(re as well as ty)e 6
dia+etes mellit(s- %y)e 6 dia+etes ,o(ld res(lt in '(rther adverse health e''e,ts s(,h as
,ardiovas,(lar disease- Deight gain ;seen more in Maori s(+Ae,ts>1 in,reases the
li3elihood o' ins(lin resistan,e ;Ministry o' Health1 600#>- .n an additional st(dy is was
shown that Maori )eo)le tend to have a m(,h higher )revalen,e o' ty)e 6 dia+etes
mellit(s and o+esity when ,om)ared to s(+Ae,ts with C(ro)ean +a,3gro(nd- %y)e 6
dia+etes ,an res(lt 'rom an in,rease in +ody 'at1 a de,rease in energy e9)endit(re and an
in,rease in ones ,entral +ody 'at aro(nd vital organs- St(dies show that Maori s(+Ae,ts
have more +ody 'at and higher o+esity rates1 this ,o(ld res(lt in more ty)e 6 dia+etes in
those o' Maori heritage ;H(sh1 2lan31 Mit,helson and Ea(l(1 6006>- (e to the Maori
)eo)le having a higher )revalen,e o' o+esity and dia+etes1 they are +eing diagnosed at a
yo(nger age o' an average o' "3 years than 55 years o' age ;Medi,al 5o(n,il o' New
Zealand1 600:>- I(st li3e New Zealand natives1 5anadian A+originals s(''er 'rom
diseases li3e ty)e 6 dia+etes- %heir li'estyles added with )oor n(trition ,reate a large ris3
'or ty)e 6 dia+etes- Mainly it is d(e to the 'a,t they live on reserves and do less 'ishing
and h(nting- %he 'oods they ,ons(me are generally high in ,alories- As well in the )ast
their genoty)es were (se to storing energy d(ring times o' 'easts ;Millar = ean1 6006>/
meaning that A+originals are li3ely to get dia+etes in their li'etime A(st as the Maori
)eo)le- Both natives are more s(s,e)ti+le to this disease- S(,h diseases that res(lt 'rom
)oor eating ha+its and sedentary li'estyles ,ost the ,o(ntry money/ money that ,o(ld +e
(sed to +etter the ,iti?ens +y )roviding ade@(ate living s)a,es1 good @(ality 'oods1 new
roads1 et,-
Proportion o! Adult $aily '(okers# )**6/*# 2002/0% and 2006/0
%a+le 5: A s(rvey ,om)leted in ,om)aring the amo(nt o' Maori
smo3ers to the total )o)(lation 'rom $##7 to 600!-
So(r,e: Ministry o' Health1 600:- ata So(r,e: New Zealand Health
.n'ormation Servi,e-
A loo3 at %a+le 5 shows that a large amo(nt o' smo3ing is seen in the ,o(ntry o'
New Zealand- From $##7B#! to 6007B0! the amo(nt o' Maori smo3ers has de,reased
'rom "78 to 3:81 they still have the highest amo(nt o' smo3ers in ,om)arison to the
total )o)(lation- Smo3ing is a large ris3 'a,tor 'or develo)ing ,an,er as well as
res)iratory and ,ardiovas,(lar diseases- Maori women are more than two times more
li3ely to +e smo3ers than women in the total )o)(lation in the year 6007B0!- Similar to
Maori women1 Maori men in 6007B0! were a+o(t $-5 times more li3ely to smo3e than
men in the total )o)(lation ;Ministry o' Health1 600:>/ ma3ing Maori )eo)le more li3ely
to develo) vario(s diseases than the rest o' the New Zealand )o)(lation- Smo3ing ,o(ld
+e seen as a ,(lt(ral tradition1 this is seen in other natives as well- %he 5anadian
A+originals have a maAor )(+li, health iss(e with smo3ing to+a,,o- Altho(gh smo3ing is
a maAor ,ontri+(tor to diseases li3e ,an,er the (se o' to+a,,o in the a+original ,(lt(re is
o' s)irit(al im)ortan,e1 and is seen as ma3ing a s)e,i'i, ,onne,tion to their F5reatorG-
Altho(gh to this day to+a,,o smo3ing has ta3en on more o' a re,reational as)e,t and has
less o' a ,onne,tion to a+original s)irit(ality ;4risato3i1 60$6>- %he elders o' 5anadian
native tri+es +elieve that the non*traditional (sage o' to+a,,o is disres)e,t'(l to their way
o' li'e1 and is 'rowned ()on- As to+a,,o has +e,ome a way o' li'e 'or a+originals1 the ris3
involved with smo3ing s(,h s(+stan,e has in,reased their li3elihood 'or develo)ing
vario(s diseases- %heir ,(lt(re and traditions in,reases their ,hallenges with res)e,t to
health and 'itness1 the Maori )eo)le also wo(ld smo3e as )art o' their ,(lt(re and
traditions-
Altho(gh the ,on'o(nding 'a,tors s(rro(nding Maori health have +een somewhat
eliminated1 s(,h as )overty1 )oor ed(,ation1 and )oor lo,ation/ the overall dis)arities in
their health still )ersist ;Medi,al 5o(n,il o' New Zealand1 600:>- %his s(ggests that
Maori ,(lt(re also )lays an inde)endent role in determining Maori health stat(s- 5(lt(re
and tradition are a Maoris way o' li'e/ most natives are 3een on 3ee)ing their ,(lt(re
alive- %ho(gh it is im)ortant to )reserve ones ,(lt(ral identity1 ones health is also
im)ortant and some traditions ,o(ld Aeo)ardi?e a healthy state- I(st as stated +e'ore
to+a,,o is a ,(lt(ral iss(e +oth ,(lt(res the Maori and A+originals loo3 at it as a normal
thing to do and 3ee)s them in good res)e,t in the s)irit world- Another ,(lt(ral iss(e that
,a(ses iss(es to Maori health is their views on hos)itals- Altho(gh Maori are most li3ely
to s(''er 'rom illness1 they also are rel(,tant to +e admitted into a hos)ital- %his is
+e,a(se the Maori )eo)le +elieve that hos)itals are a )la,e where )eo)le die- Maori
+elieve that the hos)itals are not )ro)erly ,leansed 'or their standards in ,(lt(re1 in their
,(lt(re d(ring ill times Maori are a,,(stomed to +eing s(rro(nded +y ,lose 'amily and
'riends ;Medi,al 5o(n,il o' New Zealand1 600:>- Many hos)itals )la,e restri,tions on
visitation ho(rs and n(m+ers1 es)e,ially when ill/ this ,o(ld ma3e a hos)ital stay more
(n)leasant 'or a Maori )erson-
&nli3e yo(r average New Zealander1 Maori tend to have less medi,al ,are a,,ess
as well as s)e,i'i, reha+ilitation assistan,e- %hey also have lower inA(ry ,laim rates in
,om)arison to non*Maori des,ent/ this ,o(ld mean that Maori )eo)le are not going to
see3 medi,al attention when needed d(e to little a,,ess to medi,al ,are- .t has +een
do,(mented that Maori have less diagnosti, tests and e9)erien,e less e''e,tive treatment
)lans to non*Maori ;Medi,al 5o(n,il o' New Zealand1 600:>- (e to the la,3 o' medi,al
,are1 Maori tend to die at an estimate o' : to $0 years earlier1 and are (s(ally m(,h si,3er
'or longer )eriods o' time than other ethni,ities- Same is seen in 5anadian A+originals/
they are less li3ely to go see3 medi,al hel) and are )rone to more illnesses/ tho(gh
5anadian health,are is 'ree so they have '(ll a,,ess-
Not only do Maori )eo)le s(''er 'rom )hysi,al health e''e,ts1 +(t mental health
iss(es as well- Mental illness is ,(rrently a h(ge health iss(e 'or the Maori )eo)le1 with
high rates o' )sy,hiatri, instit(tion admissions 608 o' whi,h are related to al,ohol and
dr(gs- MaAority o' the time1 Maori are ,ommitted to a hos)ital invol(ntary- %his is done
(nder the Mental Health Assessment and %reatment A,t1 whi,h en,o(rages the li3elihood
that a )atient will ,onsider hos)itali?ation rather than the thera)e(ti, a))roa,h- Mental
illness is seen in +oth men and women1 tho(gh women tend to have a high ris3 o' dr(g
and al,ohol a+(se/ whereas men are more li3ely to develo) s,hi?o)hrenia ;Medi,al
5o(n,il o' New Zealand1 600:>- Again1 Maori )eo)le ,an +e related to 5anadian
A+originals- A+originals also have +een re)orted to have mental health iss(es1 and are
more li3ely to s(''er 'rom de)ression as well as other so,ialBmental )ro+lems- 5anadian
natives have +een 3nown to have the highest s(i,ide and de)ression rates in 5anada-
A+original yo(th ,ommit s(i,ide an estimate o' 5 to 7 times more than a non*a+original
yo(th- %he s(i,ide rates 'or a+original yo(th are at $$ times the national average 'or
5anada ;Health 5anada1 60$3>- Both the Maori )eo)le and A+originals have +een treated
with little res)e,t in the )ast- Maori were ,heated o(t o' a treaty with land and reso(r,es1
m(,h li3e 5anadian natives- Both ,ases o' ine@(ality and treatment ,o(ld +e lin3ed with
mental illnesses and de)ression- For A+originals1 de)ression ,o(ld res(lt 'rom their loss
o' @(ality o' li'e d(e to treatment and their ,onditions on reserves- Mental health is a
maAor ,ontri+(tor to wellness and a healthy state/ it ,an a''e,t one )hysi,ally as well-
Being mentally (nsta+le ,an ,a(se the +ody to 'eel 'atig(ed and worn o(t1 whi,h ,o(ld
,a(se one to +e less )hysi,ally a,tive and a''e,t their )hysi,al health- Also +oth )arties
have iss(es with in,reased ris3 o' death 'rom al,oholism1 thro(gh s(+stan,e a+(se/
al,oholism ,o(ld +e ,a(sed 'rom de)ression or other mental health illnesses- Al,ohol
,o(ld even a''e,t their so,ial intera,tions and gro()s1 so,ial iss(es in their ,omm(nities
are lin3ed with (nem)loyment and 'amily violen,e- %his in t(rn ,an a''e,t ones mental
sta+ility and wellness ;Ma,Millan1 Ma,Millan1 4''ord1 = ingle1 $##7>-
New Zealand has always str(ggled to meet demands 'or high*@(ality health,are
that is o''ered 'or 'ree 'or the ,o(ntries ,iti?ens1 +(t at the same time +eing ,ost e''i,ient-
4ver the last eight years1 the ,o(ntries total health e9)endit(re do(+led in amo(nt to
aro(nd 3-7 +illion New Zealand dollars or aro(nd $0 +illion &S dollars- Many o' their
servi,es ,o(ld re,eive more '(nding over the years1 +(t some wo(ld +e ,(t drasti,ally
;Dorld Health 4rgani?ation1 60$0>- By ,(tting servi,es to in,rease 'inan,es to the
,o(ntries most im)ortant health servi,es wo(ld 3ee) the do,tor 'ees at a high e9)ense 'or
some ,iti?ens- (e to maAority o' the New Zealand )o)(lation not +eing a+le to a''ord to
attend the do,tors1 in,l(ding the Maori )eo)le who have the least amo(nt o' a,,ess to
medi,al ,are1 wo(ld ,reate a worse o(t,ome in their system- Eess wo(ld +e re,eiving
medi,al ,are1 meaning less money retrieved )er visit to go into medi,al '(nding- &s(ally1
)atients are e9)e,ted to )ay anywhere 'rom $!*65 New Zealand dollars )er visit to a
general )ra,titioner- A s(rvey o' world health systems dis,overed that nearly 368 o' low*
in,ome earners in 600# did not visit a do,tor d(e to these 'ees ;Dorld Health
4rgani?ation1 60$0>-
.n ,on,l(sion1 the Maori )eo)le1 A(st li3e other native ,(lt(res1 ;5anadian
A+originals are an e9am)le in this )a)er> health needs to +e monitored +y the
government- Cviden,e 'rom +oth New Zealand and 5anadian so(r,es )roves that natives
are generally the (nhealthiest in any )o)(lation1 and they m(st +e monitored and
ed(,ated to li'e +etter lives- .' the government 'o,(sed on )reventing diseases s(,h as
o+esity1 and dia+etes that res(lt 'rom )hysi,al ina,tivity and )oor diet1 mainly 'o(nd in
the Maori )eo)le1 their wo(ld +e less 'inan,ial iss(es and '(nding 'or s)e,i'i, health
servi,es wo(ld not have to +e drasti,ally ,(t- Maori )eo)le are seen to +e the (nhealthiest
o' the ,o(ntry1 and the most di''i,(lt to ,orre,t d(e to ,(lt(ral di''eren,es- .' the
government s())lies ed(,ation )rograms1 gyms1 and more a,,ess to healthier 'ood
,hoi,es their o+esity rate wo(ld li3e de,line- %he de,line in o+esity wo(ld ,reate less
illnesses 'or the ,o(ntry to treat and allow 'o,(s on other m(,h needed health servi,es-
Money ,o(ld then go +a,3 into the ,o(ntry and its )eo)le-
He'eren,es
B<langer*(,harme1 F-1 = %rem+lay1 A- ;600">- 2revalen,e o' 4+esity in 5anada- The
International Association for the Study of Obesity, $:3*$:7- Hetrieved 'rom
htt):BBwe+-e+s,ohost-,om-s(+?ero-li+-(og(el)h-,aBehostB)d'viewerB)d'viewerJ
sidKd356e$d5*e':6*"d7a*+5"!*
#3+77a+3"#768"0sessionmgr$$5=vidK$=hidK$6"
Health 5anada- ;60$3>- First Nations = .n(it Health- Mental Health and Wellness.
Hetrieved 'rom www-h,*s,-g,-,a
Ma,Millan1 H-1 Ma,Millan A-1 4''ord 1- = ingle I- ;$##7>- A+original Health- CMAJ.
115;$$>: $57#*$5!:- Hetrieved 'rom
htt):BBwww-n,+i-nlm-nih-govB)m,Barti,lesB2M5$33"##5B
Met,al'1 2-1 S,ragg1 H-1 Dillo(gh+y1 2-1 Fina(1 S-1 = %i)ene*Eea,h1 - ;6000>- Cthni,
i''eren,es in 2er,e)tions o' Body Si?e in Middle*Aged C(ro)ean1 Maori and
2a,i'i, 2eo)le Eiving in New Zealand- International Journal of Obesity and
elated Metabolic !isorders" Journal of the International Association for the
Study of Obesity, #$;5>: 5#3*5##- Hetrieved 'rom
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/10849581
Medi,al 5o(n,il o' New Zealand- ;600:>- %est Health Outco&es for Maori" 'ractice
I&(lications. Hetrieved 'rom http://www.mcnz.org.nz/assets/News-and-
Publications/Statements/best-health-maoricomplete.pdf
Millar1 L-1 = ean1 H ;6006>- evelo)mental 4rigins o' %y)e 6 ia+etes in A+original
Mo(th in 5anada: .t is more than iet and C9er,ise- Journal of )utrition and
Metabolis&, $*!- doi:$0-$$55B60$6B$6!"56
Ministry o' Health- ;600:>- Maori Health. Hetrieved 'rom htt):BBwww-t)3-govt-n?BenBin*
)rintBo(r*)(+li,ationsB'a,t*sheetsBmaori*healthB)ageB$B
Ministry o' Health- ;600#>- Clinical *uidelines for Wei+ht Mana+e&ent in )e, -ealand
Adults. Dellington: Ministry o' Health- Hetrieved 'rom htt):BBwww-moh-govt-n?
4risato3i1 H- ;60$6>- %he 2(+li, Health .m)li,ations o' the &se and Mis(se o' %o+a,,o
Among the A+originals in 5anada- *lobal Journal of Health Science. 5;$>: 6:*3"-
Hetrieved 'rom
htt):BBwww-n,+i-nlm-nih-gov-s(+?ero-li+-(og(el)h-,aB)(+medB636:3033
2erminder1 S- ;$##0>- Behavio(ral Fa,tors A''e,ting 2hysi,al Health o' the New Zealand
Maori- Social Science . Medicine, /0;">: "3$*""0- Hetrieved 'rom
htt):BBwww-s,ien,edire,t-,omBs,ien,eBarti,leB)iiB06!!#537#0#03"5S
H(sh1 C-1 2lan31 E-1 Mit,helson1 C-1 = Ea(l(1 M- ;6006>- 5entral 4+esity and His3 'or
%y)e 6 ia+etes in Maori1 2a,i'i,1 and C(ro)ean Mo(ng Men in New Zealand-
1ood and )utrition %ulletin, :6*:7- Hetrieved 'rom
htt):BBwww-n,+i-nlm-nih-govB)(+medB$6376:60
Dorld Health 4rgani?ation- ;60$0>- New Zealand 5(ts S)ending to 5ontrol 5osts-
%ulletin of the World Health Or+ani2ation" 'ast Issues, 33;$0>: !$!*!#7-
Hetrieved 'rom htt):BBwww-who-intB+(lletinBvol(mesB::B$0B$0*06$0$0BenB