Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 45

621.

315

2823
64


II
,
( 200700, 200800, 552500, 201000, 201200)

2004

621.315.21.018.3(07)
64

: . . , . .. ,
- . , . ..
: - . , . .. ,
. . , . ..



.
,
- .



.
;
,

. ,

() .


, 2004



R,
f,
l.

Z R jX .
(. 1),
n
( ), :
1. ,
.
1 .

, .
2. ,
( ) -.
3.

[0, l].
4.
(
)
[0, l].
5.
[0, l]
. ,
, ,
. .
6.
(. 19,
Y G jB Z 1 ).
7.
()

.
8.


.
9.

()


.
10.

.
, ,
, .
.
1

l/

. .

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

50
55
60
10
15
20
25
30
35

50
75
50
75
50
75
50
75
50

950/n
900/n
850/n
800/n
1000/n
1050/n
1100/n
1150/n
1200/n

0.60
0.70
0.80
0.90
0.65
0.75
0.80
0.95
1.05

l/
. .

10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

40
45
50
55
60
10
15
20

75
50
75
50
75
50
75
50

1250/n
1300/n
1350/n
1400/n
1450/n
1500/n
1550/n
1600/n

1.15
1.25
1.35
1.30
1.20
1.10
0.60
0.70

70 + j50
80 + j60
80 j60
30 j40
30 + j40
45 j45
45 + j45
40 + j30

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

30 j40
1
30 + j40
2
45 j45
3
45 + j45
4
40 + j30
5
40 j30
6
60 j30
7
60 + j30
8
70 j50
9
. 1

18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
10
15
20
25
30

75
50
75
50
75
50
75
50
75
50
75
50
75

1650/n
1700/n
1750/n
1800/n
1850/n
1900/n
1950/n
2000/n
2050/n
2100/n
2150/n
2200/n
2250/n

0.80
0.90
0.65
0.75
0.80
0.95
1.05
1.15
1.25
1.35
1.30
1.20
1.10

40 j30
60 j30
60 + j30
70 j50
70 + j50
80 + j60
80 j60
45 + j45
40 + j30
40 j30
60 j30
60 + j30
70 j50

9
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3

. 1.

. 2.

. 3.

5

. 4.

. 5.

. 6.

. 7.

. 8.

. 9.


, ,
, :
,
-
.
,
.

. ..

1.


11326.1-79 11326.9279 ,
: , f
R . :
50100 ,
, ,
3001000 .

, . , ,
,
(
50 75 ) .
( -50 -75)
f
. , ,

, Rc
.
1 11326.0-78
k,
,
:
Pk 0 kPk ,
(1.1)
k0 ,
; k
() ,

1
k
(1.2)
1 .


.
Z
e j


(., [1, . 37]).

e j

Z Rc
Z Rc ;

(1.3)

:
0 ; .

(1.4)


k,
, , (1.1) k

.
k0 = k0(f),
,
.
. 10
k0 = k0(f)
= (f) [/]
50-2-12 11326.64-79.
(f) ( A)
k0 = k0(f),
( k = 1) ( B).

. 10. :

1 k 0 40 , 1;
2 20


( , . 11)

( ),
( ).

50-2-12 11326.64-79.

. 11.


1.
2.
3.
4.



0.24 ;
0.72

; ;
(2.2 0.1)

0.1
; 8592 %;
5060

; (3.2
0.25)


,
505
, /
100

, ,

5
1 ,
2. ,

1.52

16.4

P R

,
U0
R (. 12, a),
I
1
G R
(. 12, )

U U 0 R I ,

(2.1)

I I G U

(2.2)


10

. 12.

! P
,
(. 12, ). , ,

(. 12, ), P, ,
2
U 0
4R .

P R I12

U0

U 0 2 P R .

(2.3)

(2.4)


I
I 2 P G .
(2.5)

(. 13)

. 13.

U Z I
11

(2.6)

I Y U ,
1

(2.7)

Y Z .
, (2.4), (2.5) ,
U I
P 0 .
(2.8)
2 2
,
,
Rc
(. 14).
,

. ,

,

( . 14 )
. 14.
() ,


().
, ,
.
, ,
.
,

[0, l],
.
0x (0 x l),
- (. .
14). x = l , x = 0
.

x U(x) I(x).
(x = l) U(l) I(l), (x = 0) U(0)
I(0).
U1, I1 U2, I2.

(., , [1])
.

: Zc (
Zc
1
= Rc = R) ( Y c Z c )

()

= + j.
.
12

f
/

(, , . 10).
,
,
(
100 %),

. ,
l
0.045 ; e l 1.00
5 %.

( )

,
(2.9)

k* 0,
, ,
c
0 ,
(2.10)
f
c ,
3108 /.
k

.
3.
()

,

U(x) I(x)


2/3 .

13

, Rc = R

. 15.

x (0 x l),
(. 15):
U ( x ) U ( x )[ 1 e j 2x ] ,

(3.1)

I ( x ) I ( x) [ 1 e j 2x ] ,

(3.2)

U(x) I(x)

:
U ( x) U 2 e j x I ( x) I 2 e j x ,
(3.3)

U ( x) Rc I ( x ) I ( x) Gc U ( x ) .
(3.4)
U(x) I(x),
U(x),
I(x) ( u(x, t) i(x, t)):
U ( x) U 2 f ( x) ,
I ( x) I 2 g ( x) ,
3.5)

f ( x ) 1 2 2 cos(2 x ) ,
(3.6)
g ( x) 1 2 2 cos(2 x )

(3.7)

( U2
I2
)*.
U2 I2 (3.5)
(x
= l ). , . ,
U(l) I(l)
:
*

Um(x) Im(x) u(x, t) i(x, t)


U m ( x) 2 U ( x ) , I m ( x ) 2 I ( x ) .

14

U (l ) U 2 f (l ) ,

I (l ) I 2 g (l ) .

(3.8)

U2 I2. .
(3.5) (3.8)
U2 I2,
f ( x)
g ( x)
U ( x ) U (l )
I ( x) I (l )
,
(3.9)
f (l )
g (l ) .
, U(x) I(x)

.
, U(l),
,
:
f ( x)
g ( x)
U ( x ) U (l )
I ( x) GcU (l )
(3.10)
f (l ) ,
f (l ) .
(
) U(x) I(x)
I(l):
I ( x) I (l )

g ( x)
g (l ) ,

U ( x) Rc I (l )

f ( x)
g (l ) .

(3.11)

U(l), I(l)
(. 16, )
.
l


U (l ) Z (l ) I (l )

I (l ) Y (l ) U (l ) ,

(3.12)
(3.13)

Y (l ) Z (l ) 1 . Z(l)

:
Z cos x jRc sin x
Z ( x) Rc
(3.14)
Rc cos x jZ sin x ,

15

1 e j 2x
U ( x)
Z ( x)
Rc
(3.15)
I ( x)
1 e j 2x ,
x = l.
(. 16, ),


u0(t)
( U 0 U 0 ),
U(l), I(l) :
Z (l )
1
U (l ) U 0
I (l ) U 0
,
(3.16)
Rc Z (l )
Rc Z (l ) .
(. 16, ),
,
I(l), U(l):
Y (l )
1
I (l ) I
U (l ) I
,
Gc Y (l )
Gc Y (l ) ,
(3.17)
1
Y (x) Z (x) .

, Rc = R

c
c

. 16.

U(l), I(l)

U(x) I(x) (
0 x l).
16

U2 I2 (3.5)
U(x) I(x) :
U
I
U 2 0 ,
I 2 .
(3.18)
2
2



.

U(x), I(x) [0, l] x
/16
U(x), I(x) .
4.


R(x) X(x)

Z(x).


G(x) B(x)
Y(x).
(. . 1)
Z(x),
Y(x).
(3.15)
1 2
R( x) Re Z ( x) Rc
(4.1)
1 2 2 cos 2 x ,
X ( x) Im Z ( x) Rc

2 sin 2 x

1 2 2 cos 2 x .

(4.2)

G(x) = Re Y(x) B(x) = Im Y(x)



:
1 2
G ( x) Re Y ( x) Gc
(4.3)
1 2 2 cos 2 x ,
17

B( x) Im Y ( x) Rc

2 sin 2 x

(4.4)
1 2 2 cos 2 x .




.

(
)
[0, l]

.

(. 1) 0x
R(x), X(x) G(x), B(x)
, ,
.

0x R(x), X(x) (. 6 7) G(x), B(x)
(. 8 9) ,
, .

Z(l)
( Y(l)) Z
( Y)
(x = l)
(x = 0).
5.



PS(x) x (0 x l)
:
*

S ( x) U ( x ) I ( x) .
U(x) I(x)
U (x) Z (x) I (x)
I (x) Y (x) U (x ) ,

S ( x) P ( x ) jQ ( x ) I 2 ( x ) Z ( x) U 2 ( x ) Y ( x ) .
18

= 1/fr
x
P(x)

*
P ( x) I 2 ( x) Re Z ( x) U 2 ( x) Re Y ( x) .

P(x)
, ,
, ,
P.

Q(x) x
:
*
Q ( x) I 2 ( x) Im Z ( x) U 2 ( x) Im Y ( x) .

P(x)
Q(x)
[0, l] . 3
.
. (., , [1]),
P(x) Q(x)
[0, l]
:

P P 1 2 ,
Q jP 2 sin 2x .
6.



.


, . 19.
1.
.
2.
.
19

3. (
),
.

(. 17)

R (1
- G R
) l
1
R ( G R
)
l1.

. 17.

l1,

R ( G)
.


.
l1 ,
Z(l1) Y(l1) .

R ( G) l, ()

R ( Gc) .

(. . 17, )
() ,
.

:
20

1) Im Z (l1 ) 0 ,

2) Z (l ) Rc ;

(6.1)

1) Im Y (l1 ) 0 ,

2) Y (l ) Gc .

(6.2)

, (
l1, l
R ( G)),
.
, , ,
.
Im Z ( x) Im Y ( x) (4.2), (4.4) ,
, x = l1, :
X (l1 ) Im Z (l1 ) Rc

2 sin 2 l1

1 2 2 cos 2 l1

sin 2 l1 0 ,
l1k (k ) 2 ,

0.

2 l1k k ,
k N0 .

(6.3)

l1k, ,

0 l1k l .
Z(l1)
Y(l1) :
Z (l1k ) Re Z (l1k ) R (l1k ) ,

Y (l1k ) Re Y (l1k ) G (l1k ) .

(6.1)

Z(l) (3.14). x
= l Z =
= R(l1) ( k l1 ),
Z (l ) Rc

R (l1) cos cl jR sin l


Rc .
Rc cos l jR(l1 ) sin l

, Z(l) ,

21

Im Z (l ) 0 .

(6.4)

, cos l 0 .
,
ln 2n 1

,
2

n N0 ,

(6.5)

2
, ,
. ,

l1,
l n 2 n 1

,
4

n N0 ,

(6.6)


.

( ),
l1k
l1.
(n = 0) (
).
(6.4) (6.5), (6.6)


2
R c
Z (l )
Rc .
R (l1 )
,
Rck Rc R (l1k )

(6.7)


.

Gck Gc G (l1k ) .
(6.8)
l
(. 17)
,
.
22



.

(. . 2 3)

:
1) Im Z Z (l2 ) 0 ;
(6.9)
2) Z (l ) Rc .
(6.10)
Z (l2 )

Z (l2 ) jRc tg l2

(6.11)

Z (l2 ) jRc tg l2

(6.12)

.
(6.11), (6.12) :

Im Z
1
l2 k k arctg
;

Rc

k N0 ;

(6.13)


Rc
1
l2 k k arctg
;

Im Z

k N0 .

(6.14)


l n 2 n 1

,
4

n N0 ,

Rck Rc Re Z 2 .

23

(6.15)
(6.16)


(. . 4 5)

. 2 3 ,



(6.13) (6.16).

(. . 6 7)

:
Re Z (l1 ) Rc ;

1)
(6.17)

2) Im Z (l1 ) Z (l2 ) 0 .
(6.18)
(4.1) (6.17)


1
l1k
2k arccos ; k N0 ,
2
0 l1k l .
(4.2), (6.11)
(6.12) , :

1
2
;
l2 n n arctg
2

n N0 ;

(6.19)


1 2
1
;
l2 n n marctg

.
24

n N0 .

(6.20)

l1k l2n
.

(. . 8 9)

(. . 6 7),
, ,
,
l1k l2n

*.
,
, . 1 9,
. ,

.

7.


()



() (. 18).

[2 4].
, Rc Gc, Z2 Y2.
(. . 1 9).

: , .

25

. 18.

(. . 1)


(6.1) (6.2).
1.

,

()
Z
Y
Z ,
Y .
Rc
Gc
( . 18
, Z 0.4 j 0.8 .)
2.
.
: , .
26

,
,
. ,
( 1, ).
3.
l1k l1k /
l1k 0.1152 ( k : k = 1
( ) k = 2).
4. , ,
R ck
R ck R (l1k ) .

l1k

: R (l1k ) 0.244 .
l 0.25 .


(. . 2, 3)


:
1. A,

.
2.
B 0, Im Z ,
.
3.


,
, B (
xb 0.107, l2 xb ).
,

,
, B (
l2 0.25 xb 0.357 ).

27

4.

R c Rc / Rc R c R ;
l 0.25.

(. . 4, 5)



,
, .

(. . 6, 7)


(6.17) (6.18).
,
.
1. A,

,
( x A 0.385) .
2. A
,
R =
1. :
, .
1,
A.
3.
( xC1 0.1775) ,
l1 :
l1

l1 xC1 x A ,

xC1 0.5 x A ,

xC1 x A
, l 0.1775 0.5 0.385 0.293 .
xC1 x A 1

4. X-, 1,
Im Z (l1 ) = 1.57
l1.
5. (6.18)

D 0, Im Z (l1 )

28


( xD 0.341) .
1.


,
, D (
l2 xD ).
,
,
,
D ( l1 xD 0.25 0.091 ).

(. . 8, 9)



,
, .


,
.
. (, , )
,
4
.
8.



.
U(x) I(x)

, (3.5),
U I
.
U I ,

29

,
.
.
,
,
,
.



,
(. 19).


.

()
0x.

, ,

(
. 19.

).


:
U III (0) U II (l2 ) U I (l1 ) ,

, Rc = R

Rc

. 20.

- U III ( x )
I III ( x)
30

(. 20)
:
U
I
U III ( x) o ,
I III ( x) ,

2
2
U o
I
III
III
I ( x) Gc
U ( x ) Rc .
2
2

U I ( x) I I ( x)

-
(. 21)

, Rc
(3.5):
. 21.

I g ( x)
U I ( x) U 2I f ( x) , I I ( x) I 2
,


U I ( x)
:
U
I
U I (l12
) U I1 f (l ) oc R .
2
2


:
f ( x)
g ( x)
U I ( x) U I (l1 )
I I ( x) GcU I (l1 )
,
f (l1 )
f (l1 ) .

, Rc

. 22.

U II ( x )
I II ( x) (. 22)
, , ,
31

=1

= .


,

:
U ( x) U 2 cos x jRc I 2 sin x ,
I ( x) jGc U 2 sin x I 2 cos x ,
.

U II ( x)
I II ( x)

(. 21) :
U II ( x) Rc I II (0) sin x ,
I II ( x) I II (0) cos x ,

U II ( x) :
U o
I
Rc .
2
2

I II (0)

:
U II (l2 ) Rc I II (0) sin l2

U II ( x) U II (l2 )
, Rc

sin x
sin l2

I II ( x) GcU II (l2 )

cos x
sin l2

, ,
sin l2 0 .


.
! U(x) I(x)

32

e j

R Rc
G Gc

R Rc
G Gc ,

(8.1)

R G

.
, . 1

,
.

(. 9 10) , . 4, 5).
. 9 .

Rc
G
B( x) c .

tg x
tg x


R
Gc
X (l2 ) c
B( l2 )

tg l2
tg l2 ,
X ( x)


B( x) Gc tg x

X ( x) Rc tg x ,


.
:

Arc sin x k (1) k arcsin x


Arc cos x 2k arccos x
Arctg x k arctg x


1. ..
. :
- , 1999. 48 .
2. : .
/ .: .. , .. . -
, 1982. 32 .
33

3. .. . .:
, 1977.
4. .. : .
. ., 1987.

1. :
(
2.104-68, . 1.7; 3.5; 4.3;
7, 8;
2.105-79, . 1.7; 3.3.5; 3.3.9; 3.4.1; 3.4.2;

2.106-68,
. 1.7; 2.108-68, . 1.7).
2.
4 (210297 ).

25 .
3. ,
:
( 1),
,
,
,
.
4. ,
.
,
( 2).
5. ,
(
)
(Microsoft Word ).
.
. ,
,
, (3.1) ;
.
, ,
( 3).
6.
.

,
.
7.


(, Paint)
34

.
.
, , . 3.1 ;
.
,

.
8.
, ..
.
,
.

.
9.
.

,
. (
) ,
, ,
, , ,
23.5103 .
10.



(Scientific Calculator),
(Mathcad, Matematica . Exel
() .
, , 3.1
.
11.
,
- (Paint, Corel Draw ..)
,
.
,
.
(
4 ).
; , ,
.
,
,
.

35

1.
.
?
2. ,

? .
3.
()
.
4.
?
, ?
5. ?
6.

.
7. ,
l

.
8.
U()
I() l
,
U(l) .
9.
U() I() l
,
I(l) .
10.
U() I() l
,
U(0) .
11.
U()
I() l
,
I(0) .

36

12.
()
.
13. ?
,
.
14. ,
?
15. ,
? .
16.
.
17.
.
18.


19. ,
, .
20.
?
?
21. ?

?
22. .

?
23.
?
24.
.
25.
U()
I()
l, U(l)
.
26.
U()
I()
l (2 n + 1) /4,
I(l) .
27.
U()
37

I()
l, I (0)
.
28.
U()
I()
l, U(l)
.
29.
U()
I()
l, I(l)
.
30.
U()
I()
l, U(0)
.
31.

Z()
.
32.

Z()
.
33.

Z()
.
34.

Z()
.
35.

Y()
.
36.

Y()
.
38

37.

Y()
.
38.

Y()
.
39. (,
, ) :
) ;
) ;
) ?
40.
-
.

39

Um(x)


(. .1)?

u(x, t)
8 4 8 ,
u (0, t ) U m (0) sin t .

. .1
Um(x).
2

-
Um(x)

-

(. .2)
Rc = 50 .


Um(x).
3

. .2



- l1

l2
-, l
l1

. .3

50
Z = 100 +
j50 300 (. .3).
4

l = 1.25
Rc = 50 u (l , t ) 10 sin(3108 t 3) B.

0.4 .
40

5

400 Rc = 50
(. .5)
u (0, t )

41.4 cos (2106 t ) .



, i (0, t )

C u (0, t ) , C Gc / .
. .5

6
15
50 ,
,
7.5 .

,
, .
7

( )
1
: L0 = 5.63 /, C0 = 10 /. :
1) ,
;
2) ,
.
8
Rc
-
(.
.8), u0i 20 2 sin (2106 t ) B, Ri =
100 , R = 400 .

. .8
41

42

. 5 05
..
..
_____________________
__________________
______
_______

2005
2

43

...........................................................................3
..................................................................................7
1. .......................................................7
2. ,
.........................................................................................................11
3. ()

44

...................................................................................................14
4.

....................................................................18
5.

............................................................................................19
6.
...................................................................................................20
7.
().......................27
8.

.........................................................................31
.......................................................................................35
.....................................................................36
............................................................38
.................................................42

45