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CHINESE ARCHITECTURE

Presented by:
MICHAEL NABUS and KIER MEJIA
AR31FC1
ARCH. M.M.M. ESTONANTO

GEOGRAPHY



LOCATED IN BOTH EASTERN AND NORTHERN HEMISPHERES
1/13
TH
OF THE TOTAL LAND AREA OF THE WORLD


LAND AREAS 9, 596,
960 SQKM.
THE COUNTRY IS
MOUNTANOUS
COMPRISING 23
PROVINCES
BORDERED BY
YELLOW SEA, SOUTH
CHINA SEA, PACIFIC
OCEAN AND BY 14
COUNTRIES (N.
KOREA, MONGOLIA,
AFGHANISTAN,
PAKISTAN, INDIA,
NEPAL AND BHUTAN
ARE SOME OF THEM)

1. LONG DISTANCES




2. NATURAL BARRIERS

TWO IMPORTANT FACTORS LIMITED CHINAS
CONTACT WITH OUTSIDERS:
NATURAL BARRIERS

1. TIBETAN PLATEAU WEST
2. HIMALAYAN MOUNTAINS SOUTH
3. GOBI DESERT NORTH
4. PACIFIC OCEAN EAST


TIBETAN PLATEAU

FORMS PART OF CHINAS NATURAL BORDER TO THE WEST
PLATEAU A MOSTLY LEVEL EXPANSE OF LAND AT A HIGH
ELEVATION
TIBETAN PLATEAU


HIMALAYAN MOUNTAINS
CONTAIN SOME OF THE TALLEST MOUNTAINS IN THE WORLD
AND THE CHINAS NATURAL BORDER TO THE SOUTH
MT. EVEREST

GOBI DESERT
A VAST AREA STRETCHING FROM MONGOLIA INTO CHINA AND
THE CHINAS NATURAL BORDER TO THE NORTH

PACIFIC OCEAN
THE CHINAS NATURAL BORDER TO THE EAST




HOW DID GEOGRAPHY INFLUENCE
CHINAS DEVELOPMENT?
FEWER WARS POSITIVE

LESS TRADE NEGATIVE


GREAT TWO RIVERS:
1. HUANG HE (YELLOW RIVER)
2. YANG TZE (CHANG RIVER)
HUANG HE (YELLOW RIVER)
HUANG HE (YELLOW RIVER)
THE HUANG HE RIVER HAS AN OMINOUS NICKNAME; IT IS
SOMETIMES CALLED THE: RIVER OF SORROWS



DESTRUCTIVE FLOODING
THEN WHY DO YOU
THINK PEOPLE
CONTINUED TO
LIVE BY THIS
RIVER?

FERTILE SOIL
LOESS
IS FERTILE YELLOW SOIL THAT BLOWS
OFF THE PLAINS INTO THE RIVERS AND
IS DEPOSITED ON LAND DURING A
FLOOD
YANG TZE (CHANG RIVER)

THE YANG TZE RIVER IS THE LARGEST RIVER IN CHINA AND
THE THIRD LONGEST IN THE WORLD NEXT TO THE NILE IN
AFRICA AND THE AMAZON IN SOUTH AMERICA


GEOLOGY

PERSEA NANMU
TIMBER IS THE
PRINCIPAL
MATERIAL USED
( BAMBOO, PINE
AND PERSEA
NANMU )
PERSEA NANMU
THE TALLEST AND
STRAIGHTEST OF
ALL THE TREES IN
CHINA



GEOLOGY


MULBERRY TREE CREATED THE PROSPEROUS SILK
INDUSTRY W/C PAVED THE WAY FOR WESTERN
CONTACT
COAL WIDELY DISTRIBUTED
BRICKS FROM CLAY OF THE RIVER PLAINS WERE
ALSO USED
LIMESTONE & SANDSTONE BUT NEVER CONSIDERED
AS IMPORTANT AS TIMBER
TIN, COPPER, ZINC, ANTIMONY, TUNGSTEN,
MANGANESE AND MERCURY ABUNDANT IN SOUTH
IRON AND PETROLEUM DEFICIENCY



CLIMATE
CLIMATE
NORTH WINTER OF ARCTIC SEVERITY;
COLD STRONG WINTER WINDS FROM
MONGOLIA W/C SWEEPING DOWN FROM ASIA
PRODUCE AN AVERAGE JANUARY
TEMPERATURE IN PEKING OF 5 DEGREE
CELCIUS
SOUTH SUBTROPICAL (WARMER)
CENTRAL TEMPERATE




HISTORY, SOCIETY
AND RELIGION
HISTORY
SUCCESSION OF EMPERORS AND
DYNASTIES AND WARRING STATES
221 B.C. SHI HUANG DI OF QIN TOOK
CONTROL AND BECAME THE FIRST
EMPEROR OF CHINA
RULED WITH ARMIES AND OFFICIALS
OGANIZED HUGE NO. OF LABORERS TO
WORK FOR HIM
BUILT THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA TO
REPEL NORTHERN ENEMIES
210 B.C. SHI HUANG DI DIED, QIN
DYNASTY WAS REPLACED BY HAN AND
WESTERN JIN DYNASTIES

SOCIETY
FOREIGN TRADERS CAME BY LAND AND SEA
6
TH
CENTURY B.C. THE EMERGENCE OF
THEORISTS, THINKERS AND SCHOOLS OF
PHILOSOPHY
CONFUCIUS CONFUCIANISM
LAO TZU TAOISM
WRITING, CALENDAR AND MONEY
ARTS, PAINTING, CALLIGRAPHY AND
ARCHITECTURE





CONFUCIUS LAO - TZU








CALLIGRAPHY CALENDAR





PAINTING MONEY
RELIGION
CONFUCIANISM ----------------------


TAOISM ----------------------------------


BUDDHISM -----------------------------


CONFUCIANISM
FOUNDER CONFUCIUS (KUNG CHIU)
BORN IN POOR FAMILY IN STATE OF LU
A NEW CODE OF SOCIAL CONDUCT AND A
PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE
BASED MAINLY UPON RELATIONSHIPS
BASIC RELATIONSHIPS ARE:
1. HUSBAND TO WIFE
2. FRIEND TO FRIEND
3. ELDER BROTHER TO YOUNGER BROTHER
4. FATHER TO SON
5. RULER TO SUBJECT
GOVERNMENT FOLLOWED CONFUCIANISM


TAOISM
PRONOUNCED AS DAOISM
TAO MEANS WAY OR PATH
FOUNDER LAO TZU
UNIVERSAL LOVE AS
SOLUTION TO SOCIAL DISORDER




BUDDHISM
FOUNDER SIDDHARTA GAUTAMA (BUDDHA)
MAIN RELIGION OF CHINA
IT WAS INTRODUCED TO CHINA
DURING THE HAN PERIOD
BELIEF THAT GREATEST
ACHIEVEMENT WAS
SELFLESSNESS (UNSELFISH)
ONE HAD TO FREE THEMSELVES OF ALL EARTHLY
DESIRES



ARCHITECTURAL
CHARACTER

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER

SYMMETRY
TIMBER FRAME STRUCTURE
DECORATIVE ROOFS
THE USE OF COLOR
RICH ARTISTIC IMAGE






ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER

ROOFS ARE THE CHIEF
FEATURE
OF CHINESE ARCHITECTURE
IRIMOYA GABLE ROOFS
COVERED
WITH S-SHAPE (PANTILES)
ROOF TILES SET IN MORTAR,
WHICH IS ALSO USED TO FORM
COVER JOINTS AS A
PROTECTION
FROM THE DRIVING WINDS

ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER

ROOF FRAMING CONSISTS OF A
SYSTEM OF TRUSSES IN RIGID
RECTANGLES (NOT TRIANGLES
AS IN EUROPE)
SYMBOLIC COLORS BLACK,
RED, AZURE, GREEN, BLUE,
WHITE AND YELLOW
IMPERIAL PALACE YELLOW, GREEN, BLUE
MANDARIN RED
ORDINARY CITIZENS BLACK OR GRAY


ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER

CHINESE ORNAMENTS RIDGES
AND HIPS ARE EMPHASIZED WITH
HIGHLY COLORED DRAGONS,
PHOENIX, LIONS, HORSES AND
GROTESQUE FIGURES IN GLAZED
TERRA-COTTA


ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER

SYMMETRY AS COURTYARD STYLE










SYMMETRICAL LAYOUT OF FORBIDDEN CITY



ARCHITECTURAL CHARACTER






DOORWAYS ARE SQUARE HEADED WINDOWS RECTANGULAR FRAMING








COLUMNS WITHOUT CAPITAL BUT WITH BRACKET

SAMPLE
STRUCTURES

SAMPLE STRUCTURES

TEMPLES
PAGODAS (TAI)
PAI LOU
TOMBS
PALACES
HOUSES
BRIDGES
FORTIFICATION


TEMPLES

CONTAINS STATUE OF BUDDHA
CONSISTS OF SUCCESSIVE OPEN COURTS AND
PORTICOES WITH KITCHEN, REFECTORIES AND
SLEEPING CELLS FOR THE PRIESTS.
EXAMPLES
1. TEMPLE OF HEAVEN
2. TEMPLE OF AGRICULTURE
3. TEMPLE OF SLEEPING BUDDHA

TEMPLE OF HEAVEN

IN BEIJING, VISITED BY THE EMPERORS FOR ANNUAL
CEREMONY OF PRAYER TO HEAVEN FOR GOOD HARVEST
LARGEST SACRIFICIAL BUILDING COMPLEX IN THE WORLD
TAOIST TEMPLE
CIRCULAR BUILDING

TEMPLE OF AGRICULTURE

ALTAR OF AGRICULTURE
LOCATED NEAR THE TEMPLE OF HEAVEN
USED BY THE EMPERORS TO PERFORM SACRIFICES



TEMPLE OF SLEEPING BUDDHA

THE 5.2 METER LONG SLEEPING BUDDHA DEPICTS SAKYAMUNI,
ONE OF THE FOUNDERS OF BUDDHISM
SURROUNDED BY 12 SCULPTURES ILLUSTRATING 12 OF
SAKYAMUNIS DISCIPLES MOURNING HIM



PAGODAS (TAI)

HOUSES OF RELIC OF BUDDHA
MOST TYPICAL OF CHINESE BUILDING
USUALLY OCTAGONAL IN PLAN
ODD NO. OF STOREYS, USUALLY 9 OR 13 STOREYS
AND REPEATED TO EACH STOREY
SOMETIMES MONUMENTS TO VICTORY
BASED ON THE INDIAN STUPA AND STAMBHA
EXAMPLES
1. FOGONG TEMPLE PAGODA
2. PORCELAIN PAGODA
3. SING YUEH SSU





FOGONG TEMPLE PAGODA

WOODEN (TIMBER
PAGODA)
STANDS ON A 4M TALL
STONE PLATFORM
TOTAL HEIGHT OF
67.31M
THE OLDEST FULLY
WOODEN PAGODA
STILL STANDING IN
CHINA

PORCELAIN PAGODA AT NANJING

TEMPLE OF GRATITUDE
CONSTRUCTED BY EMPEROR
YUNG-LE IN 15
TH
CENTURY
DURING THE MING DYNASTY AS
A BUDDHIST PLACE OF WORSHIP
ABOUT 50 M IN DIAMETER
ONE OF THE TALLEST BUILDINGS
IN CHINA WITH A TOTAL HEIGHT
OF 79M
COVERED WITH WHITE AND
SHINING PORCELAIN BRICKS
AND HUNGED BY 140 LAMPS




SING YUEH SSU PAGODA

CHINESE BRICK PAGODA
OLDEST PAGODA MADE OF YELLOWISH BRICK
TOTAL HEIGHT OF 40M




SECTION OF A TYPICAL PAGODA

PAI LOU

GATEWAY
RELATED TO INDIAN TORANA AND JAPANESE TORII
SOMETIMES: ENTRANCES TO TEMPLES AND TOMBS,
MONUMENTS TO THE ROAD, AND TO STAND ACROSS
A STREET
BASIC SYMBOLIC STRUCTURE IN CHINESE
ARCHITECTURE
BOLD PROJECTING ROOFS
USUALLY 1,3 OR 5 OPENINGS
EXAMPLE
1. PAI-LOU OF TEMPLE OF THE SLEEPING BUDDHA,
PEKING

PAI-LOU OF TEMPLE OF THE SLEEPING
BUDDHA, PEKING

SAMPLE OF A 3 AND 5 OPENINGS, PAI-LOU


TOMBS

NOT OF GREAT ARCHITECTURAL VALUE
TOMBS ARE SOMETIMES CONE-SHAPED MOUNDS
SURROUNDED BY STONES, SOMETIMES CUT IN THE
ROCK OR DESIGNED IN THE HILL SIDE
EXAMPLES
1. XIAN TOMB
2. MING TOMB



XIAN TOMB

THE TERRACOTTA ARMY OR THE TERRACOTTA WARRIORS
AND HORSES AT XIAN, SHAANXI PROVINCE, IS A COLLECTION
OF TERRACOTTA SCULPTURES DEPICTING THE ARMIES OF QIN
SHI HUANG, THE FIRST EMPEROR OF CHINA. IT IS A FORM OF
FUNERARY ART BURIED WITH THE EMPERORS IN 210 209 B.C.
AND WHOSE PURPOSE WAS TO PROTECT THE EMPEROR IN HIS
AFTERLIFE
THE FIGURES INCLUDE WARRIORS, CHARIOTS AND HORSES
ESTIMATED THAT THERE WERE OVER 8,000 SOLDIERS, 130
CHARIOTS WITH 520 HORSES AND 150 CAVALRY HORSES
TOOK 36 YEARS TO BUILD


THE TERRACOTTA ARMY OR THE
TERRACOTTA WARRIORS AND HORSES

PALACES

IMPERIAL PALACES AND OFFICIAL RESIDENCES
WERE ERECTED AS ISOLATED, ONE STOREYED
PAVILIONS RESEMBLING TEMPLES IN GENERAL
DESIGN AND CROWNED WITH THE TYPICAL ROOF
AND NOT IMPOSING
CHINESE PALACE COMPOSED OF MANY BUILDINGS
IT HAS LARGE AREAS SURROUNDED BY WALLS AND
MOATS.
EXAMPLES
1. E - PANG PALACE
2. THE FORBIDDEN CITY: IMPERIAL PALACE



E - PANG PALACE

THE PALACE ON THE HILL
BUILT BY THE FIRST EMPEROR IN REPLACEMENT OF
XIANYANG PALACE.



THE FORBIDDEN CITY: IMPERIAL
PALACE

SITUATED IN THE CENTER OF BEIJING, CHINA
WAS THE IMPERIAL PALACE FROM THE MING TO
THE END OF THE QING DYNASTY
BUILT IN 1406 TO 1420, THE COMPLEX CONSISTS OF
980 BUILDINGS AND COVERS AN AREA OF 720,000 SQM.
DECLARED AS WORLD HERITAGE SITE IN 1987
LARGEST COLLECTION OF PRESERVED ANCIENT
WOODEN STRUCTURES IN THE WORLD
TODAY THE SITE IS COMMONLY KNOWN IN CHINESE
AS GUGONG OR THE FORMER PALACE


THE FORBIDDEN CITY: IMPERIAL
PALACE


THE FORBIDDEN CITY: IMPERIAL
PALACE

A. MERIDEAN GATE
B. GATE OF DIVINE MIGHT
C. WEST GLORIOUS GATE
D. EAST GLORIOUS GATE
E. CORNER TOWERS
F. GATE OF SUPREME HARMONY
G. HALL OF SUPREME HARMONY
H. HALL OF MILITARY EMINENCE
I. -----------------
J. HALL OF LITERARY GLORY
K. SOUTHERN THREE PALACES
L. PALACE OF HEAVENLY PURITY
M. IMPERIAL GARDEN
N. HALL OF MENTAL CULTIVATION
O. PALACE OF TRANQUIL LONGEVITY

PLAN OF THE FORBIDDEN CITY

THE FORBIDDEN CITY: IMPERIAL
PALACE







THE MERIDIAN GATE, FRONT ENTRANCE TO THE FORBIDDEN CITY







THE NORTH WEST CORNER TOWER

THE FORBIDDEN CITY: IMPERIAL
PALACE






ROOFS OF THE IMPERIAL PALACES ANIMAL DECORATIONS ON THE EAVES








WOODEN STRUCTURE AND COLOR PAINTING INSIDE THE HALL

HOUSES

GENERALLY OF 1 STOREY LIKE THE TEMPLES AND CONSTRUCTED
WITH TIMBER SUPPORTS, FILLED IN WITH BRICKWORK
THE HOUSES OWE MUCH TO NATURAL LANDSCAPE FOR THEIR
CHARACTER
EMPHASIS ON ORIENTATION, LAYOUT AND SYMMETRY



ORIENTATION
THE IMPORTANCE OF ORIENTATION DEVELOPED INTO THE
PRACTICE OF FENG SHUI, WHICH LITERALLY MEANS WIND
AND WATER
A BELIEF THAT FORCES EXIST IN EVERY LOCALITY WHICH
ACTS ON ALL TYPES OF BUILDINGS
PRACTICE OF MAKING HOUSES FACE SOUTH
GOVERNED BY BUILDING REGULATIONS LIMITING THE
DIMENSIONS AND NUMBER OF COLUMNS
EMPEROR 9 BAYS
PRINCE 7 BAYS
MANDARIN 5 BAYS
ORDINARY CITIZENS 3 BAYS



HOUSES










A DIAGRAM OF THE SUPPORTS A SOUTH-FACING 3 BAY HOUSE IN INNER
FOR A THREE BAY HOUSE MONGOLIA


HOUSES

THE SIZES OF COURTYARD HOUSES
VARY GREATLY DEPENDING ON THE
WEALTH, SIZE, AND THE TASTE OF
THE FAMILY
DOORS FACED SOUTH TO KEEP OUT
OF THE COLD NORTHERN WIND
WINDOWS THERE ARE NO
WINDOWS ON THE OUTSIDE WALLS,
AND USUALLY THE ONLY OPENING TO
THE OUTSIDE THROUGH THE
FRONT GATE
KITCHEN SHOULD BE TOWARDS THE REAR OF
THE HOUSE TO DISCOURAGE THE FAMILY FROM
EATING ALL THE TIME
BIRDS EYE VIEW OF COURTYARD HOUSE IN BEIJING

BRIDGES
PONTOON BRIDGES, WOODEN TRUSS BRIDGES, STONE BRIDGES,
ARCHED, CANTILEVER AND SUSPENSION BRIDGES
YANG TZE RIVER BRIDGE ONE OF THE WORLDS LARGEST
BRIDGES
1, 675M LENGTH AND CLEARANCE ABOVE WATER LEVEL OF 18M

FORTIFICATION

THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA MOST FAMOUS OF ANCIENT
BUILDING UNDERTAKINGS
CONSTRUCTED BY SHI HUANG DI
IT STRETCHES OVER ONE TWENTIETH OF THE EARTHS
CIRCUMFERENCE, FROM THE PACIFIC OCEAN TO THE GOBI
DESERT
THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA IS A SERIES OF STONE AND
EARTHEN FORTIFICATIONS
BUILT, REBUILT AND MAINTAINED BETWEEN THE 5
TH
TO 16
TH

CENTURY B.C. TO PROTECT THE NORTHERN BORDERS OF THE
CHINESE EMPIRE DURING THE RULE OF SUCCESSIVE
DYNASTIES
THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA
3700 MILES LONG FROM
PACIFIC OCEAN TO GOBI
DESERT
IT IS CONSTRUCTED OF
GRAY-GRANITE BLOCKS TO A
HEIGHT OF 6 TO 9 METERS
SURMOUNTED BY 1.5 M HIGH
PARAPETS
THERE ARE 25,000 OR MORE
TOWERS (12M HIGH)
CONSTRUCTED IN
STRATEGIC PLACES AT
INTERVALS OF 700 FT.
PAVED ROAD WIDE ENOUGH
FOR 5 HORSES TO RUN

REPORTERS WOULD LIKE TO THANK THE
FOLLOWING:
NASI FOOD AND RESTAURANT
JARYLLS GRILL
SISIG HOORAY (BESIDE TIP)
COPY MORE PRINTING COMPANY

THE END