TECHNOLOGY
QUESTION AND ANSWER
PREPARED BY
MAY 2013
CHAPTER 1
ELECTRIC FIELDS
(QUESTION & ANSWER)
Question 1
a. There are two types of field distribution, known as homogeneous and nonhomogeneous
field. What are the differences of both field distributions? State the electrodesgap
configuration to simulate the homogeneous and nonhomogeneous field.
Answer:
i.
Homogeneous field
ii.
Nonhomogeneous field
In the absence of space charges, E usually obtains the maximum value at the
surface of the conductor which has the smallest radius of curvature
nonhomogeneous and asymmetrical.
b. Experimental analogue is one of the methods for determining the potential distribution.
Briefly describe any two of the experimental analogs used for spacechargefree fields.
Answer:
i.
Electrolytic Tank
ii.
Errors from this method result from the nonhomogeneity of the paper
resistivity.
Errors also dependence on the ambient humidity and the contact resistance
to the electrodes.
iii.
The used of discrete resistors introduce an error arising from the finite mesh
analysis.
c. A high voltage DC transmission line rated at 132 kV peak traverses a location where a
road shall be constructed below it as shown in Figure Q1. The metallic walls L1 and L2
are energized at 20 kV peak and 80Kv respectively, and each standing on the insulator
made of polycarbonate. Use the Finite Difference Method to determine the potential at
point 2, 4 and 6. Limit the iteration process to two only.
Figure Q1
Answer:
1st iteration
2nd iteration
V4 = 21.63 kV,
V6 = 47.73 kV
Question 2
a. Briefly describe any two (2) of the followings:
i.
ii.
Medium High Voltage (MHV), High voltage (HV), Extra high Voltage (EHV)
and Ultra high voltage (UHV)
iii.
Answer:
i.
Whereas any designer of the high voltage apparatus must have a complete
knowledge of the electric field distribution, for a user of the system the knowledge
of
the
maximum
value
of
the
electric
field
Where
the average is field in the gap and is equal to the applied potential/gap
(larger
ii.
iii.
Voltage range
1kV<V=<70kV
110kV<V=<230kV
275 kV<V=<800kV
1000kV=<V
b. There are several properties of a dielectric which are of practical importance for an
engineer. Name five (5) most important properties of a dielectric and briefly describe
each of them.
Answer:
i.
DC conductivity
ii.
Dielectric permittivity
iii.
Complex permittivity
Parallel RC model
iv.
Loss angle
v.
Dissipation factor
vi.
See (iii)
Polarization
vii.
Atomic polarization
Interfacial polarization
Dielectric strength
Taking a cross section of the structure and using a grid with sixteen equal squares
(giving nine points with unknown voltage), determine the voltages at all nine points after
one iteration.
Answer:
50kV
1
4
50kV
50kV
7
0kV
Node
25.00
18.75
29.69
19.92
9.67
21.17
17.79
6.87
19.20
QUESTION 3
a. The buildup of high currents in a gas breakdown is due to the process of ionization in
which electrons and ions are created from neutral atom or molecules. Explain how the
ionization process occurs prior to gas breakdown phenomena.
ANSWER:
When a high voltage is applied between the two electrodes immersed in a gaseous
medium, the gas becomes a conductor and an electrical breakdown occurs.
The
process that responsible for the breakdown of a gas is called ionization. This process
initially liberates an electron from a gas molecule with the simultaneous production of a
positive ion. The generations of new electrons are from ionization by collision, photoionization and the secondary ionization process. Under high voltage stress, a few of the
electrons produced at the cathode due to the certain process will produce positive ions
and additional electrons. The process repeats itself and hence increases in the electron
current.
b. In an experiment using certain gas, it was found that a steady state current of 600 A
flowed through the plane electrode separated by a distance of 0.5 cm when a voltage of
10 kV is applied. Determine the Townsends first iteration coefficient if a current of 60 A
flow when the distance of separation is reduced to 0.1 cm and the field is kept constant
at the previous value.
If the breakdown occurred when the gap distance was increased to 0.9 cm, what is the
value of Townsends secondary ionization coefficient?
ANSWER:
Since the field is kept constant (i.e., if distance of separation is reduced, the voltage is
also reduced by the same ratio so that V/d is kept constant)
Therefore the Townsends secondary ionization for the breakdown to be occurred at gap
distance 0.9 cm is:
c. In
= 27.7[
] 2460
Estimate the length of a uniform field gap that will just hold off a steady voltage of 100 kV
in
at 4 bar and 60 C.
ANSWER:
Given
Therefore,
Given;
QUESTION 4
a. Describe briefly the reasons for electric stress being considered as the main contributor
to the breakdown of insulation. The description should be based on the principle of
insulation breakdown.
ANSWER:
Breakdown criteria for gas:
Since
( )
( )
Then at breakdown,
,(
)
dependent on the energy and velocity of free electrons, whereas electron energy and
velocity are dependent on the electric field applied to gas medium.
b. Describe briefly the element of electric stress optimization in the case where a solid
cylindrical insulator is sandwiched between a circular electrode and ground as shown in
Fig. Q4b. The description should put more emphasis on the tangential field distribution
and method to achieve it.
Figure Q4 b)
ANSWER:
The cylindrical shape insulator sandwiched between the plane electrode and ground
will experience nonoptimized tangential field considering it from ground plane.
Whereas, with an insulator of profile shown in Fig. 1(b) with dotted line will provide
optimized field distribution.
c. Use the iteration method to find the finite difference approximation to the potential points
1, 2, 3 and 8 of the Fig.Q4c (Limit the iteration up to 2 only). The nodal voltage follows
the sequence as shown in Fig.Q4c that is the node number is 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 and 8
respectively where R = 10 k, R = 30 k, R= 20 k, R = 10 k, E = 400V and EB =
600V
Figure Q4.c)
ANSWER:
Iteration 1:
Iteration 2:
Therefore:
QUESTION 5
a. State the most useful equation which can be used directly to solve electric field problem
using Finite Difference Method?
ANSWER:
]
Where
are equidistance .
ANSWER:
Electrostatic field
Electric Field
i)
Static charge
i)
ii)
Coulombs Law
ii)
Maxwells Law
c. A high voltage DC transmission line rated at 132 kV peak traverses a location where a
road shall be constructed below as shown in Fig.Q5. The metallic walls L1 and L2 are
respectively energized at 20 kV peak and each standing on an insulator made of
polycarbonate, Use the Finite Difference Method to determine the potential value of point
5. Imaginary meshes are constructed below the transmission line each of size 10 meters
by 10 meters. Determine the potential at point 4 if the metallic wall L1 is shorted to the
ground. Limit the iteration process to 2 only.
Fig Q5.(c)
ANSWER:
Iteration 1:
Iteration 2:
Iteration 1:
Iteration 2:
Question 6
a. Give two advantages for the provision of the electric field stress control in high voltage
equipment.
ANSWER:
i.
ii.
iii.
Can understand the failure mechanisms. The knowledge of electric field within
the insulation is essential since it is the intensity of electric field that determines
the onset of breakdown in dielectrics.
iv.
b. Briefly describe the use of high voltage system in the following applications:
i.
Removing industrial flue gases or dust particles floating in air from steel mill
chimneys
ii.
ANSWER:
i.
By applying high voltage power supply to the electrode, corona activity will take
place creating ion pairs, which some ions will be positively charge will stick to the
flue gases or particles. Then passage towards the coherent cause some of them
to be drawn to collecting electrode.
ii.
Due to the intense field at the tip of the nozzle, the emitting droplets of pesticide
are broken down to smaller and almost equal sizes. Thus, in affect increase the
coulombs force acting on the tiny droplets of spray and make it higher than
gravitational and inertial forces. This electrically changed force union of pesticide
has high attraction towards the leaves of the plants and ensures safeness.
Average on both sides of the leaves.
c. Use the iteration method to find the finite difference approximation to the potentials at
points 1, 2, 3, 9 and 15 of the system in Figure Q1. The nodal voltage follows the
sequence as shown in Figure Q1 that is node number is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 up to 16
respectively.
Figure Q1
ANSWER:
The potential on 1, 5, 6, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17 are as follows.
Node Number
Potential (V)
100
200
200
12
100
13
14
15
16
17
Iteration 1:
Iteration 2:
So:
Potential at 1 = 100 V
Potential at 2 = 98.90 V
Potential at 3 = 111.76 V
Potential at 9 = 52.4 V
Potential at 15 = 0 V
QUESTION 7
a. Give three reasons for finding the electric field distribution in high equipment.
ANSWER:
Can understand the failure mechanisms. The knowledge of electric field within the
insulation is essential since it is the intensity of electric field that determines the onset of
breakdown in dielectrics
ii.
ANSWER:
i.
ii.
c. Use the iteration method to find the finite difference approximation to the potentials at
points 1 and 4 of the system in Figure Q1 (Limit the iteration up to 3). Take note that
nodal voltage should be in proper sequence that is node 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 not
otherwise.
Not connected
V=0
Not connected
50V
ANSWER:
Iteration 1
For node 1:
For node 2:
For node 3:
For node 4:
For node 5:
For node 6:
For node 7:
Iteration 2
Iteration 3:
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION TO
HIGH VOLTAGE TECHNOLOGY
(QUESTION AND ANSWER)
QUESTION 1
a.
There are two type of field distribution, known as homogeneous and nonhomogeneous field. What are differences of both field distributions? State the
electrodesgap configuration to simulate the homogeneous and nonhomogeneous
field.
ANSWER:
Homogeneous field:
Profiled parallel plates of finite sizes are also used to simulate homogeneous
fields.
Nonhomogeneous field:
In the absence of space charges, E usually obtains the maximum value at the
surface of the conductor which has the smallest radius of curvature nonhomogeneous and asymmetrical.
In some gaps will produce nonhomogeneous fields and symmetrical, e.g. rodrod or spheresphere (large distance between spheres) gaps.
b.
Experimental analog is one of the methods for determining the potential distribution.
Briefly describe any two of the experimental analogs used for spacechargefree
fields.
ANSWER:
1.
Electrolytic Tank
2.
3.
ResistiveMesh Analog
The used of discrete resistors introduce an error arising from the finite
mesh analysis.
c.
A high voltage DC transmission line rated at 132 kV peak traverses a location where
a road shall be constructed below it as shown in figure Q1. The metallic walls L1 and
L2 are energized at 20 kV peak and 80 kV respectively, and each standing on the
insulator made of polycarbonate. Use the Finite Difference Method to determine the
potential at point 2, 4 and 6. Limit the iteration process to two only.
Power line
1
L1
Ground
Figure Q1
ANSWER:
1st iteration
2nd iteration
L2
QUESTION 2
V4 = 21.63 kV,
V6 = 47.73 kV
a.
Describe briefly, with the aid of suitable diagrams, equations and/or examples, where
appropriate, the avalanche process in the breakdown phenomenon of gaseous
dielectrics.
ANSWER:
The avalanche process is one of the processes which occur in the breakdown of
gaseous dielectrics and is based on the generation of successive ionizing collisions
leading to an avalanche. Suppose a free electron exists (caused by some external
effect such as radioactivity or cosmic radiation) in a gas where an electric field
exists. If the field strength is sufficiently high, then it is likely ionize a gas molecule by
simple collision resulting in 2 free electrons and a positive ion. These 2 electrons will
be able to cause further ionization by collision leading in general to 4 electrons and 3
positive ions. The process is cumulative, and the number of free electrons will go on
increasing as they continue to move under the action of the electric field. The swarm
of electrons and positive ions produced in this way is called an electron avalanche. In
the space of a few millimeters, it may grow until it contains many millions of
electrons.
b.
Show that the breakdown criterion in gas according to Paschens Law is given by:
where,
ds gap distance at sparkover voltage
p pressure
Vs sparkover voltage
F & g different functions
ANSWER:
.. (1)
and
, where
significant
different function.
At breakdown,
And
. (2)
(3)
c.
The following data are given for two parallel while the electric field stress, E is kept
constant.
i.
I = 1.2I0
when d = 0.5 cm
ii.
I = 1.6I0
when d = 1.3 cm
iii.
I = 2.3I0
when d = 2 cm
ANSWER:
Using equation,
For d = 0.5 cm,
(This
QUESTION 3
a.
ii.
Medium high Voltage (MHV), High Voltage (HV), Extra High Voltage (EHV)
and Ultra High Voltage (UHV)
iii.
ANSWER
i.
Whereas any designer of the high voltage apparatus must have a complete
knowledge of the electric field distribution, for a user of the system the knowledge
of the maximum value of the electric field Emax to which the insulation is likely to
be subjected and the location of such a maximum gradient point is generally
sufficient. Consequently, the concept of field enhancement factor or simply field
factor (f) is of considerable use. This factor I defined as
(for homogeneous dielectric medium)
Where
is the average field in the gap and is equal to the applied potential/gap
Emax =
Field utilization factor f =
f.V
d
Voltage Range
1000kV =< V
b.
There are several properties of dielectric which are of practical importance for an
engineer. Name five (5) most important properties of a dielectric and briefly describe
each of them
ANSWER
i.
DC conductivity
and
Dependent on ,
Parallel RC model
is dependent on ,
Power loss =
see (iii)
v. Dissipation factor
Similar to
vi. Polarization
Atomic polarization
Interfacial polarization
c.
squares (giving nine points with unknown voltage), determine the voltages at all nine
points after one iteration
50kV
50kV
0kV
50kV
Node
25.00
18.75
29.69
19.92
9.67
21.17
17.79
6.87
19.20
QUESTION 4
a.
ANSWER:
When a high voltage is applied between the two electrodes immersed in a gaseous
medium, the gas becomes a conductor and an electrical breakdown occurs. The
process that responsible for the breakdown of a gas is called ionization. This process
initially liberates an electron from a gas molecule with the simultaneous production of
a positive ion.
The generations of new electrons are from ionization by collision, photoionization
and the secondary ionization process. Under high voltage stress, a few of the
electrons produced at the cathode due to the certain process will produce positive
ions and additional electrons. The process repeats itself and hence increases in the
electron current.
b.
( )
By using the Townsends breakdown criterion, show that the breakdown voltage for
uniform field gaps is a function of gap length (d) and gas pressure (p).
ANSWER:
( )
( )
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
* +
(vi)
Therefore,
b
(v)
Or
b
Equation (vi) shows that the breakdown voltage of a uniform field gap is a unique
function of the product of gas pressure and the gap length for a particular gas and
electrode material. This relation is known as P schens L w.
c.
Fig.Q2 shows the experimental setup for studying the Townsend discharge. The
experiment is conducted by measuring the current I at the different gap distance, d.
Table Q2 gives the set of observation obtained when studying the conduction and
breakdown in a gas.
i.
ii. Calculate the value of the Townsends primary and secondary ionization
coefficients.
Table Q2 Townsends experimental data
Gap distance, d (mm)
10
Current I (pA)
19
21
26
32
40
45
80
12
14
16
ANSWER
Gap distance, d
(mm)
10
12
14
16
Current I (pA)
19
21
26
32
40
45
80
106
152
255
430
In I
2.94 3.04 3.26 3.47 3.69 3.81 4.38 4.66 5.02 5.54 6.06
i.
Plot graph
versus
7
6.06
6
5.54
5
4.38
4
3
2.94
3.04
3.26
3.47
3.69
4.66
5.02
3.81
In I
1
0
, gives;
(124=8)
,
(53.5=1.5)
ii)
QUESTION 5
The buildup of high currents in a gas breakdown is due to the process of ionization in which
electrons and ions are created from neutral atoms or molecules. Explain how the ionization
process occurs prior to gas breakdown phenomena.
ANSWER:
When a high voltage is applied between the two electrodes immersed in a gaseous medium,
the gases becomes a conductor and an electrical breakdown occurs. The process that
responsible for the breakdown of a gas is called ionization. This process initially liberates
electron from a gas molecule with the simultaneous production of a positive ion. The
generations of new electrons are from ionization by collision, photoionization and the
secondary ionization process. Under high voltage stress, a few of the electrons produced at
the cathode due to the certain process will produce positive ions and additional electrons.
The process repeats itself and hence increases in the electron current.
QUESTION 6
In an experiment using a certain gas, it was found that a steady state current of 600A
flowed through the plane electrode separated by a distance of 0.5cm when a voltage of 10kV
is applied. Determine the Townsends first ionization coefficient if a current of 60A flows
when the distance of separation is reduced to 0.1cm and the field is kept constant at the
previous value.
If the breakdown occurred when the gap distance was increased to 0.9cm, what is the value
of Townsends secondary ionization coefficient?
ANSWER:
Since the field is kept constant (i.e., if distance of separation is reduced, the voltage is also
reduced by the same ratio so that
is kept constant)
and
(2)
(1) (2)
Therefore the Townsends secondary ionization for the breakdown to be occurred at gap
distance 0.9cm is;
QUESTION 7
Where is the effective ionization coefficient in cm1, E is the electric field strength in kV/cm
and p is the pressure (referred to 20 C) in bar. Breakdown may be predicted using streamer
criterion,
length of a uniform field gap that will just hold off a steady voltage of 100 kV SF6 at 4 bar
and 60 C.
ANSWER:
(1)
QUESTION 8
(2)
Use the iteration method to find the finite difference approximation to the potentials at points
1,2,3,9 and 15 of the system in figure Q2(c). (Limit the iteration up to 2 only). The nodal
voltage follows the sequence as shown in figure Q2(c) that is node number is 1,2,3,4,5,6,7
up to 16 respectively.
FIGURE Q2 (c)
ANSWER:
P1
P8
P7
P2
P6
P3
P5
P4
Iteration 1
Iteration 2:
QUESTION 9
Describe the reasons for electric stress being considered as the main contributor to the
breakdown of insulation. The description should be based on the principle of insulation
breakdown.
ANSWER:
Then at breakdown,
].
i.e.
the energy and velocity of free electrons, whereas electron energy and velocity are
dependent on the electric field applied to the gas medium.
QUESTION 10
Describe briefly the elements of electric stress optimization in the case where a solid
cylindrical insulator is sandwiched between a circular electrode and ground as shown in Fig.
Q1b. The description should put more emphasis on the tangential field distribution and
method to achieve it.
ANSWER:
30
25
Nonoptimize
Optimized profile 20
15
Nonoptimized
Optimized
10
0
8
Distance Z (cm)
The cylindrical shape insulator sandwiched between the plane electrode and ground will
experience nonoptimized tangential field considering it from ground plane. Whereas, with an
insulator of profile shown in Fig. 1(b) with dotted line will provide optimized field distribution.
QUESTION 11
Use the iteration method to find the finite difference approximation to the potential at points
1, 2, 3 and 8 of the system in Fig.Q1c (Limit the iteration up to 2 only). The nodal voltage
follows the sequence as shown in Fig.Q1c that is the node number 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8
respectively where R1 = 10K, R2 = 30K, R3 = 20K, R4=10K, Ea = 400V , Eb = 600V.
ANSWER:
Vbb
Vaa
Iteration 1
Iteration 2:
QUESTION 12
a.
Show that in the process of gas breakdown, the Townsend First Ionization
where,
d gap distance
 total current
 initial current
ANSWER:
gap at distance x,
and
b.
The following data in table Q12b are given for two parallel plates while the electric
field, E is kept constant.
Table Q12b
0.5
1.2
1.3
1.6
2.0
2.3
ANSWER:
By using equation,
For d = 2 cm,
or
(This suggest that for this gap
The value of
c.
start to be active)
At distance of 22.8mm and pressure 200mm Hg, the breakdown voltage of a uniform
field electrode in air is found to be 19.15Kv. Determine the breakdown voltage if the
secondary ionization coefficient
and pressure,
Table Q2c.
are given in
Table Q2c
(ion pairs/cm mm Hg)
(v/cm mm Hg)
41
0.0196
42
0.0222
ANSWER:
= 42 v/cm mm Hg,
= 0.0222
= 41 v/cm mm Hg,
= 0.0196
Find
when
= 19.15KV
is doubled?
and E =
Breakdown criteria:
E=
or
From table;
= 0.0222
= 0.0222(200) = 4.44
) = ln 2
By Interpolation;
0.0222
2
0.02068
0.0196
41
42
2
v/cm
),
QUESTION 13
a.
State the most useful equation which can be used directly to solve electric field
problem using Finite Difference Method?
ANSWER:
]
Where
b.
are equidistance .
ANSWER:
Electrostatic Field
a)
Static Field
b) Coulombs Law
c.
Electromagnet
a) Time Varying current
b)
Maxwells Law
A High Voltage DC transmission line rated at 132 kV peak traverses a location where
a road shall constructed below it as shown in Fig.1. The metallic walls L1 and L2 are
respectively energized at 20kV peak and each standing on an insulator made of
polycarbonate. Use the Finite Difference Method to determine transmission line each
of size 10 meters by 10 meters. Determine the potential at point 4 if metallic wall L1 is
shorted to the ground. Limit the iteration process to 2 only. Fig.1 The general
arrangement of a transmission power line traversing a piece of land.
Fig.1
ANSWER :
Iteration 1:
Iteration 2:
Iteration 1:
Iteration 2:
QUESTION 14
Discuss with suitable diagrams the mechanisms which lead to breakdown in liquid insulation.
ANSWER:
2.
3.
4.
5.
2.
3.
4.
Thermal Mechanism
1.
2.
High density current pulses give rise to localized heating and formed bubbles
3.
Breakdown occurs due to elongation of bubbles to critical size and bridge the gap
4.
2.
3.
Breakdown voltage influence by gas content in the oil, viscosity and the presence of
impurities.
QUESTION 15
Show the breakdown criterion in gas according to Paschens Law is given by
Where,
 gap distance at sparkover voltage
 pressure
 sparkover voltage
 different function
ANSWER:
By neglecting attachment, breakdown criterion
(
.. (1)
and
, where
significant different
function.
At breakdown,
And
. (2)
(3)
QUESTION 16
1.0
30.30
9.0
26.00
ANSWER:
. (1)
26.0
. (2)
From (1) and (2); A=23.55 and B =6.42
For the case of atmospheric air;
QUESTION 17
a. Give two advantages for the provision of the electric field stress control in high voltage
equipment.
ANSWER
b.
Briefly describe the use of high voltage system in the following application:
i)
Removing industrial flue gases or dust particles floating in air from steel mill
chimneys
ANSWER:
By applying high voltage power supply to the electrode, corona activity will
take place creating ion. Some ion will be positively changed which stick to
the gas or particles.
ii)
ANSWER:
Due to Incense field at the tip of the nozzle the emitting of one particle
broken down to smaller and almost equal sizes.
c.
Use the iteration method to find the finite difference approximate to the potentials at
point 1, 2, 3, 9, and 15 of the system in Fig. Q1 (limit the iteration up to 2 only). The
nodal voltage follows the sequence as shown in Fig. Q1 that is node number is 1, 2,
3, 4, 5, 6, 7 up to 16 respectively.
Figure Q1
ANSWER:
Iteration 1:
Iteration 2:
Therefore:
QUESTION 18
i.
ii.
Photoionization
Result of external radiations. Eg. Cosmic rays, Xrays, Nuclear radiations. Continuous
process produces ions and electrons. Its capable of penetrating most conventional
walls. Its also an easy method to produce spark or to ignite combustible mixture with
free electrons. Insulation of highvoltage systems at high attitude is subjected to reduce
air density and increase in ionization by cosmic rays.
iii.
Electron Detachment
Electron detached from negative ions in the gas. Its requires large concentration of
negative ions. Eg. Gas discharged under impulse voltages.
QUESTION 19
In an experiment to determine the breakdown properties of air, the uniform field electrode is
used. The breakdown process occurs in accordance with Townsend First and Second
Ionization coefficient, and .
At a distance of 22.8 mm and pressure 200 mm Hg, the breakdown voltage is found to be
19.5 kV. Determine the breakdown voltage if the secondary ionization coefficient
doubled. Datas for the ratio of electric field and pressure,
coefficient,
Table Q19
(ion pairs/cm mm Hg)
(V/cm mm Hg)
41
0.0196
42
0.0222
ANSWER:
Breakdown criteria:
]
From Table:
is
By interpolation
QUESTION 20
a.
Give three reasons for finding the electric field distribution in high voltage equipment.
ANSWER:
1.
The use of high voltage in electric power transmission to avoid excessive line
currents which would render the transmission system uneconomical.
2.
High voltage is utilized is based on the fact that bodies charged under high
voltage develop an electrostatic force. Applications: cathoderay tubes,
particle
accelerators,
xerography,
spray
painting,
and
electrostatic
precipitators.
3.
b.
ii)
ANSWER:
i)
ii)
c.
Use the iteration method to find the finite diffence approximation to the potentials at
point 1 and 4 of the system in fig. Q1 (limit the iteration up to 3 only). Take node that
nodal voltage should be in proper sequence that is node 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 not
otherwise.
ANSWER:
Iteration 1:
Iteration 2:
Iteration 3 :
Therefore:
QUESTION 21
a.
Describe the secondary process which can follow an electron avalanches and how
these process may be identified. Show that discharge current in a multi avalanche
Townsend process in a nonattaching gas is given by
I=
ANSWER:
The electrical breakdown of a gas is brought about by various processes of
ionization. These are gas processes involving the collision of electrons, ions and
photons with gas molecules and electrode processes which take place at or near the
electrode surface. When a pair of electrodes is immersed in a gas and a voltage
applied across them, the current voltage characteristic of figure below is observed.
At low voltage the observed current is due to collection of free charge carriers in the
gap and as the voltage is increased a level is reach at which the free electrons gain
enough energy to ionize. Electrons produced may cause further ionization so that an
electron avalanche is generated. Ionization is the process by which an electron
removed from an atom, leaving the atom with a net positive charge. The probability of
ionization due to the electrons will depend on the number of collisions made per unit
distance with coefficient . is referred as the primary ionization coefficient which is
number of ionizing collisions per electrons per cm travel.
With the primary ionization alone the discharged is not self sustaining. If the source
of initial electrons is removed, the current I fall to zero. This suggests that processes
other than the simple  process are occurring. The additional current is produced by
secondary emission processes. A secondary ionization coefficient
is defined as the
number of secondary electrons produced at the cathode per electron produced in the
gap.
These processes for secondary electron liberation can be identified by;
i) Positive ion ,
gas molecules which on return to the ground state may emit photons which release
electrons by photoemission.
iii) Metastables,
electrons.
One or more secondary mechanism may exist giving a total secondary effect
describe by
=
i+
At x, n(x) = no exp(x)
The total number of new electrons produced, n(d) = no
If
electrons are produced at the cathode per ionizing collision in the gap, then
n0 =
n0
Thus , no = no + n0
no =
b.
].
What is meant by time lag to breakdown and describe how it may be influenced and
exploited.
ANSWER:
On the application of a voltage, a certain time elapses before actual breakdown
occurs even though the applied voltage may be much more than sufficient to cause
breakdown. In considering the time lag observed between the application of a voltage
sufficient to cause breakdown and the actual breakdown, the two basic processes of
concern are the appearance of avalanche initiating electrons and the temporal
growth of current after the criterion for static breakdown is satisfied.
In time resolved studies. A step function voltage pulse is applied to the gap. The
time to breakdown then comprises;
i) Statistical time lag, ts elapsing prior to the appearance of an electron to initiate the
primary avalanche.
ii) Formative time lag, tf required for the current builds up by secondary processes.
Analysis of formative time lags can yield information on the relative contributions of
the various secondary processes. The shortest formative times would be expected
with the photon secondary mechanism when the secondary cathode photoelectrons
are produced during the avalanche crossing time. In general the formative time lag
is a function of the pulse amplitude, pressure and gap spacing.
c.
Describe with diagrams the principle breakdown mechanisms which can occur in
solid dielectrics and identify their order of occurrence on a stresstime diagram.
ANSWER:
In almost all electrical equipment, solid insulating materials are used to separate
conductors at different potentials. Failure of the insulation occurs if a conducting or
partially conducting path is established between these conductors. This can occur
either over the surface of the insulating materials or through the body of the material.
When the discharge part occurs across the surface of the material, this is known as
surface tracking or surface flashover. When breakdown occurs through the body
of the insulating materials, the damage is totally irreparable and the insulation must
be replaced.
It is generally accepted that there are seven ways in which solid insulation can:
1) Electrochemical failure
2) Discharges in cavities within the insulation
3) Breakdown in initiated by spark penetration
4) Electromechanical failure
5) Ambience discharges
6) Thermal breakdown
7) Intrinsic breakdown
The order of the occurrence of the above mechanism can be illustrated on a stresstime
diagram as below.
1) Electrochemical breakdown
In electrical component design for use at low voltage and frequencies, electrochemical
damage is more probable than other types of failure. The deterioration is cause by irons
liberated at the electrodes by conducting current. The damage is dependent both on the
current and reaction with the insulating material. The effect can always be reduced by
reducing the leakage current.
2) Discharges in cavities
Solid insulating material often contains small cavity of gas in which the applied stress is
considerably greater than in the solid material. This can be understood by considering
the equivalent circuit shown below.
If as is almost inevitable, the stress in the gas phase exceeds the breakdown stress for
the gas, then partial breakdown will take place within the cavity this causes thermal and
chemical degradation of the solid dielectric around the boundaries of the cavity and over
a period of time this can lead to a failure of the dielectric.
3) Breakdown initiated by spark penetration on ambient discharge
In practice, the electrodes are never perfectly embedded in the solid insulation and the
dielectric is stressed in conjunction with one or more materials. If one of these materials
has a lower dielectric strength than the solid dielectric then the measured breakdown
voltage will be influence more by that weak medium than by the solid.
A local breakdown of the dielectric at the tips of the discharge is therefore likely and
complete breakdown is the result of such breakdown channels formed in the solid.
4) Electromechanical failure
This types of failure is more applicable to less rigid forms of insulating materials such as
rubber, pvc etc. if we consider two electrodes supported apart by an elasticity material
and a voltage is applied , an attracting electrostatic force will be established between the
plates. This will cause them to move together against the natural elasticity of the
dielectric material because the plates move together, the electrostatic force between
them increases and this will caused a further reduction in spacing. At a certain applied
voltage Vs, an unstable situation will be set up and dielectric material will be collapsed.
5) Thermal breakdown
QUESTION 22
Measurement of breakdown voltages in a uniformfield spark gap in air gave the results as
shown in Table below
Gap spacing
(mm)
Pressure (Bar)
Temperature
(C)
Breakdown
Voltage, Vs
(kV)
2.5
1.03
30
0.91
27
1.185
15
88.38
i.
), determine;
ANSWER:
1034 273 20
1013 273 30
1034 293
1018 303
0.99
20
20
1180 298
1013 288
1.21
ii.
Vll g/m3 V9 V9 V
V9 (1 V )
0.90[1 0.002(2)]
0.91kV
Vll g / m 3 V12 (1 V )
88.56[1 0.002(1)]
88.38kV
1 d1 0.99(0.25) 0.25
1 d1 0.5
2 d 2 1.21(2.7) 3.27
2 d 2 1.81
Dari _______
0.91 A(0.25) B(0.5) ________1
88.38 A(3.27) B(1.81) ______ 2
88.38 1.81
0.91 0.5
A
3.27 1.81
0.25 0.5
88.38(0.5) 1.81(0.91)
3.27(0.5) 1.81(0.25)
44.19 1.65
1.64 0.45
42.54
1.19
35.75
3.27 88.38
0.25 0.91
B
3.27 1.81
0.25 0.5
3.27(0.91) 88.38(0.25)
1.19
2.98 22.10
1.19
16.07
iii.
2.96
1013 293
d 2.96 (3) 8.88
20
d 2.98
Vs 35 .75 (8.88 ) 16 .07 (2.98 )
317.46 47.89
269.57kV
QUESTION 23
a.
The term corona is used to describe the discharge phenomena which occur at
highly stressed electrodes prior to the complete breakdown of the gap
between the electrodes. It is a partial discharge in air around a sharp point or
thin wire in a strong, nonuniform field. It is characterized by a visible glow, an
audible noise, radio interference, chemical effect such as production of ozone
and loss of electrical power. It occurs whenever the local voltage gradient
exceeds the ionization value of the air and depends on the air density,
humidity and in outdoor situations whether it is fair weather or raining and
also on the roughness of the conductor surface.
ii.
Onset streamers
Also known as burst pulses, these are intermittent, filamentary
discharges which propagates only a short distance from the highlystressed electrodes.
Hermstein glow
As the voltage increased, the intermittent streamer discharges give
way to a steady glow discharges. This transition occurs when a large
enough negative iron space is generated near the anode to give a
quasiuniform field in that region.
Breakdown streamers
Eventually, the shielding effect of the glow discharge is not able to
prevent the formation of large streamers which propagate well into the
gap.
Trichel pulses
These differ from the burst pulses in that their magnitude and
repetition frequency are both very regular.
Cathode glow
As the voltage is raised a critical Trichel pulses repetition frequency is
reached and the repetitive discharge is replaced by a steady cathode
glow.
Negative streamers
These discharges are usually known as negative feathers to avoid
confusion with positive streamers discharges. They develop out of the
glow mode and a long rise time compared with other pulsating
coronas.
2) AC corona
With an alternating voltage applied, the same basic corona types will
appear although their characteristic maybe altered to an extent which
depends on the gap length:
iii.
The problem
transmission lines.
ANSWER:
The problems which are created by corona discharges on high voltage
transmission lines are:
Power losses
The power losses depend upon the maximum gradient for which the
line is designed. For a single conductor, this occurs at the conductor
surface. For a given crosssection of conductor required for current
carrying capacity, the maximum stress maybe reduced by using
bundled conductors in which 2, 4 or 6 wire assembly is used.
Radio interference
Radio interference is caused only by the pulse corona modes and only
Trichel pulses and positive streamers are of interest. The positive
streamers usually have shorter rise time than the Trichel pulses and
greater amplitude, so that the rate of change of current greater and
their RI effect is therefore greater. These corona discharges caused
radiation of electromagnetic waves.
Audible noise
Recent studies on EHV and UHV lines indicate that audible noise
maybe a problem where such lines pass near inhabited areas.
Difficulties arise in monitoring such noise levels as the apparent
noise is a nonlinear function of frequency. Measuring instruments
have thus been developed which has similar respond to their human
ears and level has been set based limit at which most people find the
noise objectionable.
QUESTION 24
a.
ANSWER:
Insulation breakdown:
1.
2.
Electromechanical insulation
3.
Thermal insulation
4.
Chemical insulation
5.
6.
Internal discharge.
i.
ii.
iii.
Electromechanical insulation
Thermal insulation
iv.
Chemical insulation
v.
vi.
b.
Show the breakdown criterion in gas according to Paschens Law is given by:
{
Where
 pressure
V s  sparkover voltage
.. (1)
)]
and
, where
significant
different function.
At breakdown,
. (2)
And
(3)
c.
In nitrogen gas, the static breakdown voltage V s of a uniform field gap maybe as
express as,
reduced to 350 torr while the temperature of the closed vessel is raise to 60 C and
the gap distance increase to 2cm, determined the breakdown voltage.
ANSWER:
483.50 A 21.99B............................(2)
(1) 21,99 : 732.27 16432.03 A 601.21B.....................(3)
(2) 27.34 : 598.75 13218.89 A 601.21B.....................(4)
(3) (4) : 133.52 3213.14 A
A 0.042andB 0.072
Vs3 A3d3 B ( 3d3 )
350(273 20)
307.96torr, ( 3d3 ) 24.82
273 60
27.66kV
QUESTION 25
a.
Briefly describe the definition of high voltage and the classification of voltage levels.
ANSWER:
Voltage Classification:
b.
Extra High Voltage (EHV) : 275kV to 800kV (Europe) or 287kV to 765kV (US)
Show that in the process of gas breakdown, the Townsend First Ionization
Coefficient, is given by ;
where, d
 gap distance
It
 total current
Io
 initial current
ANSWER:
Thus,
c.
Table Q4
E/p (V/cm mm Hg)
41
0.0196
42
0.0222
ANSWER:
d = 22.8mm = 2.28cm,
p = 200 mmHg
/p = 0.0222
/p = 0.0196
Breakdown criteria:
Vs = 19.15 kV
From Table;
Thus
From breakdown criteria ( is doubled ,
Thus
Thus,
By interpolation;
Thus
Thus
QUESTION 26
Describe the secondary processes which can lead to on electron avalanche and how these
processes may be identified. Show that the discharge current in a multi avalanche.
Townsend process in a nonattaching gas is given by;
]
Where,
initial current
first Townsend ionization coefficient
second Townsend ionization coefficient
d gap distance in cm
ANSWER
The electrical breakdown of a gas is brought about by various processes of ionization. These
are gas processes involving the collision of electron, ions and photons with gas molecules
and electrode processes which take place at or near the electrode surface. When a pair of
electrodes is immersed in a gas and a voltage applied across them the currentvoltage
characteristics of figure below is observed.
At low voltage the observed current is due to collection of free charge carriers in the gap and
as the voltage is increased a level is reach at which the free electrons gain enough energy to
ionize. Electrons produced may cause further ionization so that an electron avalanche is
generated. Ionization is the process by which an electron is removed from an atom, leaving
the atom with a net positive charge. The probability of ionization due to the electrons will
depend on the number of collisions made per unit distance with coefficient , is referred as
the primary ionization coefficient which is the number of ionizing collisions per electron per
cm travel. With the primary ionization alone the discharged is not selfsustaining. If the
source of initial electrons is removed, the current I fall the zero. This suggests that processes
other than the simple process are occurring. The additional current is produced by
secondary emission processes. A secondary ionization coefficient, is defined as the
number of secondary electrons produced at the cathode per electron produced in the gap.
These processes for secondaryelectron liberation can be identified by;
i.
Positiveion,
ions do not have enough energy to ionize gas molecules directly but
Photon,
molecules which on return to the ground state may emit photons which release
electrons by photoemission.
iii.
Metastables,
electrons.
One or more secondary mechanisms may exist giving a total secondary effect described by
Let
i.e.
At x,
].
electrons are produced at the cathode per ionizing collision in the gap,
].
then
Thus,
]
Under steady state condition,
QUESTION 27
Measurement of breakdown voltages in a uniformfield spark gap in air gave the
results as shown in Table below.
Pressure (Bar)
Temperature (C)
Breakdown
Voltage, Vs (kV)
2.5
1.03
30
0.91
27
1.185
15
88.38
), determine;
The relative air density referred to standard atmospheric conditions of 101325mbar and 20C.
ii.
iii.
ANSWER
i.
Dari X:
Given:
+* +
iii.
R1
R2
QUESTION 28
Briefly explain the difference between High voltage and Extra High Voltage equipment in
terms of high impulse voltage testing requirements.
ANSWER:
The high voltage range is from about 50kV to about 300 kV. In this range the lightning over
voltage are much higher than that due to switching. Up to about 300kV experiments
indicates that the highest voltage stress arises from lightning. From transmission system
above 300kV the switching overvoltage increase in importance so that at about 500kV the
point has been reached where they are equipment to that of lightning overvoltage. Based on
above facts, impulse tents on high voltage equipment are usually specified for the case of
extra high voltage equipment, in addition to lightning wave shape (1.2/50) the switching
impulse (eg. 250/2500s) wave shape are also specified.
QUESTION 29
The ionization coefficient of the electron and its dependence upon the field strength E can
be described by the formula.
Where A and B are empirical constants and p is pressure. Using the criterion for Townsend
breakdown in a homogeneous field, and assuming is constants, show that the breakdown
voltage Vs can be expressed as.
(
ANSWER:
The criterion for breakdown is given by
Since
Where
Where
is constant
is constant
is constant
Into
Substituting
QUESTION 30
Paschen Law can be described by the equation.
P (mbar)
D (cm)
Vs (kV)
25
1009
58.9
28
1015
88
ANSWER:
Substituting:
.. (1)
. (2)
(1) (2)
Into (1)
QUESTION 31
a
ANSWER:
Breakdown on electrical insulation is the maximum voltage that can be supported by an
insulating material.
Intrisi sik
electrodynamic
heat
internaldischarge
b) Explain the Townsend mechanism of breakdown in gas medium and prove that the
criterion of breakdown is given by (all symbols have their usual meaning):
ANSWER:
Townsend mechanism of breakdown in gas medium used to describe the process in gas.
The mechanism of breakdown is blown at low pressure conditions with the small distance
between the electrodes. Voltage applied to the electrodes until breakdown happen. The
breakdown process begins with form of the first subsequent calculation of the coefficient and
with voltage change the secondary breakdown will be created, the breakdown process is
then occurs.
Current equations taking into account of the secondary generator.
20.3
28.8
Pressure (mbar)
500
700
Temperature (C)
20
25
31.6
53
Determine the breakdown voltage for the distance 15mm at a pressure of 250 mbar and
temperature 25C.
ANSWER:
Given;
..(1)
..(2)
QUESTION 32
a.
b.
What are the effects to high voltage apparatus if the partial discharge level is greater
than the maximum allowed.
ANSWER:
Insulation of the HV power equipment gradually degrades inside the insulator due to
cumulative effect of electrical, chemical and thermal stress. Due to the high voltage
stress the weak zone inside the insulator causes the partial discharge (PD) which is
known as local electrical breakdown. As a result the insulation properties of such
materials are enormously degrades its quality due to the PD.
Question 33
(a)
(i)
(ii)
ANSWER:
Conduction current flows heats up the specimen and the temperature rises.
Heat generated transfers to the surrounding medium by conduction and radiation
Breakdown occurs when heat generated > heat dissipated.
Heat generated is proportional to the frequency thermal breakdown is more serious at
high frequency.
Thermal breakdown stresses are lower under a.c. condition then d.c.
CHAPTER 2
SOLUTION TUTORIAL 2
ANSWER :
1.
Describe briefly, with the aid of diagrams, equations and/or examples, where
appropriate, the avalanche process in the breakdown phenomenon of gaseous
dielectrics.
Answer:
The avalanche process is one of the processes which occurs in the breakdown of
gaseous dielectrics and is based on the generation of successive ionizing collisions
leading to an avalanche. Suppose a free
effect such as radioactivity or cosmic radiation) in a gas where an electric field exists.
If the field strength is sufficiently high, then it is likely to ionize a gas molecule by
simple collision resulting in 2 free electrons and a positive ion. These 2 electrons will
be able to cause further ionization by collision leading in general to 4 electrons and 3
positive ions. The process is cumulative, and the number of free electrons will go on
increasing as they continue to move under the action of the electric field. The swarm of
electrons and positive ions produced in this way is called an electron avalanche. In the
space of few millimetres, it may grow until it contains many millions of electrons.
2.
Show that the breakdown criterion in gas according to Paschens Law is given
by:
(
Where
){
)]
p pressure
 different functions
Answer:
By neglecting attachment, breakdown criterion is :
.....................(1)
Since Paschens Law,
Where
and
( )
( )
At breakdown,
) ............................(2)
( )
and
3.
){
)+
proved
The following data are given for two parallel plates while the electric field stress,
E is kept constant.
i)
ii)
iii)
I = 1.2 Io
when d = 0.5 cm
I = 1.6 Io
when d = 1.3 cm
I = 2.3 Io
when d = 2.0 cm
where Io is the initial current and d is the distance between the plates. Find the
values of the Townsend Primary and Secondary coefficients, and .
Answer:
Using the equation
For d = 0.5cm,
or
For d = 1.3cm,
or
For d = 2.0cm,
or
3
(this suggests that for this gap starts to be active)
The value of can be found from the equation:
4.
process that is responsible for the breakdown of a gas is called ionization. This
process initially liberates an electron from a gas molecule with the simultaneous
production of a positive ion.
The generations of new electrons are from ionization by collision, photoionization and
the secondary ionization process. Under high voltage
stress,
few
of
the
electrons produced at the cathode due to the certain process will produce positive ions
and additional electrons. The process repeats itself and hence increases in the
electron current.
5.
By using the Townsends breakdown criterion, show that the breakdown voltage
for uniform field gaps is a function of gap length (d) and gas pressure (p).
Answer:
Given that
........(i)
................(ii)
............(iii)
( )
.......(iv)
; therefore
( )
......(v)
.................(vi)
Equation (vi) shows that the breakdown voltage of a uniform field gap is a unique
function of the product of gas pressure and the gap length for a
6.
discharge.
Gap
distance
10
12
14
16
19
21
26
32
40
45
80
106
152
255
430
d (mm)
Current I
(pA)
10
12
14
16
19
21
26
32
40
45
80
106
152
255
430
2.94
3.04
3.26
3.47
3.69
3.81
4.38
4.66
5.02
5.54
6.06
d (mm)
Current
I (pA)
ln I
From equation
Taking
........(1)
on both sides of (1);
=>
i) Plot the graph (ln I) Vs (d);
From the graph, interception (c) at ln I axis gives:
ln I
0
0
10
12
14
16
d (mm)
7.
In an experiment using a certain gas, it was found that a steady current of 600A
flowed through the plane electrode separated by a distance of 0.5cm when a
voltage of 10kV is applied. Determine the Townsends first ionization coefficient
if a current of 60A flows when the distance of separation is reduced to 0.1cm
and the field is kept constant at the previous value. If the breakdown occurred
when the gap distance was increased to 0.9cm, what is the value of Townsends
secondary ionization coefficient?
Answer:
the
voltage
8.
in
60 .
Answer:
Given that ;
( )
.......(1)
Given
..................(2)
The normalised pressure of 4 Bar at 60
is:
9.
Ionization
Answer:
Total no of electrons at anode, n(d) =
At steady state, average current in gap at distance x,
]
Total number of current,
( )
( ) ........ Proved
10.
The following data in Table Q2b are given for two parallel plates while the
electric field, E is kept constant.
Gap distance, d(cm)
0.5
1.2
1.3
1.6
2.0
2.3
Table Q2b
For d = 0.5cm,
For d = 1.3cm,
For d = 2.0cm,
11.
41
0.0196
42
0.0222
Table Q2c
Answer:
Given that ;
d =22.8 mm =2.28 cm,
p=200mm Hg
/p = 0.0222
/p = 0.0196
Vs = 19.15kV
Breakdown criterion
From Table;
By interpolation;
),
(
12.
Answer:
Suspended Particle Mechanism
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Thermal Mechanism
1. High density current pulses give rise to localized heating lead to the formation of
vapour bubbles;
2. Elongation to a critical size or completely bridges the gap from the formed bubbles;
3. Breakdown strength depends on pressure and molecular structure.
13.
Show that the breakdown criterion in gas according to Paschens Law is given
by,
{
Where,
ds
p
Vs
F&g
different functions
Answer:
Since
(
At breakdown,
And
14.
1.0
30.30
9.0
26.00
Table Q2
Answer:
15.
Answer:
Types of processes:
Ionization by collision;
Photoionization;
Secondary ionization;
Electron attachment process.
Ionization by collision
A free electron collides with a neutral gas molecule and generates new
electron and positive ion.
Photoionization
The process of ionization by radiation.
Radiation process; excitation of the atom to a higher energy state, continuous
absorption by direct excitation of the atom, dissociation of diatomic molecule.
Secondary ionization
Electron emission due to photons: electron can escape from a metal if there is
enough energy to overcome the surface potential barrier.
Play a very important role in the removal of free electrons from the ionized
gas.
16.
Where,
Townsends Primary coefficient
 Townsends Secondary coefficient
ds Gap distance at sparkover voltage
Answer:
Number of electrons reaching the anode;
And,
]
Eliminating
17.
Or
41
42
0.0196
0.0222
Table Q2.
d = 22.8mm = 2.28cm,
p = 200mm Hg
= 19.15kV
E/p = 42 V /cm mm Hg, /p = 0.0222
E/p = 41 V/cm mm Hg, /p = 0.0196
Find
when is doubled?
Answer :
From secondary Townsend Breakdown Process,
and
Breakdown criteria:
E=
or
From Table;
/p = 0.0222
By interpolation;
0.035
0.0154
41
E/p
42
0.0042
18.
Briefly describe the definition of High Voltage and classification of voltage levels
Answer:
IEC 1970 A high voltage being greater than 1000 V for alternating and greater than
1200 V for direct.
Voltage Classification
19. Show that in the process of gas breakdown, the Townsend First Ionization
Coefficient,
is given by;
Where;
Gap distance
Total current
Initial current
Answer;
Total no. of electrons at anode,
20.
1)
Intrinsic Breakdown.

2)
Electromechanically Breakdown.

3) Heat Breakdown.

21.
Show that the breakdown criterion in gas according to Paschens Law is given
by:
{
Where,
Gap distance at spark over voltage
Pressure
Spark over voltage
Different functions
Answer:
By neglecting attachment, breakdown criterion is,
Since (Paschens Law),
Where
At breakdown,
And
22.
PROVED!
In nitrogen gas the static breakdown voltage Vs of a uniform field gap may be
expressed as,
Answer:
t1
= 25C,
d1
= 1cm,
Hence;
Hence;
Hence,
23.
Answer:
Particle exchange
A charge particle emits from one electrode impinges on other electrode
liberates oppositely charged particles.
Involves electrons, positive ions, photons and the absorbed gas; cumulative
process.
Field emission
Electrons produced at small projections of the cathode;
bombard the anode causing local rise in temperature release gases vapours;
Electrons ionize atom of the gas;
Field emission
Existence of the pre breakdown current at the sharp point of the cathode surface.
Current causes resistive heating at the tip of sharp point tip melts and
explodes initiates vacuum discharge
24.
Answer:
Given,
( )
( )
( )
25. The ionization coefficient of the electrons and its dependence upon the field
strength E can be described by the formula.
Where A & B are empirical constants and p is pressure. Using the criterion for
Townsend breakdown in a homogeneous field, and assuming is constant,
show that the breakdown voltage Vs can be expressed as
(1)
(Prove!)
Where B and C are constant and p is gas density. The following data were
obtained from experiments:
T (0)
P (mbar)
D (cm)
Vs (kV)
25
1009
58.9
28
1015
88.0
Given,
. (1)
.. (2)
(1) (2);
27. Describe the secondary processes which can lead to an electron avalanche and
how these processes may be identified. Show that the discharge current in a
multi avalanche Townsend process is a nonattaching gas is given by:
Io ed
1 [ e d 1
Where,
initial current
 first Townsend ionization coefficient
 second Townsend ionization coefficient
d gap distance in cm
Answer:
The electrical breakdown of gas is brought about by various processes
of ionization.
These are gas processes involving the collision of electrons, ions and photons with
gas molecules and electrode processes which take place at or near the electrode
surface. When a pair of electrodes is immersed in a gas and a voltage applied across
them the current voltage characteristics is shown on figure below.
I
Non selfsustained
selfsustained
breakdown
Io
At low voltage the observed current is due to collection of free charge carriers in the
gap and as the voltage is increased a level is reach ay which the free electrons gain
enough energy to ionize. Electrons produced may cause further ionization so that an
electron avalanche is generated. Ionization is the process by which an electron is
removed from an atom, leaving the atom with a net positive charge. The probability of
the ionization due to electron will depends on the number of collision made per unit
distance coefficient , referred as the primary ionization coefficient which is the
number of ionizing collisions per electron per cm travel. With the primary ionization
alone the discharged is not selfsustaining. If the source of initial electrons is removed,
the current I fall to zero. This suggest that processes other than the simple process
are occurring. The additional current is produced by secondary emission process. A
secondary ionization coefficient, is defined as the number of secondary electrons
produced at the cathode per electron produced in the gap.
These processes for secondary electron liberation can be identified by;
i) Positive ion ions do not have enough energy to ionize gas molecules
directly but may release electrons on colliding with the cathode surface.
ii) Photon a proportion of the collisions in the gap cause excitation of
neutral gas molecules which on return to the ground state may emit
photons which release electrons bt photoemission.
iii) Metastables, metastables molecules may diffuse to the cathode and
Release electrons
One or more secondary mechanisms may exist giving a total secondary
described by, =i p m
Let,
secondary
i.e.
At x,
N0
The total number of
new electrons produced,
V Volts
If electrons are produced at the cathode per ionizing collision in the gap,
d
d
then
Thus,
"= n0 n0
Distance
effect
n0
1 [
n0
1 [
Ioed
1  [ e(d1)
28. Measurement of breakdown voltages in a uniform field spark gap in air gave the
result as shown in table Q4.
Breakdown voltage,
Pressure (Bar)
Temperature (C)
2.5
1.03
30
0.91
27
1.18
15
88.38
Vs (kV)
Table Q2c
lawdetermine;
II.
III.
i)
d1 = 0.25 cm,
p = 1030 mbar, t = 30 C,
Vs = 0.91kV
ii)
(1)
(2)
+* +
*
+
*

iii)
d = 3 cm,
+

p = 3000mbar, t = 20C,
29. Describe the secondary process which can follow an electron avalanches and how
these processes may be identified. Show that the discharge current in a multi
avalanche Townsend process in nonattaching gas is given by:
Answer:
When the d.c. voltage is applied and when the voltage is low, the current pulses start
appearing due to electrons and positive ions as shown in Figs.(a) and (b). These
records are obtained when the current is measured using a cathode ray oscillograph.
When the applied voltage is increased, the pulses disappear and an average dc.
current is obtained as shown in Fig.(c) In the initial portion (To), the current increases
slowly but unsteadily with the voltage applied. In the regions TI and T2, the current
increases steadily due to the Townsend mechanism. Beyond T2 the current rises
very sharply, and a spark occurs.
(b) When secondary electrons are produced by photons at the cathode. ideal,
actual. I(t) is the total current and I+and are electron ion currents. and+are the
electron and ion transit times.
Then,
And
Eliminating
30.
Or
What is meant by time lag to breakdown and describe how it may be influenced
and exploited.
Answer:
Time lags for breakdown:
In practical, the breakdown due to the rapidly changing voltages or impulse voltages,
there is a time difference between the application of a voltage sufficient to cause
breakdown and the occurrence of breakdown itself time lag.
t :time lag.
ts: The time during the voltage applications until a primary electron appears to initiate
the discharge and is known as the statistical time lag.
tf: The time required for the breakdown to develop once initiated and is known as the
formative timelag.
31.
Describe with diagrams the principle breakdown mechanisms which can occur
in solid dielectrics and identify their order of occurrence on a stresstime
diagram.
Answer:
The processes responsible for the breakdown of gaseous dielectrics are governed by
the rapid growth of current due to emission of electrons from the cathode, ionization of
the gas particles and fast development of avalanche process. When breakdown occurs
the gases regain their dielectric strength very fast, the liquids regain partially and solid
dielectrics lose their strength completely. The breakdown of solid dielectrics not only
depends upon the magnitude of voltage applied but also it is a function of time for
which the voltage is applied. Roughly speaking, the product of the breakdown voltage
and the log of the time required for breakdown is almost a constant.
Vb = 1n tb = constant
The dielectric strength of solid materials is affected by many factors viz. ambient
temperature, humidity, duration of test, impurities or structural defects whether a.c, d.c.
or impulse voltages are being used, pressure applied to these electrodes etc. The
mechanism of breakdown in solids is again less
earlier the time of application plays an important role in breakdown process, for
discussion purposes, it is convenient to divide the time scale of voltage application into
regions in which different mechanisms operate. The various mechanisms are:
and
32.
Breakdown
Gap Spacing
Pressure
Temperature
Humidity
(mm)
(Bar)
(C)
(g/m)
2.5
1.03
30
0.90
27
1.18
15
12
88.56
Voltage,Vs
( kV)
Table Q12
Using the expression derived from Paschens law,
i)
Determine
the relative
air
density
preffered
to
standard
iii)
Answer:
i)
d = 0.25cm,
d = 2.7cm,
p = 1034mbar, t = 30C,
p = 1180mbar, t = 15C,
Vs = 0.90W
Vs = 88.56kV
ii)
(
(x)
From equation 1 ;
..(a)
(b)
)( )
iii) The breakdown voltage of 3cm gap spacing at pressure of 3000 mbar and a
temperature of 20C
d = 3cm ,
Hence,
p= 3000mbar,
t = 20C
33.
For a gap spacing of 3cm in a nonattaching gas, the breakdown voltage was
found to be 20kV. Determine the new breakdown voltage if secondary ionization
coefficient, is doubled given that = 0.02 x
Answer:
Given d=3cm Vs=20kV
Find Vs when
is double
or
34.
is double 
ii)
iii)
Answer:
i)
The term corona is used to describe phenomena which occur at highlystressed electrodes prior to the complete breakdown of the gap between the
electrodes. It is a partial discharge in air around a sharp point or thin wire in a
strong, nonuniform field. It is characterized by a visible glow, an audible
noise, radio interference, chemical effects such as production of ozone and
loss of electrical power. It occurs whenever the local voltage gradient exceeds
the ionization value of the air and depends on the air density, humidity and
the outdoor situations whether it is fair weather or raining and also the
roughness of the conductor surface.
ii)
DC Corona
Positive Corona (anode)
When the highlystressed electrode is anode, the following corona modes are observed
as the voltage is increased.
Onset Streamers
Also known as burst pulses, these are intermittent, filamentary discharges which
propagates only a short distance from the highlystressed electrodes.
Hermstein glow
As the voltage increased, the intermittent streamer discharge give way to a steady glow
discharges. This transition occurs when a large enough negativeions space is
generated near to anode to give a quasiuniform field in that region.
Breakdown Streamers
Eventually, the shielding effect of the glow discharge is not able to prevent the formation
of large streamers which propagate well into the gap.
Negative corona.
When the highlystressed electrode is negative, three modes are again observed.
Trichel Pulses
These differ from the burst pulses in that their magnitude and repetition
frequency are both very regular.
Cathode glow
As the voltage is raised a critical trichel pulse repetition frequency is reached
and the repetitive discharge is replaced by a steady cathode glow.
Negative streamers
These discharges are usually known as negative feathers to avoid confusion
with positive streamers discharges. They develop out of the glow mode and a
long rise time compared with other pulsating coronas.
1) AC Corona
With an alternating voltage applied, the same basic corona types will appear although
their characteristics may be altered to an extent which depends on the gap length;
Here, the ions generated in any of the corona modes above are able to cross the gap
during one half cycle of the voltage. Space charges will therefore not persist from one
half cycle to the next and the corona modes will therefore be similar to those for direct
voltages, although all three modes may be observed in one half cycle.
For those gaps, space charge can persist from one half cycle to the next and can have
an effect on the corona modes observed. The usual effect is to enhance the positiveglow phase. Further, the negative streamer is never observed in acstressed gaps, since
its onset potential is higher than the positive polarity breakdown voltage. Breakdown
always occurs on the positive half cycle.
2)
The above description of the types of corona discharge referred particularly to the
pointplane gap where there is a single site for discharge to occur. On a transmission
line, corona may occur anywhere on the line and the average corona currents will be
much higher.
iii)
Audible noise.
Recent studies on EHV and UHV lines indicate that audible noise may be a problem
where such lines pass near inhabited areas. Difficulties arise in monitoring such
noise levels as the apparent noise is a nonlinear function of frequency. Measuring
instruments have thus been developed which have a similar response to the human
ear and levels have been set based limits at which most people find the noise
objectionable.
35. Figure Q2 (a) shows a schematic diagram of a tiled transmission line tower.
Consider the tower top is struck by the lightning current i(t)and causes voltage
rise to u(t).
TT
TA
Rt
UR
Zg
T
Zt
UTA

UTT
I(t)
Figure Q2 (a)
Show
that
(
where,
, is the surge impedance of the ground wire
, is the surge impedance of the tower
,is the impulse surge function
,is time of surge propagation from tower top to the crossarm
, is the current wave function
, is time of surge propagation from tower top to the tower footing
,is time of surge propagation from tower crossarm to the tower
footing
,is tower footing resistance
Answer:
TT
TA
Rt
UR
Zg
T
Zt
UTA

UTT
I(t)
36.
Show whether the following equation is right or wrong (write the detail
derivation in order to prove it).
]
Where,
, is the potential distribution on the top of tower
,is the potential distribution on the top of tower crossarm
Alpha
Beta
TT
TA
Rt
UR
Zt
UTA

Answer :
Zg
UTT
I(t)
I(t)
T
UTT
UTA
V1
 t=
UTT
UTT
UTT
V2
UT
T
2
V3
UTT
UTT
V4
UTT
]
Replace
]
The equation proves that
37.
is right
Use the iteration method to find the finite difference approximation to the
potentials at points 1, 2, 3, 9 and 15 of the system in Figure Q2(c). (Limit the
200 V
Disconnected
100 V
1
12
11
10
16
17
Disconnected
13
14
15
6
Disconnected
Answer:
200 V
Disconnected
100 V
1
12
11
10
16
17
Disconnected
13
Iteration 1:
14
15
6
Disconnected
Iteration 2:
Result:
Potentials at point :
P1= 100V
Potentials at point :
P2=
Potentials at point :
P3=
Potentials at point :
P9=
CHAPTER 3
LIGHTNING OVERVOLTAGE
(QUESTION AND ANSWER)
Q1.
(a)
(b)
leader core
earth wire
Tower
conductor
Earth place
Figure 1 Geometry of lightning leader stroke and transmission line
In the first discharge path (1), which is from the leader core of the lightning
stroke to the earth, the capacitance between the leader and earth is
discharged promptly, and the capacitance from the leader head to the earth
wire and the phase conductor are discharged ultimately bt travelling wave
action, so that a voltage is developed across the insulator string. This is
known as the induced voltage due to a lightning stroke to nearby ground. It is
The second discharge path (2) is between the lightning head and the earth
conductor. It discharged the capacitance between these two. The resulting
travelling wave comes down the tower and, acting through its effective
impedance, raises the potential of the tower top to a point where the
difference in voltage across the insulation is sufficient to cause flashover from
the tower back to the conductor. This is the socalled backflashover mode.
The third mode of discharge (3) is between the leader core and the phase
conductor. This discharges the capacitance between these two and injects the
main discharge current into the phase condustor, so developing a surge
impedance voltage across the insulator string. At relatively low current, the
insulation strength is exceeded and the discharge path is completed to earth
via the tower. This is the shielding failure or direct stroke to the phase
conductor.
3
(b)
2
20m
ZT = 90
40
I
35 kA
40
1 s
Equivalent circuit
Find Zeq :
Imax
ZT
35kA
Zg
Zg
Zeq = 66.86
Find V surge :
V = Imax x Zeq
= 35 x 103 x 66.86
= 2.34 MV
= u(t)
(1 Mark)
Find and :
1 =
=
= 0.385
2 =
=
=
(1 Mark)
(1 Mark)
= 0.486
2 = 1
(1 Mark)
= 1 + 0.486
= 1.486
(1 Mark)
Time taken for wave travel from tower top to tower base
t =
= 0.067 s = 1 T
(1 Mark)
= 14.9 T
V1 = u(t)
V2 = 12 u(t  2T)
= (0.385)(1.486) u(t 2T)
Vtt = V1 + V2 + V3 + V4 + V5 + V6 + V7 + V8
= u(t) 0.572 u(t 2T) + 0.107 u(t 4T) 0.02 u(t 6T) + 0.0037 u(t 8T)
0.0007 u(t 10T) + 0.00013 u(t 12T) 0.00002 u(t 14T)
(4 Marks)
From graph,
= 1.31 MV
= 0.393 MV
(1 Mark)
(1 Marks)
(1 Marks)
flashover strength
(3 Marks)
Q2.
(a)
Figure 2a
(b)
Explain what is meant by the terms T1/T2 Impulse Wave and outline the
methode of lightning impulse voltage production in the laboratory.
SOLUTION:
Q2. (a)
(b)
t
T2
Q3
(a)
current I(t), of waveshape with maximum value at 40kA occurring at 1.2s and
decreased linearly. The surge impedance of tower, tower ground wire and
phase conductors are 200
, 250
and 300
between the tower side and the phase conductor is 2 meter. Assume that the
breakdown of air is at 30kV per cm and the string insulator flashover at 1000kV.
Consider the coupling factor between ground wire and phase wire is 0.25. The
lighting strike when the A.C voltage is at *
+ sin 110kV.
Figure Q3(a) Transmission system with the top of tower was struck by lighting
(b)
tower with two parallel ground wire and an impulse current waveshape, i(t).
Consider the tower top is struck by the lighting current i(t) and voltage rises
to u(t).
Figure Q3(b)
(c)
Solution:
(a) The ground potential rise at the point where lighting strikes the tower
Vsurge =
=[
] 40kV
=*
+ 40kV
= 3.08MV
Zeq =
. i(t)
(c)
TT
Zg
=UT T
= T
V1
u(t)
TT
u(t)
V2
2TT
u(t)
3TT
2 u(t)
V3
4TT
2 2 u(t)
5TT
2 3 u(t)
V4
6TT
3 3 u(t)
V1 = u(t)
V2 = (
t=0
) u(t)
V3 = (2
t = 2TT
22) u(t)
= u(t) + (
t = 4TT
t = 6TT
) u (t 2TT )
(2
(T)2u(t 6TT).
Q4
(a)
formation of thunderclouds.
(b)
A peak lighting current of 40kA has struck a ground wire at midspan (at
the middle of two transmission towers). If the ground wire surge impedance is
given as Z=500, calculate the generated voltage at the point of strike. State
the assumptions you made to answer this question.
Solution:
(a) During storms, charges are accumulated in clouds and equal charges of opposite
polarity are formed in earth. As these charges increases, the voltage gradient in
the air adjacent to the charge centre in the cloud increases.
When the gradient exceeds the insulation strength of air, a low current streamer
starts downward from the cloud and continues to grow. When the streamer
makes contact with the earth, it is like closing a switch between the two charges
of opposite polarity, one is the earth and the other in the streamer channel and in
the clouds . Thus large current flows.
In the middle stage of formation of a cloud, strong wind turbulence takes place
causing the separation of charges into several layers which are:
Cloud to cloud
Cloud to ground
Cloud to air
(b)
I = 40kA
ZL =500
ZL =500
A
ZS
Assume:
1) Zs = infinity
2) No return voltage at the Earth line
V at strike point,
Q5
(a)
Lightning phenomena
ii.
ii.
Switching overvoltage
(5 marks)
Zg2
ZT1
Zg3
ZT2
e
R2
R1
Figure Q5(b)
i.
ii.
iii.
Solution
(a)
i.
Lightning Phenomena
++++++++++
+++++++++
++++++++
                  
Not all clouds are lightning cloud generator. It is only the cumulonimbus cloud type that
can generate lightning. The Ice Splinter can be used to explain on the electrification of
the cloud. The moistures and precipitation particles being is suspension in air and due to
upwards action of updraft, causing supercooling to take place and resulting moistures to
become ice. The ionic migration of OH and H in the moistures built, leaving the OH in
the front and II+ being lighter are pulled out to settle in the outer layer. The resultant two
layer ice structure split due to different rate of ice expansion (the inner and outer layer).
The splinters are basically of positivecharged and negativecharged. The lighter
splinters are pulled upwards while the lighter negatively charged splinters settle at the
lower point of the cloud. If the electric field between the cloud and ground exceed the
dielectric strength of air, streamers will appear and propagate toward the ground. The
last jump of these streamers to the ground result upward streamers to move to attach
itself to the downwardsmoving streamers. The attachment results in the process of
charges neutralisation of the positive and negative charges. This is known as return
strike. It causes large currents to flow to the ground.
[ 2.5 Marks ]
ii.
(b)
Indirect Strike
If the damage to building and equipment due to surge propagation is because
of inductive and capacitive affect. This is termed as indirect strike.
[ 2.5 Marks ]
OR
iii.
Switching Voltage
With the steady increase in transmission voltages needed to fulfil the required
increase in transmitted power, switching surges have become the governing factor in
the design of insulation for EHV and UHV systems. In the meantime, lightning
overvoltage come as a secondary factor in these networks. There is a great variety of
events that would initiate a switching operations of greatest tolerance to insulation
design can be classified as follows:
a. Energization of a line
b. Load rejection
c. Switching on and off a equipment
d. Fault initiation and clearing
(b)
[ 2.5 Marks ]
Point b is to be considered:
Point d:
(c)
i.
Zg1
Zg1
ii
I peak
I peak
10kA
1500
10kA
iii .
Q6.
(a)
300
Where B = 100 m/s and V = 200 kV, determine the minimum length of
shielding wire necessary in order that the transformer insulation will not fail
due to lightning surges.
(10 marks)
Solution:
(a)
1000e0.05t
Zo =400
ZT=1600
For B.I.L of 1175 Kv, and an insulation margin of 15%, the maximum permissible
voltage
= 998.75kV
Since the voltage is increased by b= 1.6 times at the terminal equipment (transformer), the
maximum permissible incident voltage must be decreased by this factor, hence the
maximum permissible incident voltage is
=998.75/1.6
=624.22 kV
Therefore the shielding wire must reduce the surge to 624.22 kV(by virtue of the corona
distortion), that is
1000e0.05t= 624.22
t = 9.425 s
Hence T = 9.425 s
Q7
[2 Marks]
ii.
[2 Marks]
iii.
[4 Marks]
(b) Prove that the reflection coefficient, = (Z2 Z1)/(Z2 + Z1) and the
transmission coefficient, = 2Z2/(Z2 + Z1) for an incident lightning surge
on a transmission line where Z1 is the surge impedance of line 1 and Z2
is the surge impedance of line 2.
[4 Marks]
(c) A lightning current with the rate of rise of 25 kA/s reaches a peak walue
in 1.6 s has struck a ground wire at midspan (at the middle of two
transmission towers). If the ground wire surge impedance is given as Zg
= 250 , calculate the generated voltage at the point of strike. State and
justify all assumptions made.
If the striking point is changed to the top of one tower (not the end
tower) with a surge impedance of 100 , calculate the generated voltage
at the point of strike.
[8 Marks]
Solution
(a)
i.
ii.
1.0
0.9
0.5

0.3
T
T1 =1.67T
T=0.3T1 =0.5T
T2
T1
(3 Marks)
iii.
Transmitted Wave
(b)
Incident Wave
E I
Reflected Wave
ER
ET
IT
IR
E + ER = ET
and
I + IR = . . . (1)
E = Z1I,
ET = Z2IT,
ER = Z1IR . . . . (2)
(c) i.
(4 marks)
I1
VSURGE
ZS
zg
I = 25 x 1.6 = 40 kA,
Equivalent Circuit
Vsurge = IZeqv
= I(Zg//Zg)
By assuming Zs=;
Zg
= I(Zg/2)
= 40 kA x 125
= 5 MV
ii)
(4 Marks)
=55.56
Vsurge = IZeqv
= 40 kA x 55.56
= 2.22 MV
Q8.
(a)
(4 marks)
tower and an impulse current waveshape, i(t). Consider the tower top is struck
by the lightning current i(t) and voltage rises to u(t).
Current (kA)
TT
ZR
ZT
u(t)
i(t)
UR
Rt
i(t)
Time (microsec)
UTT(t)
Fig. Q8(a) Inverted tower for analysis
Also
(i)
Show that
u(t)= Zg Zt / (Zg + 2Zt ). i(t)
(ii)
(3 marks)
UTT
Ut
Ut
TT
=Ut
2TT
= Ut
3TT
=2 Ut
4TT
=2 2Ut
5TT
=3 2Ut
=3 3Ut
V1=u(t)
t=0
V2=(+ )
t=2TT
V3=(2+22) u(t)
t=4TT
V4=(32+33) u(t)
t=6TT
(b) A lightning current surge with the wave shape as shown in Fig Q8 (b), strike a
tower, which has a single ground wire in both directions. The characteristic are
as follows :
Surge impedance of lightning channel, Zl
= infinity
= 150
= 340
= 298 m/ s
= 240 m/ s
Height of tower
= 30m
= 40
= 40 kA
ID
20 s
Orientation of
propagation
1 s
Based on Fig.8 (b), determine the maximum tower top potential for a duration 5
times the time of surge propagation from the tower top to the tower base after
the lightning strike the tower.
(15 marks)
Solution:
(a) i.
// Zt x i(t)
ii.
UTT=V1+V2+V3+V4
=u(t) ( ) u(t2TT)  (2 22) u(t4TT) (32 33) u(t6TT)
=u(t) (1 ) [u(t2TT)  u(t4TT) 22u(t6TT) ..
Replace =  t
=u(t) t (1 ) [u(t2TT)  tu(t4TT) t22u(t6TT) ..
The equation proves that UTT is right.
UTT=Ut(t)
11ut (t2 T)
11322ut (t6
T)
(1  ) 12 2ut (t4
=Ut(t)
=Ut(t)
T)
T) ..
T) + (1  ) 1322ut (t6
1222ut (t6
T) + (ut)2 ut(t6
T) ..
T) ..
T)]
T)]
Comparison:
1 s = 1/0.125 = 8 T
20 s = 20/0.125 = 160
The Vsurge=
3.3 MV
=1 pu
=Ut(t)
8 T
The peak voltage is 0.91 MV
16 T
T)]
T) ..
Q9.
(a)
Lightning Phenomena
(3 marks)
ii.
(3 marks)
iii.
Switching Overvoltage
(3 marks)
Zg1
Zg2
ZT1
Zg3
ZT2
e
R1
R2
Figure Q9 (b)
(6 marks)
(c) A lightning surge of magnitude 10kA with the voltage waveshape of 1.2/50 s
strike a ground conductor at midspan of a transmission line. If the channel
surge impedance is 1500 and the ground wire surge impedance is 600,
determine at the point of strike :
i.
(2
i)
(3 marks)
ii)
(3 marks)
marks)
(d) A lightning current surge with the wave shape of figure 7 strikes a tower which
has a single ground wire in both directions. The characteristics are as follows;
Surge impedance of lightning channel
= infinity
= 150
= 340
= 298 m/s
= 240 m/s
= 0.25
Height of tower
= 30m
= 40
Determine the maximum tower top potential, after 0.4 s the tower has been
struck by the lightning. Please show clearly all the calculations involving
coefficients of the reflection and refraction. Show the surge progressions in
the form of the Bewley Lattice Diagram.
a) What will happen if the tower footing resistance increases in the value?
b) Provide one reason for the tower footing resistance increase in the value.
c) Why the speed of surge is higher in the conductor than in the tower
structure?
(17 marks)
25 kA
20 s
1 s
Solution:
(a) i.
Figure above show the typical thundercloud structure. Not all clouds are
lightning cloud generator. It is only the cumulonimbus cloud type that can
generate lightning. The Ice Splinter can be used to explain on the electrification
of the cloud. The moistures and precipitation particles being is suspension in air
and due to upwards action of updraft, causing super cooling to take place and
resulting moistures to become ice.
The ionic migration of OH and H in the moisture built, leaving the OH in the
front and H being lighter is pulled out to settle in the outer layer. The resultant
two layer ice structure split due to different rate of ice expansion (the inner and
outer layer). The splinters are basically of positive charged and negative
charged. The lighter splinters are pulled upward while the lighter negatively
charged splinters settle at the lower point of the cloud. If the electric field
between the cloud and ground exceed the dielectric strength of air, streamers
will appear and propagate towards the ground. The last jumps of these
streamers to the ground result in upward streamers to move to attach itself to
the downwards moving streamers. The attachment results in the process of
charges neutralization of the positive and negative charges. This is known as
return strike. It causes large currents to flow to the ground.
(a) ii.
Direct Strike
Ground Flash activities of lightning involve direct and indirect strike. If the
intend facilities or building or even structure for protection are struck by
lightning, which could end with structured damage and others, this is
direct strike
Indirect Strike
If the damage to building and equipment due to surge propagation is
because of inductive and capacitive affects. This termed as indirect
strike.
(a) iii.
With the steady increase in transmission voltages needed to fulfill the required
increased in transmitted power, switching surges have become the governing
factor in the design of insulation for EHV and UHV systems. In the meantime,
lightning overvoltage come as a secondary factor in these network. There is a
great variety of events that would initiate a switching surge in a power network.
The switching operations of greatest tolerance to insulation design can be
classified as follows:
a. Energization of a line
b. Load rejection
c. Switching on and off of equipment
Point d:
; does not exist
(c) i.
Zg1
(c)
Zg1
ii.
IT
VT
10kA
Zs
Zg
Zg
(c) iii
(d)
Lightning Current Waveshape
25 kA
20 sec
= infinity
= 150
= 340
= 298 m/s
1 sec
= 0.25
Height of tower
= 30m
= 40
Zeq = Zg//Zg//Zb
= 340//340//150
a
=
= 79.7
Step 1: To determine the potential at the top of tower at the point of lighting strike at the top
of the tower point of lighting strike
Equivalent circuit representation:
Zc
Zeq
VSurge
Vsurge =
=
Zc = Open Circuit
=
= 1.992 MV
Step 2: To determine time for surge propagating from point a to foot of tower
(i)
Reflection
(ii)
Refraction
= 0.58
2 =
= 0.0625
= 1.063
T sec
The maximum tower top potential
(0.2 0.6p)
= 0.23 x 1.992 MV
= 0.456 MV
(i)
The ground potential rise at the tower increases with the increase in tower
resistance.
(ii)
Loss of moisture due to draught reason and the soil cannot retain moisture
due to bad soil condition.
(iii)
i.e;
So,
>
The speed of surge is higher in the phase conductor than in the tower structure.
Q10.
(a)
tower and an impulse current waveshape, i(t). Consider the tower top is struck
by the lightning current i(t) and voltage rises to u(t).
Figure Q10(a)
Show that
(b)
c.
Figure Q11 (c) shows a partly distribution system of electrical power network
where an overhead line is connected to a set of three underground cables
connected each other point A, B and C respectively. At those respective points
a resistor R is connected to the ground. The line is struck by lightning at point
0H, 100m away from the underground cable UG1. The form of the lightning
current is:
I(t) = 3.0x1010t
= 6.0x1010  3.0x108t
=0
Each underground cable is 300m length where Zoh, Za, Zb and Zc is equal to
450, R=80. Assume Z of lighthning channel impedance is infinity. Traveling
wave have the following velocities:
a) On the overhead conductors, 2.98x108 m/s
b) On the underground cable 2.68x 108 m/s
Calculate the first peak of voltage at point B after 3 microseconds the lightning
strike the overhead conductor and the time when it occurs.
(13 marks)
Solution:
(b)
TT(t)=
ut(t)
Ut(1 ) (t2TT)
2 u(t4TT)
2 2 u(t4TT)
3 2 u(t6TT)
3 3
u(t6TT)
= ut(t)
(1 ) ut (t2TT)
= ut(t)
(1 )[ ut (t2TT)
2 3 (1 ) u(t4TT)
u(t4TT)
(c)
= 3x1010 x 2x106
= 6x104 = 60KA
0<t<2us
3 2 (1 ) u(t6TT)
)2 u(t6TT)
= ( 6x104 ) ( 6x102 )
= 60000 600
= 59400 = 59.4KA
I=0
Time of travelling
At overhead line conductor
OH UG1 = 100 / (2.98 x108)
= 33.6 x10 8
= 0.34s = T
UG1 = UG2 = UG3
= 300 / (2.98 x108)
= 111.9 x10 8
= 1.12 s
T = 1.12 s
UG1 = 3.00 AT
OH UG1 = (0.34/1.12) x 3.00 = 0.91 AT
Time frame = (3/0.34) x 0.91 AT = 8.02
1 = (450450)/(450 + 450)
=0
1 = 1
1 = 1
2 = (6.79450)/(67.9+ 450)
=  0.738
2 = 1
2 = 0.262
3 = 0.738, 3= 0.262
4 = (80  450)/ (80 + 450)
= 0.698
VB = 1 2 3 ut(t7T)
= 1 x 0.262 x 0.262 x ut(t7T)
= 0.069 ut(t7T)
=60KA
= 0.069 x 13.34 MV
= 0.92 MV
The time it happen is 7T
2.0
= 7 x 0.34 + 2.0
= 4.38
Q11 a.
ii.
The difference between Simpsons Theory and Reynold & Mason Theory
in explaining the phenomena oh charge formation in the clouds.
(4 marks)
iii.
b.
c.
(6
Solution:
(a) i.
Strong attraction from the downwards stepped leaders cause oppositely charge streamers
appearing on various corners of the structure of the ground
Attachment of ve charge downwards streamer with +ve charge upwards streamer. The final
jump is to the transmission power tower.
(a) ii. The difference between Simpsons Theory and Reynold & Mason Theory in
explaining the phenomena oh charge formation in the clouds.
Teori Simpson
Menurut teori simpson ada tiga ruang penting dalam awan bagi pembentukan cas sepetri
didalam rajah diatas. Dibawah ruang A, kelajuan arus udara adalah melebihi 800cm/s dan
tidak terdapat titisan hujan yang jatuh. Dalam ruang A, kelajuan udara adalah tinggi untuk
memechkan titisan hujan menyebabkan percikan cas positif terbentuk pada awan dan cas
negative dalam udara. Percikan cas positif tersebut ditiup keatas tetapi dengan
pengurangan kelajuan udara, cas positif titisan air tersebut akan bercampur dengan titisan
yang lebih banyak dan jatuh kebawah. Ini menyebabkan ruang A akan bercas positif dan
ruang B keatas akan bercas negative. Pada ruang di bahagian atas awan suhu adalah
rendah dan hanya terdapat hablur ais. Kesan udara pada hablur ais tersebut menjadikannya
bercas negative.
Teori Reynold dan Manson
Menurut reynold dan manson, petir terhasil pada ketinggian antara 1 ke 2 km sehingga 12
ke 14 km dari paras bumi. Bagi pembentukan awan petir dan cas perlu ada arus udara,
lembapan dan julat suhu yang tepat. Arus udara yang dikawal oleh kecerunan suhu
bergerak keatas membawa lembapan dan titisan air. Titisan air didalam awan petir ditiup
keatas oleh arus udara dan mejadi beku sebagai hablur ais.pada suhu beku, hablur akan
bertambah dan bergerak ke bawah. Hablur tersebut membawa bersamasama cas negative
ke ruang bawah awan sementara titisan air yang ditiup ke ruang atas awan membawa cas
positif. Proses pergerakan titisan air dan hablur ais ini yang menyebabkan berlakunya kilat.
(a) iii. How does lightning strike can induce over voltages in power transmission
line?
Sambaran Langsung
Kilat akan menyambar pada objek yang paling tinggi pada satusatu kawasan. Talian
penghantaran adalah terdedah kepada sambaran kilat secara langsung. Sambaran terus
merupakan proses discas secara terus antara awan dan menara/dawai pengalir. Bila kilat
menjalankan cas negative pada hujung bumi, objek bumi (talian dan menara) akan
mengaruh cas positif. Disebabkan oleh penebat ke pengalir talian penghantaran. Talian
penghantaran akan berlagak sebagai kapasitor bercas positif. Cas yang teraruh ini akan
menyebabkan voltan lampau dan akan menghasilkan sambaran kilat. Voltan teraruh akan
merambar sepanjang talian, separuh akan dipantul (reflect) kebahagian lain talia. Pantulan
voltan teraruh ini boleh menyebabkan lampau kilat pada menara.
ii.
iii.
(c).
Voltan lampau pensuisan merupakan voltan lampau yang terjana dalam system talian itu
sendiri. Voltan lampau tersebut boleh meningkat magnitudnya sehingga 6 kali ganda dari
voltan normal. Gelombang dedenyut pensuisan mempunyai tempoh masa yang lebih lama
dibandingkan dengan dedenyut kilat dan ia member kesan yang lebi teruk dari kilat.
Dedenyut pensuisan boleh terjadi disebabkan oleh penutupan dan pemutusan litar elektrik
menggunakan perkakasan suis (switchgear) dalam system kuasa yang mempunyai
kapasitan dan induktan yang tinggi. Dalam operasi pemutusan litar pusuan pensuisan
dengan kadar kenaikan voltan yang tinggi akan menyebabkan restriking berulangan dan
boleh merosakkan alat pemutus litar. Dedenyut pensuisan mengandungi frekuensi yang
tinggi serta pantulan gelombang dalam system.
Ciriciri pusuan pensuisan adalah berbezabeza dan bergantung kepada punca asal
berlakunya dedenyut tersebut. Puncapunca berlakunya pusuan adalah :
Energization bagi talian penghantaran dalam satu atau lebih langkah dengan
menyambungkan perintang dan mengeluarkannya semula selepas selesai proses
tersebut.
Q12. (a)
(b) Fig. 12 (b) shows the damage of a building related to lightning strike. It also
shows the building is protected with a Franklin rod which is used as the basis for
lightning protection standard like IEC 62305 and others. Provide two reasons for
the lightning protection rod failure to provide protection to the building against
lightning strike.
Fig 12 (b) Lightning struck the sharp edge of a building top where the
Franklin Rod is overlooking
TA
i(t)
T
UR
RG
UTA
T
UTT
i(t)
Time (microsec)
(2
marks)
(d) Fig. 12 (d) shows a tower with a 3 circuit ground wire system of Zg, 200
ohm(single circuit).The tower 30 meters high with surge impedance of 300 ohm.
The lightning current rises linearly to a peak of 60 kA in 2s before commencing to
decline. Compute the potential UTT at the top of tower 0.21 microsecond after the
lightning strikes the tower top. Assume the lightning channel impedance is
infinity. The speed of lightning surge in the tower is 2.98x 108 meter per second.
The tower footing resistance is 10 ohm.
Ground Wires
Tower Footing
R is 10 Ohm
Solution:
(a) Describe the basis of Franklin Rod Method of Lightning Protection
Based on research, electrode with sharp edges will experience high electrical stress
on its tip due to electric field intensification when high voltage is applied. Before
downward streamer is within striking distance from a facility, an upward opposite
streamer will be launched from the facility as well as the Franklin Rod. A strike will
happen when both of these streamers attach together and cause lightning return
stroke. In another word, the Franklin Rod is the sacrificial point of lightning strike. The
current is the discharged to the ground terminal via the down conductor.
ii)
The lightning leader is of low current magnitude causes it to strike the building
from the side of the building. So the edge of the building is seen on the most
probable point of lightning strike.
(c)
Zg
I(t)
Zt
Zg
(d)
i(t)
Zg=200
Zt=300
60kA
UTT
30
T
i(t)
V surge
= 0.1 sec
T
T
ZTT
Zg
Utt
UTT = Ut
Ut
Ut
= U(t) + Ut(t2t)(
Ut
Ut
2t
)
= Ut(t) 1.74 Ut(t2t)
Ut
3t
Ut(t)
1p
2s
1p
Resultant
1.74 Ut(t2t)
2p
Q13.
ii)
iii)
Direct strike
iv)
Indirect strike
v)
Surge arrester
( 15 marks )
b) A 300m length of overhead earth conductor which is laid between two towers
is strike by a lightning. The lightning struck to a point of a distance of one third of
the length from one the tower. The surge earth conductor and tower impedances
were 300ohm and 100ohm respectively. The lightning strike carries 25 kA current
within 1.5s and the surge impedance is about 1200ohm.Determine the surge
voltage at the tower top after the strike.
( 5 marks )
Solution:
i)
Apabila keamatan medan elektrik pada awan melebihi kekuatan dielektrik udara
yang terion yang lembap(~10kV/cm).Satu penjurus elektrik bergerak ke arah bumi
dengan kelajuan 1/10 dari kelajuan cahaya.Walaubagaimana pun, pergerakan
penjurus itu akan berhenti(selepas 50m) dan memancarkan kilat atau cahaya yang
terang.
Selepas lebih kurang 100s, penjurus muncul kembali dan mengulangi proses tadi
untuk beberapa kali.Oleh kerana ia memerlukan beberapa penjurus pandu untuk
sampai ke bumi, maka ia dinamakan penjurus pandu bertangga(stepped
leader).Jumlah masa yang diperlukan bagi pandu bertangga untuk sampai ke bumi
adalah lebih kurang 20ms.
Sambaran kilat dan discas elektrik yang disebabkan oleh kilat diterangkan melalui
teori penjurus untuk discas bunga api di antara dua elektrod pada jarak yang panjang
dan medan tak sekata.Kilat mengandungi beberapa discas bermula dengan discas
pandu dan berakhir dengan discas kembali atau discas utama.Penjurus kembali
terbentuk apabila penjurus pandu telah mencecah bumi.Semasa pergerakan
penjurus pandu, cas positif bertumpuk pada hujung penjurus.Apabila mencecah atau
menghampiri bumi, keamatan medan elektrik pada bumi cukup besar untuk
menghasilkan penjurus kembali.Oleh itu cas positif tadi berpatah balik ke awan untuk
meneutralkan cas negative awan dan oleh itu arus yang besar mengalir dalam laluan
tersebut.Magnitud arus adalah dari 1000 ke 250 000 A.Kelajuan sambaran pandu
pemula ialah 1.5x107 cm/s.Sambaran seterusnya 108cm/s dan penjurus kembali
1.5x109 ke 1.5x1010 cm/s(~0.05 ke 0.5 kelajuan cahaya).
Tempoh sambaran utama atau sambaran kembali ialah 100s atau lebih.Setelah
sambaran kembali selesai, arus dalam julat yang lebih kecil (100 ke 1000 A) mungkin
terus mengalir untuk selama lebih kurang 20ms.Pengaliran arus ini akan
menyebabkan wujudnya sambaransambaran ulangan.Walau bagaimana pun,
sambaran ulangan ini bergerak pada halaju yang lebih kecil(~1% kelajuan cahaya)
dan tidak bercabang.Sambaran balik atau sambaran utama untuk sambaran ulangan
ini juga mempunyai arus yang lebih kecil.Jarak masa diantara sambaran ulangan
ialah 0.6 hingga 500ms dengan purata 30ms.Jumlah masa kesemua sambaran
berbilang ini mungkin mencecah lebih dari 1 saat.
Beberapa graf penting kilat ditunjukkan seperti dalam Rajah 1 hingga Rajah 8.
ii)
iii)
Direct strike
Masa
ke
puncak
dan
kadar
naik
juga
merupakan
cirri
yang
iv)
Indirect strike
Sambaran terus berlaku apabila proses discas secara terus berlaku diantara
awan dan menara atau dawai pengalir talian penghantaran.Manakala
sambaran teraruh berlaku disebabkan oleh proses discas diantara dawai
pengalir(yang mempunyai cas teraruh dari awan) dan bumi.
v)
Surge arrester
Medan elektrik yang terhasil diantara awan dan bumi biasanya tidak
mendatangkan apaapa kesan kepada dawai pengalir talian penghantaran
kerana ianya ditebat melalui penebat gantungan.Walau bagaimana pun jika
kecerunan medan adalah tinggi, kebocoran cas positif boleh berlaku dimana
cas tersebut mengalir dari menara ke dawai pengalir
melalui permukaan
(b)
1/3
2/3
n=30m
Zg = 300
IL
Zt =100
ZL
ZL = 1500
IL = 25kA
Ia
Zg
Zg
= 13.636 kA
Zg
TT
Zt
Ia
Zg
Ia
TT
Zt
= Ia x 75
= 13.636 x 75 k
= 1022.7 kV
= 1.0227 MV
Q14.
(a)
tower and an impulse current wave shape, i(t). Consider the tower top is struck
by the lightning current i(t).
Show that,
where,
is the surge impedance of the ground wire.
is the surge impedance of the tower.
is the impulse surge function.
is time of surge propagation from tower top to the crossarm.
is the current wave function.
is time of surge propagation from tower top to the tower footing.
is time of surge propagation tower crossarm to the tower footing.
is tower footing resistance.
(2 marks)
(a) Show whether the following equation is right or wrong (write the detailed
derivation in order to prove it).
where
is the potential distribution on the top of tower.
is the potential distribution on the tower crossarm.
Alpha
Beta
(b) Figure 14 (b) shows two towers (1 and 2) of a transmission line, which are
joined by overhead ground wires. The line is struck by lightning at point y,
100m away from point 2. The form of the lightning current is,
of lightning channel
On the conductors,
Solution:
(a)
Proved.
(b)
Replace
with
With time.
Replace
by
(c)
Therefore, the equation UTA as provided by the equation is wrong and UTT equation is
right.
Transit Time: From the point of strike on ground wire to the tower 1.
= 4.5 T
Graphical Representation.
CHAPTER 4
Question 1:
a) What is the basic difference between selfrestoring and non selfrestoring insulation?
b) Briefly explain, with the aid of suitable diagrams, the statistical method of insulation
coordination.
c) In a laboratory, switching impulses are applied to a post insulator in order to
determine the basic switching impulse insulation level (BSL) of the post insulator.
The results of the test are shown in Table Q1. These test results are then plotted on
a linear graph paper as in Figure Q1.
i)
Table Q1
Applied crest voltage,
kV
900
1000
1050
1075
960
980
960
No. of
"shots"
100
40
40
100
40
40
40
No. of
"flashovers
2
20
33
93
7
16
10
100
No. of "flashovers
80
60
40
20
0
850
900
950
1000
Figure Q1
1050
1100
Answer Q1:
b) The aim for statistical method is to quantify the risk of failure of insulation through
numerical analysis of the statistical nature of the overvoltage magnitudes and of
electrical withstand strength of insulation.
In a statistical study, what has to be known is not the highest overvoltage possible,
but the statistical distribution of overvoltage.
The risk of failure of the insulation is dependent on the integral of the product of the
overvoltage density function fo(V) and the probability of insulation failure P (V). Thus
the risk of flashover (R) per switching operation is equal to the area under the curve.
Since a suitable insulation cannot be found such that the withstand distribution does
not overlap with the overvoltage distribution, in the statistical method of analysis, the
insulation is selected such that the 2 % overvoltage probability coincides with the 90
% withstand probability as shown.
c)
i)
ii)
) = 936
iii)
100
No. of "flashovers
80
60
40
20
10%
0
850
900
950
936
1000
1050
1100
Question 2:
a) Fig. Q4 (a) shown an insulation coordination practice using gaps/arcing horns. Briefly
describe what you understand from the diagram.
Transformer insulation
1.0m line gap/arcing horns
0.66 mm coord gap
b) Fig. Q2(b) shown an evaluation of risk factor in an insulation coordination practice using
the statistical technique. Briefly describe what you understand from the diagram as Fo
(V) and P(V) move to Either direction (left and right).
c) A 500 kV steep fronted wave (rate of rise 1000kV/s) reaches a transformer of surge
impedance 1500 through a line surge impedance 500 and protected by a lightning
arrester with a protective level of 700 kV, 60 m from the transformer. sketch the voltage
waveforms at the arrester location. Determine the time at which the arrester operates.
Assume all waves travel at 3.0 x 108 m/s
Answer Q2:
500kV peak
D = 60m
Z0 =500
ZT =1500
Arrester
If the separation is 50 m, the travel time in the line ( Between arrester and transformer)
=
= 0.2 s
=
= 1.5
=
= 0.5
Question 3:
Where B = 110m/s and Vo = 200kV, determine the minimum length of shielding wire
necessary in order that the transformer insulation will not fail due to lightning surges.
b) A 500kV steep fronted wave (rate of rise 1667kV/s) reaches a transformer of surge
impedance 1600 through a line of surge impedance 400 and protected by a
lightning arrestor with a protective sparkover level 700 kV, 75 m from the transformer.
Sketch the voltage waveforms at the arrestor location. Determine the time at which the
arrestor operates. Sketch also the voltage waveforms at the transformer location.
Determine the maximum voltage at the transformer and the duration it appears across
the transformer. Assume the surge travels at 300 m/us in the line and no reflection is
considered at the arrester.
Answer Q3:
a)
Z0 =400
ZT=1600
= 1.6
For BIL of 1175 kV, and an insulation margin of 15%, the maximum permissible voltage
= 998.75 kV
Since the voltage is increased by = 1.6 times at the terminal equipment (transformer),
the maximum permissible incident voltage must be decreased by this factor, hence the
maximum permissible incident voltage is
=
= 624.22 kV
Therefore the shielding wire must reduce the surge to 624.22 kV (by virtue of the corona
distortion), that is
t = 9.425 s
Hence
= 9.424 s
s/m
Substituting
s/m
X = 1525.53 m
b)
500kV peak
ZL = 75m
Z0 =400
ZT=1600
Arrester
=
= 0.25 s
=
= 1.6
=
= 0.6
800
600
400
Reflected surge
200
Time (s)
0
0.1
0.9
1.0 1.1
800
600
400
Transmitted surge
(1.6 x 1667 = 2667 kv/us)
200
Time (s)
0
0.1
0.5
0.9
1.0 1.1
Question 4:
a) What is the basic difference between selfrestoring and nonself restoring insulation?
Describe a method for the implementation of insulation coordination to a power system
with selfrestoring and nonself restoring insulation. In each case emphasis should to be
given to the description of Risk Failure and Critical flashover Voltage V50.
b) Describe the differences between Basic Lightning Impulse Insulation Level (BIL) and
Basic Switching Impulse Insulation Level (BSL) and explain how they affect in the design
of power system networks?
The following results are obtained for the determination of volttime curve obtained for a
nonself restoring and selfrestoring insulation in a multilevel test.
Table 4c (i) The volttime curve characteristic of string insulator
Voltage level
(kV)
1300
1600
2280
2600
2800
2900
3000
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
35
30
20
15
10
No. of impulses
applied to the
insulator
Time to flash
(sec)
1200
1880
2800
3100
3300
3400
3500
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
35
30
20
15
10
No. of impulses
applied to the
insulator
Time to flash
(sec)
Based on the above volttime curve of the Table 4c(i) and 4c(ii)
(ii)
(iii)
If the volttime curve from Table 4c(i) and 4c(ii) respectively is used for the line
insulation coordination, will there be a destructive discharge if a lightning surge with a
peak of 2000 kV at 1.5sec and afterwards decrease linearly to zero at rate of 20 kV per
sec, arrived at the string insulator point of connection with the conductor? If yes, where
will be the discharge takes place?
Answer Q4:
a) The basic difference between self restoring and nonself restoring insulation is:
SelfRestoring Insulation: Insulation that completely recovers insulating properties after
a disruptive discharge (flashover) caused by the application of a voltage is called selfrestoring insulation. This type of insulation is generally external insulation.
)
(
b) For equipment rated at less than 300 kV, it is a statement of the Basic
Lightning Impulse Insulation Level (BIL) and the short duration power frequency
withstand voltage. For equipment rated at greater than 300 kV, it is a statement of the
Basic Switching impulse Insulation Level (BSL) and the power frequency withstand
voltage.
(i) No.
(ii) The new volttime curve of the archorn I is suitable for the protection of the
string insulator I. This is true when the volttime curve of archorn I lies lower
than the string insulator I.
(iii) Destructive discharge will take place. It will happen on the string insulator I.
Question 5:
b) Explain the differences between the insulation of a high voltage system and low voltage
system. Confine your explanation to a transmission line entering a high Voltage
substation substation whereas for the low voltage system confine to the AC mains point
entry in a house to the electrical and electronic equipment.
c) A test was conducted on a pair of archorn that was used for transmission line for the
Protection of string glass insulator against the lightning inducing effect on phase
conductor. This test is important because Malaysia is in the region of high isoceraunic
level where in every second there is not less that 100 flash to the ground. Before the
installation of the string insulator, lightning impulse tests are carried out in a high voltage
laboratory to determine the BIL and BSL. The results of BIL tests are shown in Table 5c
and the test set up is shown in Fig 6. Determine the BIL of the string insulator.
Table 5c: Results of lightning impulse test of a 12unit string insulator where NO means
NO FLASHOVER and YES mean FLASHOVER
Kv\N
700
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
750
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
(injection)
800
NO
YES
NO
NO
NO
NO
NO
820
YES
YES
YES
NO
NO
NO
YES
840
NO
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
NO
850
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
NO
860
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
NO
YES
870
YES
YES
NO
YES
YES
YES
YES
880
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
890
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
YES
Ci
Rf
Rt
Cl
Figure 5
Fig 5 The schematic diagram of an impulse generator where Rf is the front resistor, Rt is
the tail resistance, C1 is the load capacitance and Ci is generator capacitor.
Answers Q5:
a) Statistical Method
This is based on knowledge of the statistics of both overvoltage occurrence and of
flashover probability. The design is based on an acceptable risk of flashover. If at a
voltage level v, the probability of failure is P(v) and the frequency of occurrence if surge
of that level is f(v) then the risk of function is defined as,
The risk is R is therefore determined by the area under the r(v) curve, as the insulation
is strengthened by using a large gap or layer insulation.
The risk R is therefore determined by the meas under the r(v) curve as the insulation is
strengthened (e.g by using a layer gap or longer insulation string), so this risk at failure
shall reaches.
The effect of increasing, Vg on the risk of failures. It is therefore possible to press the
P(v) curve, we can then choose a reference probability and quote the voltage as a
statistical withstand voltage Vw.
The peak value of a switching or lightning impulse test voltage at which insulation
exhibits, under the specified conditions, a 90% probability of withstand has a 10%
probability of breakdown.
b) The system design engineer will therefore specify that the insulation must have a
withstand voltage of Vw, based on the acceptable risk criterion, and the insulation
design engineer will develop insulation suitable for what withstand level.
1. The tower strike distance or clearance between the phase conductive and the
grounded tower sides and upper tress.
2. The insulator string length.
3. The number and type of insulation.
4. The need for and type of supplemental lower grounding.
5. The phase to ground midiper clearance.
6. The phase strike distance or clearance.
7. The need for rating and location of line surge arrestable.
Category J:
Category II:
Category III:
CFO = 826.0 kV
Kv\ N( injection)
700
750
800
820
840
850
860
870
880
890
(
(
)
)
120.00%
100.00%
100.00%
100.00%
85.70%
85.70% 85.70%
80.00%
71.40%
67.14%
60.00%
Proability of breakdown (%)
40.00%
20.00%
14.30%
0.00%
20.00%
0.00%0.00%
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
Kv\ N( injection)
Question 6:
a) What is the basic difference between selfrestoring and nonselfrestoring insulation?
b) Describe the differences between Basic Lightning Impulse Insulation Level (BIL) and
Basic Switching Impulse Insulation Level (BSL) and explain how they affect in the
design of power system network?
210
220
230
240
250
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
10
No. of Flashovers
(i)
50% flashover
(ii)
P U standard deviation
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
Answer Q6:
= 195.6kV
iv) Statistical flashover voltage
= (1 + 3 Coeff)V50
= (1 + 3*0.037)*220
= 244.4Kv
100
90
84%
80
Percentage (%)
70
60
50
40
30
20
16%
10
0
200
210
220
230
240
250
Question 7:
a) Discuss three (3) mechanisms of solid insulation breakdown.
260
Answer Q7:
1.
Intrinsic Breakdown
Depend on the presence of free electrons that move through the lattice of
solid.
2.
Electromechanical Breakdown
3.
Thermal Breakdown
4.
Chemical changes if the electrical stress is continuously react with air and
gas.
5.
ii.
During
the
process
oftracking,the
spread
ofsparksin
the
form
ofbranchescalledtreeing.
6.
Question 8 :
Question 9 :
a) Describe in details with the appropriate diagrams, the methods of insulation coordination
for over voltages.
Answer Q9:
a) There are two methods of insulation coordination for overvoltages:
i) Conventional Method.
This is the method used when the probability of failure for a given overvoltage is
unknown, ie. With nonself restoring insulation. The known probability distribution of
overvoltage amplitudes is used only to determine the maximum surge which is liable
to occur. To this is added a safety margin to allow for the unknown flashover
probability distribution. The resultant voltage level is specified as a withstand
voltage,
For a given insulation design the total risk of failure will be:
The risk is therefore determined by the area under the r(V) curve. As the insulation is
strengthened by using larger gap or longer insulation strength, the risk of failure
diminishes as in the diagram below.
For a chosen risk of failure it is therefore possible to position the curve. We can then
choose a reference probability and quote the corresponding voltage as a statistical
withstands voltage
0.1, ie.
The system design engineer will therefore specify that the insulation must have a
withstand of
exceeded.
protective device and the equipment which it protects are used to calculate a probability
P*(V) that the main insulation will flash over in spite of the protective device. The risk is
then found form R*=
If the protective device is a spark gap, it itself will be dimensioned by normal methods to
give a risk of flashover which although greater than other devices, is still limited. If surge
diverters are used there is no reason to limit the risk of flashover as surge diverters
automatically restore the system voltage due to their nonliner resistance characteristics
without damage. However if a surge diverter is triggered by a highvoltage switching
surge or lightning transient.
Question 10:
(a) Describe the secondary processes which can lead to an electron avalanche and how
these processes may be identified. Show that the discharge current in a multi avalanche
Townsend process in a nonattaching gas is given by
]
Where
initial voltage
(b) Measurement of breakdown voltages in a uniform field spark gap in air gave the result as
shown in the Table Q10
Table Q10
Breakdown
Gap spacing (mm)
Pressure (Bar)
Temperature ( )
2.5
1.03
30
0.91
27
1.18
15
88.38
voltage,
) determine
Answer Q10:
Selfsustain
I
I
NonSelf
Io
Ionization
V
Charge
collectio
At low voltage the observe current is due to collection of free carriers in the gap and as
the voltage is increased a level is reached at which the free electrons gain enough
energy to ionize. Electrons produced may cause further ionization so that an electron
avalanche is generated. Ionization is the process by which an electron is removed from
an atom, leaving the atom with a net positive charge. The probability of ionization due to
the electron will depend on the number of collision made per unit distance with
coefficient referred as the primary ionization coefficient which is the number of ionization
collisions per unit electron per cm travel. With the primary ionization alone the
discharged is not self sustaining. If the source of initial electrons is removed the current,
the current I falls to zero. This suggests that processes other than simple  process are
occurring. This additional current is produced by secondary emission processes. A
secondary ionization coefficient
 ions do not have enough energy to ionize gas molecules directly but
ii) Photons
molecules which in return to the ground state may be emit photons which release
electrons by photoemission.
iii) Metastables
electrons
One or more secondary mechanism may exist giving a total secondary effect
described
Let
Selfsustain
Vs
s
V
Charge
harge
arge
rge
ge
e
collection
Ionization
Breakdown
At
The total number of new electros produced,
ollectionI
NonSelfsustain
If
electrons are produced at the cathode per ionizing collision in the gap, then
Thus,
Breakdown
Pressure (Bar)
Temperature ( )
2.5
1.034
30
0.91
27
1.180
15
88.38
voltage,
Question 11:
a)
b)
Describe the differences between Basic Lightning Impulse Insulation Level (BIL) and
Basic Switching Impulse Insulation Level (BSL)
c)
d)
e)
In relation to BIL and BSL, standards provide two types of tests to determine the best
method to obtain BIL and BSL.
(i) Explain those methods as provided by the standards document.
(ii) Discuss which method is the best by not neglecting to discuss points for instance
probability of passing test, probability of flashover perimpulse, manufacturers risk
and ideal test and other relevant factors.
Answer Q11:
b) For equipment rated at less than 300 kV, it is a statement of the Basic Lightning Impulse
Insulation Level (BIL) and the short duration power frequency withstand voltage. For
equipment rated at greater than 300 kV, it is a statement of the Basic Switching impulse
Insulation Level (BSL) and the power frequency withstand voltage.
e)
i) 1) The n/m test : m impulses are applied. The test is passed if no more than n result
in flashover.
2) The n + m test : n impulses are applied. If none result in flashover, the test is
passed. If there are two or more flashover, the test is failed. If only one flashover
occurs, m additional impulses are applied and the test is passed if none of these
result in a flashover.
ii) These alternate tests can be analysed statistically to determine their characteristic.
That is a plot is constructed of the probability of passing the test as a function of the
actual but unknown probability of flashover per application of a single impulse. The
characteristics for the above three tests are shown in Fig 1.1
Question 12:
a) Discuss three (3) mechanisms of solid insulation breakdown
b) Show that the breakdown criterion in gas according to Paschens Law is given
by :
where,
c)
expressed as,
Where A and B are constants, p is the gas pressure in torr referred to a temperature of
and d is the gap legth in cm.
A 1 cm uniform field gap in nitrogen at 760 torr and
kV. The pressure is then reduced and after a period of stabilization, the temperature and
pressure are measured as
found to be reduce to 21.9 kV. If the pressure is further reduced to 350 torr while the
temperature of the closed vessel is raised to
Answer Q12:
a) Three (3) mechanisms of solid insulation breakdown :i) Intrinsic/Ionic breakdown
ii) Electromechanical breakdown
iii) Thermal breakdown
Intrinsic/Ionic breakdown.
Occurs at a very short duration of HV applied (108 s).
Depends on the presence of free electron, which capable of migration thru the lattice
of the dielectric.
G CREATIVE AND INNOVATIVE MIND
Electromechanical breakdown.
Mechanical instability occurs when d/do = 0.6, and Y : Youngs modulus and
depends on mechanical stress.
Thermal breakdown
Conduction current flows heats up the specimen and the temperature rises.
Heat generated transfers to the surrounding medium by conduction and radiation.
Breakdown occurs when heat generated > heat dissipated.
Heat generated is proportional to the frequency thermal breakdown is more serious
at high frequency.
Thermal breakdown stresses are lower under a.c. condition then d.c.
(1)
Since (Paschens Law) ,
and
. (2)
At breakdown,
..... (3)
),
)+
proved
c)
Corrected pressure to standard temperature of
.(1)
,
Corrected pressure to standard temperature of 20C
..(2)
(3)
....(4)
(3)(4):
=27.66kV
CHAPTER 5
INSULATION DIAGNOSTIC & PARTIAL DISCHARGES
(QUESTION AND ANSWER)
Question 1
a)
Sketch the circuit diagram of a high voltage Schering bridge for the
measurement of loss tangent (tan ).
ii)
sample when the high voltage standard capacitor used in the Schering Bridge is
a lossfree type.
Answer
i)
ii)
and
At balance condition ;
;
[
][
b)
)(
Breakdown in solid or liquid dielectrics arise from the action of the electrical discharges
in internal gaseous cavitties. Draw an equivalent circuit for such an arrangement and
derive the expression for energy dissipated in the cavity in one discharge.
Answer
Distan
ce
Volts
d
n0
Where
Therefore
)(
c)
A solid dielectric specimen of 5cm diameter and 10mm thickness has dielectric
constant of 3. It has an embedded air filled void of 2.5mm diameter and 1mm
thickness. It is subjected to a voltage of 100k Vrms. Find the voltage at which an
internal discharge in the void can occur. The breakdown strength of air is 3kV/mm. Also
determine the charge value each time there is discharge inside the void and what will
be the value of charge as measured on the detector?
Answer
The inception voltage of the stressed void Vi is given by:
(
Where
when = 1mm
(
)=
Capacitance of void
Capacitance of slab
5.79 x 10 F
Therefore,
Question 2
a)
Using the circuit for series and parallel models of an insulating sample, derive the loss
tangent (tan ) equation in terms of the capacitance (C) and resistance (R) of the
sample.
Answer
R4
b1
C4
C2
c
R3
b2
C
a
Solid Insulator Model Series Model
Rs =
Cs =
Tan =
= CsRs
Va
I
Vc
Vr
Cs
Vc
Ca
Rs
t
void
b)
What are partial discharges? Describe some of the typical partial discharges.
Answer
Some of the typical partial discharges are:
i)
Corona or gas discharge. These occur due to nonuniform field in sharp edges of
the conductor subjected to high voltage especially when the insulation provided is
air or gas or liquid. [Fig. (a)]
ii)
iii)
Cavity discharges: When cavities are formed in solid or liquid insulating materials
the gas in the cavity is over stressed and discharges are formed. [Fig. (d)]
iv)
Cb
(a )
(b )
(c )
(d )
c)
(e )
Determine the discharge inception stress in kV/mm in the dielectric for a pressure
of 550mm Hg.
(ii)
(iii)
If the pressure in the void is doubled, determine the new inception voltage.
Answer
i)
) U
)+ U
)] U
)]
ii)
Apparent discharge q;
]
q = V[
q = Vc ( ) [ Ca
(
where Cb =
qa = (0.46
iii)
Cb VcCb = U.Cb
)
= 0.064pF
Question 3
a)
Explain the purpose of insulation diagnostic tests on electrical power equipment. What
are the parameters or properties normally measured when investigating the insulation
performance?
Answer
b)
i)
Breakdown strength
ii)
Conductivity / resistivity
iii)
iv)
Permittivity
v)
Partial discharge
vi)
The circuit diagram for Schering bridge is shown in Fig. Q5. Both ends of the sample
and the standard capacitor are connected to the high voltage side of the bridge. The
standard capacitor used in the circuit has losses and can be represented as a
capacitance (C2) and resistance (r2) in series.
Show that at balanced condition, the capacitance and the resistance of the sample are:
;
Vc
Vr
Answer
At balance condition
 equation (i)
Where
)
(
)(
and
Therefore
(
Normally,
Hence
c)
and
PROVEN
Show that for a solid insulating material of relative permittivity r, containing a cylindrical
airfilled cavity of depth t, which is small in relation to the thickness T of the dielectric,
the voltage across the sample (Vo) is given by the expression;
From the above equation, explain why the partial discharge can occur in the cavity
even though only the normal service voltage is applied across the insulating material.
Answer
Rp
Ir
Ir
Ic
Cp
Void capacitance,
Ic
Remaining capacitance,
Therefore
(
)
(
Since
T
(
)
(
Yields
>>t;
(
proven
Hence
And
(
and
Electric stress in the void is greater than the dielectric stress across the sample.
Partial discharge occurs due to the very small gap of the void even at the normal
service voltage.
Question 4
a)
Sketch the circuit diagram of a high voltage Schering bridge for the measurement
of loss tangent (tan )
ii)
when the high voltage standard capacitor used in the Schering bridge is a lossfree type.
Answer
C4
a
Sample
Standard
with losses
r
r2
b2
AC
Supply
ii) Given;
At balance condition
 equation (i)
)(
; and
,
(
b)
)(
cavity of depth t. The material has thickness T, where its value is much greater
compared to the depth of the cavity. Show that the voltage across the sample
(material),
Where
From the above equation, explain why partial discharge can occur in the cavity even
though only normal service voltage is applied across the insulating material.
Answer
Cb
bc1
void
Cc
Ca
Va
V
Va
Void capacitance,
(i)
(ii)
Remaining capacitance,
(iii)
(iv)
Therefore
(
)
(
Since T >> t;
(
)
(
Yields
proven
and
Hence
And
(
Since
, the electrical stress in the void is greater than the electrical stress across
the sample. Thus, partial discharge occurs due to the very small gap of the void even
at the normal service voltage.
Question 5
a)
Partial discharge detection and measurements were limited to the laboratory due to
high levels of electrical noise at the switchyards. With the aid of proper diagrams
describe the main sources of interferences or noise which hampered the partial
discharge detection process and the techniques to suppress the interferences.
Answer
Typical noise source :
i)
Power supply
ii)
Voltage regulator
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
Coupling capacitor
vii)
viii)
ix)
x)
b)
i)
Filter grounding
ii)
Shielded room
iii)
Separate source
iv)
A solid dielectric has a small cavity. Draw an equivalent circuit for such an arrangement
and define all symbols. Derive the expression for electric field strength across the
cavity.
Answer
R4
AC
Sup
ply
Sa
mpl
e
C2 C4
R3
b2
b
a
In the absence of the void, the electric field within the insulation would everywhere be
E = V/d. Neglecting conductance, the insulation, which its void, can be represented
by the three capacitances a, b, and c. The void capacitance is represented by c. If the
void has length d1 and the cross sectional area A1 (perpendicular to d1) then;
C=
The void is connected to the conducting plates through two capacitance b1 and b2 .
Their series combination is represented by the single capacitance b. Clearly,
b=
Where is the relative permittivity of the insulating material. The remaining capacitor
a has the value,
Where A is the cross sectional area of the insulation, minus the (usually small) cross
sectional area of the void.
and
Vc = EC.t
Where Ec is the dielectric field strength in the void. Substituting in equation gives,
Usually the void will be small, so that d<< d and d<< d. Consequently,
EC E
This shows that the field strength I n the void is greater than the field strength in the
insulating material. Because the gas in the void is likely to have a lower breakdown
strength that the insulating material, partial discharge are very probable.
c)
sensitivity of 1pC/volt. Determine the magnitude of charge transferred from the cavity
by taking of the disc to be equal to 2.5.
Answer
1pC = 1volt, since the discharge magnitude measured = 0.2pC.
C =
= ( )
Capacitance,
Cb =
=(
Thus
qc =
) (
( )
X 0.2 = 0.92pC
Question 6
a)
Breakdown in solid or liquid dielectrics arises from the action of electrical discharges in
internal gaseous cavities. Draw an equivalent circuit for such an arrangement and
device the expression for energy dissipated in the cavity in one discharge.
Answer
Cb
Vc
v
oi
d
Va
VTa
C
b2
Cc
b
a
=
]
=
=
b)
A Schering Bridge as shown in figure 5 is used to measure the dielectric loss and
capacitance of the insulation of an electrical power equipment. Prove that the
capacitance, C and tangent loss are given by;
and
Answer
Cb
a
Ca
Va
Va
b2
Vc
The circuit of the Schering Bridge is shown in Figure. The unknown is represented by C
and r in series. Thus
C is standard capacitor. Often an air capacitor is used in this position, being loss free.
To balance the bridge it is necessary to have two variable components. Normally one
of these is C and the other one is either R or R. Balance occurs when,
Z Z = Z Z
That is when,
(
Rearranging and separating into real and imaginary parts gives the balance
condition,
r=
c)
C=
and
Substituting in
Gives
proved
A solid dielectric specimen of 5cm diameter and 10mm thickness has dielectric
constant of 3. It has an embedded air filled void of 2.5mm diameter and 1mm
thickness. It is subjected to a voltage of 100kVrms. Find the voltage at which an
internal discharge in the void can occur. The breakdown strength of air is 3kV/mm. Also
determine the charge the value each time there is discharge inside the void and what
will be the value of charge as measured on the detector?
Answer
The inception voltage of the stressed void Vi is given by;
Where
)}
Ecb
when t = 1mm
{
)}
)}
when t = 0.1mm
This shows that the smaller is the void then the lower becomes the discharge inception
voltage
Capacitance of void
Capacitance of slab
Therefore,
Therefore measured change is around 1.0% less than the actual charge
Question 7
a)
A solid dielectric has a small cavity. Draw an equivalent circuit for such an arrangement
and define all symbols. Under what conditions will this system have a partial
discharge?
Answer
b)
From a survey conducted on faulty 22kV polyethylene cables that have been in service
from at least one year to tens of years were found to experience fault due to several
factors. The factor were due to unknown cause, treeing, insulation failure and others.
Cables which were just within of one year of installation faulty due to unknown reasons
while the one being installed within three years were found to have traces of treeing
initiated from the cable sheath to the cable conductor. Explain briefly the initialization of
treeing in cable insulation and how it can cause insulation failure.
Answer
Electrical treeing initiate and propagate in a dry dielectric due to high and divergent
electric stress at metallic or semiconducting contaminant and/or void due to partial
discharge such trees consist of hollow channel, resulting from decomposition of
dielectric materials by the PDs. The tree shows up clearly in translucent solid dielectric
when examined with an optical microscope and transmitted light. Electrical tree
channels are permanently visible and there is a great variety of the visual appearance
of stems and branches of such trees as well as the circumstances in which initiation
and growth of such trees occur
a) Branch type
b)
Bush Type
c) A solid dielectric specimen of 5cm diameter and 10mm thickness has dielectric
constant of 3. It has embedded air filled void of 2.5mm diameter and 1mm thickness.
It is subjected to a voltage of 100kVrms. Find the voltage at which an internal
discharge in the void can occur. The breakdown strength of air is 3kV/mm. Also
determine the charge value each time there is discharge inside the void and what will
be the value of charge as measured on the detector? If the cavity thickness is
reduced to 10m, what will be its effect on the discharge inception voltage?
Answer
The inception voltage of the stressed void Vi is given by as:
where,
)}
tc
)
)
This shows that smaller is the void them lower becomes the discharge inception
voltage.
Capacitance of void
Capacitance of slab
Therefore,
Therefore measured change is around 1.0% less than the actual charge.
Question 8
a)
A solid dielectric has a small cavity. Draw an equivalent circuit for such an arrangement
and define all symbols. Under what conditions will this system have a partial
discharge?
Answer
b)
From a survey conducted on faulty 22kV polyethylene cables that have been in service
from at least one year to tens of years were found to experience fault due to several
factors. The factor were due to unknown cause, treeing, insulation failure and others.
Cables which were just within of one year of installation faulty due to unknown reasons
while the one being installed within three years were found to have traces of treeing
initiated from the cable sheath to the cable conductor. Explain briefly the initialization of
treeing in cable insulation and how it can cause insulation failure.
Answer
Electrical treeing initiate and propagate in a dry dielectric due to high and divergent
electric stress at metallic or semiconducting contaminant and/or void due to partial
discharge such trees consist of hollow channel, resulting from decomposition of
dielectric materials by the PDs. The tree shows up clearly in translucent solid dielectric
when examined with an optical microscope and transmitted light. Electrical tree
channels are permanently visible and there is a great variety of the visual appearance
of stems and branches of such trees as well as the circumstances in which initiation
and growth of such trees occur.
a) Branch type
c)
b) Bush Type
A solid dielectric specimen of 5cm diameter and 10mm thickness has dielectric
constant of 3. It has embedded air filled void of 2.5mm diameter and 1mm thickness. It
is subjected to a voltage of 100kVrms. Find the voltage at which an internal discharge
in the void can occur. The breakdown strength of air is 3kV/mm. Also determine the
charge value each time there is discharge inside the void and what will be the value of
charge as measured on the detector? If the cavity thickness is reduced to 10m, what
will be its effect on the discharge inception voltage?
Answer
The inception voltage of the stressed void Vi is given by as:
)}
where,
Ecb
tc
i)
ii)
)}
)
This shows that smaller is the void them lower becomes the discharge inception
voltage.
iii)
Capacitance of void
Capacitance of slab
Therefore,
Therefore measured change is around 1.0% less than the actual charge in the
void.
Question 9
A solid can be modeled either as parallel or series model as shown in below. Derive the
equation for tangent loss, tan for both models.
T
Va
Ca
void
Va
b1
Vc
Solid Insulator Model Series Model
Sample
I
Vc
Cs
Vr
AC
Supply
C4
Rs
r
Answer
R4
V
Vc
Rs =
Cs =
Tan =
= CsRs
Ir
I
Vc
Cs
Vr
Ic
Rs
Ir
Cp
Question 10
a)
How does the internal discharge phenomena lead to breakdown in solid dielectrics?
Answer
Cause gradual deterioration of the insulating materials, sometimes over a period of several
years, leading perhaps to eventual failure.
b)
A solid dielectric has a small cavity. Draw an equivalent circuit for such an arrangement
and define all symbols. Under What condition will this system have a partial discharge?
Answer
Vr
Vc
Usually the void will be small, so that d<< d and d<< d. Consequently,
EC E
This shows that the field strength In the void is greater than the field strength in the
insulating material. Because the gas in the void is likely to have a lower breakdown
strength that the insulating material, partial discharge are very probable.
c)
A solid dielectric specimen of 5cm diameter and 10mm thickness has dielectric
constant of 3. It has an embedded air filled void of 2.5mm diameter and 1mm
thickness. It is subjected to a voltage of 100kVrms. Find the voltage at which an
internal discharge in the void can occur. The breakdown strength of air is 3kV/mm. Also
determine the charge the value each time there is discharge inside the void and what
will be the value of charge as measured on the detector? If the cavity thickness is
reduce to 100 m, What will be its effect on the discharge inception voltage?
Answer
The inception voltage of the stressed void Vi is given by;
Vi = Ecb t {1 1/ r (d/t1)}
Where
Ecb  breakdown stress of the void = 3 kV/mm
d  thickness of the specimen = 10mm
t
when t = 1mm
Vi = 3 * 1 {1 + 1/3 (10/1  1)} = 12 kV peak
when t = 0.1mm
Vi = 3 * 0.1 {1 + 1/3 (10/0.1  1)} = 10.2 kV peak
This shows that the smaller is the void then the lower becomes the discharge inception
voltage
Capacitance of void
Cc = o r A/t
When t = 1mm, area of void = (2.5 x 10) / 4 = 491 x 10 m
Cc = (8.854 x 10 ) (1) (491 x 10 )
1 x 10
= 4.34 x 10
Capacitance of slab
Ca = o r A/d
Ca = (8.854 x 10 ) (3) (0.025) (3.14)
0.01
= 5.21 x 10 F
Cb = o r A/[dt]
= 5.79 x 10 F
Qa = Vi . Ca
Qa = (12 x 10) (5.21 x 10 )
= 62.52nC
Qa = ___Cb____. Qc
Cb + Cc
Therefore,
Qc = _Cb_+ Cc_. Qa
Cb
5.79 x 10
4.34 x 10
. 62.52nC
5.79 x 10
Qc = 63nC
Therefore measured change is around 1.0% less than the actual charge.
Question 11
a)
A Schering Bridge as shown in Figure Q7b is used to measure the dielectric loss and
capacitance of the insulation of an electrical power equipment. Prove that the
capacitance, C and tangent loss are given by;
and
ANSWER
A Schering Bridge as shown in Figure Q7b is used to measure the dielectric loss and
capacitance of the insulation of an electrical power equipment. Prove that the
capacitance, C and tangent loss are given by;
and
V
a
Ic
Ir
Ic
b2
That is when,
Rearranging and separating into real and imaginary parts gives the balance condition,
and
Substituting in
gives,
proved
Question 12
a)
ii)
iii)
Answer
i)
The term corona is used to describe the discharge phenomena which occur at
highly stressed electrodes prior to the complete breakdown of the gap between
the electrodes. It is a partial discharge in air around a sharp point or thin wire in a
strong, nonuniform field. It is characterized by a visible glow, an audible noise,
radio interference, chemical effects such as production of ozone and loss of
electrical power. It occurs whenever the local voltage gradient exceeds the
ionization value of the air and depends on the air density, humidity and in outdoor
situations whether it is fair weather or raining and also on the roughness of the
conductor surface.
ii)
DC Corona.
Onset streamers
Hermstein glow
Breakdown streamer
Eventually, the shielding effect of the glow discharge is not able to prevent
the formation of large streamers which propagates well into the gap.
Ca
b1
Cb
t TV
Onset streamers
CC
R
C
Hermstein glow
Breakdown streamer
Trichel pulses
These differ from the burst pulses in that their magnitude and repetition
frequency are both very regular.
Cathode glow
Negative streamer
AC
Supply
Trichel pulses
Cathode glow
Negative streamer
AC Corona
With an alternating voltage applied, the same basic corona types will
appear although their characteristics may be altered to an extent which
depends on the gap length
Here, the ions generated in any of the corona modes above are able to
cross the gap during one half cycle to the next and the corona modes will
therefore be similar to those for direct voltages, although all three modes
may be observed in one half cycle.
For those gaps, space charge can persist from one half cycles to the next
and can have an effect on the corona modes observed. The usual effect is
to enhance the positive glow phase. Further, the negative streamer is never
observed in ac stressed gaps, since its onset potential is higher than the
ii)
The above description of the types of corona discharge referred particularly to the
point plane gap where there is a single site for discharges to occur. On a
transmission line, corona may occur anywhere on the line and the average
corona currents will be much higher.
iii)
Power losses
The power losses depend upon the maximum gradient for which the line is
designed. For the single conductor, this occurs at the conductor surface.
For the given cross section of conductor required for current carrying
capacity, the maximum stress may be reduced by using bundled
conductors in which 2,4 or 6 wire assembly is used.
Radio interference
Radio interference is caused only by the pulse corona modes and only
Trichel pulses and positive streamers are of interest. The positive
streamers usually have shorter rise time than the Trichel pulses and greater
amplitude, so that the rate of change of current is greater and their RI effect
is therefore greater. These corona discharges cause radiation of
electromagnetic waves.
Audible noise
Recent studies of EHV and UHV lines indicate that audible noise may be a
problem where such lines pass near inhabit areas. Difficulties arise in
monitoring such noise levels as the apparent noise is a nonlinear function
of frequency. Measuring instruments have thus been developed which have
a similar response to the human ear and levels have been se based limits
at which most people find the noise objectionable.
b)
Partial discharge detection and measurements were limited to the laboratory due to
high levels of electrical noise at the switchyards. With the aid of proper diagram;
i)
Describe in details the main sources of interference or noise which hampered the
partial discharge detection and measurement process.
ii)
The technique which are widely used to suppress the noise in order to measure
the partial discharges.
Answer
The source of the noise is listed as below:
i)
The power system's noise through the apparatus outlets, which may excited by
the internal discharge of other equipments in power system, such as discharge of
the bus bar, switching of the breaker and so on.
ii)
The high frequency noise such as coupling by capacitor and inductor form the
generator's rotator DC excitation. These noise may originated by the thyristor of
excitation system.
iii)
iv)
The noise in diagnosis system itself, such as noise of circuit or switch power
supply
v)
The technique which are widely used to suppress the noise in order to measure
the partial discharges. Band pass Filter, FFT Filter, Wavelet Filter, Neural
Network Filter to eliminate the noise.
Question 13
a)
(i)
(ii)
Answer
i)
ii)
b)
Electrodynamic
Heat
Internal discharge
Tracking
Explain the Townsend mechanism of breakdown in the gas medium and prove that
creation of breakdown is given by (all symbols have their usual meanings):
Answer
Townsend breakdown mechanism used to reduce the breakdown in the gas business.
This mechanism did in low pressure conditions and the small distance between the
electrodes, the voltage supplied to the electrodes until breakdown occurs. Breakdown
process begins with the creation of the first and subsequent calculation of the
coefficient of voltage increase will occur and thus the distribution of secondary
breakdown occurs. Currents equation taking into account the secondary generator.
Because of;
Their for;
c)
Distance (mm)
20.3
28.8
Pressure (mbar)
500
700
Temperature (C)
20
25
31.6
53
Answer
At a distance; d1 = 20.3 mm, P1 = 500mb, t1 = 20 C, V1 = 31.6 kV
(
. E1
. E2
When E1 x 19.57
When E2 x 10.02
E1 to E2
From E1
(
d)
(i)
(ii)
What are the effects to high voltage apparatus if the partial discharge level is
greater than the maximum allowed.
Answer
i)
Partial discharge is an electrical discharge that only partially bridge the insulating
medium.
ii)
The cable will damage because of the high partial discharge level is greater from
the limit of insulation limit.
Question 14
a)
ii)
Answer
a)
i)
Paschens Law is found to be valid over a wide range of partial discharge values.
At higher partial discharge values, the breakdown voltage in some gases is found
to e slightly higher than the values at smaller gaps for the same values of partial
discharge.
ii)
CHAPTER 6
HIGH VOLTAGE GENERATION
(QUESTION AND ANSWER)
QUESTION 1
a) Describe and give an example, the significance of routine tests, type tests and
maintenance tests on high voltage equipment.
ANSWER
Routine tests are done on equipment for the purpose of eliminating equipment with
manufacturing defects by nondestructive tests. These are generally easily verifiable. Made
by manufacturer on every finished piece of product to fulfills the specifications. Example:
Resistance measurement on power transformer or partial discharge measurement in high
voltage cables.
Type tests are done on equipment to establish that the particular design is suitable for a
particular purpose. They are normally done once on new designs and when specifically
requested by consumers purchasing in bulk quantities. Performed on each type of equipment
before their supply on a general commercial scale demonstrate performance
characteristics.
Example: One minute rain test on porcelain insulator where the insulator is sprayed
throughout the tests with artificial rain or temperature rise test and lightning impulse test on
power transformers.
Maintenance tests are usually carried out after maintenance/repair of the equipment and
conducted according the schedule provided. Purpose of the test is to ensure the equipment
lifetime is achieved.
Example: Partial discharge measurement on cables and oil breakdown test on transformer.
b) Describe briefly, with the aid of suitable diagrams the cascade arrangement of
transformers to obtain high alternating voltage for testing purposes.
ANSWER
Figure 1 shows a typical cascade arrangement of transformers used to obtain up to 300 kV
from three units each rated at 100 kV insulation. The low voltage winding is connected to the
primary of the first transformer, and this is connected to the transformer tank which is
earthed. One end of the high voltage winding is also earthed through the tank. The high
voltage end and a tapping near this end is taken out at the top of the transformer through a
bushing, and forms the primary of the second transformer. One end of this winding is
connected to the tank of the second transformer to maintain the tank at high voltage. The
secondary of this transformer too has one end connected to the tank at high voltage.
Figure 1
The secondary of this transformer too has one end connected to the tank and at the other
end the next cascaded transformer is fed. This cascade arrangement can be continued
further if a still higher voltage is required. In the cascade arrangement shown, each
transformer needs only to be insulated for 100 kV, and hence the transformer can be
relatively small. If a 300kV. Transformer had to be used instead, the size would be massive.
High voltage transformers for testing purposes are designed purposely to have a poor
regulation. This is to ensure that when the secondary of the transformer is short circuited (as
will commonly happen in flashover tests of insulation), the current would not increase to too
high a value and to reduce the cost. In practice, an additional series resistance (commonly a
water resistance) is also used in such cases to limit the current and prevent possible damage
to the transformer.
i)
With the aid of appropriate calculations select the values of resistive elements in the
circuit to produce the required waveform. State any assumptions made.
)
)
ii) Draw the basic circuit diagram of the multistage impulse generator indicating
all relevant values on it. Indicate also on the diagram the wavefront and
wavetail control resistors and the charging resistors.
ANSWER
QUESTION 2
a) Describe the types of test conducted on high voltage equipment .
ANSWER
i)
Routine Tests
Routine tests are made by the manufacturer on every finished piece of product to
make such that it fulfills the specifications. Acceptance and commissioning tests
are made by the purchaser and selfexplanatory. Routine testing such as a
powerfrequency overvoltage tests is performed on every unit at the
manufacturers factory and possibly after receipt of the unit by the purchaser.
Full wave rectifiers produce dc voltage less than ac maximum voltage. Ripple or voltage
fluctuation will be present and this has to be kept within a reasonable limit by means of filters.
During the +ve halfcycle, rectifier A conducts and charged up capacitor, C (smoothing
capacitor). During the ve halfcycle, rectifier B conducts and charged up C. The source
transformer requires a centre tapped secondary with rating of 2V. The output waveform is
shown in the figure below:
Determine the output impulse waveshape of generator and give comments on the
waveshape as compared to the standard test procedure.
The front time of the wave is in the tolerance of standard waveshape which is
while the tail time is out of the tolerance of standard waveshape which
is 50
.
ii) What is the maximum output voltage of the generator if the charging capacitor is
charged up to the maximum rated voltage?
Hint:
QUESTION 3
a) Explain with diagram, different types of rectifier circuit for producing high dc
voltages.
ANSWER
Rectifier circuits for producing high dc voltages from ac sources may be halfwave, fullwave or voltage doublertype rectifier. The rectifier may be an electron tube or solidstate device. The schematic diagram of the rectifiers can be seen in the figures below.
Figure (a)
Figure (b) below for providing the excitation to the second and the third stages is shown.
Isolating transformer
tank potentials and are meant for supplying excitation for the second and the third stages at
their tank potentials. Power supply to the isolating transformers is also fed from the same ac
input. This scheme is expensive and requires more space. The advantage is the natural
cooling is sufficient and the transformers are light and compact.
Figure (b)
c) An impulse generator has eight stages with each condenser rated at 0.16F and
125kV. The load capacitor available is 1000 pF. Find the series resistance and
the damping resistance needed to produce 1.2/50 s impulse wave. What is the
maximum output voltage of the generator, if the charging voltage is 120kV?
ANSWER
= 0.02F
=
= (1.2
)
= 420
= 0.7 (
50
= 0.7 (420+
50
( (0.02
= (294+0.7
294+0.7
0.7
time total
(0.021
= 2380.95
= 2380.95294 = 2086.95
= 2981
= 2.38
892kV
QUESTION 4
a) With the aid of suitability labeled diagram, discuss the generation of high voltage
alternating current (HVAC) using series resonant transformer and state the output voltage
equation across the test object.
ANSWER
HVAC generation using resonant transformer:
))
=
= V/ CR
b) High voltage testing can be classified into two types which are destructive and
non destructive tests. Discuss in details destructive and nondestructive tests
and give example of an application of the tests towards high voltage
equipment.
ANSWER
Destructive Test
The test is the deliberate application to equipment of a voltage higher than its normal
working voltage, for a specific period of time, to discover if the insulation withstands or
breaks down under that voltage. By definition, a breakdown test is a destructive
technique to measure the dielectric strength the insulation and it is usually made on a
sample piece of the material. The term destructive relates to phenomena associated
with the failure of the insulation under test. Normally the equipment or apparatus
underwent destructive cannot be used in the service.
Nondestructive Test
Because of their cost, the testing of components or complete equipment is usually by a
nondestructive technique designed to ensure that the level of insulation is adequate for
service conditions. Unless breakdown is intended, the test voltage is not raised high
enough to cause failure in good equipment.
The test is mainly done to assess the electrical properties, such as resistivity, dielectric
constant and loss factor. This test is done to detect any deterioration or faults in the
internal insulation of the apparatus. The apparatus is not destroyed during the nondestructive test and can be used again.
c) The high voltage laboratory of the Institute of High Voltage and High Current
(IVAT) is to conduct a lightning impulse test on high voltage equipment. A
competent test engineer has to apply a series of reduced lightning impulse
wave, full impulse wave and chopped impulse wave on the tail. Based on the
A change in the wave shape of the voltage and current oscillograms both before
and after the chopped waves has been applied.
QUESTION 5
a)The type of tests conducted to high voltage equipment are as follows;
ANSWER
i)
Routine Tests
Routine tests are made by the manufacturer on every finished piece of product to
make such that it fulfills the specifications. Acceptance and commissioning tests
are made by the purchaser and selfexplanatory. Routine testing such as a
powerfrequency overvoltage tests is performed on every unit at the
manufacturers factory and possibly after receipt of the unit by the purchaser.
b) Discuss with the aid of suitable diagrams the generation of high voltage
direct current (HVDC) using full wave rectifier circuit.
ANSWER
Full Wave Rectifier for HVDC generation
Full wave rectifiers produce dc voltage less than ac maximum voltage. Ripple or
voltage fluctuation will be present and this has to be kept within a reasonable limit by
means of filters. During the +ve halfcycle, rectifier A conducts and charged up
capacitor, C (smoothing capacitor). During the ve halfcycle, rectifier B conducts and
charged up C. The source transformer requires a centre tapped secondary with rating
of 2V. The output waveform is shown in the figure below;
i)
Determine the output impulse waveshape of the generator and give comments on
theswaveshape as compared to the standard testing procedure.
The front time of the wave is in the tolerance of standard waveshape which is
while the tail time is out of the tolerance of standard waveshape which
is 50
ii) What is the maximum output voltage of the generator if the charging capacitor is
charged up to the maximum rated voltage.
QUESTION 6
a) What is the basic difference between self restoring and nonself restoring
insulation?
ANSWER
SelfRestoring (SR) Insulation
1)Insulation
that
completely
recovers
insulating properties after a disruptive
discharge
(flashover)
caused
by
the
application of a voltage is called selfrestoring
insulation
b) Describe the differences between Basic Lightning Impulse Insulation Level (BIL)
and Basic Switching Impulse Insulation Level (BSL) and explain how they affect in
the design of power system network?
ANSWER
2) It is determine by test mode using impulse 2)The BSL may be either a statistical
of the standard lightning impulse wave shape. BSL or a conventional BSL.BSLs are
universally for wet conditions.
200
210
220
230
240
250
No of impulse applied
10
10
10
10
10
10
No of Flashover
10
10
P = m/n (%)
10
50
90
100
100
Determine:
i)
50% Flashover
ANSWER
i)
50% Flashover
refer figure,50% Flashover is 220kV
V50 V16
= 220 211.8
=8.2kV
Standard deviation
V84 V50
= 228.1  220
=8.1kV
Standard deviation(coefficient of variation)
= 8.1/220
=0.037 pu
Question 7
a) Discuss the suitable diagram the generation of high voltage direct current (HVDC)
using full wave rectifier.
ANSWER
Full Wave Rectifier produce dc voltage less than the ac maximum voltage.
Ripple or voltage fluctuation will be present and this has to be kept within a
reasonable limit by means of filters.
b) With the aid of suitable labelled diagram, describe the measurement of high
voltage alternating current (HVAC) using sphere gap and discuss factor of
affecting the sparkover voltage of the gap.
ANSWER
High voltage measurement using sphere gap is based on the BS 359 Standard. In
this standard tables of breakdown voltage are given for various sphere gap
configuration. The sphere gap arrangement is show in figure below.
Uniform field spark gap have a sparkover voltage within a known tolerance and can
measure peak value of voltage if gap distance is known. Eg. Vs = 30kV peak at 1 cm
spacing in air at 200C and 760 torr . Arrangement : vertically with lower gap grounded
or unwanted oscillation in the source voltage when b/d occurs.
Factors affecting sparkover voltage of gap:
i)
i)
ANSWER
Charging capacitor, C1 =0.2/10 =0.2uF
Load Capacitor, C2 =0.001uF
Front time, t1 = 1.2us = 3.0 R1
C1C2/C1 + C2
Then,
R1 = 1.2x106
3
= 420
(C1C2)
C1 + C2
ii) What is the maximum ouput voltage of the generator if the charging voltage is
120Kv,
DC charging voltage for 10 stages, Vc = 10 x 120kV=1.2MV
Maximum output voltage, Vo/p = V c ____ [exp (t1)exp(Betat1)(1)
R1C2(alpha Beta)
= 1/R1C2= 2.38x106
= 1/R2C1 =0.0168x106
Substitute the values into equation (1) gives,
Vo/p = 1.12MV
iii)
QUESTION 8
a) i)Sketch a single stage equivalent circuit of a lighting impulse generator.
ANSWER
Single stage equivalent circuit:
ii) For the given circuit, give equation for the front and tail times (for 1.2/50 s wave),
and the efficiency of the generator.
ANSWER
iii) A voltage divider with high voltage arm capacitance of 1000pF is now connected
to the output terminal. If a maximum output voltage is 100kV, determine the
minimum value of the low voltage arm capacitance required if the low voltage
reading is not exceed 100V peak.
ANSWER
Vout = 100kVp
b) With the help of suitable labeled diagrams, describe how a sphere gap can be
used
for
high
voltage
measurements.
Discuss
the
advantages
and
By following the series sphere gap configure (D and d) one can determine the applied
voltage which causes the break gap by referring K the relevant tables.
Advantages
i)
ii) Standard high voltage values one guaranteed within the series tolerance.
Disadvantages.
i)
A voltage doublers
ANSWER
i.
Voltage doublers
ii.
iii.
QUESTION 9
a) Explain the advantages of generating ac high voltage using cascade transformer as
compared to the normal stepup transformer.
ANSWER
Advantages

Cheap
Small size
b) Explain the method to measure ac high voltage using capacitor voltage divider
& sphere gap.
ANSWER
i)
ii)
sphere gap
Sphere gaps technique are reliable only for certain gap configurations.
Normally, only sphere gaps are used. In certain casesuniform field
and rod
gaps are also used, but theiraccuracy is less.
gaps
The actual breakdown voltage Udat air density d may be found from the
tabulated
value, Udoby the following formula;
i)
ii) Generate very high dc voltage from single supply transformer by extending
the simple voltage doubler circuit
ANSWER
d) With the aid of suitable diagrams, explain the principle of operation three
stages Mark impulse generator.
ANSWER
The 1st stage being replaced by a pulse transformer. For the trigger process, using
this transformer a voltage pulse with a polarity opposite to the charging voltage of
capacitor C1 is included resulting in an over voltage across the first stage spark gap
FS1. This over voltage causes the spark gap to break down and the Marxgenerator
is erected in the usual manner.
As the spark gaps operate in the same way as in the free running mode, i.e. without
an additional trigger electrode, a longer lifetime of the spark gaps is to be expected.
QUESTION 10
a) Discuss in detail about the phenomenon starting with the information of
thunderclouds
ANSWER
Terdapat banyak faktorfaktor yang menyumbang kepada pemebentukan atau
menumpuan cas di dalam awan. Secara ringkasnya semasa rebut petir, cascas
positif dan negative terpisah disebabkan oleh pengerakkan arus udara yang besar
berserta hablur ais pada bahagian atas awan dan kejadian pada bahagian bawah
awan. Pemisahan ini bergantung kepada ketinggian awan iatu di antara 200 ke 10
000m. suhu di dalam awan boleh mencapai nilai 1 ke 100 C. Manakala voltan pula di
antara 107 ke 108 V dengan medan elektrik di antara 100kV/cm. Tenaga yang wujud
mungkin mencapai nilai 250kWh.
Adalah dipercayai bahawa kawasan arus awan bercas positif manakala bahagian
bawah
nilai
arus bercas negative. Medan electric pada permukaan bumi boleh mencapai
300V/cm dibandingkan pada keadaan cuaca biasa (tanpa rebut petir) nilainya 1V/cm.
Disebabkan oleh kecerunan suhu, arus udara bergerak keatas sambil membwa
kelembapan dan titisan air. Suhu ketinggian 4kn ialah 0C dan pada ketinggian
12km
pula 50C. titisan ait tidak akan membeku apabila mecapai suhu 0C
sebaliknya
mebeku pada 40C dalam bentuk hablur ais yang membesar. Suhu
Disebabkan beratnya, hablur ais yang tebentuk mula bergrek ke bawah. Pasa masa
yang sama titisan air yang ditiup ke atas oleh arus udara dan seterusnya titisan air
menjadi dingin melampau bergantung pada ketinggian. Oleh itu satu awan petir yang
dingin lampau bergerak ke atas dan satu hujan bergerak ke bawah.
Dalam masa penegrakan tersebut titisan air akan menjadi beku, mulamula pada
bahagian luar titisan. Satu kelompang yang mengandungi air di tengahnya pun
terbentuk. Apabila air di dalam kelompang itu membeku, kelompang akan pecah
disebabkan oleh pengembangan yang berlaku seterusnya menghasilkan bijibiji kecil ais yang membawa cas positif. Bijibiji ini kan di bawa oleh arus udara
kebahadian atas awan.
Hujan batu yang bergerak pula membawa cas negative yang sama bnyaknya. Oleh
itu,
terbentuklah cas positif pada bahagian atas awan dan cas negative pada bahagian
bawah cas.
Back flashover
c) A peak lighting current of 40kA has struck a ground wire a mid span (at the
middle of the transmission towers). If the wire surge impedance is given as
Z=500, calculate the generated voltages at the point of strike. State the
assumption you made from this question
ANSWER
Anggap
i)
ii)
Zs infiniti
Tiada balikan voltan pada talian bumi
Zsetup: Z/2
V pada titi ukuran,
=
= 10 MV
QUESTION 11
a) Explain what is meant by the terms T1/ T2 Impulse Wave and outline the
method of lightning impulse voltage production in the laboratory.
ANSWER
The wave shape is generally defined in terms of the time T1 and T2 in microsecond.
T1
is the time taken by the voltage wave to reach its peak value. i.e from 10% to 90% of
the
voltage wave. T2 is the total time from the start of the wave to the instant when it has
declined to one half of its peak, i.e from start of the wave to 50% of the peak during decay.
b) It is required to impulse test a 200pF, 500kV capacitor at twice its rated voltage
using a 50/250 s impulse. A number of 0.01 F, 100kV capacitors are available
and high voltage resistors can be constructed as required.
i)
ANSWER
ii)
Choose stages = 10
C1 = the Generator Capacitance
=
= 0.001F
T1 = 50s
50 = 3 R1.
50 = 3 R1.
]
]
R1= 100k
T2
= 0.7(R1+R2) (C1+C2)
= 197.6k
=
=
= 5.061
Vo =
= 767.7kV
QUESTION 12
a) Surge diverters (or lightning arrestors) generally consist of one or more spark
gaps in series, together with one or more nonlinear resistors in series.
ANSWER
surge diverters.
Zinc Oxide (ZnO) is being used in most modern day. Surge diverters on
account of its superior voltampere characteristic. In fact the ZnO arrestor is
often used gap less, as its normal follow current is negligibly small.
The voltampere characteristics of SiC and of ZnO nonlinearelements are
shown below for comparison with that of a linearresistor.
b) Discuss in detail about the lightning phenomenon starting with the formation of
thunderclouds.
An electrical phenomenon carries the concept of charges involvement. So two
types of charges are the reasons for the cloud to be considered as a cell. The
charges are positive type & negative type.
ANSWER
Not all clouds are lightning cloud generator. It is only the cumulonimbus cloud type
that can generate lightning. The ice Splinter can be used to explain the electrification
of the cloud. The moistures and precipitation particles being is suspension in air and
due to upwards action of updraft, causing super cooling to take place and resulting
moisture to become ice.
The ionic migration of OH & H in the moisture built, leaving the OHin the front and
H being lighter are pulled out to settle in the outer layer. The resultant twolayer ice
structure split due to different rate of ice expansion ( the inner & the outer layer).
The splinters are basically of positivecharged & the negativecharged. The lighter
splinters are pulled upwards while the lighter negatively charged splinters settle at the
lower point of the cloud. If the electric field between the cloud & ground exceed the
dielectric strength of air streamers will appear and propogate towards the ground.
The last jump of this streamers to the ground result in upward streamers to move to
attach itself to the downwardsmoving streamers. The attachment results in the
process of charges neutralization of the positive & negative charges. This is known as
return strike. It causes large currents to flow to the ground.
Wavefront
Wavetail
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
F
SH
C
ZI=40kA
TtV
1=500
=500
cl2
control resistors
resistor
100%
90%
50%
10%
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fl
cp
alw
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vo
lr
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