VCE Maths Methods CAS Units 1 & 2 Text Book

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VCE Maths Methods CAS Units 1 & 2 Text Book

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Mathematical

Methods CAS

ROBYN WILLIAMS | NICOLAOS KARANIKOLAS | KYLIE BOUCHER

GAYLE ROBERTS | JENNIFER NOLAN | GEOFF PHILLIPS

CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS

ROBERT CAHN | DOUGLAS SCOTT | HOWARD LISTON

SUPPORT MATERIAL

JOHN DOWSEY | DENNIS FITZGERALD | EMILY HUI | CAROLINE MEWS

VINOD NARAYAN | PETER SWAIN | DAVID TYNAN | IAN YOUNGER

WAYNE YOUNGS | SIMONE RICHARDSON | DINA ANTONIOU | NORRENE HILL

John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd

42 McDougall Street, Milton, Qld 4064

First edition published 2009

Second edition published 2010

Typeset in 10/12pt Times LT Std

John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 2009, 2010, 2013

The moral rights of the authors have been asserted.

National Library of Australia

Cataloguing-in-Publication data

Title:

Edition:

ISBN:

Notes:

Target audience:

Subjects:

Other authors/

contributors:

Dewey number:

CAS/Robyn Williams . . . [et a l.].

3rd ed.

978 1 118 31058 8 (paperback)

978 1 118 31067 0 (exisaver)

978 1 118 31060 1 (ebook)

Includes index.

For secondary school age.

Mathematics Textbooks.

Williams, Robyn (Robyn Ellen) 1967

510

The Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) allows a maximum

of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this work, whichever

is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any

educational institution for its educational purposes provided that

the educational institution (or the body that administers it) has

given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL).

Reproduction and communication for other purposes

Except as permitted under the Act (for example, a fair dealing

for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review), no part

of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,

communicated or transmitted in any form or by any means

without prior written permission. All inquiries should be made to

the publisher.

Illustrated by Aptara and Wiley Composition Services

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Craft Print International Ltd

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

5_61_10586_MQ11_MMCAS_3E_prelims.indd 2

8/05/13 2:22 PM

Contents

2K Using technology to solve quadratic equations

Introduction vi

About eBookPLUS viii

Acknowledgements ix

Exercise 2K 82

2L Simultaneous quadratic and linear equations

Exercise 2L 87

Chapter 1

Linear functions

1B

1C

1D

1E

1F

1G

1H

1

Exercise 1A 3

Rearrangement and substitution 4

Exercise 1B 6

Gradient of a straight line 8

Exercise 1C 10

Sketching linear functions 12

Exercise 1D 14

Simultaneous equations 15

Exercise 1E 17

Finding the equation of a straight line 18

Exercise 1F 20

Distance between two points and midpoint of a

segment 21

Exercise 1G 22

Linear modelling 24

Exercise 1H 25

Summary 27

Chapter review 28

ICT activities 34

Answers 35

Chapter 2

Quadratic functions

2A Polynomials

2B

2C

2D

2E

2F

2G

2H

2I

2J

39

39

Exercise 2A 40

Expanding quadratic expressions 41

Exercise 2B 43

Factorising quadratic expressions 44

Exercise 2C 46

Factorising by completing the square 47

Exercise 2D 50

Solving quadratic equations Null Factor Law 50

Exercise 2E 53

Solving quadratic equations completing the

square 55

Exercise 2F 57

The quadratic formula 58

Exercise 2G 61

The discriminant 62

Exercise 2H 66

Graphs of quadratic functions as power functions

(turning point form) 66

Exercise 2I 68

Graphs of quadratic functions (intercepts

method) 70

Exercise 2J 78

80

83

Summary 90

Chapter review 92

ICT activities 95

Answers 96

Chapter 3

105

105

Exercise 3A 106

3B Long division of polynomials 107

Exercise 3B 109

3C Polynomial values 109

Exercise 3C 110

3D The remainder and factor theorems 111

Exercise 3D 113

3E Factorising polynomials 114

Exercise 3E 116

3F Sum and difference of two cubes 117

Exercise 3F 118

3G Solving polynomial equations 118

Exercise 3G 120

3H Cubic graphs intercepts method 121

Exercise 3H 124

3I Quartic graphs intercepts method 126

Exercise 3I 127

3J Graphs of cubic functions in power function

form 128

Exercise 3J 130

3K Domain, range, maximums and minimums 132

Exercise 3K 134

3L Modelling using technology 136

Exercise 3L 137

3m Finite differences 138

Exercise 3M 142

3A Expanding

Summary 144

Chapter review 146

ICT activities 150

Answers 151

ExAm prACtICE 1

Based on Chapters 13

159

Chapter 4

4A Set notation

161

Exercise 4A 162

4B Relations and graphs

Exercise 4B 165

163

161

6E Identities

4D

6F

4E

4F

4G

4H

4I

4J

167

Exercise 4C 170

Types of relations (including functions) 172

Exercise 4D 174

Power functions (hyperbola, truncus and square root

function) 175

Exercise 4E 182

Function notation 183

Exercise 4F 186

Special types of function (including hybrid

functions) 187

Exercise 4G 189

Inverse relations and functions 192

Exercise 4H 193

Circles 193

Exercise 4I 195

Functions and modelling 197

Exercise 4J 197

Summary 200

Chapter review 202

ICT activities 209

Answers 210

6G

6H

6I

Based on Chapters 1 6

Matrices

Summary 243

Chapter review 246

ICT activities 250

Answers 251

309

matrices 309

Exercise 7A 315

7B Multiplying matrices 316

Exercise 7B 318

7C Solving matrix equations 320

Exercise 7C 324

7D Matrices and transformations 325

Exercise 7D 328

217

Summary 330

Chapter review 331

ICT activities 335

Answers 336

ExAm prACtICE 3

Based on Chapters 1 7

Rates of change

8A Identifying rates

8B

8D

8E

255

Exercise 6A 256

6B The unit circle 258

Exercise 6B 261

6C Radians 262

Exercise 6C 264

6D Symmetry 265

Exercise 6D 268

255

339

Chapter 8

8C

Chapter 6

Contents

307

Introduction 217

5A Index laws 217

Exercise 5A 220

5B Negative and rational powers 221

Exercise 5B 224

5C Indicial equations 224

Exercise 5C 226

5D Graphs of exponential functions 227

Exercise 5D 230

5E Logarithms 231

Exercise 5E 233

5F Solving logarithmic equations 234

Exercise 5F 236

5G Logarithmic graphs 236

Exercise 5G 237

5H Applications of exponential and logarithmic

functions 238

Exercise 5H 239

iv

Summary 293

Chapter review 296

ICT activities 301

Answers 302

Chapter 7

Circular functions

273

ExAm prACtICE 2

Chapter 5

269

Exercise 6E 272

Sine and cosine graphs

Exercise 6F 277

Tangent graphs 280

Exercise 6G 282

Solving trigonometric

equations 283

Exercise 6H 287

Applications 288

Exercise 6I 290

8F

8G

8H

341

341

Exercise 8A 342

Constant rates 343

Exercise 8B 345

Variable rates 347

Exercise 8C 348

Average rates of change 349

Exercise 8D 351

Instantaneous rates 353

Exercise 8E 355

Motion graphs (kinematics) 357

Exercise 8F 359

Relating the gradient function to the original

function 364

Exercise 8G 364

Relating velocitytime graphs to positiontime

graphs 365

Exercise 8H 366

Exercise 8I

369

373

11C

Summary 375

Chapter review 377

ICT activities 383

Answers 384

11D

11E

Chapter 9

Differentiation

389

9A Introduction to limits

Exercise 9A

11F

389

392

9C

9D

9E

9F

9G

functions 393

Exercise 9B 395

Differentiation using first principles 397

Exercise 9C 399

Finding derivatives by rule 400

Exercise 9D 405

Rates of change 407

Exercise 9E 410

Sketching graphs containing stationary points 412

Exercise 9F 417

Solving maximum and minimum problems 418

Exercise 9G 421

Summary 423

Chapter review 425

ICT activities 431

Answers 432

11G

11H

11I

Summary 516

Chapter review 518

ICT activities 523

Answers 524

Chapter 12

Combinatorics

12C

Antidifferentiation (integration)

12D

437

10A Antidifferentiation

12E

10B

12F

10C

10D

10E

437

Exercise 10A 439

Deriving the original function from the gradient

function 440

Exercise 10B 442

Approximating areas enclosed by

functions 444

Exercise 10C 448

The fundamental theorem of integral

calculus 452

Exercise 10D 456

Applications of antidifferentiation 457

Exercise 10E 459

12G

12H

Permutations 533

Exercise 12B 534

Factorials 536

Exercise 12C 537

Permutations using nPr 538

Exercise 12D 540

Permutations involving restrictions

Exercise 12E 544

Arrangements in a circle 545

Exercise 12F 546

Combinations using nCr 547

Exercise 12G 549

Applications to probability 551

Exercise 12H 554

565

567

Functions and graphs 569

Algebra 570

Rates of change and calculus

Probability 575

473

Chapter 11

Introductory probability

475

477

541

Summary 557

Chapter review 558

ICT activities 561

Answers 562

Answers

ExAm prACtICE 4

Based on Chapters 1 10

529

ExAm prACtICE 5

Summary 463

Chapter review 465

ICT activities 468

Answers 469

Exercise 11A

529

12B

Chapter 10

478

Exercise 11B 481

Tree diagrams and lattice diagrams 483

Exercise 11C 485

The Addition Law of Probabilities 487

Exercise 11D 490

Karnaugh maps and probability tables 492

Exercise 11E 495

Conditional probability 497

Exercise 11F 500

Transition matrices and Markov chains 501

Exercise 11G 506

Independent events 507

Exercise 11H 511

Simulation 513

Exercise 11I 515

475

Answers

Index

569

573

585

587

Contents

Introduction

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS Third edition is specifically designed for the VCE

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vi

Introduction

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Introduction

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Acknowledgements

ix

Chapter 1

Linear functions

diGital doC

doc-9695

10 Quick Questions

Chapter ContentS

1a

1B

1C

1d

1e

1F

1G

1h

Rearrangement and substitution

Gradient of a straight line

Sketching linear functions

Simultaneous equations

Finding the equation of a straight line

Distance between two points and midpoint of a segment

Linear modelling

and inequations

1a

A linear equation is one that involves a variable raised to the power of 1 only. Recall that x1 is the same

as x, so a linear equation involving x would contain only xs, and not x , x2, x3, x 1, x 2 and so on. For

8

example, y = 7x 3, ax + by = c and 3 x + 1 = 9 are all linear equations.

1

1

Note that y = is not a linear equation, as the is really x 1.

x

x

To isolate a particular variable known as making x (or whatever the variable is) the subject we

focus on the variable by undoing other terms and operations. Remember to do the same operation to both

sides of an equation, in the reverse order to that originally used to make up the equation.

Though the focus of this chapter is linear equations, some other types of equations will be included

for skills practice.

When there is only one variable involved in an equation, we may attempt to solve and find a numerical

value by rearranging to make the variable the subject.

1

2

Worked example 1

3x 2

4x

+5=1

a 7x 4 = 17

b

c 2

1 = 6

5

4

think

2

2

Write

a 7 x 4 = 17

7 x = 21

21

7

x=3

x=

3x 2

+5=1

4

3x 2

= 4

4

Chapter 1 Linear functions

3 x 2 = 16

3 x = 14

x=

14

4 x 1 = 6

5

4x

1 = 3

5

4x

=4

5

c 2

4 x = 20

20

4

x=5

x=

When an equation has variables on both sides, at some stage they must be gathered together on the

same side of the equation.

Worked example 2

Solve:

a 4x 3 = 3(6 x)

9 x + 3 13 x + 7

=

2

3

3 x 9( x + 7)

=

+ 1.

4

10

think

a 4x 3 = 3(6 x)

4x 3 = 18 3x

in a positive x term, in this case, the left-hand side (LHS).

(That is, add 3x to both sides.)

7x 3 = 18

7x = 21

21

7

x=3

x=

9 x + 3 13 x + 7

=

2

3

LCD = 6

adjusting numerators accordingly (so that numerator and

denominator have been multiplied by the same amount).

3(9 x + 3) 2(13 x + 7)

=

6

6

numerators must be equal. (Multiply each side by 6.)

3(9 x + 3) = 2(13 x + 7)

2

Write

27 x + 9 = 26 x + 14

27 x 26 x = 14 9

x=5

c

3 x 9( x + 7)

=

+1

4

10

LCD = 20

adjusting numerators accordingly (so that numerator and

denominator have been multiplied by the same amount).

5(3 x ) 2 9( x + 7) 20

=

+

20

20

20

numerators must be equal. (Multiply each term by 20.)

5(3 x) = 18(x + 7) + 20

15 5x = 18x + 126 + 20

15 126 20 = 18 x + 5 x

131 =

131

23

23 x

=x

131

x=

23

There is only one solution to a linear equation. For example, the equation 3x + 2 = 8 has the solution

x = 2. The solution to a linear equation can be represented as a single point on a number line. If the

equals sign is replaced with an inequality sign, the solution is a portion of a number line. These

expressions are referred to as linear inequations (sometimes called inequalities).

Worked example 3

a 6x 7 3x + 5

b 3m + 5 < 7

think

Write

a 6x 7 3x + 5

2

3x from both sides.

3x 7 5

3x 12

x4

b 3m + 5 < 7

3m

as you are dividing by a negative number.

exercise 1a

m>4

1 We1

Solve the following linear equations.

a 3x 19 = 13

b 4x + 25 = 7

12 3 x

=5

3

3 x 1 = 10

h 2

5

2 We2

Solve the following linear equations.

a 2x 9 = 3(2x 11) b 7x 1 = 17(3x 13)

x+2 x5

x + 11 2( x + 14)

=

=

e

f

6

3

3

9

6 x + 7 5x + 1

2 x + 29 x + 44

=

+1

=

+2

i

j

5

4

3

8

3x 1

=5

4

7x + 4

g

8 = 9

3

d

< 12

diGital doC

doc-9696

equation solvers

c 9x + 19 = 2

4x 6

7=3

3

x

i 7 8

= 77

c x + 11 = 2(x + 12)

4 x + 66 13 3 x

=

3

4

7 x 9 21 x

=

18

k

9

3

g

d 3x 7 = 3(35 2x)

x + 10 2(7 3 x )

=

9

5

17 x 49 + 2 x

=

+5

l

2

5

11 3 x

b

6

a 15 6x 2

7

3 We3

d 16 4x < 7(1 x)

1B

e 3x 7 2(35 2x)

19 x

+ 3 > 1

4

4 x 2( x + 1)

f

3

6

c

When there is more than one variable involved in an equation, we may rearrange the equation to make a

particular variable the subject using the same rules of equation solving described in the previous section.

Worked example 4

Rearrange each of the following to make the variable in parentheses the subject.

1

m

a 6x + 8y 48 = 0 (y)

b s = ut + at 2 k(u)

c T = 2

k(k)

2

k

think

a 6x + 8y 48 = 0

6x + 8y = 48

y=

48 6 x

8

denominator by 2.

y=

24 3 x

4

opposite.

8y = 48 6x

24 3

x

4 4

3

= 6 x

4

3

=

x+6

4

or y =

s = ut + 12 at 2

s 12 at 2 = ut

2s at 2 = 2ut

Write

2s at 2

=u

2t

2s at 2

u=

2t

c

T = 2

T

=

2

m

k

T2

m

=

4 2 k

numerator.

4 2 k

=

T2

m

m

k

4 2m

=k

T2

k=

4 2m

T2

Once a variable is isolated, we may substitute values of other variables to calculate various values of

the isolated variable. The following worked example illustrates some practical applications.

Worked example 5

a The formula for converting temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (F) (which is the system used in

5( F 32)

the USA) to degrees Celsius (C ) is C =

.

9

i Make F the subject.

ii What is the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit when the temperature measured in degrees

Celsius is 21 C?

b The area (A) of a circle is given by A = r 2, where r is the radius. Calculate the value of r correct

to 2 decimal places when A=20cm2.

think

Write

C=

a i

5( F 32)

9

9C = 5( F 32)

9C

= F 32

5

appropriate to use a common denominator.

9C

+ 32 = F

5

9C

F=

+ 32

5

9C + 160

or F =

5

2

9 21

+ 32

5

189

+ 32

F=

5

F = 37.8 + 32

F=

ii

Evaluate F.

F = 69.8

so 21C = 69.8 F

b

as follows.

As r is the radius, we take the positive root only.

A = r2

A

= r2

r=

If A = 20,

r=

Evaluate r.

20

places

Worked example 6

Note: In this example, m represents metres, m/s represents metres per second (velocity),

and m/s2 represents metres per second per second (acceleration).

The final velocity, v m/s, of an object that begins with velocity u m/s and accelerates at

am/s2 over a distance of s m is given by the equation v2 = u2 + 2 as.

a Find the value of v when u = 16, a = 2 and s = 36.

b Rearrange the given equation to make s the subject.

c Find the distance travelled by an object that begins with a velocity of 10 m/s and has a final

velocity of 4 m/s while accelerating at 1 m/s2.

think

Write

a v 2 = u 2 + 2as

v = u 2 + 2as

= 162 + 2 2 36

= 256 + 144

= 400

= 20

The final velocity is 20 m/s.

v 2 = u 2 + 2as

v 2 u 2 = 2as

v 2 u2

=s

2a

s=

v 2 u2

2a

c u = 10

v=4

a = 1

(see part b above).

Substitute the values given in step 1.

exercise 1B

s=

=

v 2 u2

2a

4 2 10 2

2 1

16 100

2

84

=

2

= 42

=

direction.

Each of the following is a real equation used in business, mathematics, physics or another

area of science. Make the variable shown in parentheses the subject in each case.

a A=L+P

(P)

b A = lw

(l)

d

(t)

c v=

d C = 2r

(r)

t

1 We4

()

kQq

r2

(r)

g Fd =

(v)

h v = rT

()

(w)

e E = + 2

1 2 1 2

mv mu

2

2

S = 2w(l + h) + 2lh

F=

S = 2r2 + 2rH

(H)

2 We5 Calculate the value of the subject (the first mentioned variable), given the values of the other

variables.

k

a I= 2

d

b E = K + mgh

c D = (n

k = 60, d = 15

K = 250, m = 2, g = 10, h = 5

1

)

2

n = 3, = 2.8

d E = hf0 W

e v = r 2 y2

= 2, r = 1.6, y = 1

Make the variable in parentheses the subject and find its value using the given information.

a A = l2

(l)

A = 60

4

r3

3

(r)

V = 1000

c v = u + at

(a)

v = 25, u = 0, t = 6

(l)

T = 4, g = 9.8

(c)

K = 6.9, = 0.05

b V=

d T = 2

e K=

l

g

c 2

1

4 We6 The perimeter, P, of a rectangle of length l and width w may be found using the equation

P = 2(l + w).

a Find the perimeter of a rectangle of length 16 cm and width 5 cm.

b Rearrange the equation to make w the subject.

c Find the width of a rectangle that has perimeter 560 mm and length 240 mm.

h

2

a Find the area of the trapezium shown in Figure B.

b Using Figure A, find an equation for determining side a in terms of the area A and side b.

c Find a in Figure C.

9m

a

h

Area

A

b

Figure A

16 m

50 cm

a

62 cm

Area = 2000 cm2

21 m

Figure B

Figure C

r 2

,

100

where A is the amount ($) in the account after two years, D is the initial deposit ($) and r is the

interest rate (%).

a Find the amount in such an account after two years if the initial deposit was $1000 and the

interest rate was 6%.

b Make r the subject of the equation.

c Find the rate required for an initial deposit of $1000 to grow to $2000 after 2 years.

7 The object and image positions for a lens of focal length f are related by

1 1 1

+ = , where u is the distance of the object from the lens

u v f

and v is the distance of the image from the lens.

4

2 3

a Make f the subject of the equation.

b Make u the subject of the equation.

c How far from the lens is the image when an object is

30cm in front of a lens of focal length 25 cm?

b

8 The length of a side of a right-angled triangle can be found using

Pythagoras theorem: c2 = a2 + b2, where c is the length of the longest side, and a and b are the lengths

of the two shorter sides. Find the value of b in the triangle above.

1

9 The volume of a cone is given by the rule V = 3 r2h, where r is the radius of the widest

r

part of the cone and h is the vertical height of the cone. Given that the volume of a

cone is 100 cm3 and its radius at the widest point is 12 cm, find the height of the

h

cone, expressing your answer in terms of .

the formula

diGital doC

doc-9697

Career profile

rick morris vigneron

1C

cone

y

y

Negative

gradient

Positive

gradient

y

(x2, y2)

Rise

(x1, y1) Run

x

Zero

gradient

Infinite

gradient

y y

rise

m = run or m = 2 1

x 2 x1

These terms are illustrated at left.

Here are two examples of where gradient can affect our

everyday lives. Can you think of others?

a steeper

gradient

provides a

greater

challenge for

climbers.

panels so that the maximum amount of energy is

absorbed.

Worked example 7

Calculate the gradient of this linear graph using the intercepts shown.

think

1

Write

Rise = 14, run = 2.

Calculate m = rise .

run

14

14

2

=7

m=

Worked example 8

Calculate the gradient of the line passing through the points (3, 6) and (1, 8).

think

Write

y2 y1

.

x 2 x1

m=

(x1, y1) (x2, y2)

(3, 6) (1, 8)

Simplify.

Cancel if possible.

y2 y1

x 2 x1

8 6

1 3

14

14

=

=

44

7

= 7

= 2

2

m=

If the angle a line makes with the positive direction of the x-axis is known, the gradient may be found

using trigonometry applied to the triangle shown below.

y

rise

run

adjacent run

Worked example 9

b Calculate the gradient of the line shown at right. Express your answer

60

to 2 decimal places.

think

formula m = tan () can be used.

Write

a m = tan ()

= tan (40)

= 0.839, correct to

3 decimal places

40

b = 180 60

the graph and the positive direction of the

x-axis. Calculate the required angle .

60

2 decimal places.

exercise 1C

1 We7

= 120

m = tan ()

= tan (120)

= 1.73

Calculate the gradient of each of the following linear graphs using the intercepts shown.

Without drawing a graph, calculate the gradient of the line passing through:

a (2, 4) and (10, 20)

b (4, 4) and (6, 14)

c (10, 4) and (3, 32)

d (5, 31) and ( 7, 25).

3 We9a Calculate the gradient (accurate to 3 decimal places) of a line making the angle

given with the positive x-axis.

a 50

b 72

c 10

d 30

e 150

f 0

g 45

h 89

2 We8

diGital doC

doc-9698

Gradient of a

straight line

4 We9b

Calculate the gradient of each line below. Give answers to 2 decimal places.

y

43

69

x

28

15

a a non-zero positive gradient?

b a negative gradient?

c a zero gradient?

d an undefined gradient?

5

4

3

2

1

10

54321 0 1 2 3 4 5

1

2

3

4

5

C

x

6 mC

a Which of the following lines has a

gradient of 2?

y

5

4

3

2

1

gradient of 3?

5

4

3

2

1

54321 0 1 2 3 4 5

1

2

3

4

5

B C

54321 0 1 2 3 4 5

1

2

3

4

5

E

7 Burghar plots the coordinates of a proposed driveway on a plan that is shown below. What is the

Garage

way

Drive

2m

17m

8 An assembly line is pictured below. What is the gradient of the sloping section? (Give your answer as a

fraction.)

BOFFO

Made in

Austra

lia

BOFFO

Made in

Austra

lia

BOFFO

Made in

Austra

lia

0.85 m

15 m

9 Determine the value of a in each case so the gradient joining the points is equal to the value given.

a (3, 0) and (5, a), gradient 2

b (2, 1) and (8, a), gradient 5

c (0, 4) and (a, 11), gradient 3

d (a, 5) and (5, 1), gradient 2

10 For safety considerations, wheelchair

specifications. One regulation requires

that the maximum gradient of a ramp

exceeding 1200 mm in length is 1 .

14

a Does a ramp 25 cm high with a

horizontal length of 210 cm meet

the requirements?

1

b Does a ramp with gradient meet

18

the specifications?

c A 16 cm high ramp needs to be

built. Find the horizontal length

of the ramp required to meet the

specifications.

diGital doC

doc-9699

SkillSHEET 1.1

Using a gradient to

find the value of a

parameter

11

1d

The general form for linear equations is y = mx + c, where m is the gradient of the line and c is the

y-intercept.

y

ie

ad

Gr

y = mx + c

Gradient

m

nt

y-intercept

x

y-intercept

x-intercept

These lines have identical

gradients (equal m values).

diGital doC

doc-9700

WorkSHEET 1.1

To sketch a graph from a linear equation expressed in general form, follow these steps.

Step 1 Plot the y-intercept on a set of axes.

Step 2 Find and plot a second point on the line. Do this by substituting any value of x into the equation

and finding the corresponding y-value.

Step 3 Join the two points.

Alternatively, you can use a CAS calculator or other graphing technology.

To find the equation of a line given the gradient and y-intercept, simply substitute the values of m and

c into y = mx + c.

To draw a graph, only two points are needed. A line may then be drawn

through the two points, and will include all other points that follow the

given rule. The two points can be chosen at random; however, it is often

easier to sketch a graph using the points where the graph crosses the axes.

These points are called x- and y-intercepts. The x-intercept occurs when

y = 0, and the y-intercept occurs when x = 0.

Worked example 10

think

1

Write/draW

x = 0 into the equation.

If x = 0: y = 1 0 + 6

y= 6

Substitute y = 0 into the equation.

If y = 0: 0 = x + 6

x=6

6)

(6, 0)

y

(0, 6)

(6, 0)

12

(0,

Worked example 11

think

Write/draW

x = 0 into the equation.

If x = 0: 3 0 2y = 12

2y = 12

12

y=

2

y = 6

y = 0 into the equation.

If y = 0: 3x 2 0 = 12

3x = 12

x=4

The graphs of some equations do not have two intercepts, as they pass through the origin (0, 0). Such

equations are of the form y = k x or a x + by = 0.

To sketch graphs of such equations, we use (0, 0) and any other point, for example the point where

x = 1. (We could choose any other non-zero value.)

Worked example 12

think

1

(0, 0). There is no point substituting

y = 0, as we know well get x = 0.

we use x = 1.

axes. Note that 4 is 1 1 , which is a little less

3

3

than 1 1 .

2

Write/draW

4 0 3y = 0

3y = 0

y=0

If x = 0:

tUtorial

eles-1404

Worked example 12

(0, 0)

If x = 1:

4 1 3y = 0

4 3y = 0

4 = 3y

4

y=

3

4

(1, )

3

y

2

(1, 43 )

1

(0, 0)

1

13

exercise 1d

1 Use a CAS calculator or other method to sketch graphs of the following equations on the same set of axes.

a y=x

b y = 2x

c y = 3x

d y = x

e y = 2x

2 In question 1, what is the effect on the graph of the number in front of the x (the x-coefficient or

gradient)?

3 Use a CAS calculator or other method to sketch graphs of the following equations on the same set of axes.

a y=x+1

b y=x+2

c y=x+3

d y=x4

diGital doC

doc-9701

linear graphs

4 Use a CAS calculator or other method to sketch graphs of the following equations on the same set of

axes.

a y = 2x + 1

c y = 3x + 6

b y = 2x 7

d y = 3x 5

5 In questions 3 and 4, what is the effect on the graph of the number at the end of the equation (the

y-intercept)?

6

Write the equation of a line having the following properties (where m = gradient and

c = y-intercept).

a m = 2, c = 7

b m = 3, c = 1

c m = 5, c = 2

1

3

2

1

f y-intercept 12, gradient 2

d m= ,c=

e m = 4, c = 2

3

3

Rearrange the following equations and state the gradient and y-intercept for each.

a 2y = 8x + 10

e 21x + 3y = 27

i 15 6y + x = 0

b 3y = 12x 24

f 10x + 5y = 25

j 2y + 7 + 5x = 0

c

g

= 3x 1

2x = 66

d 16 4y = 8x

h 8x + 3y 2 = 0

11y

a

y

1

2

6

5

4

3

2

1

3

2

1

2

0

1

2

0

1

2

3

4

5

5

4

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

4

5

14

0

1

2

3

4

5

3x

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

5

4

3

2

1

1

3

2

1

2

0

1

2

3

4

5

x

3

1 10

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

9 We10

Sketch graphs of the following linear equations, showing x- and y-intercepts.

a y = 6x + 18

b y = 3x 21

c y = 2x 3

d y = 10 5x

e y = 9x + 30

f y = 2(x 8)

10 We11

Sketch graphs for each of the following equations.

a 2x + 3y = 6

b 4x + 5y = 20

c 6x 3y = 18

d 7x 5y = 35

11 Sketch the graph for each equation.

a 6x + 7y + 42 = 0

c 3x + 4y 16 = 0

12 We12 Sketch the graph for each equation.

a x+y=0

c 2x + y = 0

b 5x 2y + 20 = 0

d y 3x + 6 = 0

b xy=0

a 2x 3y 1 = 0

C 2x + 3y = x

e y=

2

3

B 2x + 3y + 1 = 0

d 2x + 3y = 1

x1

a 2 and 3

B 3 and 12

C 4 and 6

d 4 and 6

e 4 and 6

14 mC

a y = 3x 3

C x + 3y = 9

B y = 3x + 3

d x 3y + 9 = 0

e 3x + y + 9 = 0

1e

Simultaneous equations

two or more variables. In this section, we look at pairs of linear

equations involving the variables x and y. Each equation, as

we have learned in previous sections, may be represented by a

linear graph that is true for many x- and y-values. If the graphs

intersect (when wouldnt they?), the values of x and y at the

intersection are those that make both equations true.

y

Both graphs have

the same x- and

x y-values here.

Graphical solution

Finding the point of intersection of two straight lines can be done graphically; however, the accuracy of

the graph determines the accuracy of the solution.

Consequently, using a calculator to solve the equations graphically is more reliable than reading the

solution from a hand-drawn graph.

Worked example 13

y = 3x + 5 4x 7y + 8 = 0

think

1

second equation.

Complete the entry line as:

solve (4x 7y + 8 = 0, y)

Write

solve (4x 7y + 8 = 0, y)

4( x + 2)

Result: y =

7

15

lines as:

f 1(x) = 3x + 5

4 ( x + 2)

f 2( x ) =

7

Use the calculator to find the intersection point.

f 1(x) = 3x + 5

4( x + 2)

f 2(x) =

7

Solving y = 3x + 5 and 4x 7y + 8 = 0

simultaneously produces the solution

(1.08, 1.76).

algebraic solution

It is possible to solve simultaneous equations without graphs, that is, algebraically. The methods of

substitution and elimination taught in earlier years may be used.

Worked example 14

y = 2x + 5

x + 3y = 25

think

1

equation [3].

Write

solution as [5].

x

x

+ 3(2x + 5) = 25

+ 6x + 15 = 25

5x + 15 = 25

5x = 10

x=2

y = 2(2) + 5

y=4+5

y=9

Solution: (2, 9)

to check that these values for x and y make

[2] true.

Check in [2].

LHS = x + 3y

= 2 + 3(9)

= 25

= RHS

y = 2x + 5

+ 3y = 25

[5]

Worked example 15

2 x + 9y = 5

5 x 2y 12 = 0

think

16

Call this [3]. Write down [1] again.

Write

2x + 9y = 5

5x 2y 12 = 0

[1]

[2]

5x 2y = 12

2x + 9y = 5

[3]

[1]

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

2 [3] 10x 4y = 24

5 [1] 10x + 45y = 25

[4]

[5]

Eliminate x as shown.

[5] [4]:

Solve for y.

49y = 49

49

y=

49

y = 1

[6]

2x + 9 (1) = 5

2x 9 = 5

2x = 5 + 9

2x = 4

x=2

[7]

1)

Solution: (2,

Check in [2].

LHS = 5x 2y 12

= 5(2) 2(1) 12

= 10 + 2 12

=0

= RHS

Worked example 16

Two shoppers buy the following at a fruit shop, paying the amounts given. What was the cost of

each apple and each banana?

Shopper 1: 4 apples and 3 bananas for $2.59

Shopper 2: 6 apples and 5 bananas for $4.11

think

Write

quantities.

Let b = cost of a banana (in cents).

Work in terms of cents.

4a + 3b = 259

6a + 5b = 411

3 [2]: 18a + 15b = 1233

[3]

[4]

[3] [4]: 2a = 62

a = 31

[5]

4 31 + 3b = 259

124 + 3b = 259

3b = 135

b = 45

[6]

Solve for b.

exercise 1e

[1]

[2]

the cost of a banana is 45 cents.

Simultaneous equations

a y = 2x, y = 4x 6

b y = 3x 5, y = 20

c y = 3x + 5, y = 7x 4

e y = 10x + 1, 2x + y = 6

+ y = 4, y = 6x + 5

f 9x + y = 17, x + y = 14

d

3x

diGital doCS

doc-9702

Simultaneous linear

equations

graphical method

17

2 We14

Use the substitution method to solve the following simultaneously.

a y = 3x + 1, y = 2x + 2

b y = 5x + 5, y = x 19

c y = x + 2, 3x 4y = 1

3y = 2, y = 6x + 7

f y = 10 x, 2x + 7y = 5

We15

Use the elimination method to solve these simultaneous equations.

a 9x + 10y = 153, 3x y = 12

b 7x 11y = 13, x + y = 11

c 6x 2y = 10, 2x + 5y = 8

d 3x + y = 8, 4x + 2y = 21

e 7y x = 11, x + y = 10

f x 11y = 15, y + 6x = 9

We16 At the conclusion of a tour of Wonky Willys confectionery factory, Nutrina buys 10 choc

balls and 8 fizz wizzers for $4.30, and her friend purchases 6 choc balls and 9 fizz wizzers for $4.05.

Determine the cost of each type of lolly.

The sum of two whole numbers, x and y, is 41. The difference between them is 3. Write two equations

involving x and y and solve them to find the numbers.

A farmer counts emus and sheep in a paddock, and notes there are 57 animals and 196 feet. Assuming

no animal amputees, how many of each animal are there?

A sports store supplies 24 basketballs and 16 cricket balls to one school for $275.60, and delivers

12 basketballs and 32 cricket balls to another school for $211. If delivery is free, how much did the

supplier charge for each type of ball?

e

5

6

7

d y = 2x + 3, 5x + 2y = 1

4x

8 A businessperson hires a stretch limousine for 2 days and a sedan for 3 days while on an interstate trip.

If the total car hire cost of the trip was $675, and the limousine cost triple the price of the sedan, find

the cost per day of the limousine.

9 mC A manufacturing plant produces square and circular metal panels in fixed sizes. If the mass of a

square panel is 13 kg and that of a circular panel is 22 kg, how many of each panel are there in a truck

loaded with 65 panels of total mass 1205 kg?

The equations to solve are:

a 13s + 22c = 1205, s + c = 65

B 22s + 13c = 1205, s + c = 65

C 13s + 22c = 65, s + c = 1205

d 22s + 13c = 65, s + c = 1205

e 13s + 22c = 1205, s + c = 35

10 mC Which of the following is a solution of 11x + 2y = 121 and 10x + 12y = 222?

a (11, 2)

C (10, 12)

e (6, 10)

B (121, 222)

d (9, 11)

1F

Consider a general linear graph containing the particular points (x1, y1),

(x2, y2) and the general point (x, y) (which could be any point).

Using the first two of these points in the formula for gradient, we have

y2 y1

[1]

m= x x

2

1

Using the first point and the general point in the same formula yields

y y1

[2]

m=

x x1

Putting [2] = [1] gives

y y1 y2 y1

, which may be rearranged to

=

x x1 x 2 x1

y y

y y1 = 2 1 ( x x1 )

[3]

x 2 x1

(x2, y2)

(x, y)

(x1, y1)

x

y2 y1

, equation [3] may be written

x 2 x1

y y1 = m(x x1)

[4]

This last formula may be used to find the equation of a straight line when two points are given or

when the gradient and only one point are given. When two points are given, the gradient m may be found

y2 y1

first using m = x x and substituted into the formula y y1 = m(x x1) along with one of the points.

2

1

Since m =

18

Worked example 17

Find the equation of the line having gradient 34 that passes through (7, 11).

Express your answer in the forms i ax + by + c = 0 and ii y = mx + c.

think

Write

formula y y1 = m(x x1).

y y1 = m(x x1)

m=

ax + by + c = 0.

4y 44 = 3(x 7)

4y 44 = 3x 21

3x 4y + 23 = 0

y = mx + c.

ii

3x + 23 = 4y

3

4

(x1, y1)

(7, 11)

y 11 =

3

4

(x 7)

y= 4x+

23

4

Worked example 18

Find the equation of the straight line containing the points (2, 5) and (3, 1).

Express your answer in the forms i ax + by + c = 0 and ii y = mx + c.

think

Write

variables in the formula.

(x1, y1)

(2, 5)

y2 y1

formula m =

to find m.

x 2 x1

m=

(x2, y2)

(3, 1)

y2 y1

x 2 x1

1 5

3 2

6

=

5

=

=

3

the first point (x1, y1) = (2, 5). Leave x and y as they are.

6

5

y y1 = m(x x1)

6

y 5 =

6

5

( x 2)

i

ii

y + 5 = 5 ( x 2)

5y 25 = 6(x 2)

5y 25 = 6x 12

5y = 6x + 13

So 6x + 5y + 13 = 0, or

y=

6

5

13

5

perpendicular lines

Perpendicular lines are lines that meet at right angles. The gradients of two perpendicular lines, when

multiplied together, equal 1. Stated mathematically:

m1 m2 = 1

Chapter 1 Linear functions

19

1

Another way to write this relationship is m1 = m . This type of relationship is known as a negative

2

gradients are negative reciprocals.

exercise 1F

2

3

is

3

2

Gradient of

equation 1

(m1)

Equation 1

f1(x)

diGital doC

doc-9703

SkillSHEET 1.2

reciprocals and

negative reciprocals

y = 2x + 1

y=

y = 3x 4

y=

y = 4x + 6

y = 5x 3

y=

1

2

1

3

x+2

y = 4x 9

y=

5

2

m1 m2

Gradient of

equation 2

(m2)

Equation 2

f2(x)

x+4

y = 9x + 1

2 Sketch f1(x) and f2(x) for part a above using a calculator or using graph paper with identical scales on

each axis to produce accurate graphs. What do you notice about the graphs?

3 Repeat question 2 for graphs b to e. Do you notice anything special about each pair of graphs?

4 Find the gradient of a line perpendicular to another line that has a gradient of:

a 4

1

7

7

2

1.

5 Find the gradient of a line that is perpendicular to the line with equation:

a y = 5x + 2

d y=

7

6

x2

2

3

b y=x1

c y=

x+1

e 2x + y = 5

f 3x 4y = 7.

Find the equation of a straight line having the gradient given and passing through the point

listed. Express your answer in the forms i ax + by + c = 0 and ii y = mx + c.

a (1, 2)

gradient 3

b (4, 1)

gradient 5

c (3, 2)

gradient 1

d (3, 2)

gradient 1

6 We17

diGital doC

doc-9704

equation of a

straight line

Find the equation of the line containing each pair of points. Express your answers in the

forms i ax + by + c = 0 and ii y = mx + c.

a (5, 2)

(3, 1)

b (1, 1)

(5, 5)

c (6, 3)

(8, 2)

d (2, 2)

(0, 1)

Find the equation of the line passing through (3, 3) that makes an angle of 45 with the positive x-axis.

Find the equation of the line containing (7, 2) that makes an angle of 71.565 with the positive x-axis.

Find the equation of the line (in y = mx + c form) that:

a is perpendicular to the line with equation y = 3x + 1, passing through (3, 6)

2

b is parallel to the line with equation y = x 9, passing through (4, 7)

5

c is parallel to the line with equation 3x + 6y = 8, passing through (2, 2)

d is perpendicular to the line with equation 6x + 7y 2 = 0, passing through (4, 0)

e has gradient 2, passing through the intersection of the lines with equations y = 3x 5 and y = 2x + 5

3

f has gradient 4 , passing through the intersection of the lines with equations x + 4y = 14 and

5x + 2y = 4.

Find the equation of the line that passes through the point of intersection of the lines whose equations

are 7x 3y 19 = 0 and 3x + 2y + 5 = 0, given that the required line is parallel to the line with equation

5x 2y = 3.

Find the equation of a line containing the intersection of the lines with equations y = 3x + 4 and

5x 3y + 40 = 0 that:

6

2

a has a gradient of 7

b is perpendicular to the line with gradient 3

7 We18

8

9

10

11

12

20

13 A line passes through the points (8, 5), (4, 3) and (a, 12). Find the value of a.

14 The points (2, 7) and (6, 9) lie on the same straight line. Does the point (4, 8) also lie on this line?

15 The height of a particular young pine tree is found to increase in a linear manner each month in the first

year after planting. Find an equation connecting height with time in months after planting, using the

information supplied in the diagram below.

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9705

WorkSHEET 1.2

52 cm

34 cm

After 5 months

After 2 months

y

(x , y )

midpoint of a segment

y

1G

The distance, d, between any two points on the Cartesian plane may be

found using Pythagoras theorem applied to a right-angled triangle as

shown at right.

Using Pythagoras theorem: c2 = a2 + b2 or c = a 2 + b 2 and

replacing c with d, a with (x2 x1) and b with (y2 y1),

d

(x1, y1)

y1

(y2 y1)

INTERACTIVITY

int-0260

Distance between

two points

(x2 x1)

we have d = ( x 2 x1 )2 + ( y2 y1 )2 .

x1

x2 x

WORKED EXAMPLE 19

Find the distance between the points (3, 7) and (5, 2) correct to 3 decimal

places.

THINK

WRITE

and (x2, y2).

(x1, y1)

(3, 7)

simplify.

d = ( x 2 x1 )2 + ( y2 y1 )2

TUTORIAL

eles-1405

Worked example 19

(x2, y2)

(5, 2)

= (5 3)2 + ( 2 7)2

= (8)2 + ( 9)2

= 64 + 81

= 145

= 12.042, correct to 3 decimal places

5_61_10586_MQ11_MMCAS_3E_01.indd 21

21

8/05/13 2:27 PM

midpoint of a segment

The middle or midpoint M (xm, ym) of a segment joining two general points A (x1, y1) and B (x2, y2) is

shown on the Cartesian plane below.

y

B (x2, y2)

y2 ym

M (xm, ym)

A (x1, y1)

ym y1

xm x1

x2 xm

E

D

x

MAC = BME (since AM and BM have the same slope)

CMA = EMB (since ACM and MEB are both 90)

AM = BM

(given, as M is the midpoint)

Therefore ACM MEB.

Since the horizontal and vertical sides of the two triangles must be equal, we have:

xm x1 = x2 xm

and

ym y1 = y2 ym

Simplifying these,

2xm = x2 + x1

2ym = y2 + y1

xm =

x 2 x1

2

ym =

y2 + y1

2

x +x y +y

So the point M has coordinates 1 2 , 1 2 .

2

2

Worked example 20

Find the midpoint of the segment joining (5, 9) and (3, 11).

think

1

Match (5, 9) and (3, 11) with (x1, y1) and (x2, y2).

Write

(x1, y1)

(5, 9)

M=

(x2, y2)

(3, 11)

x1 + x 2 y1 + y2

,

2

2

5 + 3 9 + 11

=

,

2

2

2 20

= ,

2 2

= (1,10)

midpoint of a segment

exercise 1G

diGital doC

doc-9706

distance between

two points

1 We19

Find the distance between each of the following pairs of points.

a (4, 5) and (1, 1)

b (7, 14) and (15, 8)

c (2, 4) and (2, 3)

2 Calculate the distance between each of the pairs of points below, accurate to 3 decimal places.

a (14, 10) and (8, 14)

b (6, 7) and (13, 6)

c (11, 1) and (2, 2)

3 Find the distance between each of the following pairs of points in terms of the given variable(s).

a (a, 1), (2, 3)

b (5, b), (0, 6)

c (c, 2), (4, c)

d (d, 2d), (1, 5)

22

4 Two hikers are about to hike from A to B (shown on the map below). How far is it from A to B as the

N

50 m

100 m

200 m

100 m

200 m

B (E7, N4)

300 m

Lake Phillios

A (W12, S5)

Grid spacing : 1 km

y (in metres)

course, calculate (to the nearest

metre):

a the horizontal distance travelled

by the golf ball for the shot down

the fairway

b the horizontal distance that needs

to be covered in the next shot to

reach the point labelled A in the

bunker.

(225, 96)

A (320, 148)

x (in metres)

(80, 64)

6 We20 Find the midpoint of the segment joining each of the following pairs of points.

a (1, 3) and (3, 5)

7 Find the midpoint of the segment joining each of the following pairs of points.

a (7, 2) and (4, 13)

b (0, 22) and (6, 29)

c (15, 8) and (4, 11)

d

8 Find the coordinates of the midpoint of each of the following pairs of points, in terms of a variable or

a (2a, a) and (6a, 5a)

diGital doC

doc-9707

midpoint of a segment

9 Find the value of a in each question below so that the point M is the midpoint of the segment joining

points A and B.

a A (2, a), B (6, 5), M (4, 5)

Chapter 1 Linear functions

23

the middle of each straight section, give the map

coordinates of each drink station.

11 Find the equation of a line that has a gradient

of 5 and passes through the midpoint of the segment

joining (1, 7) and (3, 3).

12 Find the equation of a line parallel to the line with

equation 9x 3y = 5 that passes through the midpoint

of the segment connecting (0, 4) and (2, 10).

1h

(1.5, 3.5)

(4.5, 5)

D1

Official tent

D2

(1.5, 2)

START/

FINISH

Coordinates

are in kilometres.

(3, 7)

D3

(13, 8)

linear modelling

Many real-life applications, such as fees charged for services, cost of manufacturing or running a

business, patterns in nature, sporting records and so on, follow linear relationships. These relationships

may take the form of a linear equation; for example, F = 50 + 30t may be used by a tradesperson to

calculate her fee (in dollars) for t hours of work.

Here, F is the fee in dollars, and t the time in hours. The 50 represents an initial fee for simply turning

up, while the 30t is the amount charged for the time spent on the job.

For example, if t = 2 hours, 30t = 60, so the total charge for the work would be $(50 + 60) = $110.

Equations like F = 50 + 30t are sometimes referred to as linear models, a common form of which is:

Total cost = Fixed cost + Cost per unit Number of units.

This is, of course, equivalent to y = mx + c.

y = c + mx.

Worked example 21

A generator company charges a $200 delivery fee, and a rental fee of $1500 per day.

a Find an expression relating total charge to the number of days for which the generator is hired.

b Sketch a graph of the relationship.

c What would be the charge for 4 weeks of rental?

think

2

$1500. (c = 200, m = 1500)

2

graph must show this.

Write/draW

T = 200 + 1500n

b If n = 0, T = 200

T ($)

3200

1700

200

1

in the equation from part a.

24

n (Days)

c If n = 28

T = 200 + 1500 28

= 200 + 42 000

= 42 200

Worked example 22

The company charges $120 as a booking fee, and an additional $30 per hour.

Another company, Greased Lightning, provides fast food served by two

students at a cost of $65 per hour, with no booking fee. Under what conditions

would it be cheapest to hire Greased Lightning?

think

tUtorial

eles-1406

Worked example 22

Write

organisations.

Rent-a-Chef

C = 120 + 30t

Greased Lightning C = 65t

cost is the same with each group.

120 + 30t = 65t

120 = 35t

120

t=

35

= 3.4 hours

Lightning has the higher per hour cost, after

3.4hours, they would be more expensive.

preparation and service of less than 3.4 hours

(3 hours and 26 minutes) duration.

[1]

[2]

Notes

1. 0.4hours = 0.4 60 minutes = 24 minutes.

2. An alternative approach would be to use a CAS calculator and find the point at which the

two graphs crossed.

exercise 1h

linear modelling

tennis court consists of a booking fee and

an hourly rate.

a Use the photo to write an equation

for the total hire cost in terms of the

hourly rate.

b Sketch a graph of the relationship.

c What would be the charge for

3 hours?

1 We21

diGital doC

doc-9708

Simultaneous linear

equations

a Write an equation for the total cost

of a singing telegram in terms of the

number of minutes sung.

b Sketch a graph of the relationship.

c What would be the charge for a 5-minute singing telegram?

3 Colleen delivers junk mail and is paid $32 to traverse a particular route, and a further 10 cents per

leaflet delivered.

a Write an equation for the total payment she receives.

b Sketch a graph of the relationship expressed in a.

c What would be Colleens pay if she delivers 1650 leaflets along the route?

4 A pay-TV salesperson receives $300 per week plus $20 for every household he signs up to have pay-

TV connected. How much does the salesperson receive for a week in which he signs up 33 households?

5 We22 A computer firm, SuperComputers Inc., offers a back-up plan covering the ongoing service and

troubleshooting of its systems after sale. The cost of signing up for the service plan is $215, and there is an

Chapter 1 Linear functions

25

hourly rate of $65 for the servicepersons time. Purchasers not signing up for the plan are charged a flat rate

of $150 per hour for service. Would it be advisable to sign up for the service plan if you expected to need

3 hours of service assistance during the life of a computer purchased from SuperComputers Inc?

6 Two amusement parks show the following information for school-age tourists in a promotional

brochure. After how many rides does an excursion to Fun World become the cheaper option for the

same number of rides?

A qua Wor ld

$8.00 entry

$2.50 per ride

$12 entry

$1.50 per ride

7 A telephone company, Opus, offers calls to Biddelonia for a connection fee of $14, and thereafter

$1 per minute. Its rival, Elstra, offers calls for $2 per minute (no connection fee) to the same country.

a Compare the cost of a 10-minute call to Biddelonia using each company.

b At what point would it be cheaper to use Opus?

8 It costs you $6 to get into a taxi (the flagfall), and $1.50 per kilometre if you use PinkCabs, while

NoTop taxis charge $8 flagfall, and $1.20 per kilometre.

a How much would it cost with each company to travel 15 kilometres in one of its cabs?

b When would it cost the same to use both companies?

9 Medirank, a health insurance company, charges $860 per year (for a single person) and requires

customers to pay the first $100 of any hospital visit. HAB, on the other hand, charges an annual fee

of $560 and requires its members to pay the first $150 of any hospital visit. Determine the number of

hospital visits in a year for which the cost of health services is the same whichever company insures you.

10 Nifty is a car hire firm that charges insurance of $135 and $50 per day car hire. A competitor, Savus,

simply charges $65 per day and offers free insurance. You are planning a holiday, and would prefer to

use Savus. Under what conditions (days hired) could you justify this choice?

26

Summary

Solving linear

equations and

inequations

Do the same to both sides and remember inverse operations + and , and , and 2.

Aim to get a single variable by itself.

Solve inequations the same way as equations, keeping the original inequality sign at each step,

unless multiplying or dividing by a negative number.

rearrangement and

substitution

Substitute means to replace a variable with a value.

Gradient of a straight

line

m=

Sketching linear

functions

Simultaneous

equations

For equations of the form y = ax + b, y = cx + d, consider using substitution.

For equations of the form ax + by = c, dx + ey = f, consider using elimination.

of a straight line

y y

y y1 = 2 1 ( x x1 )

y = (mx + c)

y y1 = m(x x1)

x 2 x1

For perpendicular lines, m1 m2 = 1.

points and midpoint of

a segment

d = ( x 2 x1 )2 + ( y2 y1 )2

linear modelling

y2 y1

m = tan ( )

x 2 x1

where is the angle the line makes with the positive direction of the x-axis.

Lines with the same gradient (m) are parallel.

To find the y-intercept, let x = 0 and find y.

To find the x-intercept, let y = 0 and find x.

If y = 0 when x = 0, substitute another x-value (for example x = 1) to find another point

on the line.

Join two points and/or intercepts with a straight line.

x1 + x 2 , y1 + y2

M=

2

2

Total cost (y) = fixed cost (c) + cost per unit (m) number of units (x)

y = c + mx

27

Chapter review

S h ort

anS Wer

3(5 x 4) 6(4 x + 3)

.

=

7

5

7x + 8

= 4 x 9.

2 Find the value of x where 3

10

1 Solve the equation

3( x

1 x

.

4

2

4 The following formula may be used to study planetary motion.

3 Solve the inequality

+ 4)

GmM m 4 2 R

=

R2

T2

Make T the subject of the equation.

a in surd form

b to 3 decimal places.

y

a

6

1 grid

square = 1 unit

6

5

4

3

2

1

5 4 3 2 1 0

1

2

3

1 2 3 4 5 6x

y

x

(12, 3)

(4, 10)

7 Find the gradient of the line joining (7, 15) and (2, 6).

8 Find the gradient of the line shown.

y

77

x

9 State the gradient of the line below.

y

28

10 State the gradient and y-intercept (in that order) for each of the following.

a y = 3x 7

b 5x + 3y = 30

12 Sketch graphs of the following, showing intercepts.

a y = 3x + 24

b x + 8y = 40

c 2x 4y 8 = 0

and y-intercept 3.

2

5

c 9x 7y 63 = 0

d y + 6x = 0

2x

13 Solve y = 3x + 10 and y =

15 graphically.

a Sketch the solution on a set of axes.

15 Use the method of elimination to solve 4x 7y = 21, 2x + y = 6.

16 A piggybank contains 67 coins. If there are only one- and two-dollar coins in the piggybank,

and there are 25 more one-dollar coins than two-dollar coins, how many of each type are there?

17 Find the gradient of a line perpendicular to 3x 9y = 7.

18 Find the equation of the line containing (4, 8) and (3, 1).

6

1

4

20 Find the equation of the line perpendicular to y = x 5 that passes through (8, 6).

21 The distance between (2, 7) and (a, 2) is

22 Show that the triangle with vertices (3, 7), (3, 3) and (6, 3) is a right-angled triangle.

23 The midpoint of the line joining (k, 2h) and (9k, 6h + 2) is (20, 11). Find k and h.

24 The washing machine repair company Washed out charges $75 to come to your house, as well as an

a Write an equation that may be used to calculate the cost of any service call if the

time taken by the repairer is known.

b Sketch a graph of the relationship between repair cost and time taken to do a repair.

1

c How much would it cost to have a repair done that takes 3 2 hours?

7 x 23

= 99 would be to:

3

a add 23 to both sides

B divide both sides by 3

C divide both sides by 7

d multiply both sides by 3

e multiply both sides by 7

m U ltip l e

C ho iC e

a 3x + 7 = 8

B 2x 7 = 5

d 2(x + 3) = 10

3 The solution to

a x 10

5x

x + 14

2( x + 2) is:

3

2

B x5

x + 25

=5

6

= 45

C x5

d x

2

5

e x 5

a c=

a2 + b2

B a2 = b2 + c2

d a=

c2 b2

e a=b+c

C a2 =

c2 b2

a m = 2, v = 4

B m = 4, v = 2

d m = 8, v = 1

e m = 1, v = 16

C m = 8, v = 2

a

1

3

1

2

C 1

d 2

e 3

29

a

B

C

d

e

3

2

2

6

3

8 The gradient of the line shown at right is 3. The value of a must be:

a 2

B 1

C 5

d 7

e 11

y

(6, a)

9 The gradient of the line joining (1, 0) and (4, 10) is:

a

d 4

C 2

e 5

(2, 5)

y

6

?

7

C y

6

6

7 x

a 1

6

7

x 1 is:

7

6

7

C 6

a

2

3

3

2

2

3

d 6

e 7

d 3

e 12

is:

C 2

13 The gradient and y-intercept (in that order) of the line with equation 2x 3y = 7 are:

a 2 and 3

d

2

3

and

B 2 and 7

and

C

7

2

2

3

and 7

a

c

x

c

30

c

x

e y

x

y

a 2x 5y = 1

C 15x + 6y = 30

e

x y

=1

2 5

B 2x y = 4

d 10y x = 2

16 To solve the equations 2x + y = 5 and 3x 6y = 12 graphically on a calculator, you would enter the

f 1(x) = 2x + y and f 2(x) = 3x 6y

f 1(x) = 5

and f 2(x) = 12

f 1(x) = 5 2x and f 2(x) = 12 + 6y

f 1(x) = 2x + 5 and f 2(x) = 3x + 12

x

f 1(x) = 2x + 5 and f 2(x) = 2 2

a

B

C

d

e

17 Which of the following would be the most effective way to solve the following equations

simultaneously?

y = 2x 13 [1]

y = 7x + 2

[2]

a Multiply [1] by 2 and [2] by 13 and add the newly formed equations.

B Multiply [1] by 7 and put it equal to [2].

C Multiply [2] by 2 and put it equal to [1].

d Multiply [1] by 2 and [2] by 7 and subtract the newly formed equations.

e Put [1] equal to [2].

18 The gradient of a line perpendicular to a line with a gradient of 7 is:

a 1

B 7

d 7

7

1

a

1

7

5

d 16

+5

is:

16

2)

7x

B 7

e

16

7

16

a y2=x1

B y+2=1x

d x 2y = 3

e 3x 5y = 1

a gradient 5 and contains the point (7, 1)

C gradient 5 and contains the point (1, 7)

e gradient 1 and contains the point (5, 7)

C y+3=x1

d gradient 5 and contains the point (1, 7)

a (2 4)2 + (1 3)2

(4 3)2 + ( 2 1)2

(4 + 2)2 + (3 1)2

( 2 4)2 (1 3)2

(4 2 + 32 ) ( 22 12 )

31

23 The midpoint of the segment joining (11, 3) and (5, 17) is:

1

1

2

2

1

1

( 2 2 ,8 2 )

a ( 5 , 1 )

B (3, 7)

e (4, 6)

C (6, 14)

24 Bote lives 5 kilometres from the nearest post office. At noon one day he begins cycling (from home) at

20 kilometres per hour in a constant direction away from the post office. At t hours after Bote begins

cycling, the distance, D km, that he is from the post office is given by:

a D = 5t

B D = 20t

C D = 5t + 20

d D = 20t + 5

e D = 20t 5

25 The linear function f : D R, f ( x ) = 6 2 x has range [4, 12]. The domain D is:

a [3, 5]

d

e x t ended

r e SponS e

[14,

B [5, 3]

18]

[18,

C R

14]

arm. Any deviation from a straight path, no matter how slight,

means the arm must be programmed for more than one direction. 16

The coordinates marked are correct. Will the robotic arm be able to 12

move in one direction only to drill all three holes?

2 Points A, B and C have the coordinates (1, 6), (0, 0) and (2, 2).

Find the coordinates for a point D so that the four points form a

parallelogram.

(4, 2),

1)

C

B

A

14

20

7).

(6, 2), (4,

and (0,

a Find the coordinates of the midpoints of each side of the quadrilateral formed by the points.

b Show that the shape formed by the midpoints is a parallelogram.

c Repeat parts a and b for a different set of starting points.

d What can you conjecture based on your answers?

4 The cost of a parachuting course consists of a charge of $250, which covers equipment hire and tuition,

a Express the total cost, C, as a function of j, the number of jumps.

b How many jumps could a person doing the course afford if she was prepared to spend up to

$1000?

5 A physics student conducts an experiment to find out how much a spring stretches when various

weights are hung from it. Her results are shown in the table below.

a

b

c

d

32

10

12

20

16.5

30

20.5

40

25

50

Plot a graph of the students results.

Draw a straight line through the points that best describes the data.

Select two points on the line and use them to fit a linear equation to the line.

spring. His results are shown below.

Length of spring (cm)

10

10

16

20

21

30

24

40

28

50

e On the same set of axes you used in part b, plot the results of

the second experiment and join the points with a line of best fit.

f Write an equation that describes the relationship between the

The gradients of graphs such as the ones you have drawn give an

indication of the stiffness of a spring. The greater the gradient, the

harder it is to stretch the spring. The lower the gradient, the easier

it is to stretch the spring.

g Comment on the stiffness of the two springs investigated by the

students.

h Is it likely that these two springs will ever be the same length at

a given force; that is, is it likely that the intersection of the two

graphs could ever really happen? Explain your answer.

diGital doC

doc-9709

Test Yourself

Chapter 1

33

ICT activities

Chapter opener

DIGITAL DOC

10 Quick Questions doc-9695: Warm up with ten quick questions on

linear functions (page 1)

1A

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9696: Use trial and error to balance an equation and hence

solve for the unknown variable (page 3)

1B

DIGITAL DOC

Career profile doc-9697: Learn how a vigneron uses substitution and

other areas of mathematics in his work (page 8)

1C

DIGITAL DOCS

doc-9698: Calculate the gradient between two given points (page 10)

SkillSHEET 1.1 doc-9699: Practise using the gradient to find the value

of a parameter (page 11)

1D

DIGITAL DOCS

WorkSHEET 1.1 doc-9700: Solve linear equations, use substitution

and calculate gradients of straight line graphs (page 12)

doc-9701: Investigate the effect of changing the gradient and

y-intercept for a linear graph (page 14)

TUTORIAL

WE 12 eles-1404: Watch a tutorial on how to sketch a linear

graph by hand (page 13)

1E

Simultaneous equations

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9702: Use the graphical method to solve simultaneous linear

equations (page 17)

34

1F

DIGITAL DOCS

SkillSHEET 1.2 doc-9703: Practise writing positive and negative

reciprocals of rational numbers (page 20)

doc-9704: Investigate the equations of straight lines (page 20)

WorkSHEET 1.2 doc-9705: Sketch linear graphs, determine equations

of linear graphs and application problems (page 21)

a segment

INTERACTIVITY

Distance between two points int-0260: Consolidate your

understanding of how to calculate the distance between two

points (page 21)

TUTORIAL

WE 19 eles-1405: Watch how to calculate the distance between

two points on a Cartesian plane (page 21)

DIGITAL DOCS

doc-9706: Investigate the distance between two points (page 22)

doc-9707: Investigate the midpoint of a segment (page 23)

1H

Linear modelling

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9708: Investigate simultaneous linear equations (page 25)

TUTORIAL

WE 22 eles-1406: Watch how to apply linear algebra skills to

determine the conditions for which it would be cheapest to hire a

catering company (page 25)

Chapter review

DIGITAL DOC

Test Yourself doc-9709: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your

progress (page 33)

5_61_10586_MQ11_MMCAS_3E_01.indd 34

8/05/13 2:48 PM

Answers CHAPTER 1

linear FUnCtionS

3 a

d

g

4 a

c

5 a

c

6 a

2

7

exercise 1a

and inequations

b 8

7

1

6

e 1

h 10

b 5

d 112

e 12

f

i

c

f

j 4

76

59

9

1 a 2

d

g

2 a

13

b x

3 a x 6

d x < 3

exercise 1B

substitution

31

c x>3

e x 11

f x2

b

5 a

b

6 a

f r=

j H=

b 350

e 2.498

kQq

F

S 2 r 2

2 r

c 224 cm

7

21

y

32

y=x+2

3 ad

y=x+1

10

y=x+3

30

1

x

4

y=x 4

c 18 cm

01

y = 2x 7

x

16

10 a

g 11 ,

1 5

,

6 2

y

4

6 a y = 2x + 7

b y = 3x + 1

2

1

c y = 5x 2

d y= 3x+3

y = 3x + 6

e y= 4x 2

7 a 4, 5

c 3, 1

e 7, 9

y = 2x + 1

y = 3x 5

c 40 mm

10

1

2

x

y

y = 2x

y=x

4 ad

b5

x5

slope up when moving (or tracing) to the

right; negative values make the graph

slope down when moving to the right.

c 7

25

9 h=

cm

2

5

d y = 6x + 5

f y = 5x

y = 3x

18

x2

9 a

17

300

y = 2x

b y=

8 b=2

4

3

3V

, 6.204

br=3

4

T 2

d l = g

, 3.972

2

A, 7.746

c y=

A

A D

1 = 100

b r = 100

D

D

c 41.4%

fv

uv

7 a f =

b u=

v f

u+v

c 150 cm

2 a 2

1 ae

8 a y = 4x + 2

e y = 2x 1

y = x

v2

h =

rT

vu

, 4.167

t

(1 ) K

c=

, 2622

2

42 cm

P

P 2l

w = l or w =

2

2

240 m2

2A

2 A bh

a=

b or a =

h

h

$1123.60

1 a 2

b 31

d 3

b Yes

c 0.176

f0

A

w

C

d r=

2

E

2

exercise 1C

5

No

exercise 1d

3.078

0.577

57.290

2.61

3.73

C

B

E

b l=

c a=

4 a

b

e

h

b

d

b

d

b

8

rearrangement and

2 a 0.267

d 13 100

9 a

c

10 a

2 Fd + mu 2

g v=

m

S 2lh

i w=

2(l + h)

3 a l=

17

l 7

d

v

e =

9

12

13

5

i 3

1 a P=AL

c t=

1.192

0.577

1

0.93

0.53

D

A

B

f y = 2x + 12

4, 8

2, 4

2, 5

8 2

h

,

3 3

b

d

f

j

5 7

, 2

2

y

6

35

y = 20

of a straight line

11 a

e

x

5

5

4 a

10

5 a 5

( 94 , 47

4)

y = 3x + 5

y

4

16

3

5

y = 6x + 5

0

y = 4 + 3x

x

f 1

1

2

ii y = 2 x + 2

7 a i x 2y 1 = 0

b i xy=0

ii y = 2 x 2

ii y = x

c i x + 2y 12 = 0

ii y = 2 x + 6

d i 3x + 2y 2 = 0

ii y = 2 x + 1

9 y = 3x 23

(1, 1)

7 , 29

( 12

6 )

(1, 1)

y = 17 9x

x

14

17

( 38 ,

109 )

8

y = 14 x

2 a (1, 4)

(1, 2)

13 D

14 E

c (7, 5)

15 A

Simultaneous equations

y

1 a

23 20

(14 , 7 )

3 a (7, 9)

(3, 6)

y = 4x 6

17

9

c

e

1

11 1

x

y = 2x

4

6

7

8

9

(1,

2)

59 21

(8, 8)

9 9

f (13,

3)

b (6, 5)

d

1 19

( 2, 2 )

84 99

( 67 , 67 )

5 22 and 19

16 emus, 41 sheep

Basketballs $9.45, cricket balls $3.05

Limousine $225 (sedan $75)

A

10 D

43

14

3

2

x +7

b y= 5x 5

x+3

d y= 6x+ 3

1

2

f y= 4x 2

3

82

12 a y = 7 x + 7

b y=

39

d y= 8 + 4

14 Yes

points and midpoint of a segment

1 a 5

b 10

c 1

d 2

2 a 7.211

b 14.765

c 13.038

3 a

b (4, 15)

5 17

d( , )

x+5

13 94

15 H = 22 + 6t

c y = x + 8

y = 6 2x

11 y = 2 x 2

d i x 2y + 7 = 0

2

4

ii y = 3x 1

ii y = 5x 19

ii y = x + 1

y = 10x + 1

6 a i 3x y 1 = 0

b i 5x y 19 = 0

c i x+y1=0

e y = 2x 3

5

36

6

7

c y=

exercise 1e

b 1

10 a y =

(3, 13)

c 7

8 y=x6

12 a

b 9

d 8

y = 7x 4

1

9

9 7

, , 1

7 9

d 5 , 2 , 1

3 They are perpendicular.

2 5

y

7

b 3, 3, 1

c 4 , 4, 1

y = 3x 5

1 a 2, 2 , 1

, 20 )

( 25

3

20

a2 4a + 8

b 2 12b + 61

2(c 2 6c + 10)

5d 2 22d + 26

4 21.024 km

5 a 216

6 a (2, 4)

c (7, 2)

1

2

1

2

7 a (1 , 5 )

1

c ( 9 2 , 9 2)

8 a (4a, 3a)

c 3 f + g , 2

b 108

b (5, 1)

d (8, 9)

1

b ( 3, 3 2 )

1

d ( 1 2 , 6 2)

b (8, 3c)

2

9 a 5

b 9

10 D1 (1.5, 4.25), D2 (1.5, 1.5), D3 (8, 7.5)

11 y = 5x 7

12 y = 3x + 6

linear modelling

9 Undefined

1 a C = 25 + 5t

10 a 3, 7

b Cost ($)

1

2

35

30

25

3,

22 Teacher to check.

23 k = 4, h = 3

24 a C = 75 + 65t

b C ($)

10

, 2

2

11 y = 5 x 3

12 a

1 2 Time (h)

140

75

24

c $40

2 a C = 60 + 8m

76

68

60

1

5

9

13

17

21

25

8

y

b

1 2 Time (min)

c $100

3 a P = 32 + 0.1n

40

b Payment ($)

34

33

32

c $197

$960

Yes ($410 compared to $450)

After 4 rides

a Opus $24, Elstra $20

b After 14 minutes

8 a PinkCabs $28.50, NoTop $26

2

b After 6.7 km (6 3 km)

9 6 visits

10 Savus would be cheaper for up to 9 days

hire.

13 a

5 a

6 a

3

4

5

c 11

7

7

3

b (5, 5)

y

f(x) = 3x + 10

5

Chapter reVieW

5

(5, 5) 5

f(x) = 2x 15

4 2 R3

or 2 R

R

GM

b 3.873

7

b 11

d

63 33

5

14 ( , 5)

15 ( 10 , 5 )

16

17

18

3

y = x + 4

6

C

C

B

E

C

B

4

8

12

16

20

24

D

D

A

E

B

D

a parallelogram.

(1, 6)

1

26

3 x 14

3

7

11

15

19

23

4 a C = 250 + 55j

b 13 jumps

5 a 4 cm

b, c, e

A

A

B

B

A

D

4

5

6

7

Short anSWer

2

6

10

14

18

22

equations for lines joining different pairs

of points.

2 (1, 8)

9

1

3 a Midpoints: (1, 0), (5, 2 ), (2, 4), (2, 2 )

D

D

B

D

E

C

A

15

t (h)

extended reSponSe

10 20 Number

of leaflets

GM

mUltiple ChoiCe

b Cost ($)

4 T=

c $302.50

205

19 y = 7 x + 7

8 4.331

20 y = 4x 26

34

21 6

exercise 1h

60

50

40

30

20

Student 1

Student 2

10

0

10 15 20 25

Length of spring (cm)

30

30

95

is y = 13 x 13 .

f Answers will vary. One possible answer

is y = 2x 10.

g The first spring is stiffer than the second,

as the gradient of its graph is greater

than that of the second spring.

h The graphs intersect at the point

(8.75, 27.5). It is not possible for the

springs to have a negative length, so this

point is not achievable.

37

Chapter 2

Quadratic functions

diGital doC

doc-9710

10 Quick Questions

Chapter ContentS

2a

2B

2C

2d

2e

2F

2G

2h

2i

2J

2k

2l

Polynomials

Expanding quadratic expressions

Factorising quadratic expressions

Factorising by completing the square

Solving quadratic equations Null Factor Law

Solving quadratic equations completing the square

The quadratic formula

The discriminant

Graphs of quadratic functions as power functions (turning point form)

Graphs of quadratic functions (intercepts method)

Using technology to solve quadratic equations

Simultaneous quadratic and linear equations

2a

polynomials

number powers of x. The degree of the polynomial is given by the highest power of the variable x.

Examples of some polynomials are:

10

3x + 1

x2 + 4x + 7

5x3 + 0.5x2

2x4 x3 + 2x2 + x + 5

is a polynomial of degree 1, or a linear polynomial

is a polynomial of degree 2, or a quadratic polynomial

is a polynomial of degree 3, or a cubic polynomial

is a polynomial of degree 4, or a quartic polynomial.

Expressions such as 3x2 4x + , 5x4 + x3 2 x and x 2 + sin (x) + 1 are not polynomials.

x

The general form of a degree n polynomial is given by

P(x) = an x n + an 1xn 1 + . . . + a2x2 + a1x + a0

where n is a positive whole number and an, an 1, . . . a2, a1, a0 are called coefficients (or constants)

provided the leading coefficient an 0.

This chapter will deal with polynomials of degree 2, or quadratics. The general form of a quadratic

polynomial is P(x) = a2x2 + a1x + a0. It is also commonly written as y = ax2 + bx + c when graphing

applications are involved.

In the polynomial equation P(x) = 13x2 x + 1:

x is the variable.

13 is the coefficient of x2 and 13x2 is the quadratic term.

1 is the coefficient of x and x is the linear term.

The constant term is 1.

The degree of the polynomial is 2.

The leading term is 13x2 as it is the term with the highest power of x.

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

39

and height x can be approximated by the quadratic

polynomial S ( x ) = x 2 + L x 4.

Value of a polynomial

diGital doC

doc-9711

History of mathematics

variste Galois

A polynomial may be evaluated by substitution of a number for the variable. For example, for the

polynomial P(x) = 13x2 x + 1, the value of P(x) when x = 3 is given symbolically as P(3) and is

found by substitution:

P( 3) = 13( 3)2 ( 3) + 1

= 13 9 + 3 + 1

= 121

This process can be completed on your CAS calculator. A CAS calculator is particularly useful for

performing multiple substitutions simultaneously.

1. Using a CAS calculator, define the polynomial

1. Define t(x) = 3x2 2x + 16.

t(x) = 3x2 2x + 16.

2. To evaluate t(x) for x-values of 3, 2 and 5,

2. t({ 3, 2, 5})

complete the entry line as:

The result is (49, 24, 26.5279).

t({ 3,2, 5})

exercise 2a

1

polynomials

b 65 + 2t

u4

1

d x6 3x5 + 2x4 + 6x + 1

e 2u

6 + u5

3

2

a x3 9x2 + 19x + 7

c 2x 8 + 3x2

3 Which polynomial in question 1 is:

a linear?

b quadratic?

c cubic?

if it is a polynomial, write P

if it is not a polynomial, write N and circle the term(s) that made it so.

x2

5

+x

a 7x + 6x2 +

b

c 3x 4 2 x 3 3 x 4

9

x

d k

40

+ k 3k 3 + 7

e 2x 8x + 1

a What is the degree of the polynomial?

b What is the variable?

c What is the coefficient of the linear term?

d What is the value of the constant term?

e Describe the role of the 4 using the terminology of polynomials.

6 For the polynomial T(m) = 5m 2m2 1, evaluate the following.

a T(2)

b T(2)

c T(x + 1)

7 A sports scientist determines the following equation for the action of a breaststroke swimmer during

v(t) = 63.876t 6 247.65t 5 + 360.39t 4 219.41t 3 + 53.816t 2 + 0.4746t

where t = time (sec) and v(t) = velocity (m/s).

a

b

c

d

What is the variable?

Evaluate v(0.2) and interpret the meaning of your answer.

How much faster is she swimming at 0.7 seconds than she is at 0.5 seconds?

2B

A quadratic expression is a polynomial of degree 2. It must contain a quadratic term; any others (a linear

term and a constant term) are optional. Examples of quadratic expressions include:

x2 3x 1

5x

10x2

3t 2 + 1

Quadratic expressions can be produced when two linear expressions are multiplied.

Consider the expansion (4x + 9)(2x 3).

When expanding brackets, multiply everything by everything else as shown

on the diagram at right. That is,

first term everything in the second brackets, then

second term everything in the second brackets.

The results of each part of the expansion are:

2 4x 3 = 12x

1 4x 2x = 8x2

3 9 2x = 18x

Parts 2 and 3 may be combined to give 6x, so we have:

(4x + 9)(2x 3)

3

9 3 = 27

This method can be easily extended to deal with brackets containing more than two terms.

The above method can be used on all types of binomial expansions, though a couple of shortcuts for

special cases are shown in worked examples 1, 2 and 3.

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

41

Worked example 1

a (3x + 5)(6x 7)

b (2x 9)2

d 2(x 9)(4 x)

c (5x 3)(5x + 3)

think

multiplications.

Write

a

(3x + 5)(6x 7)

18x2 21x.

30x 35.

= 18x2 + 9x 35

2

product of the two terms and square the last term.

2 (2x) (9) = 36x.

so the answer is a difference of two squares.

2

(first term)2 (second term)2.

b (2x 9)2

= 4x2 36x + 81

c (5x 3)(5x + 3)

= (5x)2 32

= 25x2 9

d 2(x 9)(4 x)

brackets. This is not essential as long as all combinations

of terms are multiplied in the next step.

= 2(x 9)(x + 4)

= 2x2 26x + 72

Worked example 2

think

42

Write

(x 7)(x + 2) = x2 5x 14

Use new brackets for clarity as shown.

= (x2 5x 14) (2x2 + 7x 4)

brackets.

= x2 5x 14 2x2 7x + 4

= x2 12x 10

Worked example 3

a evaluate P(1)

b expand and simplify P(x)

c use your result in b to confirm your answer in a.

think

Write

Simplify P(1).

P(1) = 1 36

= 35

to obtain P(x).

Simplify.

c P(1) = 2(1)2 33 1

= 2 33

= 35

exercise 2B

1 We1a

Expand the following.

a (2x + 6)(x + 5)

c (5x 7)(5x + 2)

e (x + 4)(7x 9)

g (6x 13)(2 3x)

i (x 9)(9x 1)

b

d

f

h

j

(3x + 1)(4x 3)

(8x 3)(6x 1)

(x + 6)(x + 15)

(5 x)(6 x)

(4x + 21)(x 3)

2 We1b

Expand using the shortcut for perfect squares.

a (2x + 3)2

b (3x 5)2

2

c (6x + 1)

d (7x 6)2

2

e (x 8)

f (x + 13)2

2

g ( 2x + 9)

h (2x + 9)2

2

i (4 3x)

j (6 x)2

3 We1c

Expand (remember the shortcut for difference of squares).

a (2x 6)(2x + 6)

b (3x + 5)(3x 5)

c (6x + 1)(6x 1)

d (2x 9)(2x + 9)

e (11x + 3)(11x 3)

f (x 12)(x + 12)

g (x + 6)(x 6)

h (7 2x)(7 + 2x)

i (1 x)(1 + x)

j (5x + 1)(5x 1)

4 We1d

Expand.

a 2(x + 6)(3x + 5)

c 4(x + 2)(2x 5)

e 8(3x 1)(4x 1)

g 4(4 x)(7 x)

i a(2x + 9)(x 6)

diGital doCS

doc-9712

SkillSHEET 2.1

expanding perfect

squares

doc-9713

SkillSHEET 2.2

expanding differences

of squares

b 3(x 4)(2x + 7)

d 3(4x 9)(2x 1)

f 7(2x + 3)(5x 10)

h 5(7x 4)(2 x)

j b(8 2x)(x + 4)

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

43

a (6x 13)(6x + 13)

c 3(7 + 2x)(x 8)

e (2x 14)(2x + 14)

g (x + 16)(x 9)

i 4(5x 3)2

b

d

f

h

j

a (x 9)(x + 2) + (x + 4)(x 4)

c 2(x + 5)2 + 5(2x + 7)(x 3)

e 4(x 3)(3x + 5) 2(2x + 1)2

g ( x + 3)( x 3)

i 12 (2x + 1)(4x + 7)

(5x + 2)(12x 5)

(3x + 11)2

(6x 5)2

(x 4)(x + 4)

5(2x + 7)(2x 7)

d (x 12)(x + 12) 3(x + 1)(x + 5)

f 6(2x 5)(2x + 5) (x 6)(x + 6)

h (3 x + 2)(4 x 2)

j (5x + 13)(3x 5)

a (2a + 4)(2a + b)

b (x + 2y)(3x 5y)

c (6 7c)(2 7c)

d (u + 4v)2

e (6r s)(2r + 5s)

f (3u 2t)(3u + 2t)

g 2(h 8k)(h + 8k)

h 3(m 6n)2

2C

Factorising is the reverse process to expanding. It involves writing an expression as a product of two or

more factors. Four methods of factorising will be considered.

Always look for a common factor first. Take out the highest common factor from every term in the

expression and place it in front of the expression. This makes the factorisation process simpler if further

factorisation is required. For example, 4x2 + 8x 12 can be factorised to 4(x2 + 2x 3). We would then

use inspection (see below) on the bracketed quadratic.

Factorisation by inspection

A quadratic polynomial of the form ax2 + bx + c is called a quadratic trinomial. It should first be checked

to see if it is a perfect square:

a2x2 2abx + b2 = (ax b)2 or a2x2 + 2abx + b2 = (ax + b)2

If not, factorisation is carried out by inspection or trial and error. This method involves finding

factors of a c that add up to b, i.e. the coefficient of the x term.

perfect squares

a2x2 + 2abx + b2 = (ax + b)2

A test for a perfect square is as follows:

1. Arrange the expression in order of decreasing powers of x.

2. Does first term coefficient last term 2 = middle

term coefficient?

(Coefficients are numbers or variables in front of x2 and

x terms.)

3. If yes, you have a perfect square.

For example:

4x 2 + 20x + 25

Double

2

10

Multiply

(2 5)

ax2 b =

ax + b

For example,

44

49x2

)(

Worked example 4

a 6x2y + 15xy

b x2 + 7x + 12

2

d 27x 75

e 9x2 30x + 25

c 6x2 + 28x 48

think

Write

a 6x2y + 15xy

2

factor negative so the leading term inside the brackets

will be positive.

= 3xy(2x 5)

b x2 + 7x + 12

2

give +7. +4 and +3 achieve this.

= (x + 4)(x + 3)

c 6x2 + 28x 48

2

and try factors of 24.

A few possibilities are:

(3x + 12)(x 2) = 3x2 + 6x 24 NO

(3x + 1)(x 24) = 3x2 71x 24 NO

(3x + 4)(x 6) = 3x2 14x 24 NO

(Nearly, just a wrong sign on the x term.)

(3x 4)(x + 6) = 3x2 + 14x 24 YES

)(x

= 2(3x 4)(x + 6)

d 27x2 75

2

= 3(9x2 25)

= 3(3x + 5)(3x 5)

e 9x2 30x + 25

2

expression, which looks suspiciously like a perfect

square. The square root of the first term is 3x, and the

square root of the last term is 5 or 5. Since we need a

negative middle term, take 5. Double the product of

these is 2 3 5 = 30, which is the middle term, so

we have a perfect square.

= (3x 5)2

Worked example 5

Factorise: a (x + 3)2

24

b (x 6)2 + 5(x 6) + 6.

think

Write

squares.

2

(

(

)

second term )

a (x + 3)2 24

= ( x + 3) + 24 ( x + 3) 24

first term

= x +3+2 6 x +32 6

)(

45

b (x 6)2 + 5(x 6) + 6

Note: This is often called a substitution method.

Let X = (x 6)

X2 + 5X + 6

= [X + 2][X + 3]

Replace X with x 6.

= [(x 6) + 2][(x 6) + 3]

Simplify.

= (x 4)(x 3)

Worked example 6

a 6x2y + 15xy

b 50 2(x 4)2

think

Write

a 6x2y + 15xy

2

= 3xy(2x + 5)

=3 xy(5 2x)

or 3xy(2x 5)

Simplify.

2

using the difference of two squares method.

= 2(52 (x 4)2)

= 2(5 (x 4))(5 + (x 4))

Simplify.

= 2(5 x + 4)(5 + x 4)

= 2(9 x)(1 + x)

exercise 2C

1 We4a

Factorise the following.

a 5x2y3 + 20xy2

b 8ax2 + 14ax

4

3

2

d 22r s + 11r s

e 5x2 + 10x + 75

2 We4b, c

Factorise the following.

a x2 + 16x + 63

b x2 17x + 66

2

d 3x 6x + 24

e x2 4x + 96

2

g 6x 37x + 45

h 40x2 + 46x + 14

c 2x2 + 22x + 48

f 6x2 11x 35

3 We4d

Factorise the following.

2

a 4x 9

b 81x2 25

d 18x2 162

e (x + 1)2 4

g 98 2(x + 3)2

h 3(5x 8)2 + 27

c 2x2 32

f (3x 4)2 1

4 We4e

Factorise the following.

a x2 + 14x + 49

b 25x2 10x + 1

12x + 12

2

g 4x 4 5 x + 5

d

3x2

72x2

+ 24x 2

2

h 4x 12 2x + 18

e

5 We5a

Factorise the following.

a (x + 3)2 9

b (x 3)2 16

2

d (3x 2) 81

e 2(x + 1)2 8

2

g 50(3x + 2) 98

h 1 (6 x)2

46

c 7p2q 21p + 7

f 3x2 18x + 6

c 2x2 + 12x + 18

f

x2 + 2 3 x + 3

c 36 (2x + 7)2

f 3(x 4)2 + 48

i 64 (2 3x)2

6 We5b

Factorise the following.

a (x + 7)2 + 9(x + 7) + 20

c (2x + 7)2 9(2x + 7) + 8

d 12(3x 11)2 19(3x 11) 18

a 3x2 24x 27

b 25x2 + 10x + 1

2

c (x 13) 2(x 13) + 1

d x2 28x + 196

2

e 18 x 6 x

f 60x2 + 40x + 5

2

g 60x 5x

h 9 9x2y2

j 12x2 + 70x + 98

8 mC a Which of the factors below could be multiplied by (x + 5) to get x2 + 14x + 45?

a (x 19)

B (x + 5)

C (x + 9)

d (x + 14)

e (x + 31)

i

a 2(3x + 5)(x + 6)

d (6x 5)(x + 12)

B 2(3x 5)(x 6)

e (6x + 5)(x 12)

a (x 3)

B (x 6)

C (x 9)

d (6x 9)

e 6x

9 Quadratic polynomials are said to be identical if they have the same factorised forms and the same

expanded forms; the relevant coefficients must be equal. Suppose that P(x) = 5(x + 3)2 + 35(x + 3),

Q(x) = 60 5x2 + kx and R(x) = 5(x + 3)(x + m). Use written algebra to find the values of k and m, if

it is known that the three polynomials are identical. Use a mental arithmetic substitution technique to

verify your answers.

2d

Factorising by inspection works best when whole numbers are involved for example (2x + 3)(x 7).

Sometimes it is clear that it is impossible to find whole numbers to complete a factorisation. For

example, with x2 + 6x 1, there is no pair of factors of 6 that add to 1. In such cases, completing the

square may be used to factorise a quadratic.

The method of completing the square involves manufacturing a perfect square so that an expression

may be factorised as a difference of squares.

Because this method often produces surds, factorising this way is sometimes referred to as factorising

over R, where R is the set of real numbers that includes surds.

Worked example 7

Use the method of completing the square to factorise the following over R.

a x2 + 6x 1

b x2 7x + 8

think

Write

a x2 + 6x 1

x 2 + 6 x + ( 62 )2 ( 62 )2 1

add and subtract it from the equation. Since the

same value has been added and subtracted, the

expression is equivalent to that in the question.

= x2 + 6x + 9 9 1

as x2 + 6x + 9 = (x + 3)2.

= (x + 3)2 10

= ( x + 3) + 10 ( x + 3) 10

Simplify.

= x + 3 + 10 x + 3 10

)(

47

b x2 7x + 8

2

add and subtract it from the equation.

7 2.

since x 2 7 x + 49

4 = (x 2 )

x 2 7x + (

) ( 27 )2 + 8

7 2

2

49

= x 2 7 x + 49

4 4 +8

8

= ( x 72 ) 49

4 +1

2

32

= ( x 72 ) 49

4 + 4

2

= ( x 72 ) 17

4

2

= ( x 72 ) +

= x 72 +

if desired.

17

2

17

4

( x 7 )2

2

)( x

7

2

)(

17

2

or x 7 2 17 x 7 +2 17

17

4

Worked example 8

Consider the quadratic polynomials represented by P(x) = x2 + bx + 4, where b can be any real

number. Answer the following questions.

a Factorise P(x).

b Find the linear factors of P(x), if they exist for b = 3, 4, 5 and 6.

Discuss the differences in the formats of your answers.

think

Write

a x2 + bx + 4

b2 b2

= x 2 + bx + + 4

2

2

x-coefficient (b), and then add and subtract

it in the expression.

square.

b 2 b2

= x + + 4

2

4

Simplify.

b 2 b 2 16

= x +

2 4

b

b 2 16

b

b 2 16

=x+ +

x+

2

4

2

4

b

b 2 16

b

b 2 16

=x+ +

x+

2

2

2

2

denominator (2).

2 x + b + b 2 16 2 x + b b 2 16

=

2

2

x+

48

b 2 16 + b

.

2

2 x + b b 2 16

or

2

b x+

32 16 + 3

2

32 16 =

negative number, there are no possible

linear factors.

x+

Simplify.

a perfect square.

x+

Simplify.

4 2 16 + 4

2

0 +4

2

=x+2

= x+

52 16 + 5

2

= x+

25 16 + 5

2

9 +5

2

3 + 5

= x+

2

8

2

= x + or x +

2

2

= x + 4 or x + 1

= x+

10

x+

11

Simplify.

62 16 + 6

2

= x+

36 16 + 6

2

= x+

20 + 6

2

= x+

2 5 + 6

2

= x 5+3

12

13

format of the linear factors; when b = 3,

there were no linear factors. Write your

observations.

b = 4: x + 2 is a repeated linear factor so P(x) is a

perfect square.

b = 5: The linear factors are x + 1 and x + 4.

b = 6: The linear factors are x + 5 + 3 and

x 5 + 3; they are found by completing

the square.

49

exercise 2d

1 We7a Use the method of completing the square to factorise the following over R.

a x2 + 4x 3

b x2 + 10x + 20

2

c x + 6x + 7

d x2 + 2x 7

e x2 + 8x + 13

f x2 4x 1

g x2 12x + 19

h x2 2x 5

2

i x 8x + 10

j x2 6x 4

2 We7b Use the method of completing the square to factorise the following over R.

a x2 + 3x + 1

b x2 + 5x 3

2

c x 7x + 2

d x2 x 1

2

e x + 9x + 4

f x2 + 11x 6

2

g x 3x + 5

h x2 + 5x + 2

2

i x 13x 1

j x2 + x 3

3 mC Which of the following could be added to and subtracted from x2 + 36x + 1 to assist factorising

a 6

B 18

C 72

d 144

a 4

B 17

4

C 16

C

e

( x 3 + 2 )( x 3 2 )

( x + 3 + 7 )( x + 3 7 )

( x + 3 + 6 )( x + 3 6 )

e 324

d 17

a

x2

B

d

(x + 3 +

(x 3 +

)(

10 )( x 3

289

4

)

10 )

11 x + 3 11

a

B

C

d

e

can be factorised using the method of completing the square

cannot be factorised using the methods covered in this topic so far

is a linear expression, and so cannot be factorised

is already factorised

a 3x2 18x 3

c 5x2 10x + 15

b 2x2 + 10x + 4

d 12x2 + 4x 8

null Factor law

2e

As a quadratic equation is a degree 2 polynomial (highest x power of 2), it will have at most two

solutions.

To solve the quadratic equation x2 4x + 3 = 0, factorise by inspection.

x2 4x + 3 = 0

(x 1)(x 3) = 0

or A B = 0

where A = (x 1) and B = (x 3).

For A B to equal zero, either A or B or both must be zero.

This is known as the Null Factor Law.

That is,

A=0

or

B=0

So

(x 1) = 0

or

(x 3) = 0

Solving these two equations gives:

x1=0

or

x3=0

x=1

or

x=3

50

Worked example 9

a (x + 5)(7x 11) = 0

c 4x2 + 25 = 20x

b 12x2 11x 15 = 0

d 6x2 = 54

think

2

equations.

2

several attempts.

2

side on which the x2 term is positive. Write

terms in order of decreasing powers of x.

perfect square).

equations if you like).

Write

a (x + 5)(7x 11) = 0

x+5=0

x = 5

or

or

7x 11 = 0

7x = 11

x = 11

7

or

or

or

3x 5 = 0

3x = 5

x = 53

or

or

x3=0

x=3

b 12x2 11x 15 = 0

(4x + 3)(3x 5) = 0

4x + 3 = 0

4x = 3

x = 43

4x2 + 25 = 20x

4x2 20x + 25 = 0

(2x 5)2 = 0

2x 5 = 0

2x = 5

x = 52

6x2 = 54

Rearrange.

6x2 54 = 0

6(x2 9) = 0

6(x + 3)(x 3) = 0

Solve.

x+3=0

x = 3

Worked example 10

The height of a triangle is 5cm more than its base length. If the area of the

triangle is 18cm2, find the base length and height.

think

1

variable. Here, x is used.

Draw a diagram.

Write

tUtorial

eles-1407

Worked example 10

Then height = x + 5

x+5

x

51

an equation involving the variable.

Area = 12 bh

18 = 12 (x)(x + 5)

36 = x(x + 5)

36 = x2 + 5x

x2 + 5x 36 = 0

Factorise.

(x + 9)(x 4) = 0

Solve.

x = 9 or x = 4

context must be positive.

x=4

h=x+5

=9

(as x > 0)

Worked example 11

Equation 1: (2x + 1)(x 3) = 4x

Equation 2: (2x + 1)(x 3) = 4x2

Use a calculator to determine which equation(s) has rational solutions.

think

Write

Equation 1

(2x + 1)(x 3) = 4x

2x2 5x 3 = 4x

(add 4x to both sides).

Factorise.

(2x 3)(x + 1) = 0

2x 3 = 0

3

x=2

2x2 x 3 = 0

x+1=0

x = 1

or

or

Equation 2

1

(add 4x2 to both sides).

2x2 5x 3 = 4x2

6x2 5x 3 = 0

x2 56 x 12 = 0

x2 5 x +

6

25

144

25

144

12 = 0

+ 72

=0

( x ) 25144

(x ) ( ) = 0

5 2

12

5 2

12

52

97

12

97

12

x 12 +

Only equation 1 has rational solutions.

= 0 or x 12

97

12

=0

Fixed point (or simple) iteration is a way of solving equations numerically rather than algebraically. To

use this method, the equation to be solved must be manipulated into the form x = g(x).

For example, if the equation to be solved is f (x) = x2 7x + 1 = 0, a possible manipulation is

x2 7x + 1 = 0

x2 + 1 = 7x

x2 + 1

=x

7

In this case, we have x = g(x), where g( x ) =

Fixed point iteration works as follows:

1. Make an initial guess, say x = 1.

x2 + 1

.

7

g( x ) =

x 2 + 1 12 + 1 2

=

= 7 = 0.2857

7

7

g( x ) =

x 2 + 1 0.28572 + 1

=

= 0.1545

7

7

g( x ) =

x 2 + 1 0.15452 + 1

=

= 0.1463

7

7

g(x) =

x 2 + 1 0.14632 + 1

=

= 0.1459

7

7

g(x) are equal (within a tolerance of, say, 0.0001).

g( x ) =

x 2 + 1 0.14592 + 1

=

= 0.14589

7

7

of g(x) are 0.1459 and 0.14589, within the

tolerance of 0.0001.

x = 0.1459 is a solution to x2 7x + 1 = 0.

null Factor law

exercise 2e

1 We9a

a (x + 6)(2x + 3) = 0

b (x + 1)(6x 1) = 0

c (x 5)(x + 2) = 0

d (7x + 12)(9x + 2) = 0

e (16x + 8)(2x 6) = 0

g (6 7x)(x + 6) = 0

3x(x

2 We9b

Factorise and solve the following.

a x2 + 6x 72 = 0

b 2x2 7x 4 = 0

d 2x2 + 12x 110 = 0

e 3x2 27 = 0

g 12

h 15x

75x2

3 We9c, d

=0

=1

g 32x2 = 162

j

32x2 16x + 2 = 0

=0

b 6x2 + 7x = 49

e

32x

6x2

+ 10

h 5x2 = 8x

+5

=x

13

6x 2

c 1 + 8x = 16x2

f

i

27 + 12x2 = 36x

10 x

x2 =

2

x = and x = 7

x = 3 and x = 7

x = 3 and x = 7

x = 3 and x = 7

x = 4 and x = 21

4 mC

a

B

C

d

e

3x2

c 4x2 + 13x + 10 = 0

diGital doC

doc-9714

Quadratic

expressions

a x2 + 45 = 14x

36x2

(7 + x)(23 x) = 0

1) = 0

53

5 mC

a

2

13

B

13

2

2

C 13

d 1

e 13

2

The solutions to a quadratic equation are x = 9 and x = 25 . The equation could be:

a (x 9)(x 25 ) = 0

B 5(x 9)(x 2) = 0

C 2(x + 9)(x 5) = 0

d (x + 9)(5x 2) = 0

e (x + 9)(2x 5) = 0

x

7 We10 The width of a rectangle is 3 cm less than its

2

length. If the area of the rectangle is 40cm , find the

length and width.

8 We11 A rectangular piece of metal with length 6 cm and

width 4 cm is to be enlarged by increasing both of these

4 cm

dimensions by x cm as shown at right.

a If the value of x is 2, describe the change in area that

occurs.

b Find the exact dimensions of the enlarged rectangle if its

6 cm

area is (20 2 + 32) cm2.

6 mC

9 The temperature, T (C), in an office follows the equation T = 85 t 2 5t + 30, where t is the time (in

10

11

12

diGital doC

doc-9715

WorkSHEET 2.1

13

14

15

hours) the offices climate control system has been operating. How long does it take the temperature to

reach 20 C?

A number pattern follows the rule n2 + 3n + 2; that is, the number pattern is 6, 12, 20, . . . (found by

substituting n = 1, n = 2, n = 3 into the rule).

a Find the next value by substituting n = 4 into the rule.

b What positive n value gives the number 210 when substituted into the rule?

The diagram at right demonstrates the idea

of rectangular numbers.

The formula N = w(w + 1) gives the value

of a rectangular number based on a shape

with a width of w dots.

w=1

w=2

w=3

a Which rectangular number has a

N=1

N=6

N = 12

width of 6?

b What is the width of the rectangular number 272?

The amount of bending, B mm, of a particular wooden beam under a load is given by

B=0.2m2 + 0.5m + 2.5, where m kg is the mass (or load) on the end of the beam. What mass will

produce a bend of 8.8 mm?

A window washer drops a squeegee from a scaffold 100 m off the ground. The relationship between the

height of the squeegee (h), in metres, and the length of time it has been falling (t), in seconds, is given

by h = 100 5t 2.

a When does the squeegee pass a window 30 m off the ground?

b Exactly how long does it take for the squeegee to hit the ground?

The following equations are already in the form x = g(x). Find a solution using fixed point iteration with

an initial guess of x = 1.

x2 + 6

x2 2

a x=

b x=

5

3

Find a solution to each of the following (correct to 3 decimal places) using fixed point iteration. First

manipulate each equation into the form x = g(x) in a similar way to that shown on page 53.

a x2 9x + 2 = 0

b x2 + 5x 7 = 0

2

c x 4x + 1 = 0

d 2x2 11x + 8 = 0

7 x 1. Does this

form converge using fixed point iteration? If so, state the solution found.

17 Find a manipulation of 4x2 + x 3 = 0 that converges using fixed point iteration. State the solution.

18 Investigate when equations of the form x2 bx + 1 are likely to converge to a solution using

x2 + 1

fixed point iteration with a manipulation of the form x =

.

b

54

completing the square

2F

Recall that when you cannot factorise quadratics by the method of sensibly guessing whole numbers,

the method of completing the square may be used. Completing the square may also be used to solve

quadratic equations that dont appear to easily factorise.

Worked example 12

a x2 + 10x + 2 = 0

b x2 7x + 1 = 0

c x2 8 = 0

think

candidate for completing the square.

tUtorial

eles-1408

Worked example 12

Write

x2 + 10x + 2 = 0

x 2 + 10 x + ( 102 )2 ( 102 )2 + 2 = 0

add and subtract it.

shown.

terms.

(x + 5)2 23 = 0

the other side of the equation, remembering to

change the sign.

Solve for x.

x2 + 10x + 25 25 + 2 = 0

(x + 5)2 = 23

x + 5 = 23

x = 5 23

b x2 7x + 1 = 0

appropriate.

subtract this term.

49

x 2 7 x + 49

4 4 +1 = 0

Partially simplify.

49

4

x 2 7 x + 49

4 4 +4 =0

x 2 7 x + ( 72 )2 ( 72 )2 + 1 = 0

45

( x 2 7 x + 49

4 ) 4 = 0

simplified where possible.

( x 72 )2 45

4 =0

( x 72 )2 =

45

4

x 72 =

=

45

4

95

4

= 3 25

x = 72 3 2 5

=

73 5

2

55

2

c x2 8 = 0

x2 = 8

x= 8

= 42

= 2 2

Worked example 13

Use the method of completing the square to solve the following equations, or to explain why there

are no solutions.

a 2(2x 3)2 2(2x 3) 2 = 0

b 3x2 + 6x + 4 = 0.

think

substitution technique. Let a = 2x 3.

Write

Let a = 2x 3

2a2 2a 2 = 0

2, the coefficient of a2.

a2 a 1 = 0

and subtract it.

a2 a +

(a

( ) ( ) 1 = 0

1

2

1

2

a + 4 4 1 = 0

(a )

1 2

2

4=0

(a )

1 2

2

5

4

a 2 =

1

a= 2

5

2x 3 = 2

5

2

5

4

x = 32 + 4

5

4

The solution to

2(2x 3)2 2(2x 3) 2 = 0 is

x=

56

5

2

5

2

2x = 3 + 2

x = 47

5

4

7 5

.

4

2

of x2.

Notice here that the next step, finding the square

root of both sides of the equation, is not possible as

negative does not exist. Note: You will soon learn

a way to predict when this will happen.

3x2 + 6x + 4 = 0

x 2 + 2x + 4 = 0

3

x 2 + 2 x + ( 22 )2 ( 22 )2 + 43 = 0

x 2 + 2 x + 1 1 + 43 = 0

( x + 1)2 + 13 = 0

( x + 1)2 =

3x2 + 6x + 4 = 0.

completing the square

exercise 2F

diGital doCS

doc-9716

SkillSHEET 2.3

Solving equations

in the complete

square form

doc-9717

SkillSHEET 2.4

Simplifying surds

1 We12a

Solve, giving the solution in exact (surd) form.

a x2 + 8x + 1 = 0

b x2 + 12x + 3 = 0

2

c x + 4x 2 = 0

d x2 6x + 4 = 0

e x2 10x + 18 = 0

f x2 6x + 6 = 0

2 We12b

Solve, giving the solution in surd form.

a x2 + 3x 1 = 0

b x2 + 5x + 2 = 0

2

c x 7x + 5 = 0

d x2 9x 2 = 0

2

e x + 11x + 4 = 0

f x2 x 6 = 0

b x2 + 2 = 6x

d 4 x2 = 7x

f x2 3(5x 2) = 0

x 2 + 3x

g 14x x2 = 1

h

= 2

4

4 We12c

Solve.

2

a x 14 = 0

b 6 x2 = 0

c 3x2 = 36

d 2x2 + 18 = 0

3

a x2 = 4x + 1

c 9x 2 = x2

e 2(3x + 5) = x2

When completing the square to solve x2 + 16x + 1 = 0, the perfect square part of the

expression will be:

a 8

B 16

C 64

d (x + 8)

e (x + 8)2

5 mC

added and subtracted is:

a 4

B 10

C 5

d 100

e 20

6 mC

7 mC

An equation that is being solved using completing the square is at the stage shown below.

(x 9)2 15 = 0

a (x 9)2 = 15

B x = 24

d x = 9 15

C x = 9 15

x = 3 15

8 We13 For each of the following, find exact solutions (if they exist) or prove there are no solutions.

a 5x2 2x + 3 = 0

b 3(2x 5)2 + 6(2x 5) 4 = 0

c 4x2 2x = 6

d 5(4x + 3) = (4x + 3)2 + 9

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

57

2G

An alternative to the methods of factorising by inspection or completing the square is to use the

quadratic formula. The derivation of the formula follows, and is based on the method of completing the

square, but all you have to remember is the formula in the last step.

ax2 + bx + c = 0 (where a 0)

Consider the general quadratic equation.

b

c

Divide every term by a.

x2 + x + = 0

a

a

Use the completing-the-square method.

2

2

b

b2

b2 c

b

x2 + x + 2 2 + = 0

Halve and square to get b = b

a

4a

4a

a

a

2a

4a2

and add and subtract it to the equation.

b

b2

b2 c

x2 + x + 2 = 2

Rearrange.

a

4a

4a

a

The left side is now a perfect square. Get

2

2

x + b = b 4 ac

a common denominator on the right side.

2a

4a2

Take the square root of both sides. Remember

b

b 2 4 ac

x+

=

to take both positive and negative square roots.

2a

4a2

x+

b b 2 4 ac

=

2a

2a

b

from both sides.

2a

x=

x=

Subtract

2a

b 2 4 ac

2a

b b 2 4 ac

2a

The following examples show how the quadratic formula may be used.

Worked example 14

a 3x2 8x 9 = 0

b x2 + 5x + 6 = 0

Give answers in exact (surd) form and comment on the usefulness of this formula for each example.

think

58

Write

aa

b

c

3x2 8x 9 = 0

x=

x=

Simplify.

x=

the 8 and 6, but both terms of the numerator

must possess this factor, and initially they

dont. However, in simplifying 172 into

4 43 , the factor of 2 emerges; then the

cancelling is possible in step 6.

x=

the numerator and denominator.

x=

b 2 4 ac

2a

( 8)

+8

( 8)2 (4 3 9)

23

64 + 108

6

8 172

6

8 4 43

x=

6

8 2 43

x=

6

4 43

3

4 + 43

4 43

or x =

3

3

x=

x2 was 3; also, there are surds in the answer.

These facts suggest that neither completing the

square nor standard factorisation would have

been straightforward methods.

appropriate method for solving this equation.

ba

b c

1x2 + 5x + 6 = 0

x=

x=

Simplify.

x=

b 2 4 ac

2a

52 (4 1 6)

2 1

x=

x=

x=

x =

5 25 24

2

2

51

2

5+1

or x =

51

4

6

or x =

2

2

x = 2 or x = 3

5

was 1; also, there are no surds in the answer.

This suggests that an easier factorisation

method (i.e. inspection) would be more

suitable. Note: This applies only if the

question does not specify a particular method.

suitable method for solving this equation.

Factorisation of the left side in the format

(x + a)(x + b) would be more efficient.

Worked example 15

Use the quadratic formula to solve 2x2 2kx + 4k = 0, and use your solution to

solve 2x2 + 6x 12 = 0.

think

Write

term by 2).

2x2 2kx + 4k = 0

x2 kx + 2k = 0

a = 1, b = k, c = 2k

quadratic formula.

x=

k ( k )2 4 1 2 k

2 1

Simplify.

x=

k k 2 8k

2

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

59

2x2 + 6x 12 = 0.

step 4 and simplify.

2k

= 7 and 4k = 12, so k = 3.

( 3)2 8 3

2

3

9 + 24

x=

2

3

33

x=

2

x=

Worked example 16

Consider the set of quadratic equations in the form 4x2 + bx + 9 = 0, where b is 11, 12 or 13. Use

the quadratic formula to explain the solutions that occur with each b-value.

think

Write

a

b

c

4x2 + bx + 9 = 0

quadratic formula.

x=

Simplify.

x=

x=

x=

x=

b2 4 4 9

24

b 2 144

8

11

112 144

8

11

121 144

8

11

23

x=

12

122 144

8

12

144 144

8

12

0

x=

8

3

x=

2

x=

x=

x=

x=

x=

60

13

132 144

8

13

169 144

8

13

25

8

13 5

3

2

23

9

10

and x = 1.

solutions; recall that 0 = 0 and 25 = 5.

changing value of the expression under the square

root sign, b2 144, is critical.

b = 11: There was no solution (as negative cannot

be resolved).

b = 12: There was one solution (as 0 = 0).

b = 13: There are 2 solutions (as 25 = 5).

exercise 2G

1

Identify a, b and c (the coefficients of x2, x and the constant respectively) in each of the following

quadratic equations.

a x2 + 4x 3 = 0

b x2 7x + 9 = 0

2

c 9 4x + x = 0

d 7 3x 6x2 = 0

2

1

e 2 x 7x + 5 = 0

f (x + 1)2 = 0

g (2x 3)2 = 0

h 5 2(x2 + 2) = 0

6x 2 + 4

i 3x2 10x + 4 + 4x2 11x = 0

j

=0

2

Use the quadratic formula to solve the following (even though the equations may be

factorised by inspection).

a x2 + 9x + 20 = 0

b x2 10x + 16 = 0

c 2x2 13x 24 = 0

d 4x2 + 13x 3 = 0

2 We14

3 We15

Find exact (surd) solutions to each of the following.

a x2 + 5x + 3 = 0

b x2 + 8x + 5 = 0

2

c x + 3x + 1 = 0

d x2 + 10x + 12 = 0

e x2 6x + 2 = 0

f x2 7x + 6 = 0

g x2 4x 2 = 0

h x2 9x 8 = 0

2

i

2x + 3x + 1 = 0

j 4x2 + 12x 1 = 0

2

k 2kx + 4x + 6k = 0

l 2kx2 (k + 1)x + 4 = 0

4 a Use a CAS calculator and your answer for question 3k above to solve x2 + 4x 3 = 0, and write the

b Use a CAS calculator and your answer for question 3l above to solve 62x2 32x + 4 = 0, and write

5 Use a CAS calculator to find approximate solutions (3 decimal places) to each of the following.

a x2 6x 2 = 0

b x2 + 3x 9 = 0

c 2x2 + 7x + 1 = 0

d 9x2 2x 2 = 0

e x2 8x + 1 = 0

f 3x2 + x + 9 = 0

6 Use a CAS calculator to find approximate solutions to the following.

a x2 + 6x = 11

b 2x2 = 7 4x

2

c 10x + 2 = 5x

d x2 = 8x 6

2

e 5 = 9x 2x

f x2 2 = 7x + 4

2

g 5x + 6x + 2 = 0

h x2 + 4x = 8

7 The population of a colony of rare African ants is given by the equation N=x2+2x+300, where N is

the number of ants, and x is the height of the anthill in centimetres. How high could the anthill be when

there are 850 ants in the colony?

8 The profit, $P, made when a particular make of car is manufactured in t hours is given by the equation

P = 40t2 7t 5000. In order to just break even, how long must the manufacturing process take?

9 The position of an item x metres from the start of an assembly line is given by x=4t2 + 20t + 5 where t

is the time in minutes elapsed since the item started on the line. When is the item at position

x = 0 metres on the assembly line?

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

61

is given by h = 5.2t 1.5t2 1, where t seconds is the

time the ball has been in flight.

a How deep is the bunker?

b When is the ball first level with the top of the bunker?

c At which times is the ball at a height of 3 metres?

11 Debbi plans to pave sections of her backyard, as shown

at right. She has a total of 12 square metres of pavers.

a Find the value of x if she wishes to use her entire

supply of 5 pavers.

She then finds that the value of x (found above) will

need to be rounded either up or down to a multiple of

0.5m. Calculate the effect this will have on her existing

supply of pavers if she rounds:

b up

c down.

12 The surface area (in m2) of cement transport

containers made by a certain company is given

by 4 r2 + 24 r, where r is the radius of the

container. If the surface area of a particular

container is 60 m2, determine its radius.

13 The Gateway Arch in St Louis, Missouri, was

designed by Eero Saarinen in 1948 but not

completed until 1964. The line of the arch can

be represented by the quadratic function

2 (x 95)2 + 190 where y is the height

y = 95

of the arch at a horizontal distance x along the

base (ground level) from one side of the arch.

Both x and y are in metres.

a Re-express this function in an expanded form.

b How wide is the arch at its base?

c This is the tallest arch in the world. How high

is the Gateway Arch?

2h

xm

4m

xm

Sloppo

Cement Co.

the discriminant

You may have found on occasions that no solutions (or roots) can be found for a quadratic equation.

If you were using the quadratic formula at the time, you would have found the trouble started when you

tried to evaluate the square root part of the formula. The expression under the square root sign is called

the discriminant.

The discriminant is used to determine how many roots of an equation exist and is denoted by the

upper case Greek letter delta ().

b b 2 4 ac

= b2 4ac

2a

The quadratic formula

The discriminant

If < 0 (that is, negative), then no real solutions exist, as we cannot yet evaluate the square root of

a negative value. The word real is used to describe numbers we can deal with at present. The set of

real numbers includes positives, negatives, fractions, decimals, surds, rationals (numbers that may be

expressed as a ratio for example 49 ) and irrationals.

(In further studies of maths, you will learn about a way of dealing with square roots of negative

numbers using what are known as imaginary numbers.)

If > 0, then the discriminant can be evaluated, and its square root can be added and subtracted in the

quadratic formula (see above) to produce two real solutions.

If = 0, then there is nothing to add or subtract in the quadratic formula, and so there is only one real

solution to evaluate.

x=

62

Worked example 17

think

Write

Note the value of a, b and c.

3x2 5x + 2 = 0

a = 3, b = 5, c = 2

= b2 4ac

= (5)2 4(3)(2)

Evaluate.

= 25 24

=1

Worked example 18

think

Write

Note the value of a, b and c.

7x2

= b2 4ac

= (3)2 4(7)(1)

Simplify.

= 9 28

= 19

+ 3x 1 = 0

a = 7, b = 3, c = 1

Worked example 19

i two distinct solutions?

ii one solution?

iii no solutions?

think

tUtorial

eles-1409

Worked example 19

Write

Note the value of a, b and c.

x2

= b2 4ac

= (2k)2 4(1)(9)

Simplify.

= 4k2 36

Note: |k| means the size or absolute value

of k without regard to + or . Since k2 is

always positive, we require k>3 (values

such as 3.1, 4, 5 etc.) or k<3 (values such

as 3.1, 4, 5 etc.) if k2 is to be > 9.

+ 2kx 9 = 0

a = 1, b = 2k, c = 9

So

4k2 36 > 0

4k2 > 36

k2 > 9

|k| > 3

k > 3 or k < 3

63

The size of k must be = 3.

(That is, 3 or 3 are our only choices.)

The size of k must be < 3 (values such as

2.9, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 2.9 etc.).

An alternative method is shown in the next

example.

4k2 36 = 0

4k2 = 36

k2 = 9

|k| = 3

k = 3 or k = 3

k = 3

So

4k2 36 < 0

4k2 < 36

k2 < 9

|k| < 3

3 < k < 3

So

Worked example 20

i two solutions?

ii one solution?

iii no solutions?

think

Write/draW

Note the value of a, b and c.

2x2 + 2kx + (k + 4) = 0

a = 2, b = 2k, c = k + 4

= b2 4ac

= (2k)2 4(2)(k + 4)

= 4k2 8(k + 4)

= 4k2 8k 32

= 4(k2 2k 8)

= 4(k + 2)(k 4)

than those in the previous example, a graph

of versus k ( on the vertical axis, k on the

horizontal axis) is useful. (Recall how you

sketched quadratic graphs in previous work, or

see the next section.)

>0

32

6

64

>0

=0

<0

1 and 2) From the graph, > 0 when k < 2 or

k > 4.

From the graph, > 0 when k = 2 or k = 4.

From the graph, < 0 when 2 < k < 4.

Note: This method involving sketching a

graph of may be used as an alternative

to the method shown in the previous example.

So k < 2 or k > 4.

So k = 2 or k = 4.

So 2 < k < 4.

Worked example 21

Find an expression for the discriminant of the equation x2 + (2k +1)x + 4k = 0. Use this

result to:

a find exact and approximate values of k for which the equation has no solution

b explain the result obtained in part a through substitution of appropriate k-values into the

equation.

think

Write

x2 + (2k + 1)x + 4k = 0

a = 1, b = 2k + 1, c = 4k

= b2 4ac

= (2k + 1)2 4 1 4k

Simplify.

= 4k2 + 4k + 1 16k

= 4k2 12k + 1

we require < 0.

12 ( 12)2 4 4 1

24

12 144 16

=

8

12 128

=

8

formula.

k=

Simplify.

k=

12 8 2

8

k = 32 2

4

equation has no solutions.

equation has no solutions.

> 0.

b = 4k2 12k + 1

Let k = 2

= 4(2)2 12 2 + 1

= 16 + 24 + 1

= 41

> 0, so there are two solutions.

in the range from step 4 of part a.)

Let k = 1

= 4(1)2 12 1 + 1

= 16 + 24 + 1

= 7

< 0, so there are no solutions.

for which = 0.

3

If k = 2 2 , = 0, so there is one solution.

2

2

to the original equation.

65

exercise 2h

the discriminant

a x2 + 9x + 2 = 0

b x2 4x 1 = 0

2

d 2x 3x + 10 = 0

e 3x2 + x + 3 = 0

2

g x + 15x = 1

h 9 7x = 4x2

c 5x2 + 6x 7 = 0

f x2 2x 6 = 0

i 3x2 = 5

2 We18 How many real solutions are there to the following equations?

diGital doC

doc-9718

Calculating the

discriminant

b x2 + 4x + 4 = 0

e 2x2 8x 8 = 0

h 6 6x = x2

a 5x2 + x + 2 = 0

d 3x2 + 6x + 3 = 0

g 5x2 = 2 x

c 3x2 3x + 1 = 0

f 9 x2 + x = 0

i 12x = 9x2 + 4

a x2 + ax + 1 = 0

b ax2 + 2x + 3 = 0

c x2 + 6x + a = 0

d ax2 + bx + 1 = 0

e mx2 + 2mx + 1 = 0

f x2 + (m + 1)x + 3 = 0

2

2

g x mx (m + 4) = 0

h (k 1)x kx + 2 = 0

4 mC Which values of m below both result in the expression x2 mx + 5 = 0 having two

distinct solutions?

a 20 and 3

B 0 and 20

C 4 and 5

i two distinct solutions?

ii one solution?

a x2 + kx + 4 = 0

b x2 4x + k = 0

2

d kx 18x + 20 = 0

e x2 4x + (k + 1) = 0

2

g 4kx + 12kx + 9k = 0

h (k + 4)x2 + 10x + 5 = 0

d 6 and 5

iii

c

f

i

e 0 and 5

no solutions?

x2 + 4kx + 4 = 0

6x2 + 4kx + (k + 3) = 0

(k 1)x2 (k + 1)x + 2 = 0

6 We21 Assume k = 1 in each of questions 5 ai. Use substitution and your previous answers to

question 5 to complete the following table. (There is no need to actually solve the equations.)

Question

Equation after

substitution k=1

Number of solutions

Reasoning

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

power functions (turning point form)

2i

Quadratic functions are also power functions. Power functions are functions of the form f (x) = xn, n R.

The value of the power, n, determines the type of function. When n = 1, f (x) = x, the function is linear.

When n = 2, f (x) = x2, the function is quadratic.

Other power functions will be discussed later.

Under a sequence of transformations of f (x) = xn, n R, the general form of a power function is

f (x) = a(x b)n + c (where a, b, c, and n R).

All linear and quadratic polynomials are also linear and quadratic power functions, because all linear

and quadratic functions are transformations of f (x) = x and f (x) = x2 respectively.

When a quadratic function is written in turning point form, it is written in power form. For example,

the quadratic function y = x2 + 4x + 6 can also be represented as the power function y = (x + 2)2 + 2.

66

In previous years work, you will have discovered the following connections between a quadratic

function in turning point (TP) form, and its graph.

Summary of the sequence of

transformations

y = a(x b)2 + c

a is the dilation factor from the x-axis.

If a > 1, the graph gets thinner or

narrower.

If 0 < a < 1, the graph gets wider.

If a < 0, the graph is turned upside down

(or, reflected in the x-axis).

x-coordinate of turning

point (horizontal shift)

y-coordinate of turning

point (vertical shift)

Minimum value of y

for shape graphs

Maximum value of y

for shape graphs

a positive, increasing

y

x

Turning point (b, c)

x

Worked example 22

i state the turning point coordinates

ii describe the width of the graph as same, thinner or wider compared to the width of y = x2

iii state whether the graph is a minimum () or maximum () type, and state the maximum or

minimum value of y

iv find the y-intercept

v sketch the graph (x-intercepts are not required).

think

Write/draW

y = 3(x + 2)2 1

y = 3(x + 2)2 1 with y = a(x b)2 + c

a = 3, b = 2, c = 1.

TP x-coordinate: b = 2. TP y-coordinate: c = 1

i TP (2, 1)

1 means it is thinner than y = x2)

ii Thinner

maximum shape.

x = 0 into the original expression and

simplifying.

= 3(2)2 1

= 13

y

x

(2, 1)

13

67

If a quadratic function is not in power form or turning point form, it must be manipulated in order to

answer questions like those posed in the previous example. To do this, we use the method of completing

the square as demonstrated in the following example.

Worked example 23

Convert the function y = x2 6x + 1 to power form. State the coordinates of the turning point and

the maximum or minimum value of y.

think

Write

(If not, divide the equation by whatever will change the

x2 coefficient to 1.)

y = x2 6x + 1

this value after the x term.

y = x2 6x + 9 9 + 1

y = (x2 6x + 9) 8

y = (x 3)2 8

a = 1, b = 3, c = 8

value of y = 8 when x = 3.

Worked example 24

Identify the coordinates of the turning point of the graph of y = 2x2 + x 4 using

algebraic methods.

think

Write

y = 2x2 + x 4

1

= 2[ x 2 + 2 x 2]

of completing the square by first taking out 2 as the

common factor.

Half of

shown.

square [ ] brackets.

32

1

= 2[( x + 14 )2 16

16

]

as a factor of the curved brackets.

= 2( x + 14 )2 33

8

form. Write your answer.

1

2

is 14 , and ( 14 )2 = 16

1

1

= 2[( x 2 + 12 x + 16

) 2 16

]

33

= 2[( x + 14 )2 16

]

( 14 , 33

8 ).

functions (turning point form)

exercise 2i

1 We22 State the turning point coordinates for each of the following.

a y = (x 5)2

b y = (x + 7)2 + 3

2

c y = (x 2) 7

d y = (x 1)2 + 8

e y = 2(x + 3)2 4

f y = 6(x 2)2 + 2

68

2 We22

For each of the following:

i state the turning point coordinates

ii describe the width of the graph as same width, thinner or wider than y = x2

iii state whether the graph is a minimum () or maximum () type, and state the maximum or

minimum value of y

iv find the y-intercept

v sketch the graph (x-intercepts are not required).

a y = (x 4)2 + 2

c y = (x + 5)2 8

b y = (x 2)2 3

d y = (x 1)2 1

e y = 2(x + 5)2 9

g y = 65 (x + 1)2 12

h y = 7(x 3)2 + 3

y = (x 8)2 9

y = 13 (x 4)2 + 4

y = (1 x)2 + 20

3 Sketch graphs having the following properties, but do not show intercepts.

a Turning point (2, 5), dilation factor of 3 from the x-axis

b Turning point (1, 3), dilation factor of 1 from the x-axis

c Turning point (0, 4), dilation factor of 2 from the x-axis

d Turning point (6, 0), dilation factor of 1 from the x-axis

e Turning point (7, 7), dilation factor of 4 from the x-axis

f Turning point (0, 2), dilation factor of 12 from the x-axis

4 Determine the function rules of the following graphs, given that they are all of the power function form

a

(1, 5)

8

(2, 4)

(2, 5)

d

(3, 1)

y

7

x

8

(6, 6)

x

30

(3, 2)

b Turning point (2, 3), dilation factor of 1 from the x-axis

6 We23 Convert each of the following to power form, and state the coordinates of the turning point and

y = x2 4x + 9

y = x2 12x + 37

y = x2 4x 5

y = x2 + 18x + 0

y = 3x2 + 12x + 15

a

c

e

g

i

b

d

f

h

y = x2 6x + 17

y = x2 + 8x + 13

y = x2 + 7

y = 2x2 12x + 22

i use by-hand algebraic methods to find the exact coordinates of the turning point

ii use a CAS calculator to verify this algebra and find decimal equivalents for these coordinates.

a y = 3x2 2x + 1

b y = 2x2 5x 4

c y = 6x2 3x 4

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

69

programmed into the automatic glass cutting machine, using

the grid system on the diagram?

8

6

4

2

0

What is the effect on the graph of increasing k in the equation y = k(x 2)2 + 1?

The graph is:

a raised

B lowered

C thinned

d widened

e translated left

F translated right

10 mC

What is the effect on the graph of increasing k in the equation y = (x + k)2?

The graph is:

a raised

B lowered

C thinned

d widened

e translated left

F translated right

11 mC What is the effect on the graph of increasing k in the equation y = (x + 1)2 k?

The graph is:

a raised

B lowered

C thinned

d widened

e translated left

F translated right

9 mC

diGital doC

doc-9719

WorkSHEET 2.2

a the x-coordinate of the turning point

b the y-coordinate of the turning point

c the dilation factor from the x-axis

d the coefficient of x2 in the expanded version

e the coefficient of x in the expanded version

f the constant term in the expanded version.

(intercepts method)

2J

In this section we will consider graphs of quadratic functions of the form y = ax2 + bx + c.

When we talk about sketching a graph, we mean drawing a diagram showing the main features not

a true scale graph showing every point plotted accurately using a computer package or other means.

To sketch a quadratic graph, the following features should generally be apparent or labelled.

1 the y-intercept

solving the equation for the corresponding y-value. That is, it

is the c in the general form y = ax2 + bx + c.

All quadratics have a y-intercept.

y-intercept

c

x

Any x-intercepts are found by substituting y = 0 into the rule

and solving the equation for the corresponding x-value. Lets

say the rule factorises to y = (x d)(x e). Then substituting

y = 0 into the rule gives the equation 0 = (x d)(x e).

For this to be true, we must have x = d or x = e.

70

y

x-intercepts

c

d

Consider the general quadratic function, and complete

the square as follows:

y = ax 2 + bx + c

Axis of symmetry

x-intercepts

y-intercept

b

c

= a x 2 + x +

a

a

b

b 2 b 2 c

= a x 2 + x + +

2a 2a

a

a

Turning point

b

b2

( 2a

, c 4a

)

b 2 b2 c

= a x + 2 +

a

2a

4a

b 2 b2

+c

= a x +

2a

4a

b 2

b2

= a x + + c

2a

4a

You may recognise this form as turning point form. In this case, the coordinates of the turning

point are

b2

b

2a , c 4 a

Using xt and yt for the coordinates of the turning point, we have

b

b2

and yt = c

2a

4a

If a quadratic function has two x-intercepts, the x-coordinate of the turning point may be found by

averaging them.

xt =

d+e

If there is only one x-intercept, then it is the x-coordinate of the turning point.

y

The y-coordinate of the turning point may be found using the general turning point form above, by

completing the square from scratch or by substituting the x-coordinate into the original equation.

Recall also the two main types of parabolas:

y

Minimum parabola

y = ax2 . . . (a > 0)

Maximum parabola

y = ax2 . . . (a < 0)

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

71

Worked example 25

Sketch the graphs of the following, showing all intercepts and the turning point in each case.

a y = x2 4x 32

b y = x2 + 10x + 25

c y = 2x2 + 11x 15

think

Write/draW

a y = x2 4x 32

If x = 0, y = 32

y = (x + 4)(x 8)

If y = 0, 0 = (x + 4)(x 8)

x = 4 or x = 8

point (TP).

TP

y-coordinate of the TP. Alternatively, use

b2

yt = c .

4a

Write the turning point coordinates.

7

8

, b = 4, a = 1

2a

( 4)

= 2(1)

=2

xt =

yt = 22 4(2) 32

= 4 8 32

= 36

TP (2, 36)

the graph.

(2, 36)

b 1 Write the rule.

b y = x2 + 10x + 25

If x = 0, y = 25

y = (x + 5)(x + 5)

= (x + 5)2

If y = 0,

Alternatively, since there is only one

x-intercept (5), it must be the turning point

x-coordinate.

TP

y-coordinate of the turning point.

graph.

0 = (x + 5)2

x = 5

xt =

, b = 10, a = 1

2a

10

=

2(1)

= 5

yt = (5)2 + 10(5) + 25

= 25 50 + 25

=0

TP

(5, 0)

y

25

(5, 0)

72

c y = 2x2 + 11x 15

If x = 0, y = 15

= (2x 5)(x 3)

If y =

TP xt =

0, 0 = (2x 5)(x 3)

2x 5 = 0 or x 3 = 0

2x = 5 or x = 3

5

x = 2 or x = 3

b

2a

, b = 11, a = 2

11

=

=

6

y-coordinate of the turning point.

features.

yt = 2

11

4

(or 2.75)

( ) + 11( ) 15

2

11

4

242

+

16

242

= 16 +

2

= 16

1

= 8 (or

11

TP

2( 2)

11

4

121

15

4

484

240

16

16

0.125)

( 4 , 8 )

y

5

2

, 1 )

(11

4 8

15

Dont be put off if asked to sketch a quadratic graph whose equation doesnt have 3 terms. Such cases

are easier to sketch, as the following example shows.

Worked example 26

a y = x2 16

b y = 2x2 + 14x

think

Write/draW

a y = x2 16

If x = 0, y = 02 16

= 16

case, recognise a difference of squares.

y = (x + 4)(x 4)

If y = 0,

So

0 = (x + 4)(x 4)

x = 4 or x = 4

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

73

xt =

, b = 0, a = 1

2a

0

xt =

2(1)

=0

y-coordinate of the turning point.

yt = 02 16

= 16

features.

TP (0, 16)

y

(0, 16)

b 1 Write the rule.

b y = 2x2 + 14x

If x = 0, y = 2(0)2 + 14(0)

=0

case, use a common factor of 2x.

y = 2x(x 7)

If y =

So

xt =

=

Substitute into the original rule to find the

y-coordinate of the turning point.

b2

We could also use yt = c .

4a

14

4

7

2

(or 3.5)

( ) + 14 ( )

2 ( ) + 49

yt = 2

=

=

=

b

, b = 14, a = 2

2a

14

xt =

2( 2)

=

0 = 2x(x 7)

x = 0 or x = 7

0,

7

2

49

4

49

2

49

2

TP

7

2

98

2

(or 24.5)

7 49

,

2 2

y

7 49

,

2 2

74

Worked example 27

a y = 3x2 + 6x 1

b y = 2x2 + x 7

think

Write/draW

a y = 3x2 + 6x 1

If x = 0, y = 1

y = 0) is not easily done, so use the quadratic

formula.

If y = 0, 0 = 3x2 + 6x 1

b

b 2 4 ac

2a

a = 3, b = 6, c = 1

x=

x=

=

=

=

=

62 4(3)( 1)

2(3)

36 + 12

6

6 48

6

6 16 3

6

64 3

6

32 3

3

x = 0.155 or

=

x = 2.155

xt =

, b = 6, a = 3

2a

6

xt =

2(3)

= 1

5

y-coordinate of the turning point.

features.

yt = 3(1)2 + 6(1) 1

=361

= 4

TP (1, 4)

y

2.155

0.155 x

1

(1, 4)

b 1 Write the rule.

2

b y = 2x2 + x 7

If x = 0, y = 2(0) + (0) 7

= 7

75

y = 0) is not easily done, so try the quadratic

formula.

If y = 0, 0 = 2x2 + x 7

b 2 4 ac

2a

a = 2, b = 1, c = 7

1

x=

x-intercepts.

No x-intercepts

xt =

b

2a

1

2( 2)

1

4

1

4

(or 0.25)

yt = 2 ( 14 ) + 14 7

2

1

= 2 ( 16

) + 14 7

1

8+

1

= 8 +

55

= 8

55

y-coordinate of the turning point.

12 56

4

12 4( 2)( 7)

2( 2)

55

x=

features.

1

4

2

8

7

56

8

(or 6.875)

y

)

( 14 , 55

8

Worked example 28

a show that the parabola has no x-intercepts

b find how many units the parabola needs to be translated down, or lowered, so that

it has exactly one x-intercept

c find how many units the original parabola needs to be lowered so that its x-intercepts are

13 units apart.

think

equation 0 = x2 5x + 9.

76

Write

a y = x2 5x + 9

a = 1, b=5 and c = 9.

a = 1, b = 5 and c = 9

= (5)2 4 1 9

= 25 36

= 11

meaning of this.

are no solutions to the quadratic equation

0 = x2 5x + 9; that is, the parabola has no

x-intercepts.

b y = x2 5x + c

discriminant, , must equal 0. Calculate .

a = 1, b = 5

= (5)2 4 1 c

= 25 4c

25 4c = 0

c = 6.25

y = x2 5x + 6.25

equation.

y = x2 5x + 9.

c Axis of symmetry =

b = 5, a = 1

Axis of symmetry =

2a

( 5)

2 1

5

=

2

= 2.5

The turning point is at x = 2.5.

(here, 2.5) is always halfway between any

x-intercepts; the required distance between the

intercepts is 13 units.

13 2 = 6.5

2.5 + 6.5 = 9 and 2.5 6.5 = 4

The x-intercepts must be 9 and 4.

are d and e given a dilation factor parallel to

the x-axis of 1.

y = (x + 4)(x 9)

y = x2 5x 36

The y-intercept is 36; the answer is correct

as the first two terms are identical to those in

the previous functions.

the difference between the original and final

y-intercepts.

Answer the question.

9 (36) = 45

The original parabola must be lowered by

45 units.

Since finding x-intercepts for a quadratic graph involves solving a quadratic equation, we can use the

discriminant to decide the number of x-intercepts such a graph has.

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

77

y

x

x

x

>0

2 x-intercepts

=0

1 x-intercept

<0

No x-intercepts

(intercepts method)

exercise 2J

diGital doCS

doc-9720

Quadratic graphs

general form

doc-9721

Quadratic graphs

turning point form

b y = 3x2 + 6x 4

e y = 5x + 2 4x2

a y = x2 + 9x + 2

d y = 6 x2

a

d

g

j

y = (x 1)(x 6)

b y = (x 3)(x + 2)

y = (x 4)(x 5)

e y = x(x 2)

y = (x + 5)(5 x)

h y = x(x + 8)

a

c

e

g

y = (2x 5)(x + 1)

y = (x 9)(4x 9)

y = (2x + 3)(4x + 1)

y = (Ax + a)(Bx + b)

c y = 4x2 + 2x

f y = 1 x x2

c y = (x + 5)(x + 1)

f y = (3 x)(4 x)

i y = (x + 9)2

b y = (3x + 1)(x + 2)

d y = (x + 1)(6 5x)

f y = 3x(x + 4)

Use the quadratic formula to find exact values (if possible) for the x-intercepts of:

b y = x2 + 7x 7

d y = 10 3x + 3x2.

a y = 4x2 2x + 3

c y = 2x2 9x 1

5 We25a, b Sketch graphs of the following, showing all intercepts and the turning point in each case.

y = x2 4x + 3

y = x2 + 6x + 8

y = x2 8x + 12

y = x2 + 3x + 2

y = x2 11x 12

y = x2 16x + 64

a

c

e

g

i

k

b

d

f

h

j

l

y = x2 + 2x + 1

y = x2 + 12x + 35

y = x2 + 2x 63

y = x2 5x + 6

y = x2 + 14x + 49

y = x2 + 8x 153

6 Sketch the following graphs, showing all intercepts and the turning point in each case.

a y = 3x2 + 2x 8

b y = 5x2 + 18x 8

c y = 3x2 4x 15

d y = 4x2 8x + 3

e y = 8x2 10x + 3

f y = 7x2 + 18x 9

2

2

g y = 15x + 48x + 9

h y = 9x 2x 7

i y = 2x2 + x 28

2

2

j y = 3x + 5x + 2

k y = 2x 3x 9

7 We25c Sketch the graphs of the following.

a y = x2 8x + 33

b y = x2 + 2x + 3

2

d y = x + 18x 81

e y = 4x2 + 12x 5

78

c y = x2 18x 45

f y = 8x2 6x + 5

a y = x2 25

b y = x2 121

2

d y=3x

e y = 2x2 18

2

g y = x + 5x

h y = x2 8x

j y = 4x2 24x

k y = 21x 3x2

c y = x2 + 1

f y = 3x2 + 12

i y = 5x2 10x

a y = x2 + 2x 7

b y = x2 + 4x + 1

d y = 4x2 + 2x + 3

e y = x2 18x 1

2

g y = x 7x 2

h y = 2x2 + 7x + 4

2

j y = 3x + 17

k y = 4x2 5x

c y = x2 + 8x + 3

f y = x2 3x + 1

i y = 3x2 9x 5

If a and b are positive numbers, which of the following graphs could be that of

y = (ax + 1)(x + b)?

10 mC

a

x

x

x

y

x

x

If k and p are positive numbers, which of the following could be the graph of

y = x2 2kx + p?

11 mC

12

y

x

Without sketching, determine how many x-intercepts each of the following graphs have.

b y = 3x2 4x + 8

d y = 4x2 + x + 9

f y = 4x2 + 72x + 324

a y = x2 + 37x + 208

c y = 9x2 + 78x 169

e y = x2 12x 35

13 Consider the value of the discriminant in deciding which graph matches which equation below.

a y = 5x2 + x + 1

b y = 6x2 2x 1

c y = 7x2 x + 2

d y = 4x2 + 8x 4

a

y

x

y

x

x

14 We28b Use a CAS calculator and written algebra to find how many units and in which direction the

graph of y = 2x2 3x 2 should be translated vertically so that it has exactly one x-intercept. Also, state

the function rule for this new parabola in both expanded and turning point forms.

15 We28c Use a CAS calculator and written algebra to find how many units and in which direction the

graph of y = 3 (x + 2)2 4 should be translated vertically so that its x-intercepts are exactly 4 units

apart. Also, state the function rule for this new parabola in both expanded and turning point forms.

79

quadratic equations

2k

Quadratic expressions, equations and functions are linked closely, as you have previously seen. Study

the following table carefully.

Classification

Characteristics

Examples

Quadratic expression

Can be written in expanded and/or factorised form

4x2 3.4x + 2

(x 7)(x + 3)

x2 + 5x 6

Quadratic equation

0, 1 or 2 solutions exist

4x2 3.4x + 2 = 19

(x 7)(x + 3) = 0

x2 + 5x 6 = 4

Quadratic function

Can be sketched, as it is a set of ordered pairs

Sketch is a parabola, with 0, 1 or 2 x-intercepts

y = 4x2 3.4x + 2

y = (x 7)(x + 3)

y = x2 + 5x 6

Note: The solutions (also known as the roots) of a quadratic equation (say, 3x2 4.3x 1.68 = 0) are

identical to the x-intercepts of its related parabola (here, the sketch of y = 3x2 4.3x 1.68). They are

also known as the zeros of the related expression (here, 3x2 4.3x 1.68).

Can you see why the solutions of x2 + 5x 6 = 4 become the x-intercepts of the parabola given by

y = x2 + 5x 2?

Worked example 29

Consider the expressions x2 8x + 12, x2 10x + 21, and x2 12x + 32. Use written algebra

and/or a CAS calculator to:

a find the zeros and factors of the expressions

b find the turning points of their related parabolas

c use the patterns seen in these answers to predict the next three and previous two quadratic

expressions, along with the features of their related parabolas.

Now consider a general quadratic function (variable x) whose graph is an upright parabola with a

dilation factor from the x-axis of 1. Its x-intercepts are j and k.

d Find the rule for this quadratic function.

e Find the function rule for a second parabola that has been translated 3 units to the left

of the original parabola.

f Verify your results for d and e (algebraically and graphically) by letting j = 5 and k=2.

think

a 1 Factorise x2 8x + 12.

a x2 8x + 12 = (x 2)(x 6)

solve.

(x 2)(x 6) = 0

x2=0

or

x=2

or

x2 10x + 21 = (x 3)(x 6)

solve.

(x 3)(x 7) = 0

x3=0

or

x=3

or

x2 12x + 32 = (x 4)(x 8)

solve.

(x 4)(x 8) = 0

x4=0

or

x=4

or

80

Write/draW

x6=0

x=6

x7=0

x=7

x8=0

x=8

parabola.

2+6

=4

2

For x2 10x + 21,

3+ 7

TP x-value =

=5

2

For x2 12x + 32,

4+8

TP x-value =

=6

2

TP x-value =

by substituting the x-values in the

corresponding functions.

For x2 8x + 12,

42 8 4 + 12 = 4

For x2 10x + 21,

52 10 5 + 21 = 4

For x2 12x + 32,

62 12 6 + 32 = 4

(4, 4), (5, 4) and (6, 4).

upon the patterns from parts a and b.

2

moving to the right (horizontally) by 1 unit

for each step in the progression. This means

that only the x-coordinates change. Also,

the coefficient of the x term in the expanded

expression is the negative sum of the zeros,

and the constant term is the product of the

zeros.

c (x 5)(x 9)

(x 6)(x 10)

(x 7)(x 11)

(x 1)(x 5)

(x 0)(x 4)

Expression

Zeros

TP

Factors

x2 4x

0, 4

(2, 4)

(x)(x 4)

x2 6x + 5

1, 5

(3, 4)

(x 1)(x 5)

x 8x + 12

2, 6

(4,

4)

(x 2)(x 6)

x2 10x + 21

3, 7

(5, 4)

(x 3)(x 7)

x2 12x + 32

4, 8

(6, 4)

(x 4)(x 8)

x2 14x + 45

5, 9

(7, 4)

(x 5)(x 9)

x2 16x + 60

6, 10

x2 18x + 77

7, 11

y = (x j)(x k)

Expand.

y = x2 ( j + k)x + jk

b For x2 8x + 12,

y = (x ( j 3))(x (k 3))

Expand.

y = x2 ( j + k 6)x + ( j 3)(k 3)

function.

subtracting 3 from j and k.

f y = (x + 5)(x 2)

y = x2 + 3x 10

j 3 = 5 3 = 8

k 3 = 2 3 = 1

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

81

y=x2+9x+8 on the same set of axes.

y = (x + 8)(x + 1)

y = x2 + 9x + 8

y

(TP)

y = x2 + 9x + 8

y = x2 + 3x 10

(TP)

3 units to the left. The second parabola has

been translated 3 units to the left from the first

parabola. The answers are verified.

quadratic equations

exercise 2k

a x2 + 4x + 1 = 0

b x2 = 11x + 2

2

c x + 4x = 2

d x2 = 8x 8

2

e x + 12x + 9 = 0

f 3x2 + 5x 1 = 0

diGital doC

doc-9722

Simultaneous,

quadratic and linear

equations

a 2.3x2 + 0.7x 0.59 = 0

b 0.811x2 5.2x 3.1 = 0

c 3.97x2 + 17x + 8.05 = 0

d 5.18x2 = 2.66x + 9

e 0.006x2 + 0.923x + 0.361 = 0

f x2 + 500x = 47

3 The distance, d, of a comet from one of the moons of Jupiter is given by the equation

d=47.9t2 + 0.03t 908.7, where t is the number of hours since the comet was first discovered

on 28 June 2001. At what value of t will the comet reach this moon?

4 The number of marine organisms, N, in a marine research organisations testing tank is found to follow

the equation (or model) N = 0.0751h2 + 0.69h + 200, where h is the number of hours since the tank

was supplied with nutrient and stocked with 200 organisms. How long after being fed could the colony

survive without further food before none were left?

82

5 A diver follows a parabolic path from the diving board to the water, given by the function below. What

is the horizontal distance travelled by the diver from leaving the diving board to entering the water?

(h represents the height of the diver above the water for a distance, d, from the diving board in the

equation shown. Both h and d are in metres.)

h = 0.5d2 + 2d + 5

6 We29 As part of a Year 11 Maths extension activity, Harry and Christine were each asked by their

teacher to come up with a quadratic expression whose zeros had a sum of 10.25 (or as close to that

as possible). The coefficient of the linear term had to be 5. When they returned to class the next day,

Harry announced his expression was 0.48x2 5x 2.3, and Christine said hers was 0.49x2 5x + 1.9.

Who was closest, and by how much?

7 One of the solutions of the equation 10x2 + 11x = k (where k is a constant) is 1.6.

a Find the value of k.

b Find the other solution to the original quadratic equation.

linear equations

2l

In previous studies you have dealt with pairs of simultaneous linear equations and solved these using

algebra. The solution could also be represented graphically. The same is true when we have one linear

and one quadratic equation as a pair of simultaneous equations.

Consider the following pair of simultaneous equations:

y = x2 + x 2 and y = 3x + 1

If x = 3 is substituted into the first equation, y = 32 + 3 2 = 10 is obtained.

If x = 3 is substituted into the second equation, y = 3 3 + 1 = 10 is obtained. That is, the coordinate

pair (3, 10) fits both equations, so it is a solution.

If x = 1 is substituted into the first equation, y = (1)2 + (1) 2 = 2 is obtained.

If x = 1 is substituted into the second equation, y = 3(1) + 1 = 2 is obtained. That is, the coordinate

pair (1, 2) is also a solution.

To illustrate the situation graphically, the related linear and quadratic functions must be sketched on

the same set of axes. As shown below, there are three possible relationships:

no points in common (hence, no solutions)

one point in common (hence, one solution)

two points in common (hence, two solutions).

interaCtiVitY

int-0261

Simultaneous

quadratic and

linear equations

83

One

solution

No solution

x

x

Two

solutions

When a linear equation and a quadratic equation are solved simultaneously, a new quadratic equation

is formed, as you will see in the following examples.

The number of solutions relates to the discriminant (positive = 2 solutions; negative = no solutions;

zero = one solution) of the new quadratic.

Worked example 30

b Illustrate the solution using a sketch graph. The turning point of the quadratic graph is not

required.

think

Write/draW

a y = x2 + x 2

[1]

[2]

y = 3x + 1

x2 term positive.

x2 2x 3 = 0

Factorise if possible.

(x 3)(x + 1) = 0

Solve for x.

to find the corresponding y-values.

If x = 3, y = 3(3) + 1 = 10

If x = 1, y = 3(1) + 1 = 2

graph. (The turning point is not required here.)

the same axes, and include the points of

intersection found in part a.

x2 + x 2 = 3x + 1

x2 + x 2 3x 1 = 0

x = 3 or x = 1

b For y = 3x + 1,

if x = 0,

if y = 0,

y=1

0 = 3x + 1

1 = 3x

1

x= 3

For y = x2 + x 2,

if x = 0,

y = 2

if y = 0,

0 = x2 + x 2

so

0 = (x + 2)(x 1)

and

x = 2 or x = 1

y (3, 10)

13

2

(1, 2)

84

1

1

2

Worked example 31

think

1

Write

y = 0.5x2 4x + 2

11x + 2y = 6

[1]

[2]

2y = 11x + 6

y = 5.5x + 3

0.5x2

[3]

4x + 2 = 5.5x + 3

Simplify.

Multiply by 2.

When x = 2,

y = 5.5(2) + 3

= 8

When x = 1,

y = 5.5 + 3

= 2.5

0.5x2

+ 1.5x 1 = 0

x2 3x + 2 = 0

(x 2)(x 1) = 0

x = 2 or x = 1

Worked example 32

b Illustrate the solution using a sketch graph. The turning point of the quadratic graph

is not required.

think

Write/draW

a y = x2 8x + 12

[1]

[2]

y = 6x + 11

x2 8x + 12 = 6x + 11

x2 term positive.

x2 2x + 1 = 0

Factorise if possible.

(x 1)(x 1) = 0

Solve for x.

to find the corresponding y-value.

If x = 1,

x2 8x + 12 + 6x 11 = 0

x = 1 only

y = 6x + 11

y = 6(1) + 11

y = 6 + 11

y=5

b For y = 6x + 11,

if x = 0,

if y = 0,

y = 11

0 = 6x + 11

6x = 11

5

x = 11

6 or 1 6

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

85

graph. (The turning point is not required here.)

the same axes, and include the points of

intersection found in part a.

For y = x2 8x + 12,

if x = 0,

y = 12

if y = 0,

0 = x2 8x + 12

so

0 = (x 6)(x 2)

and

x = 6 or x = 2

y

12

11

Tangent

point

(1, 5)

11

Worked example 33

b Illustrate the solution using a sketch graph. The turning point of the quadratic graph is not

required.

think

Write/draW

a y = x2 + 3x + 18

x2

x2 term positive.

Factor Law is apparent. Check the value of the

discriminant of the quadratic in step 4.

(x )(x ) = 0?

= b2 4ac

= (1)2 4(1)(4)

= 1 16

= 15

+ 3x + 18 = 4x + 22

0 = x2 3x 18 + 4x + 22

x2 + x + 4 = 0

b For y = 4x + 22,

if x = 0,

if y = 0,

y = 22

0 = 4x + 22

22 = 4x

x=

x=

86

[1]

[2]

y = 4x + 22

graph. (The turning point is not required here.)

22

4

11

2

or 5 2

For y = x2 + 3x + 18,

if x = 0,

y = 18

if y = 0,

0 = x2 + 3x + 18

x2 3x 18 = 0

so

(x 6)(x + 3) = 0

and

x = 6 or x = 3

the same axes. Note that the graphs do not

intersect, indicating no solution.

22

18

11

2

Worked example 34

The graphs with equations y = x2 + 4 x + 33 and y = mx + 24 intersect once only. Find the possible

values of m.

think

Write

y = x2 + 4x + 33

y = mx + 24

new quadratic equation [3].

x2 + 4x + 33 = mx + 24

+ 4x mx + 9 = 0

x2 + (4 m)x + 9 = 0

[3]

= (4 m)2 4(1)(9)

= 16 8m + m2 36

= m2 8m 20

= 0 for one solution only.

(m 10)(m + 2) = 0

m = 10 or m = 2

[1]

[2]

x2

linear equations

exercise 2l

i solve to find any solution coordinates

ii illustrate the solution (or lack of solution) using a sketch graph. The turning point of the quadratic

You may use a CAS calculator to verify solutions.

a y = x2 + 6x + 5 and y = 11x 1

c y = x2 + 9x + 14 and y = 3x + 5

e y = x2 2x 3 and y = x 6

g y = x2 + 5x 36 and y = 15x 61

i y = x2 2x 24 and y = 4x + 3

k y = x2 + 4x + 21 and y = x + 11

m y = x2 + 4x + 12 and y = 9x + 16

o y = x2 4x + 5 and y = 4x + 9

b y = x2 + 5x 6 and y = 8x 8

d y = x2 7x + 10 and y = 11x + 6

f

h

j

l

n

p

y = x2 6x 16 and y = 4x 17

y = x2 7x + 10 and y = 4x + 6

y = x2 + 14x 48 and y = 13x 54

y = x2 + 7x + 12 and y = 20

y = x2 4x + 4 and y = 8x 32

2 State how many points of intersection exist with each of the following pairs of simultaneous equations.

a y = x2 + x 6 and y = 9x 31

b y = x2 16 and y = 6x + 11

c y = x2 + 3x + 4 and y = 7x + 25

d y = x2 6x + 5 and y = 2x 12

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

87

3 We34 The graphs of equations y = x2 14x + 49 and y = mx + 48 intersect once only, at x=1. Find

the value of m.

4 The system of equations y = x2 4x + c and y = 7x + 8 has two solutions, one at x=1 and another at

x = 4. Find the value of c.

5 The graphs of y = x2 + bx 14 and y = 9x + c intersect at (1, 8) and (3, 10). Find the values

of b and c.

6 Using a CAS calculator, find the points of intersection, in exact form, for each of the following systems

of equations.

a y = x2 + 5x 3 and y = 2x 2

b y = 2x2 + 7x 8 and y = 3x + 4

c y = 3x2 2x + 12 and y = 4x + 8

d y = 5x2 2x 5 and y = 43 x 5

y

sea level will the entrance and exit to the tunnel be,

given the equations of the mountain profile and road

path as shown on the plan?

y=

x2

+5

2

y = x4 +2

Proposed road

Entrance

of tunnel

Find the equation of the parabola, given it is of the form y=kx2,

and find the points of intersection of the V with the parabola.

1

2

9 Use a CAS calculator to find the values of a in exact form such that the linear equation y =

88

3

8

x 2 + 3 x 5 do not intersect.

Sea level

y = kx 2

ax

+a

2

A pole 11 metres high is firmly secured to the ground. A parabolic arch is to be attached to the

pole 3 metres above the ground as shown in the diagram below. A metal rod will run directly from

the top of the pole straight to the ground so that it just touches the arch in one position only. Let

y be the height above the ground in metres and x be the distance along the ground from the foot of

the pole in metres.

y

(0, 11)

(0, 3)

0

1

a

a The arch is to be modelled by the quadratic equation y = 8 x 2 + 4 x + 3, where a is a non-zero

positive constant. Find where the arch meets the ground in terms of a, that is, find the x-intercept.

b If it is decided that the distance from the foot of the pole to the point A is 12 metres, find the value

of the constant a.

c If the equation of the metal rod is modelled by the linear function y = 11 + bx, find the value of b.

(Hint: Consider the discriminant.)

d Find the coordinates of the point where the arch touches the metal rod.

e Find the maximum height of the arch correct to 2 decimal places.

f Find the distance from point A to point B both in exact form and correct to 2 decimal places.

89

Summary

polynomials

whole powers of x.

2. The degree of the polynomial is given by the highest power of the variable x.

3. The general form of a degree n polynomial is:

P(x) = an x n + an 1xn 1 + . . . + a2 x 2 + a1x + a0

where n is a positive whole number and an, an 1, . . ., a2, a1 and a0 are coefficients.

expanding quadratic

expressions

To expand:

2

1. First term everything in the second brackets, then

1

2. Second term everything in the second brackets.

(4x + 9)(2x 3)

Perfect squares

(ax + b)2 = a2x2 + 2abx + b2

3 4

Difference of squares

(ax + b)(ax b) = a2x2 b2

Expand brackets first, then multiply if there is an external factor in expressions like

k(ax + b)(cx + d).

Factorising quadratic

expressions

General quadratics: Write down (_x )(_x ) and try factors of the constant term.

Perfect squares:

(ax + b)2 = a2x2 + 2abx + b2

Difference of squares:

( a x + b )( a x b ) = ax 2 b

Factorising by

completing the square

Halve and square the x-coefficient, then add and subtract this new term.

Form a perfect square from three of the terms.

Continue to factorise using a difference of squares.

Solving quadratic

equations null Factor

law

Factorise.

Set each factor equal to zero.

Solve two mini-equations.

Solving quadratic

equations completing

the square

Add and subtract the new term.

Form a perfect square and solve for x.

the discriminant

If < 0, no real solutions exist.

If > 0, there are two real solutions.

If = 0, there is only one real solution.

Graphs of quadratic

functions as power

functions (turning point

form)

The turning point is at (b, c) and the dilation factor is a.

If a > 0, the graph is a positive () shape.

If a < 0, the graph is a negative () shape.

To convert to turning point form, complete the square.

90

b 2 4 ac

.

2a

(b, c)

x

Graphs of quadratic

functions (intercepts

method)

1. Find the y-intercept (when x = 0)

2. Factorise if possible, and find the x-intercepts (when y = 0)

It may be easier to use the quadratic

y

formula in some cases.

If < 0, there are no x-intercepts.

If = 0, one intercept only.

y-intercept

If >0, two intercepts.

3. Find the x-coordinate of the turning point

b

using xt =

or by completing the

2a

square.

Axis of symmetry

x-intercepts

x

Turning point

b

b2

( 2a

, c 4a

)

4. Find the y-coordinate of the turning point by substituting xt into the equation for y, or by

using

b2

or by completing the square.

yt = c

4a

5. Combine all the information and sketch it. Functions with a positive x2 coefficient are

shaped, and those with negative x2 coefficients are shaped. If the information you have

gathered doesnt seem to fit, check for calculation errors.

Simultaneous quadratic

and linear equations

1. Set ax2 + bx + c = mx + k.

2. Rearrange to form a new quadratic equation Ax2 + Bx + C = 0.

3. Solve to find any x-coordinates of intersection.

4. Substitute any x-coordinates into the linear equation to find the corresponding y-coordinates.

5. State the solutions (or state that there are none).

91

Chapter review

S h ort

anS Wer

1 Expand:

a (7x + 8)(7x 8)

2 Factorise:

a 25x2 + 110x + 121

b (2x 9)2

c (5 x 3)(5 x + 3)

b 6x2 + 37x + 6

c 12x2 37x + 21

d 36x2 49

3 Factorise x2 6x 14.

4 Solve the following.

a (4x + 1)(3x 9) = 0

b 3x2 40x 75 = 0

5 Solve:

a 4x2 5 = 0

b x2 14x + 42 = 0

6 Solve x2 + 6x 2 = 0.

7 Use the quadratic formula to solve 5x2 7x + 1 = 0.

8 Evaluate the discriminant for 4x2 3x + 9 = 0.

9 Find the value(s) of k for which the equation 2x2 + 3kx + 6 = 0 has:

a no solution

b one solution

c two solutions.

10 Sketch the following, showing the turning point and y-intercept in each case (x-intercepts not required).

a y = 4(x + 1)2 + 2

b y = 6x2 1

11 Convert y = x2 + 8x + 3 to turning point form.

12 Sketch the following.

a y = (x 6)(x 14)

b y = x2 + 2x 80

c y = 3x2 26x + 48

d y = 2x2 5x 3

13 Find any points of intersection of the line y = 2x 6 and the parabola y = x2 + 7x + 12.

14 Solve 4kx2 5x + 3k = 0 for x.

m U lt ip l e

C h oiCe

a 3x2 + 8x 35

d 4x2 2x 2

B 3x2 7x 35

e 4x 2

a x2 + 10x + 16

d (x + 6)(x 6)

B x2 8x + 16

e (x2 + 7)2

a a perfect square

d a quadratic term

B a difference of squares

e a factorised expression

a (6x + 7)2

d (36x + 1)(x 49)

B (6x 7)2

e (9x + 7)(4x 7)

C 3x2 2x 35

C x2 25

C a negative quadratic

C (6x + 7)(6x 7)

a (x + 6)2

B (x + 6)(x 10)

d ( x 2 + 2 2)( x 2 + 2 2)

C (x 2 + 4)(x 2 4)

6 Which of the following gives all solutions of the equation (2x 7)(x + 4) = 0?

a x = 7, 4

d x=

7

2

B x = 2, 1

,4

x=

C x = 2, 1

7

, 4

2

a x = 3

d x = 3, 6

B x = 3, +3

e No real solution

C x=3

B x = 5+

C x = 7+ 5

a x = 5

d x=

92

7+

7

5

x=

5+

7

7

9 If the equation 3x2 = 9 + x is to be solved using the quadratic formula, which set of values should be

a a = 3, b = 1 and c = 0

1

d a = 1, b = 3 and c =

9

B a = 3, b = 1 and c = 9

e a = 9, b = 1 and c =

C a = 3, b = 9 and c = 1

10 The quadratic formula, which can be used to solve equations of the type ax2 + bx + c = 0, is given by:

a x=

d x=

b2

b 2 4 ac

2a

b 4 ac

2a

B x=

x=

b b 2 4 ac

2a

b

C x = b

b 2 4 ac

2a

b 4 ac

2a

a 23

d 32

B 7

e 41

C 25

12 For a quadratic equation to have at least one real solution, the discriminant could be:

a negative

d either positive or negative

B zero

e a perfect square

a (1, 2)

d (2, 1)

B (1, 2)

e (2, 1)

C positive

C (2, 1)

a 3

C 2

e 20

B 4

d 8

a

B

C

d

e

y = + 5x 30

y = x2 11x + 30

y = x2 + 11x + 30

y = x2 + 11x + 30

y = x2 + 11x 30

x2

30

6

a 14

B 7

7

2

d 7

e 14

a

B

C

d

e

x = 0 and y = 4

x = 2.56 and x = 0

x = 1.56 and x = 2.56

x = 1.56 and x = 0

at right has:

a no solutions for x

B one solution for x

C one positive and one negative solution for x

d two negative solutions for x

e insufficient information for us to find a solution

a (3, 7)

C (0, 8)

e (2, 28)

B (0, 1)

d (3, 5)

93

e x tended

r e Sp onS e

1 A 100 m length of steel cable is threaded through a series of posts in order to construct

a Write an equation that links l and w.

b Rearrange the equation in part a to write an expression for l in terms of w.

l

c Write an expression for the area of the paddock in terms of w.

d Plot a graph of area against w. Plot area on the vertical axis and w on the

horizontal axis. On the graph, label all intercepts and the turning point.

e What is the maximum area of the paddock?

f What values of l and w give the maximum area of the paddock?

g Comment on the relationship between l and w, and state what type of shape the paddock is.

2 MacBurgers restaurants have employed a mathematician to

y

design a new logo based on an M made up of two parabolas

Parabola 1

Parabola 2

as shown in the sketch at right.

The parabolas both have the form y = 2x2 + bx + c.

h

a Give the coordinates of two points on each parabola.

b Find the equation of each parabola.

(2, 0)

(2, 0) x

c Find the height, h, of the sign.

d Which domain of x-values should each graph be restricted

to so that the parabolas form the logo shown above?

e Determine the equations of two parabolas that may be used to form the W shape below, given

they are both of the form y = x2 + bx + c.

y

9

(3, 0)

(3, 0)

3 Find the equation of a parabola that goes through the points listed in each case.

(Hint: Assume equations of the form y = ax2 + bx + c and form simultaneous equations by substituting

coordinate values.)

a (0, 1), (1, 0) and (2, 3)

b (0, 1), (1, 4) and (2, 15)

c (0, 5), (1, 11) and (1, 3)

d Find the equations of two parabolas that form a path similar to the one below depicting a proposed

water slide, given the x2 coefficient of each curve is 1 or 1.

y

(8, 8)

(4, 4)

x

4 a Using written algebra, sketch the graphs of the quadratic equations y = x2 6x + 8 and

diGital doC

doc-9723

Test Yourself

Chapter 2

94

b Why was one equation easier to sketch than the other?

c Determine another quadratic function whose graph has integer intercepts and turning point

coordinates. How can this be ensured?

ICT activities

Chapter opener

diGital doC

10 Quick Questions doc-9710: Warm up with ten quick questions on

quadratic functions(page 39)

2a

polynomials

diGital doC

History of mathematics doc-9711: Learn about the life of Galois, a

19th century mathematician(page 40)

2B

diGital doCS

SkillSHEET 2.1 doc-9712: Practise expanding perfect squares (page 43)

SkillSHEET 2.2 doc-9713: Practise expanding differences of squares

(page 43)

2e

tUtorial

We 10 eles-1407: Watch how to apply quadratic algebra skills to

determine the dimensions of a triangle(page 51)

diGital doCS

doc-9714: Apply the Null Factor Law to solve quadratic equations

(page 53)

WorkSHEET 2.1 doc-9715: Expanding brackets and factorising

quadratic expressions (page 54)

the square

tUtorial

We 12 eles-1408: Watch how to solve a quadratic equation giving

solutions in exact form (page 55)

diGital doCS

SkillSHEET 2.3 doc-9716: Practise solving equations in the complete

square form (page 57)

SkillSHEET 2.4 doc-9717: Practise simplifying surds (page 57)

2h

the discriminant

tUtorial

We 19 eles-1409: Watch how to find the possible values of an

unknown constant in a quadratic equation with zero, one and two

solutions (page 63)

diGital doC

doc-9718: Observe the discriminant and the number of solutions to a

quadratic equation (page 66)

functions (turning point form)

diGital doC

WorkSHEET 2.2 doc-9719: Solve quadratic equations,

understanding the discriminant and sketching parabolas

(page 70)

method)

diGital doCS

doc-9720: Observe axial intercepts of the graph of a quadratic in

general form (page 78)

doc-9721: Observe the turning point of the graph of a quadratic in

turning point form (page 78)

equations

diGital doC

doc-9722: Calculate the solutions to linear and quadratic

simultaneous equations (page 82)

equations

interaCtiVitY

Simultaneous quadratic and linear equations int-0261: Consolidate

your understanding of how to solve simultaneous quadratic and

linear equations (page 83)

Chapter review

diGital doC

Test Yourself doc-9723: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your

progress (page 94)

95

Answers CHAPTER 2

QUadratiC FUnCtionS

exercise 2a

1 a

d

2 a

d

3 a

b

c

4 a

d

5 a

c

e

6 a

b

c

7 a

b

c

d

polynomials

3

b1

c 2

6

e 5

x

bt

c x

x

e u

Polynomial 1b

Polynomial 1c

Polynomial 1a

5

N;

bP

c N; 3 x

x

N; k 2

e N; 2x

3

bx

3

d5

Coefficient of the quadratic term

1

19

2x2 + x + 2

6

t

0.9937; she is swimming 0.9937 m/s

at 0.2 s.

1.818 m/s

expressions

1 a 2x2 + 16x + 30

b 12x2 5x 3

2

c 25x 25x 14

d 48x2 26x + 3

e 7x2 + 19x 36

f x2 + 21x + 90

g 18x2 + 51x 26 h x2 11x + 30

i 9x2 82x + 9

j 4x2 + 9x 63

2 a 4x2 + 12x + 9

b 9x2 30x + 25

c 36x2 + 12x + 1

d 49x2 84x + 36

2

e x 16x + 64

f x2 + 26x + 169

g 4x2 36x + 81

h 4x2 + 36x + 81

2

i 16 24x + 9x

j 36 12x + x2

2

3 a 4x 36

b 9x2 25

c 36x2 1

d 4x2 81

2

e 121x 9

f x2 144

g x2 36

h 49 4x2

i 1 x2

j 25x2 1

2

4 a 6x + 46x + 60

b 6x2 3x 84

c 8x2 + 4x + 40

d 24x2 66x + 27

e 96x2 56x + 8

f 70x2 + 35x + 210

2

g 4x 44x + 112

h 35x2 90x + 40

i 2ax2 3ax 54a j 2bx2 32b

5 a 36x2 169

b 60x2 x 10

c 6x2 + 27x + 168 d 9x2 + 66x + 121

e 4x2 196

f 36x2 60x + 25

2

g x + 7x 144

h x2 + 16

i 100x2 + 120x 36

20x2 245

2x2 7x 34

12x2 + 25x 55

4x2 24x 62

g x2 3

6 a

c

e

i

7 a

b

c

d

96

4x2

+ 9x +

7

2

18x2 14x + 5

2x2 18x 159

23x2 114

h 12x2 + 2 x 2

5

j 15x2 24x

b

d

f

4a2 + 8a + 2ab + 4b

3x2 10y2 + xy

49c2 56c + 12

u2 + 8uv + 16v2

e

f

g

h

9u2 4t2

2h2 128k2

3m2 + 36mn 108n2

exercise 2C

Factorising quadratic

expressions

1 a 5xy2(xy + 4)

b 2ax(4x 7)

2

c 7(p q 3p + 1)

d 11r2s(2r2s2 + 1)

e 5(x2 + 2x + 15)

f 3(x2 + 6x 2)

2 a (x + 9)(x + 7)

b (x 11)(x 6)

c 2(x + 3)(x + 8)

d 3(x 2)(x + 4)

e (8 x)(x + 12)

f (3x + 5)(2x 7)

g (2x 9)(3x 5)

h 2(4x + 1)(5x 7)

3 a (2x + 3)(2x 3)

b (9x + 5)(9x 5)

c 2(x + 4)(x 4)

d 18(x + 3)(x 3)

e (x + 3)(x 1)

f 3(x 1)(3x 5)

g 2(x + 10)(4 x)

h 15(x 1)(5x 11)

4 a (x + 7)2

b (5x 1)2

c 2(x + 3)2

d 3(x 2)2

e 2(6x 1)2

f (x + 3)2

2

g (2x 5)

h (2x 3 2)2

5 a x(x + 6)

b (x + 1)(x 7)

c (2x + 1)(2x + 13) d (3x + 7)(3x 11)

e 2(x 1)(x + 3)

f 3x(8 x)

g 6(5x + 1)(15x + 17)

h (x 5)(x 7)

i 3(x + 2)(10 3x)

6 a (x + 11)(x + 12)

b (3x 4)(2x 5)

c 2(2x 1)(x + 3)

d (9x 31)(12x 53)

7 a 3(x 9)(x + 1)

b (5x + 1)2

c (x 14)2

d (x 14)2

e 3 x ( 2 x 2)

f 5(2x + 1)(6x + 1)

g 5x(12x 1)

h 9(1 xy)(1 + xy)

i 7x(5x 4)

j 2(6x + 7)(x 7)

8 a C

b E

c A

9 k = 5, m = 4

exercise 2d

Factorising by completing

9

65

9

65

x + 2 + 2 x + 2 2

11

145

11

145

x + 2 + 2 x + 2 2

No real factors

5

17

5

17

x+

h x+ +

2

2

2

2

1

13

1

13

x + 2 + 2 x + 2 2

3 E

4 E

5 B

6 C

7 a 3( x 3 + 10)( x 3 10)

j

b

c

d

1 a

2 a

6, 12

b 4,

5, 11

e 3, 3

2 2

,

5 5

h 0, 5

3 a

5, 9

( x + 1 + 2 2)( x + 1 2 2)

( x + 4 + 3)( x + 4 3)

( x 2 + 5)( x 2 5)

( x 6 + 17)( x 6 17)

( x 1 + 6)( x 1 6)

( x 4 + 6)( x 4 6)

( x 3 + 13)( x 3 13)

1

5

1

5

x 2 + 2 x 2 2

h 0, 1

1

b 1,

6

, 6

7

( x + 3 + 2)( x + 3 2)

7

41

7

41

x 2 + 2 x 2 2

6,

5

37

5

37

x + 2 + 2 x + 2 2

x + 2)

4(3x2

12 2

,

7 9

( x + 5 + 5)( x + 5 5)

5(x

3

5

3

5

x + 2 + 2 x + 2 2

5

17

5

17

2 x + +

x+

2

2

2

2

equations null Factor law

the square

1 a ( x + 2 + 7)( x + 2 7)

2 a

13

173

13

173

x 2 + 2 x 2 2

1 1

, 6

6

9 9

4

,3

1

2

7 7

,

2 3

5, 1

3

h 0,

8

5

c 5, 2

f 7, 23

5

c 2,

4

c

f

1

4

1

4

3

2

i 2,

5

2

5 1

,

3 2

4 D

5 E

6 D

7 Length = 8 cm, width = 5 cm

8 a The area is doubled.

b

Length = 20 2 + 33 + 1 cm

Width = 20 2 + 33 1 cm

9 4 hours

10 a 30

11 a 42

b 16

12

9

2

b 13

or 4.5 kg

13 a 3.7 s

b 2 5

14 a x = 1.998 using fixed point iteration.

b x = 0.562

15 a 0.228

b 1.140

c 0.268

d 0.863

16 Answers will vary.

17 Answers will vary.

18 Answers will vary.

completing the square

1 a

c

e

5 7

2 a

c

e

3 a

b 6

15

13

7 29

2

11

d 3

f 3

9 89

2

f 2, 3

2

2 5

b 3

9 73

2

3 19

17

105

33

11

65

75 2

2

15 201

f

2

h No solutions

4 a

14

b 6

2 3

d 3

5

6

7

8

exercise 2G

1 a 1, 4, 3

b 1, 7, 9

c 1, 4, 9

d 6, 3, 7

1

e

, 7, 5

f 1, 2, 1

2

4, 12, 9

7, 21, 4

4, 5

8,

h

j

b

2,

0, 1

3, 0, 2

2, 8

b 4 11

d 5 13

f 6, 1

9

113

2

2

2 6

3

17

4

4

3

j

2

2

k

l

4 a

x=

3k 2

+1 +1

k

k + 1 k 2 30 k + 1

x=

4k

2

7; k =

1

2

8 2

b

; k = 31

31

2 a

d

g

3 a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

4 D

5 a

1

4

d 3,

13

2

2

3

5

c

2 2

e 3 7

3 a

exercise 2h

21

b x =2

6

3

c

, 1

13

g

i

2 a

12

1 a

E

C

D

7

8

9

10

6.317, 0.317

b 1.854, 4.854

d No real solutions

3.637, 0.137

f No real solutions

0.123, 8.123

1.472, 7.472

b 1.121, 3.121

d 7.162, 0.838

0.225, 1.775

3.851, 0.649

f 7.772, 0.772

No real solutions h No real solutions

22.5 cm

11.3 hours

5.2 minutes

a 1 metre

b At t = 0.2 seconds

c At t = 1.2 and 2.3 seconds

a 1.2 m

b She will need to buy an extra 5.25 m2

of pavers.

c She will have 3 m2 of pavers left over.

0.711 m

2 2

a y=

x + 4x

95

b 190 m

c 190 m

5 a

c

e

6 a

c

e

g

the discriminant

73

b 20

71

e 37

229

h 193

0

b 2

1

e 1

2

h 2

a2 4

4 12a

36 4a

b2 4a

4m2 4m

m2 + 2m 11

m2 + 4m + 16

k2 8k + 8

i

iii

i

iii

i

iii

k > 4 or k < 4

4<k<4

k<4

k>4

k > 1 or k < 1

1 < k < 1

Question

c 176

f 20

i

c

f

i

k < 4.05

ii

k > 4.05

e

k<3

ii

k>3

f

k > 3 or

ii

k < 1.5

iii 1.5 < k < 3

ii

g i No values of k

iii No values of k

h i k<1

ii

iii k > 1

i

i k < 3 or k > 3

ii

iii No values of k

6 (See table bottom of page)

d

60

0

2

1

k = 4

ii

k=4

ii

k = 1

Equation after

substitution

k = 1

k = 4.05

k=3

k = 1.5 or k = 3

All values of k

k=1

k=3

functions as power functions (turning

point form)

1 a (5, 0)

b (7, 3)

d (1, 8)

c (2, 7)

f (2, 2)

e (3, 4)

2 a i (4, 2)

ii Same

iii Minimum y = 2

iv 18

ii

i

iii

i

iii

i

(0, 18)

(4, 2)

x

3)

i (2,

iii Minimum y = 3

v y

ii Same

iv 1

1

x

(2, 3)

Number of

solutions

Reasoning

= k2 16 = 15

x2

x+4=0

x2 4x 1 = 0

= 16 4k = 20

x2

4x + 4 = 0

= 16k2 16 = 0

18x + 20 = 0

x2 4x = 0

= 12 4k = 16

4x + 2 = 0

= 16k2 24k 72

= 32

d

e

x2

6x2

4x2

12x 9 = 0

= 144k2 144k2

=0

3x2 + 10x + 5 = 0

= 20 20k = 40

= k2 6k + 9 = 16

2x2

+2=0

97

i

ii

iii

iv

v

(5, 8)

Same

Minimum y = 8

17

i (3, 3)

iii Maximum y = 3

y

v

ii Thinner

iv 60

y = (x 2)2 + 4

y = (x + 1)2 + 5

y = (x 2)2 5

y = (x + 3)2 + 1

y = (x 6)2 + 6

y = (x + 3)2 2

5 a 6

b 7

6 a (2, 5) minimum y = 5

b (3, 8) minimum y = 8

c (6, 1) minimum y = 1

d (4, 3) minimum y = 3

e (2, 9) minimum y = 9

f (0, 7) minimum y = 7

g (9, 81) minimum y = 81

h (3, 4) minimum y = 4

i (2, 3) minimum y = 3

1 2

7 a i( , )

ii (0.33, 0.67)

3 3

4 a

b

c

d

e

f

(3, 3)

y

17

60

x

(5, 8)

i

ii

iii

iv

v

(1, 1)

Same

Minimum y = 1

0

y

73

(1, 1)

i

ii

iii

iv

v

ii Same

iv 73

(8, 9)

i (8, 9)

iii Maximum y = 9

y

v

(5, 9)

Thinner

Minimum y = 9

41

i

ii

iii

iv

v

8

9

10

11

12

(1, 20)

Same

Minimum y = 20

21

y

(1, 20)

3 a

i ( 5 , 7)

4

8

ii (1.25, 0.875)

i ( 1 , 35 )

4

8

ii (0.25, 4.375)

y = (x 5)2 + 9

C

E

B

b n

a h

d M

e 2Mh

3 a

d

x

(5, 9)

i (4, 4)

iv

(1, 3)

28

3

c

x

28

d

5 a

y

(6, 0)

(4, 4)

(1, 12)

iii Minimum y = 12

y

v

iv

54

5

1, 6

5

a b

7

2

9

4

98

73

4

No x-intercepts

y

(7, 7)

54

(1, 12)

1

3

3 1

21

2

1

3

(2, 1)

b , 2

(0, 4)

ii Thinner

5

, 1

2

,

A B

4 a No x-intercepts

(2, 5)

ii Wider

iii Minimum y = 4

v y

c M

f Mh2 + n

functions (intercepts method)

1 a 2

b 4

c 0

e 2

f 1

d 6

2 a 1, 6

b 3, 2

c 5, 1

d 4, 5

e 0, 2

f 3, 4

g 5, 5

h 0, 8

i 9

j 2, 10

21

41

(0, 2)

x

(1, 0)

c 9,

9

4

f 0, 4

3

1

12

12

4

2

(3, 1)

1

2

x

, 169

)

(11

2

3

2

(1, 1)

y

3

35

49

1

2

(7, 0)

3

4

( 5 , 1 )

8

7 5

(6, 1)

y

3

7

x

3

64

y

x

(8, 0)

12

)

( 9 , 144

17

2

(4, 4)

9

153

(4, 169)

6 a

1

5

)

( 8 , 147

5

(1, 64)

63

y

6

)

( 1 , 64

9

)

( 9 , 121

5

4

3

7

2

15

3

( 5 , 1 )

2

5

( 3 , 1 )

2

2

2

4

3

)

( 1 , 25

3

3

28

x

)

( 2 , 49

3

3

)

( 1 , 225

4

99

( 3 , 4)

12

2

1

2

5

2

2

3

1 )

( 5 ,

6

12

)

( 3 , 49

8

g

5

)

( 5 , 25

2

4

8 a

5 x

5

9

1

2

3 x

)

( 3 , 81

8

7 a

(4, 49)

y

(4, 16)

25

33

b

11

11

11 x

0

(1, 5)

y

(1, 4)

121

(3, 36)

1

6

1 x

(9, 36)

15

)

( 7 , 147

2

45

3 x

(9, 0)

x

81

100

9 a

3

18

3.828

1.828

7

(1, 8)

0.479

0.268

3.732

and linear equations

3.479 x

1 a

(3, 32)

(2, 21)

)

( 3 , 47

(2, 3)

j

0.395

11

3 2

(0, 17)

3

7.606

(2, 8)

2.380 x

2.380

(4, 13)

)

( 1 , 13

4 4

5

4

0.651

1.151 x

y

(9, 80)

17.944

0.056

1 x

10 D

12 a 2

b 2

c 1

d 0

e 2

f 1

13 a C

b A

c D

d B

14

25

8

)

( 5 , 25

8

(1, 0)

16

11 B

14

5

(3, 4)

(2, 28)

8

y = 3(x + 2)2 + 12

10

6

exercise 2k

1

0.382

2.618

( 3 , 5 )

2

7.275 x

0.275

2

)

( 7 , 57

2

2.781

0.719

)

( 7 , 17

4

8

quadratic equations

1 a 3.732, 0.268

b 0.179, 11.179

c 3.414, 0.586

d 8.899, 0.899

e 11.196, 0.804

f 0.232, 1.434

2 a 0.377, 0.681

b 5.747, 0.665

c 4.712, 0.430

d 1.086, 1.600

e 153.441, 0.392

f 0.094, 500.094

3 4.355 h

4 56.4 h

5 5.7 m

6 Christine; her sum was 0.046 less than

10.25, whereas Harrys was 0.167 more

than 10.25.

7 a k=8

b x = 0.5

11

1

6

(3, 70)

40

28

(4, 0)

7

101

16

16

9

6.13 metres

|AB| = 2.67 metres (approx)

= 2 2 m (exact)

49x2 64

b

25x2 3

d

(5x + 11)2

b

(3x 7)(4x 3) d

3 (x 3 + 23)(x 3

8 x

(1, 21)

4 a 3,

4 3

16

5 a

7

y

9

4

(9, 39)

5

b 15,

4

5

2

b 7

4 3

3

<k<

b k=

c k>

(6, 16)

4 3

3

10 a

or k <

(1, 2)

4 3

3

3

4

5

6

3

2

11

(5, 16)

7 x

54

13

6 8

(3, 15)

48

54

(2, 80)

102

d 0

3 13

, 5 13 and

3 + 13

, 5 + 13

c 2

4

b = 5, c = 17

6 a

21

(2, 9)

b2

12

2

4

(2, 0)

2 a

4 3

3

10

4 3

3

24

7

29

10

10

135

9 a

3

6

4x2 36x + 81

8x2 70x + 117

(x + 6)(6x + 1)

(6x + 7)(6x 7)

23)

6 3 11

34

d (8, 5)

1 a

c

2 a

c

12

4

(3, 9)

b=

Short anSWer

(1, 20)

Chapter reVieW

b a=5

(8, 20)

17

x = a + a 2 + 24

(4, 20)

61

17

4

10 a

36

3 3 < a <3 3 + 9

(1, 7)

(5, 14)

(0, 1)

11 y = (x + 4)2 13

y

12 a

( 1 7, 1 3 7) and

84

( 1 + 7, 1 + 3 7)

c

1 13 4(5 + 13)

3 ,

and

3

1 + 13 4(5 13)

3 ,

11

20

6

14

(10, 16)

433

and (0, 5)

80

8 x

10

8 y=

x2

, (2, 2) and (2, 2)

2

80

(1, 81)

7

10

13

16

19

48

8

3

( 13

,

3

)

25

3

32

8

11

14

17

B

A

D

D

9

12

15

18

B

C

C

D

extended reSponSe

1 a

b

c

d

( 5 , 1 )

4 8

C

A

E

E

A

100 = 2l + 2w

l = 50 w

A = w2 + 50w

Area

d

e

3 a

b

c

d

4 a

13

14 x =

0) and

5

2

4

(3, 1)

6)

8k

2B

5E

3 B

6 E

(50, 0)

Area = 625 m2

l = 25 m, w = 25 m

l = w: the paddock is a square.

Parabola 1: (2, 0) and (0, 0),

parabola 2: (2, 0) and (0, 0)

b y = 2x2 4x, y = 2x2 + 4x

c h = 2 units

e

f

g

2 a

25 48 k 2

mUltiple ChoiCe

1A

4C

(0, 0)

(6,

x 0, 0 x 2

y = x2 + 6x + 9, y = x2 6x + 9

y = 2x2 3x + 1

y = 3x2 + 2x 1

y = x2 7x + 5

y = x2 + 5x, y = x2 11x + 32

(25, 625)

(3,

whole number (integer) coordinates.

c The x-coordinate of the turning point

b

, so is a whole number if b is a

is

2a

multiple of 2a.

b

103

ChapTer 3

diGiTal doC

doc-9724

10 Quick Questions

ChapTer ConTenTS

3a Expanding

3B Long division of polynomials

3C Polynomial values

3d The remainder and factor theorems

3e Factorising polynomials

3F Sum and difference of two cubes

3G Solving polynomial equations

3h Cubic graphs intercepts method

3i Quartic graphs intercepts method

3J Graphs of cubic functions in power function form

3k Domain, range, maximums and minimums

3l Modelling using technology

3m Finite differences

This chapter will deal mainly with polynomials of degree 3 (cubics). The general equation of a cubic

polynomial is P(x) = a3x3 + a2x2 + a1x + a0, more commonly written as y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d.

Degree 4 polynomials (quartics) will also be considered. The general equation of a quartic polynomial

is P(x) = a4 x4 + a3 x3 + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0, more commonly written as y = ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e.

3a

expanding

If we expand three linear factors, for example, (x + 1)(x + 2)(x 7), we get a cubic polynomial

(a polynomial of degree 3) as the following worked example shows.

Worked example 1

Expand:

a x(x + 2)(x 3)

Think

2

2

WriTe

a x(x + 2)(x 3)

= x(x2 3x + 2x 6)

= x(x2 x 6)

= x3 x2 6x

b (x 1)(x + 5)(x + 2)

= (x 1)(x2 + 2x + 5x + 10)

= (x 1)(x2 + 7x + 10)

= x3 + 7x2 + 10x x2 7x 10

= x3 + 6x2 + 3x 10

105

Note: Just as there is a shortcut for expanding perfect squares, there is also a shortcut for expanding

cubes. We can find the shortcut by expanding (a + b)3 as usual.

(a + b)3 = (a + b)(a + b)(a + b) = (a + b)(a2 + 2ab + b2)

= a3 + 2a2b + ab2 + a2b + 2ab2 + b3

(a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3

= a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3

(a b)3 = a3 3a2b + 3ab2 b3

Similarly, (a b)3 = a3 3a2b + 3ab2 b3.

Worked example 2

Think

WriTe

In this case a is x and b is 4.

(x 4)3

= x3 3 x2 4 + 3 x 42 43

Simplify.

(x 4)3

= x3 12x2 + 48x 64

Worked example 3

Think

WriTe

2x(x

+ 5)(x 12)

= 2x(x2 7x 60)

simplification is needed.

exercise 3a

expanding

1 We1a

Expand each of the following.

a x(x + 6)(x + 1)

b x(x 9)(x + 2)

e 3x(x 4)(x + 4)

f 5x(x + 8)(x + 2)

i (5x)(6x)(x + 9)

j 7x(x + 4)2

g x2(x + 4)

2 We1b

Expand each of the following.

a (x + 7)(x + 2)(x + 3)

b (x 2)(x + 4)(x 5)

d (x 1)(x 2)(x 3)

e (x + 6)(x 1)(x + 1)

g (x + 11)(x + 5)(x 12)

h (x + 5)(x 1)2

j (x + 1)(x 1)(x + 1)

3

d 2x(x + 2)(x + 3)

h 2x2(7 x)

c (x 1)(x 4)(x + 8)

f (x 7)(x + 7)(x + 5)

i (x + 2)(x 7)2

a (x 2)(x + 7)(x + 8)

d (5x + 3)(2x 3)(x 4)

g 9x(1 2x)(3x + 8)

j 2(7 + 2x)(x + 3)(x + 4)

b (x + 5)(3x 1)(x + 4)

e (1 6x)(x + 7)(x + 5)

h (6x + 5)(2x 7)2

f 3x(7x 4)(x 4)

i (3 4x)(2 x)(5x + 9)

4 We2

Expand the following using the appropriate rule for expanding cubes.

a (x + 2)3

b (x + 5)3

c (x 1)3

3

3

d (x 3)

e (2x 6)

f (3x + 4)3

5 We3 Expand each of the following.

a (x + 5)(x 11)(x + 2)

b 3x(x + 6)(x 1)

d

106

(x

+ 5)(x

12)2

x(x

10)2

c

f

+ 13)3

(x

3B

The reverse of expanding is factorising (expressing a polynomial as a product of its linear factors).

Before learning how to factorise cubics, you must be familiar with long division of polynomials. You

may remember in earlier levels doing long division questions.

Consider 745 3, or 3 745

The process used is as follows.

3 into 7 goes 2 times. Write 2 at the top.

2 3 = 6. Write down the 6.

Subtract to get 1.

2

3 745

6

14

3 into 14 goes 4 times. Write 4 at the top.

4 3 = 12. Write down the 12.

Subtract to get 2.

Divisor

3 into 25 goes 8 times. Write 8 at the top.

8 3 = 24. Write down the 24.

Subtract to get 1.

Answer: 745 3 = 248 remainder 1

248

3 745

Quotient

Dividend

6

14

12

25

24

1

Remainder

Consider (x3 + 2x2 13x + 10) (x 3)

or x 3 x3 + 2x2 13x + 10

(consider only the leading terms).

Write x2 at the top.

x2 (x 3) = x3 3x2

Write down the x3 3x2.

x3

x3

x2

+ 2x2 13x + 10

(x3 3x2)

5x2 13x

Subtract.

(x3 x3 = 0, 2x2 3x2 = 5x2)

Bring down the 13x.

x into 5x2 goes 5x times. Write + 5x at the top.

5x (x 3) =

5x2

15x

Divisor

x2 + 5x + 2

+ 2x2 13x + 10

Quotient

Dividend

(x3 3x2)

5x2 13x

(5x2 15x)

2x + 10

(2x 6)

16

Remainder

x3

Subtract.

Note: 5x2 5x2 = 0, 13x 15x = +2x

Bring down the 10.

x3

2 (x 3) = 2x 6

Write down the 2x 6.

Subtract to get 16.

Answer: (x3 + 2x2 13x + 10) (x 3) = x2 + 5x + 2 remainder 16

107

Worked example 4

Perform the following long divisions and state the quotient and remainder.

a (2x3 + 6x2 3x + 2) (x 6)

b (x3 7x + 1) (x + 5)

Think

WriTe

2

x2

2 2 + 18xx + 105 Q

2x

x 6

+ 6x2 3x + 2

3

(2

(2x 12x

12 2)

18x2 3x

(18x2 108x)

105x + 2

(105x 630)

632 R

The quotient is 2x2 + 18x + 105; the remainder is 632.

2 3

2x

this equation. Include 0x2 as a place

holder.

2

TUTorial

eles-1412

Worked example 4

x2 5x + 18 Q

x + 5 + 0x2 7x + 1

(x3 + 5x2)

5x2 7x

( 5x2 25x)

18x + 1

(18x + 90)

89

R

The quotient is x2 5x + 18; the remainder is 89.

x3

Worked example 5

Think

1

0x as a place holder.

(as you did for cubic polynomials).

WriTe

x3 5x2 + 12x 24

x + 2 3x3 + 2x2 + 0x 8

(x4 + 2x3)

5x3 + 2x2

( 5x3 10x2)

12x2 + 0x

(12x2 + 24x)

24x 8

(24x 48)

40

x4

The remainder is 40.

Worked example 6

Think

108

WriTe

x2 3x 10

x 1 4x2 7x 5

(x3 x2)

3x2 7x

(3x2 + 3x)

10x 5

(10x + 10)

15

x3

The remainder is 15.

exercise 3B

1 We4a

Perform the following long divisions, and state the quotient and remainder.

3

2

a (x + 6x + 3x + 1) (x + 3)

b (x3 + 4x2 + 3x + 4) (x + 2)

c (x3 + x2 + x + 3) (x + 1)

3

2

3

2

d (x + x + 4x + 1) (x + 2)

e (x + 2x 5x 9) (x 2)

f (x3 + x2 9x 5) (x 2)

3

2

3

2

g (x 5x + 3x 8) (x 3)

h (x 9x + 2x 1) (x 5)

i 3x3 x2 + 6x + 5, x + 2

3

2

3

2

j 4x 4x + 10x 4, x + 1

k 2x 7x + 9x + 1, x 2

l 2x3 + 8x2 9x 1, x + 4

2

Divide the first polynomial by the second, and state the quotient and remainder.

b 6x3 + 23x2 + 2x 31, 3x + 4

c 8x3 + 6x2 39x 13, 2x + 5

3

2

e 3x + 5x 16x 23, 3x + 2

f 9x3 6x2 5x + 9, 3x 4

a 6x3 7x2 + 4x + 4, 2x 1

d 2x3 15x2 + 34x 13, 2x 7

3

a

c

x3

6 x 2 7 x 16

x +1

2x3

+ 9 x 2 + 17 x + 15

2x + 1

3x 3

+ 7 x 2 + 10 x 15

x3

4 x 3 20 x 2 + 23 x 2

2

x+3

4 We4b

State the quotient and remainder for each of the following.

a (x3 3x + 1) (x + 1)

b (x3 + 2x2 7) (x + 2)

3

d ( x 7x + 8) (x 1)

e (5x2 + 13x + 1) (x + 3)

3

g ( 2x x + 2) (x 2)

h (4x3 + 6x2 + 2x) (2x + 1)

f (2x3 + 8x2 4) (x + 5)

5 We5

Find the quotient and remainder for each of the following.

a (x4 + x3 + 3x2 7x) (x 1)

b (x4 13x2 + 36) (x 2)

c (6x4 x3 + 2x2 4x) (x 3)

6 We6 Calculate the quotient and remainder for each of the following.

a (x3 + 9x2 + 11x + 25) (x + 15)

b (2x3 18x2 + 5x 9) (x 31)

3

c (12x + 32x 9) (3x + 4)

d (18x4 + 3x3 + 45) (2x + 7)

3C

polynomial values

The value of the polynomial when x = 3 is denoted by P(3) and is found by substituting x = 3 into the

equation in place of x. That is,

P(3) = (3)3 5(3)2 + (3) + 1

= 27 5(9) + 3 + 1

= 27 45 + 4

= 14.

Worked example 7

a P(1)

b P(2)

Think

2

Replace x with 1.

Simplify.

c P(a)

d P(x + 1).

WriTe

a P(x) = 2x3 + x2 3x 4

=2+134

= 4

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

109

2

Replace x with 2.

Simplify.

P(x) = 2x3 + x2 3x 4

P(2) = 2(2)3 + (2)2 3(2) 4

= 2(8) + (4) + 6 4

= 16 + 4 + 6 4

= 10

2

c P(x) = 2x3 + x2 3x 4

P(a) = 2a3 + a2 3a 4

Replace x with a.

No further simplification is possible.

2

collect like terms. Use the rules for

expanding cubics and quadratics.

P(x) = 2x3 + x2 3x 4

P(x + 1) = 2(x + 1)3 + (x + 1)2 3(x + 1) 4

= 2(x3 + 3x2 + 3x + 1) + x2 + 2x + 1 3x 3 4

= 2x3 + 6x2 + 6x + 2 + x2 x 6

= 2x3 + 7x2 + 5x 4

Worked example 8

a P(14)

b P(y + 7)

Think

WriTe

Simplify.

= 606 749

Replace x with y + 7.

3(y + 7)3 =

3y3 + 63y2 + 441y + 1029

22(y + 7) =

22y

154

17 =

17

exercise 3C

polynomial values

1 We7

If P(x) = 2x3 3x2 + 2x + 10, determine the following.

a P(0)

b P(1)

d P(3)

e P(1)

h P(a)

g P( 3)

j P(x + 2)

k P(x 3)

c

f

i

l

2 We8 Determine the following considering P(x) = 16x4 + 3x3 22x + 17.

b P(102)

a P(11)

c P(2x + 9)

d P(x3 + 2)

110

P(2)

P(2)

P(2b)

P(4y)

Column Column Column Column Column Column Column Column Column

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

P(x)

P(1)

P(2)

P(1)

P(2)

Rem.

Rem.

Rem.

Rem.

when

when

when

when

divided divided divided divided

by

by

by

by

(x 1) (x 2) (x + 1) (x + 2)

a

b

c

d

a P(x) = x3 + x2 + x + 1

b P(x) = x3 + 2x2 + 5x + 2

3

2

c P(x) = x x + 4x 1

d P(x) = x3 4x2 7x + 3

4 Find the remainder when each polynomial in question 2 is divided by (x 1) and complete column 6 of

the table.

5 Find the remainder when each polynomial in question 2 is divided by (x 2) and complete column 7 of

diGiTal doC

doc-9725

Cubic valuer

the table.

6 Find the remainder when each polynomial in question 2 is divided by (x + 1) and complete column 8 of

the table.

7 Find the remainder when each polynomial in question 2 is divided by (x + 2) and complete column 9 of

the table.

8

Copy and complete the following sentences, using your answers to questions 3 to 7 to find the

pattern.

a A quick way of finding the remainder when P(x) is divided by (x + 8) is to calculate

b A quick way of finding the remainder when P(x) is divided by (x 7) is to calculate

c A quick way of finding the remainder when P(x) is divided by (x a) is to calculate

3d The remainder

The remainder theorem

.

.

.

diGiTal doC

doc-9726

WorkSHEET 3.1

The remainder when P(x) is divided by (x a) is equal to P(a).

That is, R = P(a).

This is called the remainder theorem.

We could have derived this result as follows.

If 13 is divided by 4, the quotient is 3, and the remainder is 1. That is,

13 4 = 3 + 1

4

and

13 = 4 3 + 1.

Similarly, if P(x) =

is 15. That is,

x3

x2

15

and

x2

(x3 + x2 + x + 1) = (x2 + 3x + 7)(x 2) + 15.

(x3 + x2 + x + 1) (x 2) = x2 + 3x + 7 +

In general, if P(x) is divided by (x a), the quotient is Q(x), and the remainder is R, we can write

R

P(x) (x a) = Q(x) +

and

( x a)

P(x) = (x a)Q(x) + R.

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

111

P(a) = (a a)Q(x) + R

= 0 Q(x) + R

=R

as before.

Worked example 9

Without actually dividing, find the remainder when x3 7x2 2x + 4 is divided by:

a x3

b x + 6.

Think

WriTe

(x 3) is equal to P(3).

R = P(3)

= 33 7(3)2 2(3) + 4

= 27 7(9) 6 + 4

= 27 63 6 + 4

= 38

b R = P(6)

= 216 7(36) + 12 + 4

= 216 252 + 12 + 4

= 452

Worked example 10

The remainder when x3 + kx2 + x 2 is divided by (x 2) is equal to 20. Find the value of k.

Think

WriTe

(x 2) is equal to P(2).

Put 8 + 4k = 20.

Solve for k.

R = P(2)

= 23 + k(2)2 + 2 2

= 8 + 4k

Since R = 20.

8 + 4k = 20

4k = 12

k=3

The remainder when 12 is divided by 4 is zero, since 4 is a factor of 12.

Similarly, if the remainder (R) when P(x) is divided by (x a) is zero, then (x a) must be a factor

of P(x).

Since R = P(a), all we need to do is to find a value of a that makes P(a) = 0, and we can say that

(x a) is a factor.

If P(a) = 0, then (x a) is a factor of P(x).

This is called the factor theorem.

Imagine P(x) could be factorised as follows:

P(x) = (x a)Q(x), where Q(x) is the other factor of P(x).

Then we have

P(a) = (a a)Q(a)

= 0 Q(a)

= 0.

So if P(a) = 0, (x a) is a factor.

112

Worked example 11

Apply the factor theorem to determine which of the following is a factor of x4 4x3 43x2 + 58x + 240.

a (x + 2)

b (x 1)

Think

WriTe

divided by (x a), find P(a).

= 16 4(8) 43(4) 116 + 240

= 16 + 32 172 116 + 240

=0

(x + 2) is zero; therefore, (x + 2) is a factor.

exercise 3d

= 1 4 43 + 58 + 240

= 252

(x 1) is 252; therefore, (x 1) is not a factor.

1 We9

Without actually dividing, find the remainder when x3 + 3x2 10x 24 is divided by:

a x1

b x+2

c x3

d x+5

e x0

f xk

g x+n

h x + 3c.

diGiTal doC

doc-9725

Cubic valuer

2 Find the remainder when the first polynomial is divided by the second without performing

long division.

a x3 + 2x2 + 3x + 4, x 3

c x3 + 3x2 3x + 1, x + 2

e 2x3 + 3x2 + 6x + 3, x + 5

g x3 + x2 + 8, x 5

i x3 + 8, x + 3

b

d

f

h

j

x3 4x2 + 2x 1, x + 1

x3 x2 4x 5, x 1

3x3 2x2 + x + 6, x + 1

x3 3x2 2, x 2

x3 + 2x2, x 7

The remainder when x3 + 2x2 + mx + 5 is divided by (x 2) is 27. Find the value of m.

The remainder when x3 3x2 + 2x + n is divided by (x 1) is 1. Find the value of n.

The remainder when ax3 + 4x2 2x + 1 is divided by (x 3) is 23. Find the value of a.

The remainder when x3 bx2 2x + 1 is divided by (x + 1) is 0. Find the value of b.

The remainder when 4x2 + 2x + 7 is divided by (x c) is 5. Find a possible whole number

value of c.

g The remainder when x2 3x + 1 is divided by (x + d) is 11. Find the possible values of d.

h The remainder when x3 + ax2 + bx + 1 is divided by (x 5) is 14. When the cubic polynomial is

divided by (x + 1), the remainder is 2. Find a and b.

3a

b

c

d

e

f

We10

4 We11 Apply the factor theorem to determine which of the following are factors of x3 + 2x2 11x 12.

a (x 1)

b (x 3)

c (x + 1)

d (x + 2)

5

Prove that each of the following are linear factors of x3 + 4x2 11x 30 by substituting values

into the cubic function: (x + 2), (x 3), (x + 5).

6 Use the factor theorem to show that the first polynomial is exactly divisible by the second (that is, the

a x3 + 5x2 + 2x 8, x 1

c x3 7x2 + 4x + 12, x 2

e x3 + 3x2 9x 27, x + 3

g 2x3 + 9x2 x 12, x 4

b x3 7x2 x + 7, x 7

d x3 + 2x2 9x 18, x + 2

f x3 + x2 + 9x 9, x 1

h 3x3 + 22x2 + 37x + 10, x + 5

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

113

a 5

B 2

C 0

d 2

e 5

a (x 1)

B (x 2)

C (x + 3)

d (x 5)

e (x + 4)

a 3

B 2

C 1

d 0

e 1

d (x + 5)

e (x + 7)

d Which of the following is a factor of

a (x 2)

diGiTal doC

doc-9727

SkillSHEET 3.1

reviewing the

discriminant

B (x + 2)

x3

C (x 5)

a x3 3x2 + 3x 1

b x3 7x2 + 16x 12

3

2

c x + x 8x 12

d x3 + 3x2 34x 120

9 Consider the polynomial P(x) = 6x3 + 7x2 x 2.

a Determine:

i P(1)

ii P

( 12 )

iii P

( )

2

3

ii Further factorise so P(x) is written as the product of three linear factors.

c Explain how the other two linear factors relate to what you found in parts b and c.

d Copy and complete the following: In general if (ax + b) is a factor, then P() = 0.

b

3e Factorising

Using long division

polynomials

Once one factor of a polynomial has been found (using the factor theorem as in the previous section),

long division may be used to find other factors.

Worked example 12

Think

WriTe

Note: There is no x2 term, so include 0x2.

P(x) = x3 19x + 30

P(x) = x3 + 0x2 19x + 30

suggests it is worth trying P(5) or P(5). Try

P(5). P(5) = 0, so (x + 5) is a factor.

= 125 + 95 + 30

=0

Therefore (x + 5) is a factor.

find a quadratic factor.

x2 5x + 6

x +5

+ 0x2 19x + 30

3

(x + 5x2)

5x2 19x

(5x2 25x)

6x + 30

(6x + 30)

0

found so far.

P(x) = (x + 5)(x2 5x + 6)

TUTorial

eles-1413

Worked example 12

x3

Note: In this example, P(x) may have been factorised without long division by finding all three values of

x that make P(x) = 0, and hence three factors, then checking that the three factors multiply to give P(x).

The process of long division can take a lot of time (and space). One short division method is shown here;

it may take a little longer to understand, but it is quicker than long division once mastered.

114

Consider P(x) = x3 + 2x2 13x + 10. Using the factor theorem, we can find that (x 1) is a factor of P(x).

So, P(x) = (x 1)(ax2 + bx + c).

Actually, we know more than this: as P(x) begins with x3 and ends with +10, we could write:

P(x) = (x 1)(x2 + bx 10)

Imagine expanding this version of P(x). Our x2 terms give 1x2 + bx2.

Since P(x) = x3 + 2x2 13x + 10, we need +2x2. That is, we need 1x2 + 3x2. To get this, the bx must

be 3x, as when x in the first bracket is multiplied by 3x in the second bracket, +3x2 results. That is, we

have deduced

P(x) = (x 1)(x2+ 3x 10).

Factorising the second bracket gives

P(x) = (x 1)(x + 5)(x 2)

Worked example 13

a x3 5x2 2 x + 24

b x4 + x3 13 x2 25 x 12

Think

2

Try P(2).

P(2) does equal 0, so (x + 2) is a factor.

WriTe

= 8 20 + 4 + 24

= 28 + 28

=0

So (x + 2) is a factor.

factor multiplied by ax2 + bx + c.

The first term in the brackets must be x2,

and the last term must be 12.

P(x) = x3 5x2 2x + 24

P(x) = (x + 2)(ax2 + bx + c)

= (x + 2)(x2 + bx + 12)

step 3. We have 2x2, and require 5x2. We

need an extra 7x2. So b = 7.

b = 7

P(x) = (x + 2)(x2 7x + 12)

Try P(1).

P(1) = 0

So (x + 1) is a factor.

short division, so we will use long division

here.

x3 + 0x2 13x 12

x + 1 + x3 13x2 25x 12

(x4 + x3)

0 13x2 25x

(13x2 13x)

12x 12

( 12x 12)

0

another factor using the factor theorem.

Q(3) = 0

So (x + 3) is a factor.

Q(x) = x3 13x 12

= (x + 3)(x2 3x 4)

x4

115

form.

= (x + 1)(x + 3)(x 4)(x + 1)

= (x + 1)2(x + 3)(x 4)

Worked example 14

Think

WriTe

x = 1: P(1) = 2 9 2 + 24 0

x = 2: P(2) = 16 36 8 + 24 = 0

So x 2 is a factor.

unknown quadratic.

P(x) = (x 2)(ax2 + bx + c)

equal ax3.

(x)ax2 = ax3

= 2x3

Therefore a = 2.

equal 2c.

(2)c = 2c

= 2c

Therefore c = 12.

Rewrite P(x).

equal 9x2 from the original cubic.

+ bx2 = 9x2

bx2 = 5x2

Therefore b = 5.

equal 2x from the original cubic. This

confirms step 7.

2bx

Write P(x).

10

exercise 3e

1 We12

4x2

12x = 22

2bx = 10x

b = 5

Factorising polynomials

a x + 1 x3 + 10x2 + 27x + 18

b x + 2 x3 + 8x2 + 17x + 10

c x + 9 x3 + 12x2 + 29x + 18

d x + 1 x3 + 8x2 + 19x + 12

e x + 3 x3 + 14x2 + 61x + 84

x + 7 x3 + 12x2 + 41x + 42

g x + 2 x3 + 4x2 + 5x + 2

h x + 3 x3 + 7x2 + 16x + 12

k x x3 + 7x2 + 12x

x + 5 x3 + 10x2 + 25x

x x3 + 13x2 + 40x

m x + 1 x3 + 6x2 + 5x

116

n x + 6 x3 + 6x2

2 We12,13

Factorise the following as fully as possible.

a x3 + x2 x 1

b x3 2x2 x + 2

3

2

d x + x 8x 12

e x3 + 9x2 + 24x + 16

3

2

g x + 2x x 2

h x3 7x 6

3

2

j x +x +x+6

k x3 + 8x2 + 17x + 10

3

2

m x x 8x + 12

n x3 + 9x2 12x 160

4

3

2

p x + 3x 6x 28x 24

q x4 + 6x3 + 8x2 6x 9

c

f

i

l

o

r

x3 + 7x2 + 11x + 5

x3 5x2 4x + 20

x3 + 3x2 4

x3 + x2 9x 9

x4 + 4x3 + 3x2 4x 4

x4 5x3 17x2 + 21x

diGiTal doC

doc-9728

polynomials zero

search

a 3x3 x2 10x

b 4x3 + 2x2 2x

c 3x3 6x2 24x

3

2

3

2

d 2x 12x 18x

e 6x 6x

f x3 7x2 12x

3

2

3

2

g x 3x + x + 3

h 2x + 10x 12x

i 6x3 5x2 + 12x 4

3

2

5

4

3

2

j

5x + 24x 36x + 16 k x x + 21x + 49x 8x 60

l 24x4 53x3 71x2 + 152x + 20

4

a

d

g

j

2x3 + 5x2 x 6

b 3x3 + 14x2 + 7x 4

3

2

4x + 35x + 84x + 45

e 5x3 + 9x2 + 3x 1

3

2

4x + 16x + 21x + 9

h 6x3 23x2 + 26x 8

3

2

7x + 12x 60x + 16

k 2x4 x3 11x2 11x 3

3F

c

f

i

l

x3 + x2 + 4

10x3 + 19x2 94x 40

6x4 + 11x3 22x2 x + 6

Two special cases of cubic polynomials, called sum of cubesand difference of cubes, are discussed in

this section. There are shortcuts for factorising such cubic expressions. Examples of each are shown in

the table below.

Sum of cubes

x +

3

23

Difference of cubes

x3 27

125 + 64b3

x3

81y3

1000

x3y3 + 1

w6 1

(2x + 1)3 + 8

216 (uv)3

(a + b)(a2 ab + b2)

and

(a b)(a2 + ab + b2)

3

2

2

2

2

3

= a a b + ab + ba ab + b

= a3 + a2b + ab2 ba2 ab2 b3

3

2

2

2

2

3

= a a b + ab + a b ab + b

= a3 + a2b + ab2 a2b ab2 b3

3

3

=a +b

= a3 b3

These expansions show that:

a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 ab + b2)

and

a3 b3 = (a b)(a2 + ab + b2).

That is, we have two formulas that may be used to factorise sums and differences of cubes.

Worked example 15

a x3 1000y3

b 2(x + 6)3 + 16

Think

TUTorial

eles-1414

Worked example 15

WriTe

a x3 1000y3

= x3 (10y)3

a3 b3 = (a b)(a2 + ab + b2).

Simplify.

a = x, b = 10y

117

b 2(x + 6)3 + 16

= 2[(x + 6)3 + 8]

= 2[(x + 6)3 + 23]

of cubes.

a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 ab + b2).

Simplify.

= 2(x + 8)(x2 + 10x + 28)

exercise 3F

a = (x + 6), b = 2

1 Identify a and b (as used in the above sum and difference of cubes expressions) in each of the following

a x3 + 63

b 8y3 + z3

d 1 64h3

2 We15a

a x3 125

g

j

+ 8p3

729

s3t3

e3g3

t3

u3

216

b j3 + k3

c y3 8

d 27x3 + y3

x3

1 3

8c

c (x + 5)3 + 27

64t3 216u3

h 27r3 1

x3 1

(3k)3 1

8

g6

a (a

+ a3

b (x + 2)3 8

c (2x + 3)3 + 1

3

3

3

3

d (w 5) w

e (2m + p) + (3m p)

f 27x3 (x + 3)3

3

3

3

3

g (2y + 7) + (y 2)

h (3x + y) + (x 4y)

i (2 4p)3 (p + 1)3

3

3

6

9

j (5x 9) (7 x)

k x +y

l 2x3 54

3

2

3

m 3a + 3

n 6(x + 1) + 162

4 When mx3 ny3 is fully factorised it gives (3x y)(9x2 + 3xy + y2). What are the values of m and n?

5 a Write 3x3 + my3 in the form a3 + b3.

b Identify the values of a and b.

c Factorise using the rule for sum of cubes.

3 We15b

1)3

making x the subject of the equation

Cubic equations of the form a(x b)3 + c = 0 may be solved by isolating x as follows.

a(x b)3 = c

c

(x b)3 =

a

c

a

x=b+

xb=

c

a

Unlike a square root, a cube root can be only positive or negative, not both; for example,

3

8

118

+= 2, 3 8 = 2.

Worked example 16

Think

WriTe

(x + 2)3 = 64

x + 2 = 4

x = 4 2

= 6

The Null Factor Law applies to cubic and quartic equations just as it does for quadratics.

If P(x) = (x a)(x b)(x c) = 0, then the solutions are x = a, x = b and x = c.

If P(x) = k(lx a)(mx b)(nx c) = 0, solutions are found by solving the following equations:

lx a = 0, mx b = 0 and nx c = 0

Worked example 17

a x4 = 16x2

b 2x3 11x2 + 18x 9 = 0

Think

WriTe

x4 = 16x2

x4 16x2 = 0

x2(x + 4)(x 4) = 0

x = 0, x + 4 = 0 or x 4 = 0

so x = 0, x = 4 or x = 4

x2(x2 16) = 0

value a such that P(a) = 0). Consider factors of the

constant term (that is, factors of 9 such as 1, 3). The

simplest value to try is 1.

P(1) = 2 11 + 18 9

=0

So (x 1) is a factor.

of P(x).

2 2 9x + 9

2x

x 1 2x

2 3 11x2 18x 9

22x3 2x

2 2

9x2 + 18x

9x2 + 9x

9x 9

9x 9

0

P(x) = (x 1)(2x2 9x + 9)

P(x) = (x 1)(2x 3)(x 3)

x 1 = 0, 2x 3 = 0 or x 3 = 0

3

so x = 1, x = 2 or x = 3

119

Polynomial equations can also be solved using a CAS calculator, which is useful when the solutions

are not rational. The solutions can be found by using the solve function on a calculator page, or by

constructing a graph.

Worked example 18

Think

WriTe

Enter

solve (x3 + 3x2 8x 5 = 0, x)

into the CAS calculator.

x = 4.524 04 or

x = 0.536 396 or

x = 2.060 43

x = 4.52, 0.54 and 2.06, rounded to 2 decimal

places.

exercise 3G

1 We16

a 2(x

250 = 0

c (x 4)3 1000 = 0

e 2(x 5)3 2 = 0

g (2x + 3)3 27 = 0

b 3(x + 2)3 + 81 = 0

d (x + 7)3 8 = 0

f (x + 3)3 + 1 = 0

h 4(3x 1)3 + 500 = 0

1)3

2

3

(x + 1)3 + 18 = 0

k (x 5)3 = 343

1

2

(5 x)3 32 = 0

l 4

4

5

(x + 8)3 = 104

2

a

c

e

g

i

k

m

(x 1)(x 2)(x 5) = 0

(x 5)(x + 2)(x 9) (x 1) = 0

(3x + 12)(x 4)(x + 4) = 0

(x + 5)(x 8)2 = 0

x2(x + 1)(x 1) = 0

(6 x)2 (2 + x) = 0

x(5x 6)(2x + 3) (6 7x) = 0

3 We17a

a

d

g

j

m

b

d

f

h

j

l

n

(x + 3)(x + 4)(x + 7) = 0

(2x 4)(x + 1)(x 3) (x + 2) = 0

(2 x)(x + 2)(1 x)(1 + x) = 0

(x 1)3 = 0

3x(x 9)3 = 0

x2(2x + 7) = 0

(3 4x)2(5x 1) = 0

x3 4x = 0

3x4 + 81 = 0

4x3 + 8x = 0

x4 5x3 + 6x2 = 0

9x2 = 20x + x3

b

e

h

k

n

x3 16x = 0

x3 + 5x2 = 0

12x3 + 3x2 = 0

x3 8x2 + 16x = 0

x3 + 6x = 4x2

c

f

i

l

2x4 50x2 = 0

x3 2x2 = 0

4x3 20x4 = 0

x3 + 6x2 = 7x

4 We17b Use the Null Factor Law to solve the following equations.

a x3 x2 16x + 16 = 0

b x3 6x2 x + 30 = 0

3

2

c x x 25x + 25 = 0

d x3 + 4x2 4x 16 = 0

3

2

e x 4x + x + 6 = 0

f x3 4x2 7x + 10 = 0

4

3

2

g x 3x 7x + 15x = 18

h x4 + 2x3 13x2 + 10x

3

2

i 2x + 15x + 19x + 6 = 0

j 4x3 + 16x2 9x 9 = 0

3

2

k 2x 9x 7x + 6 = 0

l 2x3 + 4x2 2x 4 = 0

5 We18 Use a CAS calculator to find all solutions to the following equations.

a x3 17x2 56x + 1153 = 0

b x3 + 12x2 49x 588 = 0

3

2

c x + 17x + 65x 1521 = 0

d x3 48x2 + 768x 4096 = 0

120

e x3 + 6x2 6x + 2 = 0

g 3x2 + 2x + 1 = x3

i x4 + 4x3 5x2 + 15 = 0

f x3 14x2 4x + 13 = 0

h 2x3 3x2 + 2x + 0.5 = 0

j 2x4 + 25x3 + 17x = 9

a 5

d 1

B 4

e 2

C 2

7 mC A solution of x3 9x2 + 15x + 25 = 0 is x = 5. How many other (distinct) solutions are there?

a 0

d 3

3h

B 1

e 4

C 2

diGiTal doC

doc-9729

WorkSHEET 3.2

1. x- and y-intercepts

2. the behaviour of the function at extreme values of x, that is, as x approaches infinity (x +) and as

x approaches negative infinity (x )

3. the general location of turning points.

The graphs below show the two main types of cubic graph.

y

y

Turning

points

A positive cubic

A negative cubic

For positive cubic graphs, as positive values of x become larger and larger, y-values also become

larger.

For negative cubic graphs, as positive values of x become larger and

y Point of inflection

larger, y-values become smaller.

Sometimes, instead of two turning points, there is a point of inflection,

where the graph changes from a decreasing gradient to zero to an

increasing gradient (or vice versa). When this occurs, there is only one

x-intercept.

Consider the general factorised cubic f (x) = (x a)(x b)(x c).

x

The Null Factor Law tells us that f (x) = 0 when x = a or x = b or x = c.

The y-intercept occurs when x = 0; that is, the y-intercept is

f (0) = (0 a)(0 b)(0 c)

= abc

y

abc

121

Worked example 19

a y = (x 2)(x 3)(x + 5)

b y = (x 6)2 (4 x)

c y = (x 2)3

Think

WriTe/draW

a positive cubic.

a y = (x 2)(x 3)(x + 5)

Substitute x = 0 into the equation.

y-intercept: if x = 0,

y = (2)(3)(5)

= 30

Point: (0, 30)

(Make each bracket equal to 0 and solve a

mini-equation.)

x-intercepts: if y = 0,

x 2 = 0, x 3 = 0 or x + 5 = 0

x = 2, x = 3 or x = 5

Points: (2, 0), (3, 0), (5, 0)

steps to sketch the graph.

30

5

b 1 The graph is a negative cubic

x

a negative x3 coefficient if the

RHS is expanded).

b y = (x 6)2(4 x)

y-intercept: if x = 0,

y = (6)2(4)

= 144

Point: (0, 144)

x-intercepts. (Make each bracket equal to 0 and

solve a mini-equation.)

x-intercepts: if y = 0,

x 6 = 0 or 4 x = 0

x = 6 or

x=4

Points: (6, 0), (4, 0)

Note the skimming of the x-axis indicative of a

repeated factor, in this case the (x 6)2 part of the

expression.

y

144

4

c 1 Positive cubic.

122

c y = (x 2)3

y-intercept: if x = 0,

y = (2)3

= 8

x-intercept. (Make each bracket equal to 0 and

solve a mini-equation.)

cubed factor, (x 2), indicates a point of inflection

and only one x-intercept.

x-intercept: if y = 0,

x2=0

x=2

y

2

8

If a cubic function is not in the form f (x) = (x a)(x b)(x c), we may try to factorise to find the

x-intercepts. We can use the factor theorem and division of polynomials to achieve this.

Worked example 20

Think

1

polynomial P(x).

Note: All terms involving x are equal

to zero.

(x 1) is not a factor.

TUTorial

eles-1415

Worked example 20

WriTe/draW

+ 7x + 20

y-intercept: if x = 0,

y = 20

Point: (0, 20)

P(1) = 2 13 11 12 + 7 1 + 20

= 2 11 + 7 + 20

= 18

0

P(1) = 2 (1)3 11 (1)2 + 7 (1) + 20

= 2 11 7 + 20

=0

So (x + 1) is a factor.

short division has been used.

= (x + 1)(2x 5)(x 4)

making each bracket equal to 0 and solving for x).

x-intercepts: if y = 0,

x = 1, 52 , 4

7

y

20

5

2

123

Worked example 21

Sketch the graph of y = 3x3 + x2 2x + 5 using a CAS calculator. Find all intercepts and

stationary points.

Think

WriTe/draW

CAS calculator.

f1(x) = 3x3 + x2 2x + 5

=5

The y-intercept is (0, 5).

graph.

(0, 5) B

(1.51, 0)

to find zeros (x-intercepts). In this case there

is only one x-intercept.

to find the local maximum, point A.

to find the local minimum, point B.

exercise 3h

1 We19

Sketch the following, showing all intercepts.

a y = (x 1)(x 2)(x 3)

c y = (x + 8)(x 11)(x + 1)

e y = (4x 3)(2x + 1)(x 4)

2

a y = (2 x)(x + 5)(x + 3)

c y = x(x + 1)(x 2)

e y = 4x2(x + 8)

b y = (x + 8)(x 8)(2x + 3)

d y = 3(x + 1)(x + 10)(x + 5)

f y = (6x 1)2(x + 7)

3 We20

a

c

e

g

b y = (x + 6)(x + 1)(x 7)

d y = (2x 5)(x + 4)(x 3)

f y = (x 3)2(x 6)

y = + 2x2 x 2

y = x3 + 7x2 + 14x + 8

y = x3 3x2 25x 21

y = 6x3 17x2 + 6x + 8

x3

b

d

f

h

y = x3 + 6x2 + 11x + 6

y = x3 x2 14x + 24

y = 3x3 + 17x2 + 28x + 12

y = 2x3 18x2

4 We21 Sketch the following using a CAS calculator. Find the intercepts and the coordinates

y = x3 8x2 5x + 14

y = x3 + 8x2 + 13x 140

y = 3x3 3x2 15x 9

y = 7x3 + 29x2 + 32x + 4

a

b

c

d

124

y

1

2

2 x

y

3

1

2

3 x

3 x

a y=

+ 2)

C y = (x 2)(x + 2)2

e y = (x 2)3

x2(x

1

2

3 x

1

2

diGiTal doC

doc-9730

Cubic graphs

general form

B y = (x +

d y = (x 2)2(x + 2)

2)3

8

7 mC The graph below has the equation:

y

6

a y = (x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3)

d y = (x + 1)(x + 2)(x 3)

B y = (x + 1)(x 2)(x + 3)

e y = (x 1)(x 2)(x 3)

C y = (x 1)(x + 2)(x + 3)

8 mC If a, b and c are positive numbers, the equation of the graph shown below is:

a y = (x a)(x b)(x c)

d y = (x + a)(x + b)(x + c)

B y = (x + a)(x b)(x + c)

e y = (x a)(x + b)(x c)

C y = (x + a)(x + b)(x c)

9 mC Which of the following has only two distinct x-intercepts when graphed?

a y = x(x + 1)(x + 2)

d y = (x + 1)(x + 2)2

10 a

b

c

d

B y = (x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3)

e y = x(x + 1)(x 1)

C y = x3

Factorise y = x3 x2 + 3x + 5 expressing your answer in the form of y = (x + a)(x2 + bx + c).

Hence, show that y = x3 x2 + 3x + 5 has only one real solution. (Hint: Consider the discriminant.)

If y = (x + a)(x2 + kbx + c) where k is a constant, find the values of k such that the cubic has:

i two real solutions

ii three real solutions.

Note: a, b and c are the same values from part b.

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

125

3i

The graphs shown below are the main types of quartic graphs.

y

y = x4

y

y = (x a)3(x b)

y

(2, 16)

0

a

repeated factor

(x a)3

x

a

d x

Consider the general factorised quartic, f (x) = (x a)(x b)(x c)(x d).

As for the cubic functions, the Null Factor Law tells us that f (x) = 0 (that is,

an x-intercept occurs) when x = a, x = b, x = c or x = d.

The y-intercept occurs when x = 0, therefore the y-intercept is

f (0) = (0 a)(0 b)(0 c)(0 d)

= abcd

y

abcd

d x

Worked example 22

a y = (x 2)(x 1)(x + 1)(x + 3)

b y = (x 3)2(x + 1)(x + 5)

c y = (2x 1)(x + 1)3

Think

WriTe/draW

y = (2)(1)(1)(3)

=6

Point: (0, 6)

(Make each bracket equal to 0 and solve a

mini-equation.)

x-intercepts: if y = 0,

x 2 = 0, x 1 = 0, x + 1 = 0 or x + 3 = 0

x = 2, x = 1, x = 1 or x = 3

Points: (2, 0), (1, 0), (1, 0), (3, 0)

values for x result in large positive values for y.

Shape:

the graph.

6

3

126

x-intercepts. (Make each bracket equal

to 0 and solve a mini-equation.)

1 0

b y = (x 3)2(x + 1)(x + 5)

y = (3)2(1)(5)

= 45

Point: (0, 45)

x-intercepts: if y = 0,

x 3 = 0, x + 1 = 0 or x + 5 = 0

x = 3, x = 1 or x = 5

Points: (3, 0), (1, 0), (5, 0)

positive values for x result in large positive values

for y.)

graph. Note that it touches the x-axis where there

are repeated squared factors, (x 3)2.

Shape:

y

45

1 0

(Make each bracket equal to 0 and solve a

mini-equation.)

y = (1)(1)3

= 1

Point: (0, 1)

x-intercepts: if y = 0,

2x 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0

x = 12 or x = 1

Points: (1, 0) and (1, 0)

2

x4

positive values for x result in large positive values

for y.)

the graph. Note that the graph has a point of

inflection where it crosses the x-axis with repeated

cubic factors (x + 1)3.

Shape:

1

2

Follow the instructions in worked example 21 to draw quartic graphs using a CAS calculator.

exercise 3i

1 We22

Sketch the following graphs, showing all intercepts.

a y = (x 3)(x 2)(x + 1)(x + 2)

b y = (x 2)2(x + 1)(x + 2)

3

c y = (x + 5)(x 1)

d y = (x 1)4

f y = (x 2)2(x + 1)2

4

g y = (1 3x)

h y = (x + 5)3(1 x)

2 Compare your answers to question 1 to those found using a CAS calculator.

3 If the graph of y = (x + a)(x + 3)(x + 1)(x 3) has four distinct x-intercepts and has a y-intercept at

4 A quartic graph has only two x-intercepts, at x = a and x = b, and a y-intercept at the point (0, 81).

If a = b:

a find a possible equation for the quartic graph

b sketch the graph, labelling all intercepts.

a

B

C

d

e

y = x2(x + 3)(x 3)

y = x3(x + 27)

y = x(x + 7)2(x 7)

y = x4

127

shown is:

a y = (x + a)2(x + b)(x + c)

C y = (x + a)2(x b)(x + c)

e y = (x a)2(x + b)(x c)

B y = (x a)2(x b)(x c)

d y = (x a)(x + b)(x c)

abc

a 6

B 6

C 12

d 18

e 18

8 Use a CAS calculator to help you sketch the following quartics, showing all intercepts and turning

points correct to 2 decimal places.

a y = 2x4 + x3 5x2 + 7x + 2

b y = 3x4 9x3 8x2 + 12x + 9

c y = x4 2x3 + 5x2 + 4x

d y = x4 5x3 45x2 + 8x + 120

e y = 3x4 10x2 3

f y = 8x4 10x3 + 120x2 + 15x + 358

power function form

3J

Remember the power form or turning point form for quadratic graphs y = a(x b)2 + c, which was related

to transformations of the basic parabola? The same understanding of transformations can be used to sketch

cubic functions.

Cubic functions can be power functions. Power functions are functions of the form f (x) = xn, n R.

The value of the power, n, determines the type of function. When n = 1, f (x) = x, and the function is

linear. When n = 2, f (x) = x2, and the function is quadratic. When n = 3, f (x) = x3, and the function is

cubic. When n = 4, f (x) = x4, and the function is quartic.

Other power functions will be discussed later.

Under a sequence of transformations of f (x) = xn, n R, the general form of a power function is

f (x) = a(x b)n + c (where a, b, c and n R).

Although all linear and quadratic polynomials are also linear and quadratic power functions, this is not

the case for cubic functions (or quartic functions). For example, a cubic power function in the form of

f (x) = a(x b)n + c has exactly one x-intercept and one stationary point of inflection. A cubic polynomial

in the form f (x) = ax3 bx2 + cx + d can have one, two or three x-intercepts and is therefore not always a

power function.

For example, the cubic function y = 2(x 3)3 + 1 is a polynomial and a power function. It is the graph

of y = x3 under a sequence of transformations.

A cubic power function has a stationary point of inflection at (b, c). A stationary point of inflection is

where a graph levels off to have a zero gradient at one point with the same sign gradient either side.

y

y = x3

y = x3 y

Stationary point

of inflection

Summary of transformations

y = a(x b)3 + c

y

(b, c)

Dilation factor

from the x-axis

(y-stretch)

128

x-translation

y-translation

Stationary point

of inflection

x

y

y = 2x3

y = x3

y = 12 x3

y = 2x3

y

y = x3

y = 12 x3

Positive a

Negative a

intercepts

Intercepts may be found by substituting x = 0 (to find the y-intercepts) and y = 0 (to find the x-intercepts)

into the equation.

Worked example 23

Sketch the graph of each of the following, showing the stationary point of inflection and intercepts.

a y = 3(x 2)3 + 3

b y = 2x3 + 54

c y = 2(1 2x)3 16

Think

WriTe/draW

a y = 3(x 2)3 + 3

2

State the stationary point of inflection (b, c).

If x = 0,

(Note that the cube root of 1 is 1.)

If y = 0,

Shape:

intercepts.

y = 3(0 2)3 + 3

y = 3(8) + 3

y = 21

0 = 3(x 2)3 + 3

2)3 = 3

(x 2)3 = 1

x 2 = 1

x=1

3(x

(2, 3)

21

b 1 Manipulate into y = a(x b)3 + c form.

2

point of inflection (0, 54).

b y = 2x3 + 54

y = 2(x 0)3 + 54

129

If x = 0,

If y = 0,

intercepts.

y = 2(0) + 54

y = 54

0 = 2x3 + 54

2x3 = 54

x3 = 27

x=3

y

(0, 54)

c y = 2(1 2x)3 16

= 2[2(x 1)]3 16

2

= 2[8(x 12)3] 16

= 16(x 12)3 16

2

1

of inflection ( 2 , 16).

If x = 0,

y = 16( 2 )3 16

= 2 16

= 18

0 = 16( x 2 )3 16

If y = 0,

16 = 16( x 2 )3

1

1 = ( x 2 )3

1=x

3

2

intercepts.

=x

3

2

18

( 12, 16)

function form

exercise 3J

1

130

i the dilation factor

ii the coordinates of the stationary point of inflection.

a y = 2(x 1)3 + 3

b y = 3(x + 5)3 2

3

c y = 2(x 6) 8

d y = 7(x + 4)3 + 1

3

e y = (x 9) + 4

f y = x3 7

1

2

g y = (x + 1)3 1

y=

k y=

i

1

4 (x

1 3

x

3

h y = 2 (x + 2)3

3)3 + 2

j

l

y = 4x3

y = 2x3 2

Sketch the graph of each of the following, showing the stationary point of inflection and

intercepts.

a y = 2(x 2)3 + 2

b y = 3(x + 3)3 + 81

3

c y = 4(x 4) 32

d y = 5(x 1)3 + 5

3

e y= x 8

f y = x3 1

1

3

g y = (x + 2) + 27

h y = (x + 5)3 32

2

2 We23

y=

k y=

m y=

1

3

3 (x 3) 9

1

(x + 2)3 + 25

5

5x3

1

4

y=

(x + 1)3 + 2

y = 2x3

n y = 3x3 3

3 Sketch the following, showing the stationary point of inflection. Intercepts are not required. Use a

a y = (4 x)3 + 1

c y = 2(4x 1)3

b y = 3(5 x)3 3

d y = 5(3 2x)3 + 1

y = 17 (3 4x)3 2

h y = (9 5x)3 7

j y = 2(5 2x)3 1

e y = 5 (1 x)3

g y = (4 x)3 + 3

i

diGiTal doC

doc-9731

Cubic graphs basic

form

y = 83 (6 x)3 + 4

4 mC The basic cubic graph y = x3 undergoes a dilation factor of 6 from the x-axis and is translated

right 4 units and down 3 units. The equation for this graph is:

a y = 6(x 4)3 3

C y = 6(x 3)3 4

e y = 4(x + 3)3 + 6

B y = 3(x 4)3 6

d y = 4(x + 6)3 + 3

a (5, 2)

d (2, 9)

B (5, 9)

e (2, 9)

C (2, 9)

6 Suggest a possible equation for each of the following, given that each is a cubic with a dilation factor of

b

(1, 5)

(2, 2)

x

x

y

(3, 4)

(3, 0)

a a dilation factor of 4 from the x-axis and a stationary point of inflection at (2, 3)

b a dilation factor of 2 from the x-axis and a stationary point of inflection at (5, 1)

c a dilation factor of 1 from the x-axis and a stationary point of inflection at (1, 2)

d a dilation factor of

4

1

2

diGiTal doC

doc-9732

Investigation

Graphs of the form

y = a (x b )n + c

131

and minimums

3k

The domain of a function is the set of x-coordinates of points on its graph. The range is the set of

y-coordinates of points on the graph. Normally, the domain and range of a cubic function are the set of

all real numbers, or R for short, as such graphs extend indefinitely in both positive and negative axis

directions. The domain and range of a restricted cubic function may be a smaller set of numbers.

Actual maximum

(within given domain)

y

Local maximum

10

8

Domain = [5, 3]

The restricted graph has a domain of x-values between 5 and 3, denoted [5, 3]. y

The range is [8, 10].

10

Square brackets are used to indicate that an end value is included.

We show this with a small coloured-in circle on the graph. If an end

value is not included, a curved bracket is used. We show such points

on a graph using a hollow circle.

5

8

Domain = [5, 3]

Function notation

When we wish to convey information about the domain of a function, the following notation may be used:

f : [4, 1] R, where f (x) = (x 1)(x + 2)(x + 4)

}

The name of

the function

The domain

The co-domain. The

range is within this set.

the function

Worked example 24

For the function f: [4, 1] R where f (x) = (x 1)(x + 2)(x + 4), sketch the graph of f (x), showing

intercepts and the coordinates of any local maximum or local minimum, and state the range.

Think

132

WriTe/draW

f (0) = (0 1)(0 + 2)(0 + 4)

= 8

The y-intercept is (0, 8).

Null Factor Law.

0 = (x 1)(x + 2)(x + 4)

x 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 or x + 4 = 0

x=1

x = 2

x = 4

restricted domain).

y

A

(2, 0)

(1, 0)

x

(4, 0)

B

5

at point A.

at point B.

minimum to determine the range.

domain are not necessarily the values of the local

maximum or minimum. Sometimes an extreme value is

simply the y-coordinate of an end point of a graph.

Absolute maximum

Local maximum

Local minimum

x

Absolute minimum

Worked example 25

Sketch f: [0, 7) R where f (x) = x(x 5)2, showing intercepts, end points, and the local maximum

and minimum, and state the range.

Think

1

Null Factor Law.

restricted domain.

restricted domain. Note the right end point

(7, 28) should be shown as a hollow circle.

WriTe/draW

f (0) = 0(0 5)2

=0

The y-intercept is (0, 0).

0 = x(x 5)2

x = 0 or (x 5)2 = 0 x = 5

The x-intercepts are (0, 0) and (5, 0).

f (0) = 0

f (7) = 7(7 5)2

= 7 22

= 28

y

(7, 28)

A

(0, 0)

(0, 5)

133

maximum at point A.

of a curved bracket to indicate that the end value is

not included in the range.

A method of finding maximums and minimums without a calculator will be covered in the study of

calculus later in this book.

minimums

exercise 3k

State the domain and range of the sections of graph shown in each case.

a

diGiTal doC

doc-9733

SkillSHEET 3.2

interval notation

(2, 5)

(1, 7)

(5, 2)

(2, 3)

(4, 0)

x

(2, 2)

c

(4, 2)

d

(6, 10)

(4, 2)

x

(4, 1)

x

(2, 3)

(2, 2)

(3, 5)

y

(5, 5)

(2, 0)

(1, 2)

(3, 0)

(3, 0)

(3, 8)

(4, 5)

(1, 9)

2 We24,25 For each of the following, sketch the graph (showing local maximums and minimums, and

a f: [1, 4] R where f (x) = (x 3)(x 4)(x + 1)

b f: [5, 1] R where f (x) = (x + 2)(x + 5)(x 1)

c f: [1, 3) R where f (x) = (x 2)2(x 1)

d f: (3, 0] R where f (x) = (x + 3)(x + 1)2

e f: [8, 2) R where f (x) = (2x 3)(x + 1)(x + 7)

f f: [0, 4] R where f (x) = x3 6x2 + 9x 4

g f: [4, 1.442] R where f (x) = x3 + 6x2 + 11x + 6

h f: (2, 2.1) R where f (x) = x3 + 2x2 5x 6

i f: [3, 5.1] R where f (x) = x3 + x2 + 17x + 15

1

j f: (3, 2 ) R where f (x) = 3x3 + 5x2 19x 21

3

134

a

[4.061,

18]

y

(0.786, 8.209)

B [4.061, 8.209]

(4, 18)

C (0, 18]

d (2, 3]

e (2, 4]

x

1

3

(2.120, 4.061)

2

y

a

B

C

d

e

an intercept

a local minimum

an absolute minimum

a local maximum

an absolute maximum

A

x

y

a What is the height above ground level of the

track at x = 50?

b How far apart vertically are points A and B?

20

20

A

Ground level

40

6 The course of a river as marked on a map follows the curve defined by the function

f (x)=1.5x3 2.7x2 + x 1. Find the coordinates of the southernmost point on the river

between x = 0 and x = 2.

5

1.5

1.5

5

x

diGiTal doC

doc-9734

Investigation

modelling the path of

a roller-coaster

135

3l

inTeraCTiViTY

int-0262

modelling data using

polynomials

Scientists, economists, doctors and biologists often wish to find an equation that closely matches, or

models, a set of data. For example, the wombat population of a particular island may vary as recorded

in the following table.

Year of study (x)

Wombat

population (W)

10

59

62

69

83

81

76

70

66

52

49

41

Wombat population

model for the wombat population superimposed.

90

80

70

60

50

40

30

20 y = 0.0888x3 2.4598x2 + 14.196x + 55.063

10

0

4 6

Year

8 10

We will examine polynomial models up to degree 3, that is, models of the form:

y

y = a3x3 + a2x2 + a1x + a0

35

where a0, a1, a2 and a3 are constants.

30

Several technological options are available to assist in

25

Sum of squares of these

obtaining models for data, including a CAS calculator,

20

lengths is minimised.

spreadsheets and computer algebra systems such as

15

Mathcad. Many of these applications use a method

10

y = 2.6636x + 7.3182

5

involving minimising the sum of the squares of the vertical

distances of the data points from the graph of the

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 x

function this is known as the least squares method.

A CAS calculator can be used to find a model or regression for a set of data. The following example

employs cubic regression, but the general approach is the same for all types of regression.

Worked example 26

Write the equation and draw a rough sketch of the graph.

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

x

627 545 580 528 436 318 238 229 134 169 139

y

Think

1

2

3

WriTe/draW

Enter the x- and y-values into two columns in

regression. This fits a best-fit cubic to the given data. a spreadsheet on the CAS calculator.

Write the equation.

y = 1.37x3 + 19.14x2 + 8.55x + 607.48

Use the CAS calculator to sketch the graph over

the even domain.

y

600

136

TUTorial

eles-1416

Worked example 26

10

exercise 3l

Use a CAS calculator or other technology to answer the questions in this exercise.

1 We26 Find a linear model for each of the following sets of data, and draw a rough sketch of the graph.

a

10

30

28

29

50

68

73

77

84

10

15

12

26

27

12

20

39

46

50

40

67

x

y

0

11

1

8

2

9

3

14

4

19

5

18

6

29

7

29

8

28

9

32

10

39

x

y

0

53

1

44

2

39

3

42

4

35

5

32

6

30

7

29

8

23

9

27

10

19

diGiTal doC

doc-9735

modelling

2 Find a quadratic model for each of the following sets of data, and draw a rough sketch of the graph.

a

x

y

0

19

1

4

2

48

3

60

4

36

5

88

6

126

7

116

8

159

9

168

10

122

x

y

0

65

1

33

2

80

3

12

4

50

5

248

6

228

7

252

8

496

9

439

10

694

x

y

0

14

1

16

2

32

3

36

4

37

5

51

6

57

7

56

8

55

9

54

10

56

10

70

27

148

327

447

639

733

910

1204

x

y

92

3 Find the cubic model for each of the following sets of data, and draw a rough sketch of the graph.

a

x

y

0

627

1

545

2

580

3

528

4

436

5

318

6

238

7

229

8

134

9

169

10

139

x

y

0

21

1

28

2

91

3

182

4

81

5

203

6

345

7

397

8

730

9

873

10

1205

10

35

182

400

631

7

755

8

800

9

868

10

854

55

84

64

29

10

17

x

y

0

45

1

26

2

109

3

201

4

399

5

466

6

621

a a linear model

b a quadratic model

x

y

0

537

1

681

2

536

3

624

4

632

5

763

c a cubic model.

6

686

7

885

8

1090

9

1230

10

1451

6 Use the model from question 1a to predict the value of y when x = 20.

7 Use the model from question 2a to predict the value of y to the nearest unit when x = 5.5.

8 Use the model from question 3a to predict the value of y to the nearest unit when x = 12.

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

137

9 The value of shares in the company Mathsco is plotted by a sharemarket analyst over a

0

J

Month

Share

price

1

J

2

A

3

S

4

O

5

N

6

D

7

J

8

F

9

M

10

A

11

M

0.50 0.58 0.53 0.76 1.00 1.50 1.55 2.20 3.06 3.83 4.79 4.40

b Use your model to predict the share price 2 months later.

c Give reasons why such a prediction may not be accurate.

10 The population of a colony of yellow-bellied sap-suckers on an isolated island is studied

over a number of years. The population at the start of each year is shown in the table below.

Year

Population

10

250

270

310

375

410

395

335

290

290

320

325

Find and sketch a cubic model for the population, and use it to estimate the population at the start of

year 11.

3m

Finite differences

If pairs of data values in a set obey a polynomial equation, that equation or model may be found using

the method of finite differences.

Consider a difference table for a general polynomial of the form

y = a3x3 + a2x2 + a1x + a0.

We begin the difference table by evaluating the polynomial for x values of 0, 1, 2 etc.

The differences between successive y-values (see table) are called the first differences.

The differences between successive first differences are called second differences.

The differences between successive second differences called the third differences.

We will call the first shaded cell (nearest the top of the table) stepped cell 1, the second shaded cell

stepped cell 2 and so on.

x

y

(= a3 x3 + a2 x2 + a1x + a0)

a0

First

differences

Second

differences

Third

differences

a3 + a2 + a1

1

a3 + a2 + a1 + a0

6a3 + 2a2

7a3 + 3a2 + a1

6a3

12a3 + 2a2

19a3 + 5a2 + a1

3

6a3

18a3 + 2a2

37a3 + 7a2 + a1

4

6a3

24a3 + 2a2

61a3 + 9a2 + a1

5

If a3 0, the above polynomial equation represents a cubic model, and the third differences are

identical (all equal to 6a3).

If a3 = 0, a2 0 and the polynomial reduces to y = a2x2 + a1x + a0, that is, a quadratic model, and the

second differences become identical (all equal to 2a2).

138

If a3 = 0 and a2 = 0, the polynomial becomes y = a1x + a0, that is, a linear model, and the first

differences are identical (all equal to a1).

1. Stepped cell 1 = a0

2. Stepped cell 2 = a1 + a2 + a3

3. Stepped cell 3 = 2a2 + 6a3

4. Stepped cell 4 = 6a3

Worked example 27

Complete a finite difference table based on the data below, and use it to determine the equation

for y in terms of x.

x

20

39

64

Think

1

WriTe

space for 3 difference columns.

Calculate the first differences and place them in the

next column. The first differences are not constant,

so we need to find the second differences.

Differences

1st

2nd

3rd

1

1

The second differences are constant, so our table

is complete. Showing the third differences is

optional. The curve is a quadratic.

6

7

6

13

20

6

19

39

64

0

6

25

to the shaded cells as shown:

Stepped cell 1 = a0

Stepped cell 2 = a1 + a2 + a3

Stepped cell 3 = 2a2 + 6a3

Stepped cell 4 = 6a3

Here, * is used to denote solved values.

a0 = 1*

a1 + a2 + a3 = 1

2a2 + 6a3 = 6

6a3 = 0

Substitute this information into [2] and [3].

So

equation y = a3x3 + a2x2 + a1x + a0.

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

a3 = 0*

Sub a3 = 0 into [2]:

a1 + a2 + 0 = 1

a1 + a2 = 1

Sub a3 = 0 into [3]:

2a2 + 6 0 = 6

2a2 = 6

a2 = 3*

Sub a2 = 3 into [5]:

[5]

a1 + 3 = 1

a1 = 2*

y = a3x3 + a2x2 + a1x + a0 becomes

y = (0)x3 + (3)x2 + (2)x + (1)

y = 3x2 2x 1

139

The stepped equations work only if the finite differences table begins with x = 0 and x increases in

steps of 1. It may be necessary on occasions to adjust the table to achieve this, as the following example

shows.

Worked example 28

data and use it to determine the equation for y in

terms of x.

Think

1

x

y

2

5

3

13

4

21

5

29

WriTe

for the x = 0 row.

Calculate and fill in the first differences

where possible.

Note the first differences are constant, so

the last two columns are optional. The

relationship is linear.

11

Differences

1st

2nd

3rd

8

1

0

8

cell must be 11 in order for the difference

between it and the next cell to be 8.

0

8

13

0

8

21

0

8

5

5

them to the shaded cells as shown:

Stepped cell 1 = a0

Stepped cell 2 = a1 + a2 + a3

Stepped cell 3 = 2a2 + 6a3

Stepped cell 4 = 6a3

Here, an asterisk (*) is used to denote

solved values.

hence [3] yields a2 = 0. Substitute this

information into [2].

y = a3x3 + a2x2 + a1x + a0.

29

a0 = 11*

a1 + a2 + a3 = 8

2a2 + 6a3 = 0

6a3 = 0

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

a3 = 0* and a2 = 0*

Sub a2 = 0 and a3 = 0 into [2]:

a1 + 0 + 0 = 8

a1 = 8*

y = a3x3 + a2x2 + a1x + a0 becomes

y = (0)x3 + (0)x2 + (8)x + (11)

y = 8x 11

So

a polynomial model

The method of fitting a polynomial to a set of data using finite differences requires the data to be

sequential. Often this is not the case. Simultaneous equations can be used to find a polynomial model

when the data are not sequential.

140

The number of simultaneous equations required to find the rule of a degree n polynomial is n + 1.

For example, to find a quadratic model, 2 + 1 = 3 points are required as a quadratic is a degree 2

polynomial. Each of the points are substituted into the general equation of the quadratic polynomial,

y = ax2 + bx + c, to generate 3 simultaneous equations. These can be solved using elimination or by

using a CAS calculator.

Worked example 29

Using simultaneous equations, find a quadratic model for the points (2, 9), (3, 1) and (1, 9).

Think

1

get three simultaneous equations.

WriTe

y = ax2 + bx + c

a(2)2 + b(2) + c = 9

4a 2b + c = 9

a(3)2 + b(3) + c = 1

9a + 3b + c = 1

a(1)2 + b(1) + c = 9

a+b+c=9

Equation [1] [2] to eliminate c.

Equation [2] [3] to eliminate c.

Equation [4] 8

Equation [5] 5

Add equations [6] and [7] to eliminate a and solve

for b.

Substitute b = 4 into equation [4] to find a.

5a

5b = 10

8a + 2b = 8

40a 40b = 80

40a + 10b = 40

30b = 120

b=4

5a 5(4) = 10

5a = 10

a = 2

2 + 4 + c = 9

c=7

to find c.

4

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

y = 2x2 + 4x + 7

Worked example 30

Using simultaneous equations, find a cubic model for the points (2, 10), (1, 2), (3, 20) and (6, 22).

Use a CAS calculator to solve the simultaneous equations.

Think

WriTe

y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d

get 4 simultaneous equations.

8a + 4b 2c + d = 10

3

a(1) + b(1)2 + c(1) + d = 2

a+b+c+d=2

a(3)3 + b(3)2 + c(3) + d = 20

27a + 9b + 3c + d = 20

3

a(6) + b(6)2 + c(6) + d = 22

216a + 36b + 6c + d = 22

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

determine a, b, c and d.

y = x3 5x2 4x + 10

141

exercise 3m

Finite differences

For each of the following, complete a finite difference table based on the data below and

use it to determine the equation of y in terms of x.

1 We27,28

a

17

28

39

50

61

100

74

48

22

30

32

71

124

191

x

y

13

11

10

26

77

158

16

17

20

31

56

101

23

11

25

49

77

28

27

32

31

12

27

18

18

x

y

15

66

58

99

94

19

43

35

27

19

11

If x is the number of dots on the base of each diagram, and y is the total

number of dots:

a complete the table below

b find an equation linking x and y

x (base dots)

y (total dots)

c find the total number of cans in the supermarket display shown at right using

the equation found in b, and check your answer by counting the cans.

142

x=1

x=2

x=3

x=4

The diagonals in polygons of various types are shown at right in red. Find the

relationship between the number of dots (x) and the number of diagonals (n).

(Hint: Continue patterns in a difference table so that it is completed back to

x = 0.)

If n is the number of different squares that can be found within a square grid of edge length x, find

an equation for n in terms of x and use this equation to find the number of different squares on a

chessboard.

x=1 x=2

n=1 n=5

5 Find a linear model for the following sets of points.

a (2, 1) (1, 23)

x=3

n=?

b (4, 6) (8, 3)

6 We29

Using simultaneous equations, find a quadratic model for the following sets of points.

a (2, 13) (6, 37) (4, 57)

b (1, 4) (1, 2) (4, 19)

d (5, 360) (2, 96) (6, 272)

7 We30 Using simultaneous equations, find a cubic model for the following sets of points. Use a CAS

c (4, 10) (6, 90) (8, 302) (2, 2)

d (1, 4) (1, 8) (4, 314) (0, 6)

8 Using simultaneous equations, find a quartic model for the following sets of points. Use a

a (1, 2) (3, 354) (4, 1313) (2, 79) (1, 2)

b (4, 73) (0, 1) (2, 11) (2, 13) (6, 707)

143

Summary

expanding

1. expand two factors first, then multiply the result by the remaining linear factor

2. collect like terms at each stage

3. (x + 2)3 may be written as (x + 2)(x + 2)(x + 2)

4. (a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3

(a b)3 = a3 3a2b + 3ab2 b3

long division of

polynomials

The highest power term is the main one considered at each stage.

The key steps are:

1. How many?

2. Multiply and write the result underneath.

3. Subtract.

4. Bring down the next term.

5. Repeat until no variables remain to be divided.

6. State the quotient and the remainder.

polynomial values

P(a) means the value of P(x) when x is replaced by a and the polynomial is evaluated.

factor theorems

If P(a) = 0, then (x a) is a factor of P(x).

Factorising

polynomials

To factorise a polynomial:

1. let P(x) = the given polynomial

2. use the factor theorem to find a linear factor

3. use long or short division to find another factor

4. repeat steps 2 and 3, or factorise by inspection if possible.

Alternatively, use the factor function on a calculator.

two cubes

a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 ab + b2)

a3 b3 = (a b)(a2 + ab + b2)

Solving polynomial

equations

1. rewrite the equation so it equals zero

2. factorise the polynomial as much as possible

3. let each linear factor equal zero and solve for x in each case.

Cubic graphs

intercepts method

y

To sketch a cubic function of the form f (x) = Ax3 + Bx2 + Cx + D:

1. determine if the expression is a positive or negative cubic (that is,

20

if A is positive or negative)

2. find the y-intercept (let x = 0)

3. factorise if necessary or possible; for example, obtain an

expression in the form f (x) = (x a)(x b)(x c)

4. find the x-intercepts (let factors of f (x) equal 0)

1

5. use all available information to sketch the graph.

Quartic graphs

intercepts method

f (x) = (x a)(x b)(x c) (x d):

1. find the y-intercept (f (0) = abcd)

2. find the x-intercepts (let factors of f (x) = 0)

3. use all available information to sketch the graph.

840

144

5

2

Graphs of cubic

functions in power

function form

A cubic function in the form y = a(x b)3 + c has a y-dilation of a and a stationary point of

inflection at (b, c).

y

a>0

a<0

(b, c)

(b, c)

x

Positive a

Negative a

domain, range,

maximums and

minimums

The absolute maximum or minimum is either the y-value at a local maximum or minimum, or the

y-value at an end of the domain.

modelling using

technology

1. Enter data as lists.

2. Find the regression equation (linear, quadratic etc.).

Finite differences

1. Set up a table as shown and find differences by subtracting successive values (value previous

value). Circle or shade the stepped cells.

x

Stepped cell 1

First

differences

Second

differences

Third

differences

Stepped cell 2

1

Stepped cell 3

Stepped cell 4

Etc.

Etc.

Previous value

Value

previous value

Value

1. Stepped cell 1 = a0

2. Stepped cell 2 = a1 + a2 + a3

The equation of the polynomial model is

3. Stepped cell 3 = 2a2 + 6a3

y = a3x3 + a2x2+ a1x + a0.

4. Stepped cell 4 = 6a3

145

Chapter review

S h orT

anS Wer

1 Expand:

a (x 2)2(x + 10)

c (x 7)3

b (x + 6)(x 1)(x + 5)

d (5 2x)(1 + x)(x + 2).

2 Find the quotient and remainder when the first polynomial is divided by the second in each case.

a x3 + 2x2 16x 3, x + 2

b x3 + 3x2 13x 7, x 3

c x3 + x2 + 4x 7, x + 1

3 If P(x) = 3x3 + 2x2 + x 4, find:

a P(1)

b P(4)

+

29x 42.

5 Show that x + 3 is a factor of

x3

2x2

c P(2a).

x3

3x2

16x + 5 is divided by x 1.

7 Factorise:

a 1 125x3

b (x 2)3 + (x + 3)3.

8 Solve:

a 5(x + 5)3 + 5 = 0

c x3 9x2 + 26x 24 = 0.

9 Sketch:

a y = x(x 2)(x + 11)

b y = x3 + 6x2 15x + 8

c y = 2x3 + x2.

c y = x(x + 5)3.

10 Sketch:

a y = x(x 7)(x 2)(x + 4)

11 Sketch y =

1

8

(x + 1)3 + 8.

13 Complete a finite difference table, and use it to determine the equation for y in terms of x for the

x

17

40

83

x=0 x=1 x=2 x=3

Find a relationship between the number of chords (x) and the maximum r = 1 r = 2 r = 4 r = 7

number of regions (r).

15 Using simultaneous equations, find a cubic model for the points (1, 10), (2, 4), (3, 104) and (0, 2).

mUlTip l e

Ch oiCe

a x3 30

B x3 6x2 + 5x 6

d x3 31x 30

e x3 + 5x2 36x 30

x3

5x2

a (x + 3)3

C x3 + 12x2 31x + 30

B x(x + 3)(x 3)

C (x 1)(x + 3)2

d (x 1)(x + 1)(x + 3)

e (x + 1)(x + 2)(x 3)

Questions 3 and 4 refer to the following long division.

x2 + x + 2

x + 4)x3 + 5x2 + 6x 1

x3 + 4x2

x2 + 6x

x2 + 4x

2 1

2x

2 +8

2x

9

3 The quotient is:

a 9

146

B 4

C x+4

d x2 + x + 2

e x3 + 5x2 + 6x 1

a 9

B 2

C 4

d 2x 1

e 2x + 8

d 7

e 35

d 7

e 8

d (x + 3)

e (2x 1)

a 34

B 33

C 9

7x is divided by x 1 is:

C 6

3

7 Which of the following is a factor of x 3x2 18x + 40?

a (x 4)

B (x 2)

C (x + 1)

6 The remainder when

a 6

x3

x3

B 1

6x2

a (x 1)2(x + 8)

B (x + 1)2(x + 8)

d (x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 4)

e (x 1)(x + 2)(x + 4)

64x3

y3

C (x + 2)3

factorises to:

a 6

B 2

C 2

d 4

e 6

a 11

d 3

a

B

C

d

e

C 7

e 3

y = (x 5)(x + 1)(x + 3)

y = (x 3)(x 1)(x + 5)

y = (x 3)(x + 1)(x + 5)

y = (3x 1)(x + 1)(x 5)

y = (5 x)(1 + x)(3 + x)

a

B

C

d

e

y = (x 3)2(x + 3)2

y = (x 3)(x + 3)3

y = (x 3)3(x + 3)

y = (x 3)4

y = (x + 3)4

81

y

y

a

B

x

y

x

(5, 12)

(5, 12)

(5, 12)

x

(5, 12)

x

(5, 12)

147

y

(7, 252)

(4.813, 60.370)

5

7 x

(2.147, 108.222)

a [108.222, 252)

B (2.147, 4.183]

d (7, 7]

e (6, 7]

a [108.222, 252)

B [2.147, 4.183]

d [7, 252)

e [0, 252)

C (108.222, 60.370]

C [108.222, 60.370]

16

66

208

520

a Linear

B Quadratic

C Cubic

d Quartic

18 Which of the following points lies on the curve of the quadratic model that fits the points (1, 0), (0, 7)

a (3, 4)

e x T ended

r e SponS e

C (2, 7)

B (0, 7)

d (1, 10)

e (1, 14)

2 Find the value of m if x + 3 is a factor of 2x3 15x2 + mx 21.

3 Factorise x3 2x2 9x + 18. Sketch the graph of f (x) = x3 2x2 9x +18.

4 Factorise (3x 2)3 + (x + 5)3.

5 Determine the x- and y-intercepts of the cubic graph y = (2 3x)(4x + 1)(2x 7). Hence, sketch the

graph.

6 The graph y = x3 has been moved parallel to the x-axis 5 units to the left and moved upwards 2 units

What is the equation of the translated graph and what are the coordinates of the point of inflection?

Sketch the translated graph.

7 Sketch the graph of y = (x + 2)2(x 3)(x 4), showing all intercepts.

8 The polynomial P(x) = x3 + ax2 + bx + 54 is exactly divisible by x 9 and also exactly divisible by x 6.

a Find the values of a and b.

b Find the third factor.

c Hence, sketch the graph of the polynomial y = x3 + ax2 + bx + 54.

9 Factorise x3 2x2 3x + 6 over the real number field. Sketch the graph of y = x3 2x2 3x + 6.

10 Find the points of intersection between y = x3 x2 19x 13 and 3x + y 7 = 0.

11 Use the method of finite differences to fit a polynomial model to the following data.

x

y

148

0

4

1

16

2

25

3

30

4

30

Find:

a the height, h1, of the top of the slide

b the coordinates of point A (where the slide enters the water)

c the length, L, of the ladder

d the height, h2, of the mini-hump to the nearest centimetre.

y

h1

h2

(5, 0)

(8, 0.22)

13 An innovative local council decides to put a map of the district on a website. Part of the map involves

two key features the Cubic River and the Linear Highway. A mathematically able website designer

has found the following equations for these features:

Cubic River:

y = x3 + x2 4x 4

Linear Highway: y = 5x + 5.

a Sketch the river and highway, showing x- and y-axis intercepts.

b Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the highway and the river.

c A fun-run organiser wishes to arrange checkpoints at the closest points of intersection. Find the

distance between the proposed checkpoints.

14 A cubic function in the form f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d has the following values.

x

y

0

42

1

36

2

20

18

28

State one factor of f (x), giving your reasoning.

Using long or short division, factorise f (x).

Sketch the graph of f (x), labelling all intercepts.

15 The height (in centimetres) of a wave above a 1-metre pole is measured over an interval of 8 seconds.

The waves height above the 1-metre pole has been found to approximate the function H1 = t3 13t2 + 48t.

a Find the initial height of the wave above the 1-metre pole.

b Using a CAS calculator, sketch the function and find the local maximum and minimum height of

the wave.

c The height of a later wave above the 1-metre pole is found to approximate the function

H2 = t3 14t2 + 53t 40.

Show at what times the height of this wave is exactly the same height as the pole.

a

b

c

d

diGiTal doC

doc-9737

Test Yourself

Chapter 3

149

ICT activities

Chapter opener

DIGITAL DOC

10 Quick Questions doc-9724: Warm up with ten quick questions on

cubic and quartic functions (page 105)

3B

TUTORIAL

WE4 eles-1412: Watch how to perform long division of

polynomials (page 108)

3C

Polynomial values

DIGITAL DOCS

doc-9725: Investigate solutions to cubic equations

(page 111)

WorkSHEET 3.1 doc-9726: Review the discriminant

(page 111)

3D

DIGITAL DOCS

doc-9725: Investigate solutions to cubic equations (page 113)

SkillSHEET 3.1 doc-9727: Practise calculating and using the

discriminant (page 114)

3E

Factorising polynomials

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9728: Investigate zeros of cubics (page 117)

TUTORIAL

WE12 eles-1413: Use long division to factorise a cubic

(page 114)

3F

TUTORIAL

WE15 eles-1414: Watch how to factorise expressions using the

sum or difference of two cubes formulae (page 117)

3G

DIGITAL DOC

WorkSHEET 3.2 doc-9729: Factorising cubics and quartics using long

division, applying the Null Factor Law to determine x-intercepts and

sketching cubics and quartics (page 121)

150

3H

TUTORIAL

WE20 eles-1415: Sketch the graph of a cubic showing axial

intercepts (page 123)

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9730: Investigate the effect of changing coefficients of cubics in

general form on its graph (page 125)

function form

DIGITAL DOCS

doc-9731: Investigate the graphs of cubic functions in power form

(page 131)

Investigation doc-9732: Graphs of the form y = a(x b)n + c

(page 131)

3K

DIGITAL DOCS

SkillSHEET 3.2 doc-9733: Practise expressing intervals using varying

notation (page 134)

Investigation doc-9734: Modelling the path of a roller-coaster

(page 135)

3L

INTERACTIVITY

Modelling data using polynomials int-0262: Use the interactivity to

consolidate your understanding of how to fit a polynomial model to

data (page 136)

TUTORIAL

WE26 eles-1416: Watch how to fit a cubic model to a set of data

using a CAS calculator (page 136)

DIGITAL DOCS

doc-9735: Investigate the best model for a set of data (page 137)

Chapter review

DIGITAL DOC

Test Yourself doc-9737: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your

progress (page 149)

5_61_10586_MQ11_MMCAS_3E_03.indd 150

8/05/13 2:47 PM

Answers CHAPTER 3

CUBiC and QUarTiC

FUnCTionS

exercise 3a

1 a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

2 a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

3 a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

4 a

b

c

d

e

f

5 a

b

c

d

e

f

expanding

x3 + 7x2 + 6x

x3 7x2 18x

x3 + 8x2 33x

2x3 + 10x2 + 12x

48x 3x3

5x3 + 50x2 + 80x

x3 + 4x2

2x3 14x2

30x3 270x2

7x3 56x2 112x

x3 + 12x2 + 41x + 42

x3 3x2 18x + 40

x3 + 3x2 36x + 32

x3 6x2 + 11x 6

x3 + 6x2 x 6

x3 + 5x2 49x 245

x3 + 4x2 137x 660

x3 + 3x2 9x + 5

x3 12x2 + 21x + 98

x3 + x2 x 1

x3 + 13x2 + 26x 112

3x3 + 26x2 + 51x 20

4x3 x2 36x + 9

10x3 49x2 + 27x + 36

6x3 71x2 198x + 35

21x3 96x2 + 48x

54x3 + 117x2 72x

24x3 148x2 + 154x + 245

20x3 19x2 69x + 54

4x3 + 42x2 + 146x + 168

x3 + 6x2 + 12x + 8

x3 + 15x2 + 75x + 125

x3 3x2 + 3x 1

x3 9x2 + 27x 27

8x3 72x2 + 216x 216

27x3 + 108x2 + 144x + 64

x3 4x2 67x 110

3x3 + 15x2 18x

6x3 + 72x2 + 510x 3600

3

x + 29x2 264x + 720

x3 20x2 100x

x3 39x2 507x 2197

exercise 3B

1 a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

2 a

b

2

x + 3x 6, 19

x2 + 2x 1, 6

x2 + 1, 2

x2 x + 6, 11

x2 + 4x + 3, 3

x2 + 3x 3, 11

x2 2x 3, 17

x2 4x 18, 91

3x2 7x + 20, 35

4x2 8x + 18, 22

2x2 3x + 3, 7

2x2 9, 35

3x2 2x + 1, 5

2x2 + 5x 6, 7

4x2 7x 2, 3

x2 4x + 3, 8

x2 + x 6, 11

3x2 + 2x + 1, 13

x2 5x 2, 14

2

3x 2x + 4, 3

x2 + 5x + 6, 9

2x2 + 7x 1, 1

x2 x 2, 3

x2, 7

x2 x 2, 8

x2 x 8, 0

5x 2, 7

2x2 2x + 10, 54

2x2 4x 9, 16

2x2 + 4x 1, 1

x3 + 2x2 + 5x 2, 2

x3 + 2x2 9x 18, 0

6x3 + 17x2 + 53x + 155, 465

The quotient is x2 6x + 101; the

remainder is 1490.

b The quotient is 2x2 + 44x + 1369; the

remainder is 42 430.

16 x

160

c The quotient is 4x2

+

;

721 3

9

the remainder is 9 .

theorems

b 0

c 0

1 a 30

d 24

e 24

f k3 + 3k2 10k 24

g n3 + 3n2 + 10n 24

h 27c3 + 27c2 + 30c 24

2 a 58

c 11

b 8

f 6

d 9

e 202

g 158

i 35

h 6

j 441

3 a 6

b 3

c 1

e 2

f 2

d 2

g 5, 2

h a = 5, b = 3

4 a Not a factor

b Is a factor

c Is a factor

d Not a factor

5 Show P(2) = 0, P(3) = 0 and P(5) = 0.

6 For example, for a show P (1) = 0.

7 a E

b C

c D

d A

8 a (x 1)

b (x 3) or (x 2)

c (x 3) or (x + 2)

d (x 6) or (x + 4) or (x + 5)

9 a i 0 ii 0 iii 0

b i (x + 1)(6x2 + x 2)

ii (x + 1)(2x 1)(3x + 2)

c

d

e

f

a

b

c

d

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

a

b

c

a

d The quotient is

the remainder is

exercise 3C

1 a 10

d 43

g

h

i

j

k

l

2 a

b

c

77

9x3

30x2

+ 105x

5235

2 .

2

735

2 ;

2x 1 = 0 gives x = 2 .

2

P( 3 )

3x + 2 = 0 givesx =

polynomial values

b 11

c 18

e 3

f 22

3.

b

= 0.

P

a

2a3 3a2 + 2a + 10

16b3 12b2 + 4b + 10

2x3 + 9x2 + 14x + 18

2x3 21x2 + 74x 77

128y3 48y2 8y + 10

P(11) = 230 522

P(102) = 1 735 072 853

P(2x + 9) = 256x4 + 4632x3 + 31 428x2

+ 94 726x + 106 982

d P(x3 + 2) = 16x12 + 131x9 + 402x6

+ 526x3 + 253

exercise 3e

1 a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

37

Factorising polynomials

(x + 1)(x + 3)(x + 6)

(x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 5)

(x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 9)

(x + 1)(x + 3)(x + 4)

(x + 3)(x + 4)(x + 7)

(x + 2)(x + 3)(x + 7)

(x + 1)2(x + 2)

(x + 2)2(x + 3)

(x + 4)(x + 5)2

x(x + 5)(x + 8)

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

P (x)

P (1)

P (2)

P (1)

P (2)

Rem

when

divided

by

(x 1)

15

15

10

28

10

28

11

21

11

21

19

19

8 a

P (8)

b P (7)

Rem

when

divided

by

(x 2)

Rem

when

divided

by

(x + 1)

Rem

when

divided

by

(x + 2)

c P (a)

151

k x(x + 3)(x + 4)

l x(x + 5)2

m x(x + 1)(x + 5)

n x2(x + 6)

2 a (x 1)(x + 1)2

b (x 2)(x 1)(x + 1)

c (x + 1)2(x + 5)

d (x 3)(x + 2)2

e (x + 1)(x + 4)2

f (x 5)(x 2)(x + 2)

g (x 1)(x + 1)(x + 2)

h (x 3)(x + 1)(x + 2)

i (x 1)(x + 2)2

j (x + 2)(x2 x + 3)

k (x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 5)

l (x 3)(x + 1)(x + 3)

m (x 2)2(x + 3)

n (x 4)(x + 5)(x + 8)

o (x 1)(x + 1)(x + 2)2

p (x 3)(x + 2)3

q (x 1)(x + 1) (x + 3)2

r x(x 1)(x 7)(x + 3)

3 a x(x 2)(3x + 5)

b 2x(x + 1)(2x 1)

c 3x(x 4)(x + 2)

d 2x(x + 3)2

e 6x2(x 1)

f x(x + 4)(x + 3)

g (x 1)(x + 1)(x + 3)

h 2x(x 3)(x 2)

i (x + 2)(2x 1)(3x 2)

j (x 2)2(5x 4)

k (x 1)(x + 3)(x 5)(x + 2)2

l (x 2)2(3x + 5)(8x + 1)

4 a (2x + 3)(x 1)(x + 2)

b (3x 1)(x + 1)(x + 4)

c (3x + 2)(x 2)(x + 2)

d (4x + 3)(x + 3)(x + 5)

e (5x 1)(x + 1)2

f (x + 2)(x2 x + 2)

g (x + 1)(2x + 3)2

h (x 2)(2x 1)(3x 4)

i (x + 4)(2x 5)(5x + 2)

j (7x 2)(x 2)(x + 4)

k (x 3)(x + 1)2(2x + 1)

l (x 1)(x + 3)(2x + 1) (3x 2)

exercise 3F

two cubes

1 a a = x, b = 6

b a = 2y, b = z

c a = x + 5, b = 3

d a = 1, b = 4h

c

u

e a=

f a = t, b =

, b = eg

2

6

2 a (x 5)(x2 + 5x + 25)

b ( j + k)( j2 jk + k2)

c (y 2)( y2 + 2y + 4)

d (3x + y)(9x2 3xy + y2)

e 8(2t 3u)(4t2 + 6tu + 9u2)

f (x 1)(x2 + x + 1)

2

x

x 2 xp + 4 p2

g + 2 p

9

81

9

3 a (2a 1)(a2 a + 1)

b x(x2 + 6x + 12)

c 2(x + 2)(4x2 + 10x + 7)

d 5(3w2 15w + 25)

e 5m(7m2 3mp + 3p2)

f (2x 3)(13x2 + 15x + 9)

g (3y + 5)(3y2 + 21y + 67)

h (4x 3y)(7x2 + 9xy + 21y2)

i (1 5p)(13p2 16p + 7)

j 2(3x 8)(21x2 60x + 67)

k (x2 + y3)(x4 x2y3 + y6)

l 2(x 3)(x2 + 3x + 9)

m 3(a + 1)(a2 a + 1)

n 6(x2 + 4)(x4 x2 + 7)

4 m = 27, n = 1

exercise 3G

152

6

y

b

6

7 x

1

42

b

d

f

g 0

i 4

c

e

g

2,

4,

2, 6

l

6 6

3 a 2, 0, 2

3,

5

2

4

60

2, 0, 2

m 0, 4, 5

4 a 4, 1, 4

4, 2,

g 2, 1, 3

1

2

3

2,

5

2

2, 1,

2,

y

12

1

3

3

4

n 5, 4

b 4, 0, 4

e

j 0, 2, 3

1 3

m 2 , 0, 7 , 5

11

3, 4, 7

2, 3

2, 1, 1, 2

1

j 0, 9

b

d

f

h

1, 5, 9

4

5, 8

i 1, 0, 1

1

88

l 13

2 a 1, 2, 5

j 1

k 12

Solving polynomial

equations

1 a 6

c 14

e 4

6 C

7 B

3k

1 2 3

1 a

b a = 3 3x , b = 3 m y

2

+

i 3k 9 k +

2

2 4

5 a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

h (3r 1)(9r2 + 3r + 1)

exercise 3h

method

5,

c 5, 0, 5

f 0, 2

,0

4

i 0, 5

k 0, 4

l 7, 0, 1

n 0

b 2, 3, 5

c 5, 1, 5

1,

2, 3

h 5, 0, 1, 2

k 3, 2,

1

2

2,

6 x

f 2, 1, 5

i 6,

54

1

y

30

2 a

l 2, 1, 1

12, 7, 7

9, 13

16

6.91

14.22, 1.071, 0.854

3.627

0.646, 1.948, 0.199

4.894, 1.325

12.556, 0.418

b

8

3

2

192

c

1

3 1

21

5D

8 E

6 C

9 D

10 a

7 B

5

y

12

150

10

3 2

4

3

factor,

= (2)2 4 1 5 = 4 20 = 16.

As < 0, the quadratic factor has no

real solutions, so y = x3 x2 + 3x + 5 has

only one real solution at x = 1.

d Find the discriminant of the quadratic

factor,

= (2k)2 4 1 5 = 4k2 20.

i For 2 real solutions, the quadratic

factor must have 1 solution. = 0.

Solve 4k2 20 = 0.

If k = 5 , the cubic will have

2 real solutions.

ii For 3 real solutions, the quadratic

factor must have 2 solutions. > 0.

Solve 4k2 20 > 0.

y

8

b y = (x + 1)(x2 2x + 5)

c Find the discriminant for the quadratic

2

3

7

7

1

6

4 a

y (0.33, 14.81)

14

3a

exercise 3i

1 a

12

(5, 36)

b

y

method

have 3 real solutions.

0

2 1

y (6.04, 10.02)

4

5 7

x

2 3

8

2 1 0

140

(0.71, 144.84)

(3, 16)

x

1

y

1

7

(2, 0)

2 3

(1.67, 28.44)

4

24

0 1

5

y

5

d

2

(1, 0)

(0.76, 6.64)

1

2

3 x

153

6 E

7 D

8 a

i i

y

2.23 0.24 2

1

3

2 a

ii (0, 2)

y

(2, 2)

(0.46, 12.09)

14

9

125

1.30

3.36

x

(0.83, 0.10)

(3, 81)

(2.61, 34.98)

3 a = 5

4 a There are many possible quartic

or y = x4 + 81 or y = (x 3)(x + 3)3.

b y = (x + 3)(x 3)3

y

c

(2.38, 13.68)

x

(1.22, 6.47)

3.18

0.68 0

81

1.86

y

(0.09, 120.35)

9.51

288

10

(1, 5)

2

y

1.90

(0, 3) 3

81

1.90

3)(x +

(3.22, 1027.74)y

4.75

358

3)3

(0.06, 357.53)

(2.35, 682.19)

(6.95, 1343.39)

y = x4 + 81

6

(4, 32)

(3.28, 98.19)

120

1.62

4.33 1.79

3

0 1 x

y=

ii (0, 0)

(1.55, 13.04)

(x

ii (0, 0)

l i 2

ii (3, 2)

j i 4

k i

3.74

1

81

5 C

154

power function form

1 a i 2

ii (1, 3)

b i 3

ii (5, 2)

c i 2

ii (6, 8)

d i 7

ii (4, 1)

e i 1

ii (9, 4)

f i 1

ii (0, 7)

g i 1

ii (1, 1)

1

h i

ii (2, 0)

2

(2, 27)

35

30 2

x

( 5 , 1)

2

(5, 3)

(5, 32)

y

c

x

( 1 , 0)

4

(3, 9)

y

j

(1, 2)

c y = 4 (x 1)3 2

1 34

1

d y=

( 3 , 1)

2

x

k

(2, 25)

26 35

(1, 0)

x

x

4 A

5 E

6 a y = (x 1)3 + 5

b y = (x + 2)3 + 2

c y = (x + 3)3 + 4

d y = (x + 3)3

7 a y = 4(x 2)3 + 3

b y = 2(x + 5)3 + 1

3

2x

+4

and minimums

1 a Domain [5, 4], range [2, 5]

b Domain [2, 4], range [2, 7]

c Domain [4, 2], range [5, 2]

d Domain [2, 6), range [2, 10)

e Domain (3, 5), range [0, 5)

f Domain (3, 4], range [9, 0]

2 a

y

12

(0.472, 13.129)

4

(3.528, 1.128)

( 3 , 2)

4

(1, 2)

y

b (3.732, 10.392)

(1, 5)

(4, 3)

5

x

1 x

(0.268, 10.392)

10

y

h

x

(95 , 7)

(1.333, 0.148)

1

3 a

(4, 1)

5

Range [0, 2)

(3, 2)

y

3

Range [0, 3]

(2.333, 1.185)

(6, 4)

x

x

155

e (4.689, 105.526)

b

3 (2, 27)

2

x

21 (0.355, 22.822)

y

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

2 4 6 8 10

y = 4.6273x 9.0455

40

30

20

10

0

(3, 4)

g (2.577, 0.385) y

x

2

(1.422, 0.385)

2 a

(4, 6)

h (2, 4) y

(2.1, 1.581)

1

6

b

x

(0.786, 8.209)

Range [8.209, 4)

y

(2.737, 48.517)

3 1

(2.070, 7.035)

5

(5.1, 4.94)

0 2 4 6 8 10

21

3 A

5 a 28 m

6 (0.971, 1.201)

exercise 3l

1 a

156

4 B

b 20.785 m

y y = 11.436x 23.091

100

80

60

40

20

0

20 2 4 6 8 10 x

2 4 6 8 10

0 2 4 6 8 10

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 x

6 205.629

7 99

8 330

9 a

y

600

500

400

300

200

100

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 x

0 2 4 6 8 10

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

0 2 4 6 8 10

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

y

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

3 a

(1, 32)

y y = 81.855x + 419.36

1400

1200

1000

800

600

400

200

0

800

600

400

200

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 x

2 4 6 8 10

0 2 4 6 8 10

4a

250

200

150

100

50

0

0 2 4 6 8 10 x

2.333

x

0 2 4 6 8 10

50

40

30

20

10

0

10

y

1

j (2.111, 13.169)

300

y y = 2.8818x + 48.318

50

40

30

20

10

0

Range [4, 0]

600

900

y y = 3.0273x + 6.3182

2 4 6 8 10 12

Time (months)

b $6.78

c Anything can happen with prices in the

the beginning of a share price crash!

10

Population

2 4 6 8 10

(8, 133)

400

300

200

100

0

0 2 4 6 8 10

Year

exercise 3m

1 a

b

c

d

e

Finite differences

y = 11x + 6

y = 26x + 100

y = 7x2 + 4x 4

y = 3x2 19x + 17

y = x3 + 3x2 7x 7

f y = x3 2x2 + 2x + 16

g y = 2x + 10x 23

exTended reSponSe

9a

1 P(3) = 68

2 m = 70

3 Factors: (x 3)(x + 3)(x 2)

i y = 9x 27

j y = 2x2 + 10x 15

l y=

2 a

8x

11

+ 43

x (base dots)

y (total dots)

6 10 15

b y=

1

2

18

x (dots)

n (diagonals) 0

1

1 1

1 2 1

, ,3

4 3 2

y-intercepts: y = 14

5 x-intercepts: x =

0 2 5 9

a chessboard

b y = 4x + 3

c y=

d y=

d y=

1 0 2 3 1

4

3 2

14

y

1 2

x 2x + 8

2

10x2 + 18x

3 3

1

x + 2 x 2 12 x

4

5x3 + 3x 6

5

2

2 x + 7x + 11

2x2 3x 1

6 Equation: y = (x + 5)3 + 2

20

7 a y = x3 5x2 + 8x + 15

b y = 3x3 4x2 + 2x + 5

c y=

10 a

b y=

1

2

+ 2 x 2 + 6 x, 204 squares on

5 a y = 8x 15

6 a y=

1 3

x

3

2 3

n = 2 x2 2 x

4 n=

1 2 3 4 5 6

x2 + 2 x

c 28

3

1 x

2

1 0

16

18

(5, 2)

y

8 a y = 5x4 + x3 2x2 + x 3

b y = 4 x4 2x3 + x2 + 2x + 1

ChapTer reVieW

ShorT anSWer

1 a x3 + 6x2 36x + 40

b x3 + 10x2 + 19x 30

c x3 21x2 + 147x 343

d 2x3 x2 + 11x + 10

2 a x2 16, 29

b x2 + 6x + 5, 8

c x2 + 2x + 2, 9

3 a 4

b 216

c 24a3 + 8a2 + 2a 4

4 7

5 Show P (3) = 0.

6 (x 10)(x + 4)(x + 10)

7 a (1 5x)(1 + 5x + 25x2)

b (2x + 1)(x2 + x + 19)

8 a 6

b

2,

c 2, 3, 4

7

y

11

(1, 8)

48

7 8

2 0

12 [32, 40]

13 y = x3 2x2 + 8

1

8 a a = 14, b = 39

b The third factor is x + 1.

y

c

14 r = 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1

15 y = 2x3 5x2 + x 2

mUlTiple ChoiCe

1D

4A

7B

10 C

13 B

16 A

2C

5B

8A

11 E

14 A

17 D

54

3D

6A

9A

12 E

15 D

18 D

10

6 9

157

9 y = ( x 2)( x

3)( x + 3)

c 8.766 m

d 58 cm

13 a

(3, 20)

14 a a = 1, b = 8, c = 1, d = 42

b (x 3), f (3) = 0

c (x 7)(x 3)(x + 2)

d

y

42

0 3

158

(3, 10)

79

x

x2 + x + 4

6

6

12 a 7.2 m

b (15, 0)

11 y =

Linear Highway:

5

y = 5x + 5

0

4

Cubic River:

y = x3 + x2 4x 4

c 10.198 km

15 a Initial height = 0 cm

b y 54.5185 (2 23 , 54.5185)

(8, 64)

64

(6, 36)

36

0

223

c 1 s, 5 s and 8 s

8 x

1 Determine the exact values for x for which x2 5 = 3x.

[3,

3 marks

2 Let f :

1] R, where f (x) =

+

4x 3.

a Show that (x 1) is a linear factor.

b When factorised, f (x) = (x 1)(x + 3)(ax + b). Determine the values of a and b.

c Hence, sketch the graph of f (x).

2x3

5x2

2 marks

S ho rT

a n S W er

25 minutes

3 marks

3 marks

3 The line y = ax + b passes through the point (2, 1) and is parallel to the line y 4x + 3 = 0. Determine

[1,

2 marks

4 Let f :

3] R, f (x) =

4x 3.

a Express f in the form f (x) = a(x b)2 + c. Hence, state the coordinates of the turning point.

b State the range for f.

c Determine the exact values of the x-intercepts.

d Sketch f on a set of axes. Label all key features.

2x2

3 marks

2 marks

3 marks

3 marks

1 A straight line passes through the points (2, 4) and (1, 5). Its equation would be:

a y=6x

B y=x+2

C 3y = x + 10

e y = 3x + 10

d y = 3x 2

B (3x + 4)(x 2)

13

13

or

10

10

or

12 minutes

one mark.

a (2x + 1)(6x 7)

m U lTip l e

C ho iC e

or 2

7

6

3 If (x a) is a linear factor of the function f (x) = x3 + 2x2 11x 12, then the possible value for a is:

a 3

B 1

C 0

d 1

e 4

4 A cubic function has the following axis intercepts: x-intercepts 1, 3 and 4, and y-intercept24. The

B (x + 1)(x + 3)(x 4) + 24

e 2(x + 1)(x + 3)(x 4)

d 2(x 1)(x 3)(x + 4)

C (x 1)(x 3)(x + 4) + 24

L1: 4y 3x 8 = 0

L2: 3y + 4x + 1 = 0

L3: 3y 4x 2 = 0

Which one of the following statements is correct?

a L1 and L2 are parallel.

B L1 and L3 are parallel.

d L1 and L3 are perpendicular.

e L1, L2 and L3 are parallel.

Which one of the following rules best describes the graph above?

a y = (x + a)2(b x)

B y = (x a)2(x b)

d y = (x b)2(x + a)

e y = (x a)2(x b)

C y = (x + a)(x b)

7 A polynomial of degree 3 passes through the origin and has x-intercepts at 2 and 3. The equation for

a y = (x 2)(x + 3)

B y = (x + 2)(x 3)

C y = x(x 2)(x + 3)

d y = x(x + 2)(x 3)

e y = (x 1)(x 2)(x + 3)

8 A linear function L(x) = ax + 1 intersects the quadratic function Q(x) = 2x2 x 1 at the point (0.5, 0).

a (1, 1)

B (1, 2)

C (1, 4)

d (2, 3)

e (2, 5)

Exam practice 1

159

e xT ended

r e S p onS e

40 minutes

a Show that the triangle is an isosceles triangle.

b Determine the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the line AC.

c Show that the perpendicular bisector found in part b passes through vertex B.

3 marks

4 marks

2 marks

2 Seng and Victor are training for a 1000-metre race. The distance in metres they each ran was recorded

in 1-minute intervals. Victor was delayed for 1 minute because he was tying up his shoelaces when he

was 110 m from the starting line. The individual distances are recorded in the table below.

Time (minutes)

Sengs distance (m)

Victors distance (m)

0

0

110

1

200

0

2

380

200

3

680

560

4

880

875

5

1040

1050

a The relationship between distance and time for Victor can be modelled using a quartic function.

diGiTal doC

doc-10161

Solutions

exam practice 1

Determine this quartic function, Qv. Write your function in terms of Qv (distance in metres) and

t(minutes). Express coefficients correct to 2 decimal places.

2 marks

b Sengs distance and time relationship can be modelled using a cubic function. Determine this

cubic function, Cs. Write your function in terms of Cs (distance in metres) and t (minutes).

Express coefficients correct to 2 decimal places.

2 marks

c i State the domain of Qv.

1 mark

ii State the domain of Cs.

1 mark

iii Sketch both Qv and Cs on the same set of axes.

3 marks

d Using your functions Qv and Cs, determine the time first Victor passes Seng. Write your answer in

minutes and seconds.

2 marks

3 A childrens playground in the shape of a rectangle is to be constructed at a local park. The longer side

is 5 metres longer than the shorter side.

a If x is the shorter side, write down an expression for the longer side in terms of x.

1 mark

b Write down an equation for the area, A(x), of the playground in terms of x.

2 marks

c If the maximum area of the playground is 150 m2, determine the

y

dimensions of the playground.

3 marks

A miniature bike path will be built within the playground. It will travel

from the gate to the seesaws, slides and swings. The bike path can

be modelled by the cubic function B(x) = x3 6x2 +10x, where x is

the horizontal distance, in metres, and B(x) is the vertical distance, in

metres, from the gate.

d Assuming that the slides are on the path, determine the vertical

distance the slides are from the gate if their measurement is 3 metres

horizontally from the gate.

2 marks

e If the seesaws are on the bike path, show that the seesaws are located

1 metre horizontally and 5 metres vertically from the gate.

2 marks

f Determine the shortest distance, in metres, between the seesaws and

the slides. Write your answer in exact form.

2 marks

0

160

Chapter 4

transformations

Chapter ContentS

4a

4b

4C

4d

4e

4F

4G

4h

4i

4J

Set notation

Relations and graphs

Domain and range

Types of relations (including functions)

Power functions (hyperbola, truncus and square root function)

Function notation

Special types of function (including hybrid functions)

Inverse relations and functions

Circles

Functions and modelling

4a

diGital doC

doc-9738

10 Quick Questions

Set notation

Set notation is used in mathematics in the same way as symbols that are used to represent language statements.

definitions

1. A set is a collection of things.

2. The symbol {. . .} refers to a set.

3. Anything contained in a set, that is, a member of a set, is referred to as an element of the set.

(a) Thes ymbol means is an element of, for example, 6 {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}.

(b) Thes ymbol means is not an element of, for example, 1 {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}.

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

161

5. The symbol means is a subset of, so, if B A, then all of the elements of set B are contained in

set A. For example, {2, 4} {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}.

6. The symbol means is not a subset (or is not contained in), for example {2, 3} {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}.

7. The symbol means intersection, so, A B is the set of elements common to sets A and B. For

example, {1, 2, 3} {2, 4, 6} is {2}.

8. The symbol means union, so, A B is the set of all elements belonging to either set A or B or

both. For example, {1, 2, 3} {2, 4, 6} is {1, 2, 3, 4, 6}.

9. The symbol A \ B denotes all of the elements of A that are not elements of B.

10. The symbol means the null set. It implies that there is nothing in the set, or that the set is empty.

Worked exaMple 1

a AB

b AC

c A\B

d {3, 4} B

e whether or not: i 8 A ii B A iii C A.

think

Write

a {1, 2}

d {}

e iii 8 is an element of A.

ii All elements of B belong to A.

iii 3 is an element of C but not A.

e i Yes. 8 A

ii Yes. B A

iii No. C A

Sets of numbers

Certain letters are reserved for important sets that arise frequently in the study of mathematics.

1. R is the set of real numbers, that is, any number you can think of.

2. N is the set of natural numbers, that is, {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . .}.

3. Z is the set of integers, that is, {. . ., 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .}.

a

4. Q is the set of rational numbers (that is, numbers that can be expressed as fractions in the form

b

where a and b are integers and b 0).

5. Q is the set of numbers that are not rational (that is, cannot be expressed as a ratio of two whole

numbers). These numbers are called irrational, for example, , 3, etc.

Note that N Z Q R, that is,

R

Q'

Q

1

2 3

4 2

3

Z

N

0

1

2 3 ...

exercise 4a

3

...

1 2 3

4 ...

7

5

33

...

51

Set notation

1 We1 If A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14}, B = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13}, C = {4, 5, 6, 7} and D={6,7,8}, find:

a AB

b AC

c ACD

d AB

f A\C

g C \ D.

e CD

162

b A\B

a ABC

c A \ (B C)

d A \ (B C)

e A C.

3 If F = {a, e, i, o, u}, G = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i} and H = {b, c, d, f, g, h}, find:

c G\H

a FGH

b GH

d H\F

e (F H) \ G.

4 MC Given that A B, then A B is equivalent to:

b

e A

a B

d AB

C {1, 2}

a A B C is equivalent to:

a B

b C

C A

d AB

e BC

a B

C C

d AB

e B\C

b (A \ B) C is equivalent to:

6 Answer true (T) or false (F) to each of the following statements relating to the number sets N, Z, Q

and R.

7 R

a

d 5Q

g {5, 10, 15, 20} N

j QN

4b

b 4 N

e 1.5 Z

c 6.4217 Q

f {5, 10, 15, 20} Z

h Z \ N = {. . ., 3, 2, 1}

k QZ=

i

l

ZN=N

(Z Q) R

Consider the following relation. The cost of hiring a trailer depends on the number of hours for which

it is hired. The table below outlines this relation.

Number of hours of hire

Cost ($)

3

50

4

60

5

70

6

80

7

90

8

100

Since the cost depends upon the number of hours, the cost is said to be the dependent variable, and the

number of hours is called the independent variable. The information in the table can be represented by a

graph, which usually gives a better indication of how two variables are related. When graphing a relation, the

independent variable is displayed on the horizontal (or x) axis and the dependent variable is displayed on the

vertical (or y) axis. So we can plot the set of points {(3, 50), (4, 60), (5, 70), (6, 80), (7, 90), (8, 100)}. The

points are called (x, y) ordered pairs, where x is the first element and y is the second element.

y

100

90

80

70

60

50

40

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x

Number of hours

This graph clearly shows that the cost increases as the number of hours of hire increases. The relation

appears to be linear. That is, a straight line could be drawn that passes through every point. However,

the dots are not joined as the relation involves integer-valued numbers of hours and not minutes or

seconds. The number of hours can be referred to as a discrete dependent variable.

Discrete variables include names and numbers of things; that is, things that can be counted (values are

natural numbers or integers).

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

163

Some variables are referred to as continuous variables. Continuous variables include height, weight

and volume; that is, things that can be measured (values are real numbers). If a relationship exists

between the variables, we may try to find a rule and then write this rule in mathematical terms. In our

example, the relationship appears to be that for each extra hour of hire the cost increases by $10 after an

initial cost of $20.

Cost = 10 number of hours + 20

Using x and y terms, this is written as

y = 10x + 20

Worked exaMple 2

Sketch the graph by plotting selected x-values for the following relations and state whether each is

discrete or continuous.

a y = x2, where x {1, 2, 3, 4}

b y = 2x + 1, where x R

think

Plot the points (1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9) and (4, 16)

on a set of axes.

Write/draW

a When x = 1, y = 12

=1

x = 2, y = 22

=4

x = 3, y = 32

=9

x = 4, y = 42

= 16

(1, 1)

(2, 4)

(3, 9)

(4, 16)

y

16

12

8

4

0

variable (whole numbers only).

the ordered pairs.

of axes.

164

in both directions as x is a continuous variable

(any real number).

4 x

number values.

b When x = 0, y = 2(0) + 1

=1

x = 1, y = 2(1) + 1

=3

x = 2, y = 2(2) + 1

=5

(0, 1)

(1, 3)

(2, 5)

y y = 2x + 1

5

4

3

2

1

2 1 10

2

3

number.

Worked exaMple 3

The pulse rate of an athlete, R beats per minute, t minutes after the

athlete finishes a workout, is shown in the table below.

0

180

t

R

2

150

4

100

6

80

8

70

b Estimate the athletes pulse rate after 3 minutes.

think

Write/draW

a&b

dependent on the time.

R (beats/min)

180

160

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

is a continuous variable.

2

touches the curve.

the vertical axis.

the axis.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

t (min)

125 beats per minute.

Note: In any defined domain, for example, 3 x 3, the variable (x) is assumed continuous in that

domain unless otherwise stated.

exercise 4b

Questions 1, 2, and 3 refer to the following information. A particular relation is described by the following

ordered pairs:

{(0, 4), (1, 3), (2, 2), (3, 1)}.

1 MC The graph of this relation is represented by:

a y

b y

4

4

y

4

0

d y

4

4 x

0

e y

4

4 x

4 x

4 x

165

a {1, 2, 3, 4}

d {0, 1, 2, 3}

b {1, 2, 3}

e {1, 2}

C {0, 1, 2, 3, 4}

a y = 4 x, x R

C y = 4 x, x N

e y = 4 x, x {0, 1, 2, 3}

b y = x 4, x N

d y = x 4, x Z

4 MC During one week, the number of people travelling on a particular train, at a certain time,

Number of people

M T W T F

M T W T F

M T W T F

Number of people

0

e

M T W T F

Number of people

0

C

Number of people

Number of people

progressively increases from Monday through to Friday. Which graph below best represents this

information?

M T W T F

5 State whether each of the following relations has discrete (D) or continuous (C) variables.

a {(4, 4), (3, 2), (2, 0), (1, 2), (0, 0), (1, 2), (2, 4)}

b The relation that shows the air pressure at any time of the day

y

y

c

d

e The relation that shows the number of student absences per day during term 3 at your school

f The relation describing the weight of a child from age 3 months to one year

6 We2 Sketch the graph representing each of the following relations, and state whether each is discrete

or continuous.

a

Day

Cost of petrol (c/L)

b

c

d

e

f

166

Mon

Tues

Wed

Thur

Fri

Sat

Sun

68

67.1

66.5

64.9

67

68.5

70

y = x2, where x {2, 1, 0, 1, 2}

y = x 2, where x R

y = 2x + 3, where x Z

y = x2 + 2, where 2 x 2

t (min)

0

2

4

6

8

of coffee, T C, t minutes after it is poured.

80 64 54 48 44

T (C)

a Plot the points on a graph.

b Join the points with a smooth curve.

c Explain why this can be done.

d Use the graph to determine how long it takes the coffee to reach half of its initial temperature.

8 A salesperson in a computer store is paid a base salary of $300 per week plus $40 commission for each

computer she sells. If n is the number of computers she sells per week and P dollars is the total amount

she earns per week, then:

a copy and complete the table below.

n

P

b plot the information on a graph.

c explain why the points cannot be joined together.

9 The speed of an aircraft, V km/h, t seconds after it starts to accelerate down the runway, is shown in the

following table.

t

30

80

150

240

350

b Use the graph to estimate the speed after: i 2.5 s ii 4.8 s.

10 The cost, C dollars, of taking n students on an excursion to the zoo is $50 plus $6 per student.

a Complete a table using 15 n 25.

b Plot these points on a graph.

c Explain why the dots can or cannot be joined.

4C domain and

domain and range

range

1. a listed set of ordered pairs

2. a graph

3. a rule.

The set of all first elements of a set of ordered pairs is known as the domain, and the set of all

second elements of a set of ordered pairs is known as the range. Alternatively, the domain is the set of

independent values, and the range is the set of dependent values.

If a relation is described by a rule, it should also specify the domain. For example:

1. the relation {(x, y): y = 2x, x {1, 2, 3}} describes the set of ordered pairs {(1, 2), (2, 4), (3, 6)}

2. the domain is the set X = {1, 2, 3}, which is given

3. the range is the set Y = {2, 4, 6}, and can be found by applying the rule y = 2x to the domain values.

If the domain of a relation is not specifically stated, it is assumed to consist of all real numbers for

which the rule has meaning. This is referred to as the implied domain of a relation. For example:

{(x, y): y = x3} has the implied domain R.

{(x, y): y = x } has the implied domain x 0.

interval notation

If a and b are real numbers and a < b, then the following intervals are defined with an accompanying

number line.

(a, b) implies a < x < b or

(a, b] implies a < x b or

a

167

[a, ) implies x a or

x

(, b) implies x < b or

(, b] implies x b or

x

a

[a, b] implies a x b or

x

A closed circle indicates that the number is included and an open circle indicates that the number is

not included.

Worked exaMple 4

Describe each of the following subsets of the real numbers using interval notation.

a

b

4

c

3

5 x

think

0 1

Write

a (, 2)

b [3, 5)

c [1, 3) [5, )

3 is not).

Worked exaMple 5

a (2, 10]

b [1, )

think

Write/draW

a

2

10 x

b

0

Worked exaMple 6

a {(1, 2), (2, 5), (3, 8), (4, 11)}

b

Weight (kg)

Cost per kg ($)

10

3.5

15

3.2

20

3.0

25

2.8

30

2.7

y

4

4

0

168

x

4

think

Write

a Domain = {1, 2, 3, 4}

ordered pairs.

2

ordered pairs.

2

table, that is, the cost values.

c Domain = R

covers horizontally.

2

Range = [0, )

vertically.

d Domain = [4, 4]

covers horizontally.

2

Range = [4, 4]

vertically.

Worked exaMple 7

For each relation given, sketch its graph and state the domain and range

using interval notation.

a {(x, y): y = x 1}

b {(x, y): y = x2 4, x [0, 4]}

think

tUtorial

eles-1461

Worked example 7

Write/draW

2

and 5, and state the coordinate points.

When x = 1, y = 0

=0

x = 2, y = 1

=1

x = 3, y = 2

x = 4, y = 3

x = 5, y = 4

=2

y

(2, 1)

(3, 2)

(4, 3)

(5, 2)

y= x1

from x = 1, extending it beyond the last point.

Since no domain is given we can assume

x R (continuous).

an arrow on the other end of the curve.

horizontally by the graph, or implied by the

rule.

Domain = [1, )

vertically by the graph.

Range = [0, )

(1, 0).

1

0

4 5

169

b When x = 0, y = 02 4

= 4

x = 1, y = 12 4

= 3

x = 2, y = 22 4

=0

x = 3, y = 32 4

=5

x = 4, y = 42 4

= 12

points.

x = 4.

(4, 12).

(0, 4)

(1, 3)

(2, 0)

(3, 5)

(4, 12)

y

y = x2 4, x [0, 4]

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

2

4

1 2

3 4

graph horizontally.

Domain = [0, 4]

graph vertically.

Verify that the graphs are correct using a graphics calculator or other technology.

exercise 4C

1 We4 Describe each of the following subsets of the real numbers using interval notation.

b

a

2

d

3

f

1

h

5

0 1 2

a [6, 2)

b (9, 3)

c ( , 2]

d [5, )

e (1, 10]

f (2, 7)

g (, 2) [1, 3)

h [8, 0) (2, 6]

i R \ [1, 4]

j R \ (1, 5)

k R \ (0, 2]

l R \ [2, 1)

3 Describe each of the following sets using interval notation.

a {x: 4 x < 2}

b {x: 3 < x 1}

1

c {y: 1 < y < 3}

d {y:

<y 1}

e

g

i

k

170

{x: x > 3}

R

R \ {1}

R \ {x: 2 x 3}

f

h

j

l

{x: x 3}

R+ {0}

R \ {2}

R \ {x: 2 < x < 0}

a It is represented on a number line as:

a

0 1 2

0 1 2

C

0 1 2

0 1 2

0 1 2

b It is written in interval notation as:

a

b

C

d

e

(, 1) (2, )

(, 1) [2, )

(, 1) (2, ]

(, 1] (2, )

(, 1) [2, )

y

4

a

b

C

d

e

[4, 4]

(4, 7)

[1, 7]

(4, 4)

(1, 7)

1 0

diGital doC

doc-9739

SkillSHEET 4.1

domain and range

7 x

4

6 MC The range of the relation {(x, y): y = 2x + 5, x [1, 4]} is:

a [7, 13]

C [3, )

e R \ (7, 13)

b [3, 13]

d R

7 We6a, b State i the domain and ii the range of each of the following relations.

a {(3, 8), (4, 10), (5, 12), (6, 14), (7, 16)}

b {(1.1, 2), (1.3, 1.8), (1.5, 1.6), (1.7, 1.4)}

c

Time (min)

Distance (m)

d

Day

Cost ($)

110

130

150

170

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

25

35

30

35

30

f y = x2 1, x R

8 We6c, d State the domain and range of each of the following relations. Use a CAS calculator to view

a

y

2

3

0 1

y= x1

0

e

y

y = 2ex 2

y

4

y

2

y = 4ex

2

f

2x

y

0

3

0

171

y=

0

diGital doC

doc-9740

WorkSHEET 4.1

1

x

0

2

9 We7 For each relation given, sketch its graph and state the domain and range using interval notation.

a {(x, y): y = 2 x2}

b {(x, y): y = x3 + 1, x [2, 2]}

c {(x, y): y = x2 + 3x + 2}

d {(x, y): y = x2 4, x [2, 1]}

e {(x, y): y = 2x 5, x [1, 4)}

f {(x, y): y = 2x2 x 6}

diGital doC

doc-9741

Investigation

interesting

relations

10 State the implied domain for each relation defined by the following rules.

a y = 10 x

b y=3 x

16 x 2

c y=

2

d y=x +3

1

x

f y = 10 7x2

e y=

functions)

4d

one-to-one relations

A one-to-one relation exists if, for any x-value, there is only one corresponding

y-value and vice versa.

For example:

one-to-many relations

y

A one-to-many relation exists if there is more than one y-value for any x-value

but for any y-value there is only one x-value.

For example:

Many-to-one relations

A many-to-one relation exists if there is more than one x-value for any y-value

but for any x-value there is only one y-value.

For example:

0

Many-to-many relations

A many-to-many relation exists if there is more than one

x-value for any y-value and vice versa.

For example:

{(0, 1), (0, 1), (1, 0), (1, 0)}

172

Worked exaMple 8

a

think

tUtorial

eles-1462

Worked example 8

Write

a One-to-many relation.

that two y-values are available:

y

x = 1

line through any y-value shows that only one

x-value is available:

y

y=1

x

2

2

b One-to-one relation.

c Many-to-one relation.

x-value.

Functions

Relations that are one-to-one or many-to-one are called functions. That is, a function is a relation where

for any x-value there is at most one y-value. For example:

y

A function is determined from a graph if a vertical line drawn anywhere on the graph cannot intersect

with the curve more than once.

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

173

Worked exaMple 9

a {(2, 1), (1, 0), (0, 1), (1, 2)}

b

0

think

Write

a Function

b It is possible for a vertical line to intersect with the curve

b Not a function

c It is not possible for any vertical line to intersect with

c Function

exercise 4d

y

y

a

b

2 We9 Use the vertical line test to determine which of the relations in question 1 are functions.

174

a {(5, 8), (6, 9), (7, 9), (8, 10), (9, 12)}

y

C y2 = x

b

d y = 8x 3

a The graph that represents this relation is:

a

y

y

1

1 0

1 0

y

1

1

0

e

indicates the region not

required.

1

1 0

a one-to-one

C many-to-one

e a function

b one-to-many

d many-to-many

R and R+

R and R

R and R

R+ and R

R and R

5 Which of the following relations are functions? State the domain and range for each function.

a {(0, 2), (0, 3), (1, 3), (2, 4), (3, 5)}

b {(3, 2), (1, 1), (0, 1), (1, 3), (2, 2)}

d {(1, 2), (1, 0), (2, 1), (3, 2), (4, 3)}

c {(3, 1), (4, 1), (5, 1), (6, 1)}

e {(x, y): y = 2, x R}

f {(x, y): x = 3, y Z}

g y = 1 2x

h y>x+2

2

2

i x + y = 25

j y = x + 1, x 1

3

k y=x +x

l x = y2 + 1

a

b

C

d

e

and square root function)

4e

Power functions are functions of the form f (x) = xn, n R. The value of the power, n, determines the

type of function. We saw earlier that when n = 1, f (x) = x, and the function is linear. When n = 2,

f (x) = x2, and the function is quadratic. When n = 3, f (x) = x3, and the function is cubic. When n = 4,

f (x) = x4, and the function is quartic.

interaCtiVitY

int-0263

domain and

range

175

when n = 1, f (x) = x 1, and the power function produces the graph of a hyperbola

when n = 2, f (x) = x 2, and the power function produces the graph of a truncus

1

when n = 2 , f ( x ) = x , and the function is the square root function.

Under a sequence of transformations of f (x) = xn, n R, the general form of a power function is

f (x) = a(x b)n + c (where a, b, c and n R).

1

2

the hyperbola

y

y=0

0

x=0

That is, as x becomes very large, the graph approaches the x-axis but never touches it. As x becomes

very small (approaches 0), the graph approaches the y-axis, but never touches it.

So the line x = 0 (the y-axis) is a vertical asymptote, and the line y = 0 (the x-axis) is the horizontal

asymptote.

Both the domain and the range of the function are all real numbers, except 0; that is, R \ {0}.

1

The graph of y = can be subject to a number of transformations.

x

a

Consider y =

+ c or y = a( x b) 1 + c.

xb

y

dilation

3

2

1

The value a is a dilation factor. It dilates the graph from the x-axis.

3

For example, the graph of y = compared to the basic graph of

x

1

y = is shown at right.

x

0

3 2 1

1

y=

(1, 3)

(1, 1)

1 2 3

3

x

y=

1

x

x y=0

2

3

x=0

reflection

If x is replaced with x, the graph of the basic hyperbola is reflected in the y-axis.

1

1

and y =

are reflections of each other across the y-axis.

For example, the graphs of y =

x +1

x+1

y

2

1

0

2 1

1

2

y

y = x 1+ 1

1 2

3

2

1

x

0

2 1

1 1

y = x1+ 1

x = 1

176

x=1

translation

horizontal translation

The value b translates the graph b units horizontally, that is, parallel to the x-axis. If b > 0, the graph is

translated to the right, and if b < 0, the graph is translated to the left.

1

is a basic hyperbola translated one unit to the left, since

For example, the graph with equation y =

x +1

b = 1. This graph has a vertical asymptote of x = 1 and domain R \ {1}, and a horizontal asymptote

of y = 0.

1

, with a vertical asymptote

If a basic hyperbola is translated one unit to the right, it becomes y =

x

1

of x = 1 and domain R \ {1}.

Hence, the equation of the vertical asymptote is x = b and the domain is R \ {b}. The horizontal

asymptote and the range remain the same, that is, x = 0 and R \ {0} respectively.

Vertical translation

The value c translates the graph c units vertically, that is, parallel to the y-axis. If c > 0, the graph is

translated upward, and if c < 0, the graph is translated c units downward.

1

The graph with equation y = 1 is a basic hyperbola translated one unit down. This graph has a

x

horizontal asymptote of y = 1, a range of R \ {1} and a vertical asymptote of x = 0.

1

If a basic hyperbola is translated two units up, it becomes y = + 2, with a horizontal asymptote of

x

y = 2 and a range of R \ {2}. Hence, the equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = c, with a vertical

asymptote of x = 0, and the range is R \ {c}.

y

y=c

y=

a

xb

+c

c

0

x=b

The graph of y =

xb

Worked exaMple 10

3

Sketch the graph of y =

+ 2, clearly showing the intercepts with the axes and the position of

+1

x

the asymptotes.

think

Write/draW

a

Compare the given equation with y =

+ c,

xb

and state the values of a, b and c.

a = 3, b = 1, c = 2

1

a, b and c on the graph of y = .

x

The graph of y =

horizontal asymptote is at y = c. The vertical

asymptote is at x = b.

Asymptotes: x = 1; y = 2

x = 0.

y-intercept: x = 0

1

is dilated by the factor of 3

x

from the x-axis (a = 3), translated 1 unit to the left

(b = 1) and 2 units up (c = 2).

3

+2

0 +1

=3+2

=5

y=

Point (0, 5)

177

y = 0.

x-intercept: y = 0

3

+2

x +1

3

2=

x +1

2(x + 1) = 3

2x 2 = 3

2x = 5

0=

x=

Point

6

(a) draw the set of axes and label them

(b) use dotted lines to draw the asymptotes

The asymptotes are x = 1 and y = 2.

(c) mark the intercepts with the axes

5

The intercepts are y = 5 and x = 2 .

(d) treat the asymptotes as your new set of

axes, sketch the graph of the hyperbola.

(As a is positive, the graph is not

reflected in the x-axis.)

,0

5

2

)

y

y=

6 (0, 5)

4

2

0

3 2 1

2

( 5 ,

2

0)

3

x+1

+2

y=2

x

1 2 3

4

6

x = 1

the truncus

The graph shown is known as a truncus. The equation of the graph is given by:

1

y= 2

x

The function is undefined for x = 0. Hence, the equation of the vertical

asymptote is x = 0 and the domain of the function is R \{0}.

We can also observe that the graph approaches the x-axis very closely

but never touches it. So y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote.

Since the whole graph of the truncus is above the x-axis, its range is R+

(that is, all positive real numbers).

Similarly to the graphs of the functions, discussed in the previous

1

sections, the graph of y = 2 can undergo various transformations.

x

a

+ c or y = a(a b)2 + c.

Consider the general formula y =

( x b) 2

dilation

The value a is the dilation factor. It dilates the graph from the

x-axis. The dilation factor does not affect the domain, range or

asymptotes.

4

Consider the graph of y = 2 .

x

y

y=

y=0

1

x2

0

x=0

y

6

4

2

3 2 1 0

y=

1 2 3

4

x2

x y=0

x=0

reflection

If a is negative, the graph of a basic truncus is reflected in the x-axis. The range becomes R (that is,

all negative real numbers).

If x is replaced with x, the graph of the basic truncus is reflected in the y-axis. The effect of this

reflection cannot be seen in the basic graph, but it becomes more obvious if the graph has been

translated horizontally first.

178

1

1

and y =

are reflections across the y-axis.

2

(

x

2)2

( x 2)

The vertical asymptote changes from x = 2 to x = 2, and the domain changes from R \{2} to R \{2}.

y

3

2

1

0

2 1

1

y=

1

(x 2)2

y=

1

(x 2)2

3 2 1 0

x = 2

x=2

translation

horizontal translation

The value b translates the graph b units horizontally. If b > 0, the graph is translated to the right, and if

b < 0, the graph is translated left.

1

For example, the graph of the equation y =

results from translating a basic truncus 3 units to

( x 3)2

the right. The vertical asymptote is x = 3 and the domain is R \ {3}.

1 , where the vertical asymptote

If a basic truncus is translated 2 units to the left, it becomes y =

(

2)2

x

+

is x = 2 and the domain is R \ {2}.

Hence, the equation of the vertical asymptote is x = b, and the domain is R \ {b}. The range is still R+,

and the equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = 0.

Vertical translation

The value c translates the graph c units vertically. If c > 0, the graph is translated upward, and if c < 0,

the graph is translated c units downward.

1

For example, the graph with equation y = 2 + 1 results when a basic truncus is translated 1 unit

x

upward. The horizontal asymptote is y = 1, and the range is (1, ).

1

If a basic truncus is translated 1 unit down, it becomes y = 2 1, with y = 1 as the horizontal

x

asymptote and (1, ) as the range.

Hence, the equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = c, and the range is (c, ).

Note: If a is positive (see graph below), the whole graph of the truncus is above the line y = c

(the horizontal asymptote), and hence its range is y > c, or (c, ).

y

If a is negative, the whole graph is below its horizontal asymptote,

y=

a

+ c or y = a(x b)2 + c shows the

The graph of y =

( x b) 2

c

combination of these transformations.

0

a

(x b)2

+c

y=c

x

x=b

Worked exaMple 11

1

+ 3, clearly showing the position of the asymptotes and the

( x 2) 2

intercepts with the axes.

Sketch the graph of y =

think

Write

a

+c

( x b) 2

y=

a = 1, b = 2, c = 3

179

1

The graph of y = 2 is translated 2 units to the right

and 3 units up. x

1

transformations the graph of y = 2 should

undergo in order to be changed x

into the one in question.

(y = c and x = b).

Asymptotes: x = 2 and y = 3

square root of a negative number, there is no

solution and therefore no x-intercepts.

An inspection of the equation of the graph

would also have revealed this.

x-intercept: y = 0

1

0=

+3

( x 2)2

1

= 3

( x 2)2

( x 2)2 =

1

3

1

( x 2) =

y-intercept: x = 0

1

y=

+3

(0 2)2

1

= +3

4

13

=

4

(a) draw the set of axes and label them

(b) use dotted lines to draw asymptotes

(c) mark the x- and y-intercepts

(d) treating the asymptotes as the new set of

axes, draw the basic truncus curve

(e) make sure it intersects the axes in the

right places.

y

(0,

13 )

4

6

4

2

2 1 0

y=3

1 2 3 4x

x=2

This can be written as the power function y = x .

The function is defined for x 0; that is, the domain is R+ {0}, or [0, ).

As can be seen from the graph, the range of the square root function is also R+ {0}, or [0, ).

Throughout this section we will refer to the graph of y = x as the basic square root curve.

1

2

y

y= x

x

Let us now investigate the effects of various transformations on the basic square root curve.

Consider the function y = a x b + c or y = a( x b) + c.

1

2

dilation

The value a is a dilation factor; it dilates the graph from the x-axis. The domain is still [0, ).

180

reflection

If a is negative, the graph of a basic square root curve is reflected in the x-axis. The range becomes

(, 0]. The domain is still [0, ).

If x is replaced with x, the graph is reflected in the y-axis. For example, the graphs with equations

y = x and y = x are reflected across the y-axis.

The domain becomes (, 0] and the range is [0, ).

y

y

y= x

1 2

y = x

x

2 1 0

1 2

translation

horizontal translation

The value h translates the graph horizontally. If b > 0, the graph is translated to the right, and if b < 0,

the graph is translated to the left.

The graph with the equation y = x 1 results when the basic curve is translated 1 unit to the right.

This translated graph has domain [1, ) and range [0, ).

If the basic curve is translated 3 units to the left, it becomes y = x + 3 and has domain [3, ) and

range [0, ).

y

y= x+3

2

1

3 2 1 0

1 2 3

Vertical translation

The value c translates the graph vertically. If c > 0, the graph is translated vertically up, and if c < 0,

the graph is translated vertically down.

If y = x is translated 3 units vertically up, the graph obtained is y = x + 3, with domain [0, ) and

range [3, ).

y

5

4

3

2

1

y= x+3

0

2 1

1

1 2 3 4x

If the basic curve is translated 2 units down, it becomes y = x 2, with domain [0,) and range

[2, ).

The range of the square root function is [c, ) for a > 0.

The graph of y = a x b + c or y = a( x b) + c shows the combination of these transformations.

1

2

y

y=a bx+c

(b, c)

y=a x+b+c

(b, c)

x

181

Worked exaMple 12

Sketch the graph of y = 3 x 1 + 2, clearly marking intercepts and the end points.

think

Write/draW

y = 3 x 1 + 2,

Shape:

y-intercept.

There is no x-intercept.

y-intercept.

There is no y-intercept.

a second point.

Let x = 3.

x = 3: y = 3 31 + 2

=3 2+2

Point: (3, 3 2 + 2)

second point, and drawing the curve so that it starts at

the end point and passes through the second point.

y

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

2 1

1

y=3 x1+2

(3, 3 2 + 2)

(1, 2)

1 2 3 4x

and square root function)

exercise 4e

1 State the dilation factor and the vertical and horizontal translations or reflections for each of the

following. Write a short statement about the effects each has on the basic graph of that function.

3

+1

a y=

x5

2

b y = 2 +1

x

1

2

c y=

4x

d y= 2 x+4

e y=

f

1

(3 x )2

y = 4 x 5

2 We10, 11, 12 Sketch a graph for each of the following functions, clearly showing x- and y-intercepts

3

a f (x) = 2 + 1

x

2

c f (x) =

+5

x 1

182

b f (x) =

3 x 1

d f (x) = 2

2

( x 1)2

y

9

8

7

6

5

4

y=3

3

5

2

2

1

1 2 3 4x

1 0

5

3

x=2

4F

Function notation

The y-values are determined from the x-values, so we say y is a function of x, which is abbreviated

to y = f (x).

So, the rule y = 2x can also be written as f (x) = 2x.

If x = 1, then y = f (1)

If x = 2, then y = f (2)

=21

=22

=2

= 4, and so on.

evaluating functions

For a given function y = f (x), the value of y when x = 1 is written as f (1), the value of y when x = 5 is

written as f (5) and so on.

Worked exaMple 13

If f (x) = x2 3, find:

a f (1)

b f (2)

c f (a)

d f (2a).

think

2

Simplify.

2

Simplify.

2

2

Write

a f (x) = x2 3

f (1) = 12 3

=13

= 2

b f (x) = x2 3

f (2) = (2)2 3

=43

=1

c

f (x) = x2 3

f ( a) = a2 3

d f (x) = x2 3

f (2a) = (2a)2 3

= 22a2 3

= 4a2 3

183

To fully define a function:

1. define the domain

2. state the rule.

That is, if a function f (x) has domain X, the function may be defined as follows:

f : X Y, f (x) = . . . . . .

Domain

Co-domain

Rule

Y is not necessarily the range but is a set that contains the range, called the co-domain. The co-domain

gives the set of possible values that contains y. It is usually R (the set of real numbers). The actual values

that y can be the range is determined by the rule. When using function notation the domain can be

abbreviated as dom f and the range as ran f.

For example, the function defined by {(x, y): y = 2x, x [0, 3]} can be expressed in function notation

as f : [0, 3] R, f (x) = 2x.

For this function we can write dom f = [0, 3]. The co-domain = R. Also, ran f = [0, 6] (x = 0 gives

y = 0 and x = 3 gives y=6, which are the minimum and maximum values of y).

R

R

5.1

78

1

3

0.6

[0, 3]

11

3

f : domain

etc.

2 2

1.2 3 46

2 3 etc.

0

Range

1

2

3

10

etc.

Domain

[0, 6]

Co-domain

co-domain , f(x) = rule

y

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

f(x)

3x

The maximal domain of a function is the largest possible set of values of x for which the rule is

defined. The letters f, g and h are usually used to name a function, that is, f (x), g(x) and h(x).

Note: If a function is referred to by its rule only, then the domain is assumed to be the maximal domain.

Worked exaMple 14

1

a {(x, y): y = x2 4}

b y = 3x 4, 2 x 5

c y= x

think

Write

b The rule has meaning for all values of x in the

given domain

[2,

5].

184

a f : R R, f (x) = x2 4

b f : [2, 5] R, f (x) = 3x 4

c f : R \ {0} R, f (x) =

1

x

Worked exaMple 15

State i the domain, ii the co-domain and iii the range for each of the following functions.

1

a f : R R, f (x) = 5 x

b g : R+ R, g(x) =

x

think

Write/draW

2

the function, or sketch it.

a i dom f = R

ii The co-domain is R.

y

5

2

the function, or sketch it.

iii ran f = R

b i dom g = R+

ii The co-domain is R.

y

1

0

4

x

f(x)

g(x)

x

iii ran g = R+

Worked exaMple 16

State i the maximal domain and ii the range for the function defined by the rule:

1

.

a y = x+1 b y =

x+2

think

Write/draW

tUtorial

eles-1463

Worked example 16

a Require x + 1 0

are positive).

So x 1

the range, use a CAS calculator or other

technology to obtain the graph of the function,

or sketch it by plotting selected points.

y

y= x+1

1

(1, 0)

0

to be [0, ).

ii Range = [0, )

185

2

Therefore x 2.

x 2

the function, or sketch it by plotting selected

points to confirm the maximal domain and see

the range.

y

1

y =

x+2

1

2 1 0

ii Range = R \ {0}

R \ {0}.

exercise 4F

Function notation

1 We13

a If f (x) = 3x + 1, find:

diGital doCS

doc-9742

SkillSHEET 4.2

Substitution

doc-9743

SkillSHEET 4.3

transposition of

equations

bx+20

b If g(x) =

x + 4 , find:

1

c If g(x) = 4 , find:

x

d If f (x) = (x + 3)2, find:

24

e If h (x) =

, find:

x

i f (0),

ii f (2),

iv f (5).

i g(0),

ii g(3),

iv g(4),

i g(1),

ii g 1 ,

iii g

i f (0),

ii f (2),

iii f (1) a nd

iv f (a).

i h (2),

ii h (4),

iv h (12).

1

,

2

1

,

5

and

iv g

2 Find the value (or values) of x for which each function has the value given.

a f (x) = 3x 4, f (x) = 5

b g(x) = x2 2, g(x) = 7

1

, f (x) = 3

x

e g(x) = x2 + 3x, g(x) = 4

c f (x) =

10

3 Given that f ( x ) =

x , find:

x

a f (2)

d f (x2)

d h (x) = x2 5x + 6, h (x) = 0

f

f (x) =

b f (5)

e f (x + 3)

8 x , f (x) = 3

c f (2x)

f f (x 1)

4 We14 Express the following functions in function notation with maximal domain.

b y=

x6

2

d y=

x +1

f y = x2 + 3x, where x 2

h y = x2 + x

a {(x, y): y = 4x + 1}

1

x 1

e y = (x + 2)2, where x R+

g y = 8 x, where x 0

c y=

i the doma

in

ii the co-domain

iii the range.

diGital doC

doc-9744

Square root graphs

a f : {0, 1, 2, 3} Z, f (x) = 3x 7

c f : {2, 4, 6, 8, 10} N, f (x) =

x

2

e g: R+ R, g(x) = x2 2

d f : ( , 0) R, f (x) =

f

186

3

x

1

x

h: [3, 3] R, h(x) = 9 x 2

a f (x) = 3 x

b f (x) = 5 x

c y = x3 + 2

d y = 5 3x2

e y=

x4

y=

1

x3

hybrid functions)

4G

one-to-one functions

As we have already seen, one-to-one relations and many-to-one relations are functions. A one-to-one

function has, at most, one y-value for any x-value and vice versa. The graph of a relation is a function if

any vertical line crosses the curve at most once. Similarly, a one-to-one function exists if any horizontal

line crosses the curve at most once. For example:

y

vertical line test but not the horizontal line test.

eleSSon

eles-0077

hybrid functions

vertical line test and the horizontal line test.

Worked exaMple 17

a {(0, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 1)}

b {(2, 3), (3, 5), (4, 7)}

c f (x) = 3x

think

1

Write/draW

a When x = 0 and x = 3, y = 1.

y-value for any x-vaue and vice versa.

b There is only one x-value for each y-value.

both a vertical line and a horizontal line crosses

only once.

f(x)

3

0

It is a one-to-one function.

3

Worked exaMple 18

a

think

line crosses the graph only once.

Write

187

restriction of functions

Restrictions can be placed on a function through its domain. If we have one relation, for example

f (x) = x2, we can create several different functions by defining different domains. For example:

y

f : R R, f (x) = x2

f(x)

h(x)

g(x)

1 0

1x

g: [1, 1] R, g(x) = x2

h: R+ R, h(x) = x2

The restriction imposed on the function f to produce the function h has created a one-to-one function.

Worked exaMple 19

For each function graphed below state two restricted, maximal (largest possible) domains that

make the function one-to-one.

y

y = (x 2)2

y

1

y=

2

think

Write/draW

x = 2.

0

2

is (, 2] or [2, ).

b

is (, 0) or (0, ).

hybrid functions

A hybrid, mixed, or piecewise defined function is a function that has different rules

for different subsets of the domain. For example:

x + 1, for x 0

f (x) = 2

is a hybrid function that obeys the rules y = x + 1 if

x , for x > 0

x (, 0] and y = x2 if x (0, ). The graph of f (x) is shown at right. Note

that the domains do not overlap.

188

f(x)

1

1 0

Worked exaMple 20

x,

5 x,

x<0

0x<2

tUtorial

eles-1464

Worked example 20

x2

think

Write/draW

a If x = 1, y = x

= 1

domain (, 0).

If x = 0, y = x

=0

y = x + 1 for the domain [0, 2).

If x = 0, y = x + 1

=1

If x = 2, y = x + 1

=3

for the domain [2, ).

If x = 2, y = 5 x

=3

If x = 5, y = 5 x

=0

y

3

y=x+1

2

1

f(x)

y=5x

0 1 2 3 4 5 x

y = x11

b ran f = (, 3]

hybrid functions)

exercise 4G

1 We17 Which of the following functions are one-to-one? Use a CAS calculator or other technology to

c {(x, y): y = x2 + 1, x [0, )}

e {(x, y): y = 3 2x2}

d {(x, y): y = 3 4x}

f f (x) = x3 1

g y = x2, x 0

h g(x) = 1 x 2

i which of them are functions

ii which of them are one-to-one functions.

a

b

y

y

189

0

x

We19 For each function below, state two restricted, maximal domains that make the function

one-to-one.

1 0

d

g f (x) = 1 x2

3 x

3

e

y

3 0

(3, 4)

y

0

(1, 4)

(2, 2)

0 (1, 0)

4 x 2 , x [2, 2]

j f (x) = (x + 3)2

h g(x) =

1

, x R \ {0}

x2

4 MC Use the graph of the relation y2 = x 1, shown below, to answer the following questions.

a A one-to-one function can be formed by:

y

a restricting the domain to R+

b restricting the domain to [1, )

C restricting the domain to (1, )

x

0 1

d restricting the range to [0, )

e restricting the range to R \ {0}

i

g(x) =

b A rule that describes a one-to-one function derived from the relation y2 = x 1 is:

a y2 = x 1

b y=

x 1

x 1

C y=

d y=

e

190

x 1

y = x 1

x, x < 1

f (x) =

x , x 1

a

b

y

y

1

1

0 1

0

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

b R \ {1}

e R+

a R

d [0, )

C (1, )

6 We20

a Sketch the graph of the following function.

1

x<0

,

f (x) = x

x + 1, x 0

b State the range of f.

2

x + 1,

2 x ,

b State the range of g.

c Find:

i g(1)

ii g(0)

iii g(1).

x0

x<0

x 2, x < 2

x + 2, x > 2

b State the range of z.

c Find:

i f (3)

ii f (2)

iii f (1)

iv f (2)

v f (5).

y

3

2

1

9 Specify the rule for the function represented by the graph at right.

2 1 0

1

2

10 The graph of the relation {(x, y): x2 + y2 = 1, x 0} is shown at right.

From this relation, form two one-to-one functions and state the range of each.

f(x)

y

1

0

1

11 a Sketch the graph of the function f : R z, f (x) = (x 3)2.

b By restricting the domain of f, form two one-to-one functions that have the same rule as f (use the

12 a Sketch the graph of the function g : R R, g(x) = x2 + 2x + 1.

b By restricting the domain of g, form two one-to-one functions that have the same rule as g

diGital doC

doc-9745

WorkSHEET 4.2

191

4h

A relation is a set of ordered pairs that can be graphed or described by a rule. The inverse of a

set of ordered pairs is obtained simply by interchanging the x and y elements. So, the inverse of

{(1, 5), (2, 6), (3, 7)} is {(5, 1), (6, 2), (7, 3)}. If these points are plotted on a set of axes, it can

be seen that when each original point is reflected across the line y = x, the inverse points are

obtained.

Similarly, if the graph of a function is given, then its inverse function can be sketched by reflecting the

original function across the line y = x.

Only functions that are one-to-one have inverses.

Worked exaMple 21

Sketch the graph of the following and then sketch the inverse.

a {(3, 6), (4, 4), (5, 2), (6, 0)}

b y

c y = x2 for x 0

x

think

2

Alternatively, reflect the original points across

the line y = x.

So, (3, 6) (6, 3)

(4, 4) (4, 4)

(5, 2) (2, 5)

(6, 0) (0, 6)

2

the line y = x.

Write/draW

y

y=x

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

654321

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 x

2

3

4

5

6

b y

y=x

x

c Sketch the original function. The graph is a

c y

restricted.

y = x2

y=x

1

0

192

exercise 4h

1 We21a Sketch the graph of the following and then sketch the inverse.

a (1, 7), (2, 5), (3, 3)}

b (1, 3), (2, 6), (3, 9)}

c (2, 11), (0, 6), (2, 1)}

2 We21b Sketch the graph of the following and then sketch the inverse. (Assume each set of axes has

a

x

c

x

x

y

x

x

3 We21c Sketch the graph of the following and then sketch the inverse.

a y = 4x

4i

b y = x2 + 3, x 0

c y = 2x + 1

d y = x3 + 4

Circles

y

r

The rule that defines a circle with its centre at (0, 0) and of radius r is

r

x2 + y2 = r 2

The graph of this circle is shown at right.

The vertical-line test clearly verifies that the circle graph is not a function.

Solving the equation for y we have y2 = r 2 x2, so y = r 2 x 2 or y = r 2 x 2 .

These two relations represent two semicircles that together make a complete circle:

y = r 2 x 2 is the upper semicircle (above the x-axis).

r x

r

diGital doC

doc-9746

Investigation

a special relation

y

r

r

y

y = r 2 x2

r x

r y = r 2 x 2

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

193

Worked exaMple 22

a x2 + y2 = 16

b x2 + y2 = 9, 0 x 3

c y=

8 x2

think

draW

2

4

4

4 x

0

4

2

and 3 and x-intercept 3.

and radius = 8.

y-intercepts of 8 .

3 x

y

3

9 = 3.

8 and 8 and

8

is (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r 2.

The domain is [h r, h + r].

The range is [k r, k + r].

k+r

Range

8x

(x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2

(h, k)

kr

0 hr

h

Domain

Worked exaMple 23

Sketch the graphs of the following circles. State the domain and range of each.

a x2 + (y 3)2 = 1

b (x + 3)2 + (y + 2)2 = 9

think

2

194

points; 1 unit (the radius) left and right of the

centre, and 1 unit (the radius) above and below

the centre.

Write/draW

y

4

x 2 + (y 3)2 = 1

3

2

1 0

four points.

h+r x

2

y

1

(3, 1)

points; 3 units left and right of the centre, and

3 units above and below the centre.

6 5 4 3 2 1 0

1

(6, 2)

four points.

(0, 2)

(3, 2)

1 x

3

4

5

(3, 5)

4

Note: When using a CAS calculator to plot circle graphs, ensure that the upper and lower values are

entered as separate equations on the Graphs & Geometry page; for example,

f1(x) = 16 x 2 and f2(x) = 16 x 2 .

exercise 4i

Circles

y

y

a

b

3

1

3

1 0

1

3x

0

3

y

10

10

5

5

10 x

10

2 2

2 2

6 x

5 x

0

5

diGital doC

doc-9747

Circle graphs

2 2x

2 2

6

h

3

3

y

4

3x

4 x

3 We22 Sketch the graphs of the following relations.

a x2 + y2 = 4

b x2 + y2 = 16

d x2 + y2 = 7

c x2 + y2 = 49

e x2 + y2 = 12

x2 + y2 =

1

4

4 Sketch the graph of each of the following relations and state whether it is a function or not.

a y = 81 x 2

b y=

4 x2

c y = 1 x2

d y=

1

9

e y=

1

4

x2

g y = 10 x 2

x2

y = 5 x2

h x2 + y2 = 3,

3x0

195

y

2

0

4 x

2

a The equation of the circle is:

a x2 + (y 2)2 = 4

C (x + 2)2 + y2 = 16

e (x + 2)2 + y2 = 4

a R

d [2, 4]

b (x 2)2 + y2 = 16

d (x 2)2 + y2 = 4

b [2, 2]

e [2, 1]

a The graph that represents this relation is:

y

y

b

a

4

2

1

1

0

2 3 4

0 x

3

6

2

d

y

1

2

C [0, 4]

2

1

x

4 3 2

y

2

x

1

0

3.532.5

b The domain of the relation is:

a [3.5, 2.5]

d [2, 4]

b (4, 2)

e [4, 2]

C R

7 We23 Sketch the graph of the following circles. State the domain and range of each.

a x2 + (y + 2)2 = 1

b x2 + (y 2)2 = 4

c (x 4)2 + y2 = 9

d (x 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 16

e (x + 3)2 + (y + 2)2 = 25

f (x 3)2 + (y 2)2 = 9

2

2

9

3

1

g (x + 5) + (y 4) = 36

h (x )2 + (y + )2 =

2

and range of each.

9 Express the relation x2 + (y 2)2 = 9 as

domain and range of each.

10 Circular ripples are formed when a

If one ripple is represented by the

equation x2 + y2 = 4 and then 3 seconds

later by x2 + y2 = 190, where the length

of measurements are in centimetres:

a find the radius (in cm) of the ripple

in each case

b calculate how fast the ripple is

moving outwards.

(State your answers to 1 decimal

place.)

196

4J

When using functions to model rules in real-life situations the domain usually has practical restrictions

imposed on it. For example, the area of a circle is determined by the function A(r) = 2.

For a circle to be drawn the radius needs to be a positive number. Hence the domain is (0, ) or R+.

Worked exaMple 24

a Express the cost as a hybrid function.

b Sketch the graph of the function.

Hours of hire (h)

Cost ($C)

Up to 3

200

Over 3 up to 5

300

Over 5 up to 8

450

think

Write/draW

2

tUtorial

eles-1465

Worked example 24

200,

C (h) = 300,

450,

0 <h 3

3 <h 5

5 <h 8

b C ($)

450

400

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 h (hours)

exercise 4J

1 We24 The cost of hiring a paper recycling removalist is described in the following table:

Hours of hire

Cost

Up to 1

$40

Over 1 up to 2

$70

Over 2 up to 4

$110

Over 4 up to 6

$160

a State the cost function, $C, in terms of the time, t hours, for hiring up to 6 hours.

b Sketch the graph of the function.

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

197

2 The charge for making a 10-minute STD call on the weekend is listed below.

Distance d (km)

Cost $C

Up to

50 km

0.40

50 to

100 km

0.60

100 to

200 km

0.80

200 to

700 km

1.70

Over

700 km

2.00

b Sketch the graph of the function.

1

2

3 A car travels at a constant speed of 60 km/h for 1 hours, stops for half an hour, then travels for another

a Construct a function that describes the distance travelled by the car, d (km), at time, t hours.

b State the domain and range of this function.

c Calculate the distance travelled after:

i 1 hour

ii 3 hours.

4 At a fun park, a motorised toy boat operates for 5 minutes for every dollar coin placed in a meter. The

meter will accept a maximum of 120 one-dollar coins.

a Write a rule that gives the time of boat operation, B hours, in terms of the number of dollar coins, n.

b Sketch the graph of the function and state the domain and range.

c How much is in the meter when the boat has operated for 450 minutes?

5 The tax for Australian residents who earn a taxable income between $37 000 and $80 000 is $4650 plus

30 cents for every dollar earned over $37 000.

a Write a rule for the tax payable, $T, for a taxable income, $x, where 37 001 x 80 000.

b Sketch a graph of this function.

c Calculate the tax paid on an income of $42 000.

6 The maximum side length of the rectangle shown is 10 metres.

(x + 4) m

(x 1) m

a Write a function that gives the perimeter, P metres, of the rectangle.

b State the domain and range of this function.

7 A rectangular swimming pool is to have a length 4 metres greater than its width.

a Write a rule for the area of the pool, A m2, as a function of the width, x metres.

b State the domain and range if the maximum side length is 12 metres.

8 Timber increases in value (appreciates) by 2% each year. If a consignment of timber is currently

a express the value of the timber, P dollars, as a function of time, t, where t is the number of years

from now.

b what will be the value of the timber in 10 years?

198

9 The number of koalas remaining in a parkland tweeks after a virus strikes is given by the function

96

koalas per hectare.

t+3

How many koalas per hectare were there before the virus struck?

How many koalas per hectare are there 13 weeks after the virus struck?

How long after the virus strikes are there 23 koalas per hectare?

Will the virus kill off all the koalas? Explain why.

N (t ) = 15 +

a

b

c

d

10 A school concert usually attracts 600 people at a cost of $10 per person. On average, for every $1 rise

in admission price, 50 less people attend the concert. If T is the total amount of takings and n is the

number of $1 increases:

a write the rule for the function that gives T in terms of n

b sketch the graph of T versus n

c find the admission price that will give the maximum takings.

199

Summary

Set notation

{. . .} refers to a set.

means is an element of.

means is not an element of.

means is a subset of.

means is not a subset (or is not contained in).

means intersection with.

means union with.

\ means excluding.

refers to the null, or empty set.

{(a, b), (c, d), . . .} is a set of ordered pairs.

A relation is a set of ordered pairs.

N refers to the set of natural numbers.

Z refers to the set of integers.

Q refers to the set of rational numbers.

R refers to the set of real numbers.

The dependent variable (domain) is shown on the vertical axis of a graph.

Discrete variables are things that can be counted.

Continuous variables are things that can be measured.

The domain of a relation is the set of first elements of a set of ordered pairs.

The range of a relation is the set of second elements of a set of ordered pairs.

The implied domain of a relation is the set of first element values for which a rule has meaning.

In interval notation a square bracket means that the end point is included in a set of values, whereas

a curved bracket means that the end point is not included.

(a, b]

a

types of relations

(including functions)

A function is a relation that does not repeat the first element in any of its ordered pairs. That is, for

any x-value there is only one y-value.

The graph of a function cannot be crossed more than once by any vertical line.

y

0

x

Function

power functions

(hyperbola, truncus

and square root

function)

200

Not a function

a

+ c is the graph of the basic hyperbola, dilated by the factor of a in the

The graph of y =

xb

y-direction, translated b units horizontally (to the right if b > 0 or to the left if b < 0) and c units

vertically (up if c > 0 or down if c < 0). If a < 0, the graph is reflected in the x-axis. The

equations of the asymptotes are: x = b and y = c. The domain of the function is R \ {b} and its

range is R \ {c}.

x

a

The graph of y =

+ c is the basic truncus curve, dilated by a factor of a in the y-direction

( x b) 2

and translated b units along the x-axis (to the right if b > 0 or to the left if b < 0) and c units

along the y-axis (up if c > 0 or down if c < 0). If a is negative, the graph is reflected in the

x-axis. The vertical asymptote is x = b. The horizontal asymptote is y = c. The domain is R \ {b}.

The range is y > c if a > 0, or y < c if a < 0.

3. The graph of the function y = a x b + c is the graph of y = x , dilated by the factor of a in the

y-direction and translated b units along the x-axis and c units along the y-axis.

If a < 0, the basic graph is reflected in the x-axis.

The end point of the graph is (b, c).

The domain is x b.

The range is y c for a > 0, or y c for a < 0.

If y = a b x + c, the domain is x b; the graph of y = a x is reflected in the y-axis.

Function notation

f (x) = . . . is used to describe a function of x. To evaluate the function, for example, when x = 2,

find f (2) by replacing each occurrence of x on the RHS with 2.

Functions are completely described if the domain and the rule are given.

Functions are commonly expressed using the notation

f : X Y, f (x) = . . . . . .

Domain

Co-domain

Rule

ran f is an abbreviation for the range of f ( x).

The maximal domain of a function is the largest domain for which the function will remain

defined.

Special types of

function (including

hybrid functions)

A function is one-to-one if for each x-value there is at most one y-value and vice versa.

A one-to-many function may be converted to a one-to-one function by restricting the domain.

A hybrid function obeys different rules for different subsets of the domain.

functions

An inverse relation is obtained by interchanging the x- and y-values of the original relation.

The graph of a function and its inverse are reflections of each other across the line y = x.

Only one-to-one functions have inverses.

Circles

(x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2

An upper semicircle with centre (0, 0) and radius r is y = r 2 x 2 .

A lower semicircle with centre (0, 0) and radius r is y = r 2 x 2 .

Functions and

modelling

1. form an equation involving one variable and sketch a graph

2. use the graph to determine domain and range.

201

Chapter review

S h ort

anS Wer

1 The total number of cars that have entered a car park during the first 5 hours after opening is shown in

Time, t (hours)

No. of cars, n

30

75

180

330

500

b Explain why the dots cannot be joined.

1

c Estimate the number of cars in the park 2 hours after the car park opens.

2

2 a Sketch the graph of the relation {(x, y): y = 1 x2, x [3, 3]}.

b State the domain and range of this relation.

3 State the implied domains of the following functions.

b y=

a y= x

5

x

c y = 12 x

a g ( x2)

b the domain and range of g ( x).

5 Determine which of the following relations are functions.

a y = 2x2 1

b 3x + y = 2

d x2 + y2 = 10

e y3 = x

c x = y2 + 1

f y2 x2 = 1

1

b y = (2 x )

x

7 Sketch the graph of the function described below.

x 1

2 x ,

f ( x ) = 3,

1< x < 3

2 x 5,

x

3

8 Sketch the graph of each of the following, stating the domain and range.

a y=

a y=

1 x2

b (x 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 9

b From this relation form two one-to-one functions (with maximal domains) and state the domain

10 A chicken farmer delivers chicken manure according to the following fee schedule:

Half to a full truckload: $75

More than 1 but less than 2 truckloads: $100

Sketch a graph showing this informations.

2

11 Sketch a graph for the equation y =

+ 1.

x+3

12 State the dilation factor, reflections and translations that have occurred to each of the following

equations.

3

5

+7

a f (x) = 2 x 4

b f (x) =

c f (x) =

+

2

x2

x2

M U lt ip l e

C h oiCe

a {2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6}

C {1, 1, 3, 4, 6}

e

b {2, 0, 2}

d {1, 1, 3}

a ZQ

d {0, 1, 2, 3} N

202

b 3.142 Q

e (N Z) = Z

C R

y

8

a y = 2x

b y = 2x, x {1, 2, 3, 4}

C y = 2x, x N

x

2

e y = 2x, x R+

d y=

2

0

y

a y

b

0

y

0

5 The interval shown below is:

5

1 0 1

a [5, 1] [0, 4]

d (5, 1) (1, 4)

4 x

b [5, 1) [0, 4]

e [5, 1) (1, 4]

C (5, 1) (1, 4]

a

a

b

C

d

e

R \ {0, 1}

R \ {1}

R

Z \ {1}

R+ R

y

4

2

0 1

8 A relation has the rule y = x + 3, where x R+. The range of this relation is:

a R+

d R

b R+ \ {3}

e (3, )

a (5, )

d (0, 5)

b R+

e R

a R

d [0, )

b R+

e (2, )

C [3, )

1

is:

x5

C [5, )

C R

203

one-to-one

one-to-many

many-to-many

many-to-one

none of the above

12 Which of the following is not a relation?

a y = x2

b x2 + y2 = 3

e {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}

d y=5x

a

b

C

d

e

y

y

a

b

x

0

d

x

b y = 2 7x

C x=5

d y = 10x2 + 3

5

15 Which of the functions listed below is not one-to-one?

a {(10, 10), (11, 12), (12, 13)}

b {(5, 8), (6, 10), (7, 8), (8, 9)}

d {(x, y): y = 5 2x}

e f (x) = 2 x3

16 Which of the graphs below represents a one-to-one function?

a y=

e y = 8

C {(x, y): y = 4x}

x

0

17 The function with the domain 5 x 5, range 8 y 17 and rule y = x2 8 can be written in

a f : R R where y = x2 8

C f : [5, 5] R where f (x) = x2 8

e f : [8, 17] R where f (x) = x2 8

b f : R R where f (x) = x2 8

d f : R [8, 17] where f (x) = x2 8

a {(0, 4), (1, 3), (2, 2)}

d {(1, 5), (1, 3), (2, 2)}

b {0, 1, 2}

e {4, 3, 2}

a 6

d 12

204

b 8

e 5

C 0

a 6x 8

b 6x 5

C 3x 5

d 3x 4

e 6x 2

a [3, 1)

b (1, 3)

C (0, )

d (3, )

e (3, )

3 1 0

x + 1, x < 0

0 x 2 is represented by which of

22 The hybrid function f ( x ) = x 2 ,

2 x , x > 2

the following graphs?

y

4

1

10 1 2

d

y

4

x

e

y

4

1

10

y

4

y

4

1

1 0

1 0

y

x

d

x

e

205

y

a

b

1

1 0

1

1 0

1

5 x

4 x

2

3

2

3

4

y

4

3

2

1

x

0

321

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2

3

4

5

y

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

x

7 654321

1 1 2 3

2

3

4

y

4

3

2

1

5 4 3 2 1 0

1

1 x

2

25 The equation of the circle shown is:

y

2

0 1

2

a (x + 3)2 + y2 = 4

C (x + 3)2 + y2 = 2

e x2 + (y 3)2 = 4

5 x

b (x 3)2 + y2 = 2

d (x 3)2 + y2 = 4

The circle with equation (x + 1)2 + (y 4)2 = 9 applies to questions 26 and 27.

26 The domain is:

a [10, 8]

C (2, 4)

e [4, 2]

27 The range is

a [7, 1]

C [1, 7]

e [1, 7]

206

b [2, 4]

d [3, 3]

b [5, 13]

d [3, 3]

28 A circle has its centre at (4, 2) and a radius of 5. The equation of the circle is:

a

b

C

d

e

(x 4)2 + (y + 2)2 = 25

(x 4)2 + (y + 2)2 = 5

(x + 4)2 + (y 2)2 = 5

(x + 4)2 + (y 2)2 = 25

4x2 2y2 = 5

29 The graph that best represents the function f : [2, 2] R where f (x) = 4 x 2 is:

a

b

C

y

y

y

2

2

2

2 x

2 x

0

2

y

4

2

d

2 x

4 x

4 x

0

4

Hours (h)

Charge (C$)

0<h2

50

2<h4

80

4<h6

100

Which of the following graphs best shows the information in the preceding table?

a

c

100

50

0

d

50

2

6 h

c

100

50

6 h

6 h

6 h

c

e

100

c

100

50

50

0

c

100

6 h

a Find an expression for the area, A, in terms of x and y.

b Find an expression for the perimeter, P.

c If the perimeter is 72 cm, express A as a function of x.

d What is the domain of A(x)?

e Sketch the graph of this function.

f Hence find the maximum area.

ex ten d ed

r eS p o n S e

10 m

xm

ym

xm

207

a state the domain

b state the range

c find the rule for x (, 2)

d find the rule for x (2, 0]

e find the rule for x [0, 3], given it is of the form y = ax2

f determine the rule when x 3

g describe the relation using hybrid function notation

2

of the form f ( x ) = .

.

.

a Find f (2), f (1), f (0), f (1), f (3).

b If f (a) = 12, find the value of a.

c Sketch the function f, labelling the graph appropriately.

d From the graph or otherwise, state the:

i domain of f (x)

ii range of f (x).

4 A new rectangular penguin enclosure is

to have a maximum side length of 8 m.

The width is to be twice the length (x).

a Draw a diagram of the enclosure and

label the sides.

b Define a rule that gives the perimeter,

P, of the new enclosure.

c What is the largest value that x can be?

d State the domain and range.

e Write in function notation the rule for

the perimeter.

f Define the function for the area of the

enclosure, A(x).

g If the maximum area allowed is 18 m2,

find the dimensions of the enclosure.

y

18

(3, 18)

4

0

4 x

5 Thomas is looking to connect to a mobile phone service. He has to decide on one of two plans from

diGital doC

doc-9748

Test Yourself

Chapter 4

208

Plan

Flag fall

20

30

50

20

b Write a function B for the cost of making a call from plan B.

c What is the cost of a 2-minute call from:

i plan A?

ii plan B?

d What is the length of one call costing $5 from:

i plan A?

ii plan B?

e How long would a call be for the call costs to be the same for both plans?

f If Thomas frequently makes calls lasting more than 4 minutes, which plan should he connect with?

ICT activities

Chapter opener

diGital doC

10 Quick Questions doc-9738: Warm up with ten quick questions on

relations, functions and transformations (page 161)

4C

tUtorial

We 7 eles-1461: Watch how to sketch relations and state their

domain and range using interval notation (page 169)

diGital doCS

SkillSHEET 4.1 doc-9739: Practise stating the domain and range of

relations (page 171)

WorkSHEET 4.1 doc-9740: Use set notation and interval notation,

recognise appropriate specific number fields, recognise whether

graphs are discrete or continuous and state the domain and range

of relations (page 172)

Investigation doc-9741: Investigate some interesting relations using

a graphing program to sketch them (page 172)

4d

tUtorial

We 8 eles-1462: Watch a tutorial on identifying the type of relation

given a graph (page 173)

square root function)

interaCtiVitY

Domain and range int-0263: Consolidate your understanding of

domain and range for relations and functions (page 175)

4F

Function notation

diGital doCS

SkillSHEET 4.2 doc-9742: Practise substituting values into functions

(page 186)

SkillSHEET 4.3 doc-9743: Practise transposing equations (page 186)

doc-9744: Investigate the graph of a square root function (page 186)

tUtorial

We 16 eles-1463: Watch a tutorial on stating maximal domain

and range for functions with defined rules (page 185)

hybrid functions)

eleSSon

Hybrid functions eles-0077: Watch an eLesson to learn more about

hybrid functions (page 187)

tUtorial

We 20 eles-1464: Watch a tutorial on sketching the graph of a

hybrid function and stating its range (page 189)

diGital doC

WorkSHEET 4.2 doc-9745: Recognise types of relations and functions,

determine maximal domain and range, identify co-domains and

sketch graphs of relations (page 191)

4i

Circles

diGital doCS

Investigation doc-9746: Investigate the graph of x2 + y2 = 25 by

constructing a table of values and plotting the graph (page 193)

doc-9747: Investigate graphs of circle relations (page 195)

4J

tUtorial

We 24 eles-1465: Watch a tutorial on expressing the hire costs of

a removal van as a hybrid function and sketching the graph of the

function (page 197)

Chapter review

diGital doC

Test Yourself doc-9748: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your

progress (page 208)

209

Answers CHAPTER 4

relationS, FUnCtionS and

tranSForMationS

y

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

1 0

2

exercise 4a

1 a

b

c

d

e

f

g

2 a

b

c

d

e

3 a

b

c

d

e

4 E

5 a

6 a

e

i

Set notation

{4, 6}

{6]

{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14}

{4, 5, 6, 7, 8}

{2, 8, 10, 12, 14}

{4, 5}

{2, 3}

{3, 2, 1}

{2, 1}

{3, 2, 1, 0, 1}

{3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4}

{b, c, d, f, g, h}

{a, e, i}

{b, c, d, f, g, h}

{o, u}

C

T

F

T

b

b

f

j

exercise 4b

1

2

3

4

5

cT

gT

kF

bC

f C

cC

2

2 1 0

x

200

190

180

170

160

150

140

130

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

d F

h T

l T

0 2 4 6 8

t (minutes)

Cost ()

M TWT F S S

Day

exercise 4C

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

y

9

1 a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

2 a

2 1 0

1

y=x2

2

0 2

b

9

c

0 2

0

e

01

10

f

0 2

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 n

g

2 0 1 3

h

8

0 2

i

01

j

1 0

1 2 3 4 5 t (s)

ii Approx. 320 km/h

)

(, 5)

(3, 4]

(8, 9)

(, 1]

(1, )

(5, 2] [3, )

(3, 1) (2, 4]

350

300

250

200

150

100

50

9 a V (km/h)

b P ($)

[2,

550

500

450

400

350

300

250

200

0 5 10 15 20 25 n

b T (C)

d D

C($)

140

146

152

158

164

170

176

182

188

194

200

b C ($)

7 a T (C)

8 a

1

0

210

d Approx. 11 minutes

0 2 4 6 8 10 t (minutes)

60

70

6 a

n

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

y

6

B

A

E

C

a D

e D

B

F

T

F

10 a

k

0 2

l

2 0 1

3 a [4, 2)

b (3, 1]

c ( 1, 3)

1 1

,

2 2

( , 3]

[0, )

(, 2) (2, )

(, 2] [0, )

E

B

e (3, )

f

g (, )

h

i (, 1) (1, )

j

k (, 2) (3, )

l

4 a D

b

5C

6

7 a i {3, 4, 5, 6, 7}

ii {8, 10, 12, 14, 16}

b i {1.1, 1.3, 1.5, 1.7}

ii {1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2}

c i {3, 4, 5, 6}

ii {110, 130, 150, 170}

d i {M, T, W, Th, F}

ii {25, 30, 35}

e i {3, 4, 5}

ii {13, 18, 23}

f i R

ii [1, )

8 a R, R

b R, (0, )

c [2, 2], [0, 2]

d [1, ), R

e R, (0, 4]

f R, (, 3]

g R\{0}, R\{0}

h R, (, 1]

i R, R

y

9 a

2

0

y = x3 + 1

x [2, 2]

1

0

c

y

y = x2 + 3x + 2

2 1 0

Domain = (, ), range = [ 14 , )

y

2 1 0

3

2 1 0

y=

x2

1 0

1 2 3 4

y=5

c [4, 4]

fR

b [0, )

e R\{0}

10 a R

d R

(including functions)

1 a One-to-many

b Many-to-one

c Many-to-one

d One-to-one

e One-to-one

f Many-to-one

g Many-to-many

h Many-to-one

i One-to-one

j Many-to-one

k Many-to-many

l Many-to-one

2 b, c, d, e, f, h, i, j, l

3C

4 a B

b D

c B

5 b {3, 1, 0, 1, 2}, {2, 1, 1, 3}

c {3, 4, 5, 6}, {1}

e R, {2}

g R, R

j [1, ), [0, )

k R, R

a, d, f, h, i and l are not functions.

truncus and square root function)

1 a Dilation factor of 3 away from the

x-axis, horizontal translation of 5 units

in the positive direction of the x-axis and

a vertical translation of 1 unit up.

b Dilation factor of 2 away from the x-axis

and a vertical translation of 1 unit up.

c Reflection in the y-axis, horizontal

translation of 4 units in the positive

direction of the x-axis and a vertical

translation of 2 units down.

d Dilation factor of 2 away from the x-axis

and a horizontal translation of 4 units in

the negative direction of the x-axis.

e Horizontal translation of 3 units in the

positive direction of the x-axis.

f Reflection in the x-axis, dilation factor

of 4 away from the x-axis and a vertical

translation of 5 units down.

2 a

y=1

x

1 2

Asymptote

x =0

x=1

exercise 4F

1 a

b

c

d

e

2 a

c

2 1

1

1 2 3

(3, 1)

i

i

i

i

i

1

2

3

9

12

Function notation

ii 7

iv

iii 5

ii 1

iii 3

iv

ii 2

iii 6

iv

ii 1

iii 16

iv

ii 6

iv

iii 4

16

0

9

a2 + 6a + 9

2

b 3 or 3

d 2 or 3

3

1

3

e 4 or 1

3 a 3

c

e

4 a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

5 a

31

1

3 y=

+3

( x 2)

y=2

1 2

3

5

x=1

2 1

(1, 4)

(1, 4)

5

7

4, x [2, 1]

y = 2x 5, x [1, 4)

4

y

3

e

y = 2x2 x 6

exercise 4e

Domain = (, ), range = (, 2]

y

9

6 a

b

c

f 1

b 3

10

5

d 2 x2

2x

x

x

10

10

x +1

f

x3

x 1

x+3

f : R R, f ( x) = 4x + 1

f : [ 6, ) R, f ( x) = x 6

1

f : R\{1} R, f ( x) =

x 1

2

f : ( 1, ) R, f ( x) =

x +1

f : ( 0, ) R, f ( x) = (x + 2)2

f : [ 2, ) R, f ( x) = x2 + 3x

f : ( , 0] R, f ( x) = 8 x

f : [ 0, ) R, f ( x) = x2 + x

i {0, 1, 2, 3}

ii Z

iii {7, 4, 1, 2}

i (0, 10]

ii R

3

iii [ 10 , )

i {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}

iii {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}

i (, 0)

iii (0, )

i R+

iii (2, )

i [3, 3]

iii [0, 3]

i R

i [0, )

i R

ii N

ii R

ii R

ii R

ii R

ii [0, )

ii R

211

d i R

e i [4, )

f i (3, )

(, 5]

[0, )

(0, )

ii

ii

ii

(including hybrid functions)

1 a, c, d, f, g

2 i a, b, c, d, f, h, i, j, k, l

ii c, h, i, k

3 a (, 1], [1, )

b (, 2), (2, )

c [3, 0], [0, 3]

d (, 3], [3, )

e [4, 2), (2, 0]

f (, 1], [1, 1] or [1, )

g (, 0], [0, )

h [2, 0], [0, 2]

i (, 0), (0, )

j (, 3], [3, )

4 a D

b E

5 a B

b C

6 a

y

2

1

f(x)

b (, 0) [1, )

7 a

y

3

2

1

1

1 0

b g : ( , 1] R, g ( x) = x2+ 2x + 1 or

g : [ 1, ) R, g ( x) = x2+ 2x + 1

functions

1 a {(7, 1), (5, 2), (3, 3)}

y

d y

y=x

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

x

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x

y=x

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

g(x)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 x

2 1 0

b [1, )

c i 3

ii 1

y

8 a

iii 2

y=x

10

8

6

4

2

1 2 3 x

3 2 1 0

5

4

3

2

1

4

5

4 6 8 10

3 a

(,

b

0] (4, )

c i 5

ii 0

iii 3

2 a y

iv 0

x + 2, x 0

9 f (x) =

2 x + 1, x > 0

10 f : [0, 1] R, f ( x) = 1 x 2

with range [0, 1] or

f : [0 , 1] R, f ( x) = 1 x 2

with range [1, 0].

11 a

c

g(x)

x

01 2

2 1

12 a

y=x

v 7

x

b y

f(x)

y = 4x

y = x2 + 3

y=x

b f : (, 3] R, f ( x) = (x 3)2 or

f : [3, ) R, f ( x) = (x 3)2

212

c y

y = 1_2 x + 1

12

0

12

1

2

1

2

Not a function

4 a

y

9

y = x3 + 4

9

exercise 4i

b

d

f

g y = 9 x2

2 a Both [3, 3]

c Both [5, 5]

h

b

d

f

x2 + y2 = 1

x2 + y2 = 100

x2 + y2 = 8

6, 6]

1

3

d

Function

12

1

2

6 x

e

Function

f

y

3

2 1 0

12

0

7 x

3

0

13

y

7

0 1

1

3

y

4

Function

y

4

Function

c

y = 16 x 2

Both [1, 1]

Both [10, 10]

Both [ 2 2, 2 2]

h [4, 4], [4, 0]

3 a

y

1 1 0 1

Circles

1 a x2 + y2 = 9

c x2 + y2 = 25

e x2 + y2 = 6

Not a function

0

e Both [

D

B

C

E

7 a

9

4

5 a

b

6 a

b

y

3

y

8

2 x

0

2

7

7

10

2 3

f

2 3 x

0

10

Not a function

y

5

10

2 3

0

2 3

Function

7 x

10 x

2

1 0

213

y

10

4 a B=

n

12

c $90

b B (hours)

10

4

5

11

[11,

1] and

0 1 x

2

[2,

10]

0 1

60

120

b f : ( , 2] R, f ( x) =

17 550

2 1 0

32

8 a

4650.30

8 y=

36

domain

6] and range

[0, 6] or y = 36 x 2 ; domain [6, 6]

and range [6, 0]

9 y = 2 + 9 x 2 ; domain [3, 3] and range

[2, 5] or y = 2 9 x 2 ; domain [3, 3]

and range [1, 2]

10 a 2 cm, 13.8 cm

b 3.9 cm/s

exercise 4J

40,

70,

1 a C (t ) =

110,

160,

0 < t 1

1< t 2

c

6 a

b

7 a

b

8 a

b

9 a

c

d

2<t 4

4<t 6

10 a

b

b C ($)

110

70

40

1 2 3 4 5 6 t (hours)

Cost ($)

Distance (km)

60t ,

0 t 1.5

1.5 t 2

80t 70, 2 t 4

700

300

9 a

x2 + y2 = 100

10

10 x

(100 x 2 )

with dom f = [10, 10], ran f = [0, 10]

and f 2 : [ 10, 10] R, f ( x) = (100 x 2 )

with dom f = [10, 10], ran f = [10, 0]

10

200

100

75

50

25

0

100

1 2 3 4 5 t (hours)

1

321 0 1 2 3

11

1

2

Number of truck loads

y

2

1

5 4321

1

5

3

1 2 3

3 a d (t ) = 90,

c i 60 km

ii 170 km

Cost ($)

400

c 120

y

2 a

100 200

Graph is not

continuous

as n N

0.80

0.60

0.40

0

(2, 1)

b f 1 : [ 10, 10] R, f ( x) =

500

2.00

1.70

y

2

1 a

200 < d 700

d > 700

10

Short anSWer

50 < d 100

10

Chapter reVieW

0 < d 50

0.40,

0.60,

2 a C (d ) = 0.80,

1.70,

2.00,

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112 n

214

6000

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

160

range [4650.3, 17 550]

$6150

P = 4x + 6

Domain (1, 6]; range (10, 30]

A = x2 + 4x

Domain (0, 8]; range (0, 96]

P = 100 000(1.02)t

$121 899

47

b 21

9 weeks

96

No, as t increases

approaches zero,

t+3

so N approaches 15.

T = 6000 + 100n 50n2

c $11

T

1 2 3 4 5

y

80 000 x ($)

37 001

[6,

x2 ;

2 x

y

5

4

3

2

1

5 a T = 0.3x 6450

b

T ($)

3 a Domain = [0, )

b Domain = R\{0}

c Domain = ( , 12]

4 a x + 2, x 0

b Domain = [0, ); range = [2, )

5 a, b, e

1

6 a f : R \{0} R, f ( x) =

8

y = 1 x2

vertical translation of 4 units in the

positive direction of the x-axis.

2 units up.

c Dilation factor of 3 away from the

x-axis, reflection in the y-axis, vertical

translation of 2 units in the positive

direction of the x-axis and a horizontal

translation of 7 units up.

1

4

7

10

13

16

19

22

25

28

A

C

B

D

B

C

D

A

D

B

2

5

8

11

14

17

20

23

26

29

D

E

E

D

C

C

E

E

E

C

extended reSponSe

1 a A = xy + 10y x2

b P = 2x + 2y + 20 or

P = 2(x + y + 10)

3

6

9

12

15

18

21

24

27

30

B

C

A

E

B

A

D

A

C

E

(5, 12)

292

260

(2, 5)

130

(1, 0)

2

0

MUltiple ChoiCe

f (x)

12

d (0, 13)

e A (m2)

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 x (m)

2 a x ( , 4)\{ 2}

2x

c y=4

d y = 2x

e y = 2x2

f y = 18x + 72

3 a 5, 0, 3, 4, 0

b a=5

(1, 4)

d i Domain = [2, 5]

4 a

b [0, 18]

4,

2 x ,

g f (x) =

2

2x ,

18 x + 72

5 x

(0, 3)

4

f 292 m2

x ( , 2)

x ( 2, 0]

x [0, 3]

x [3, 4]

b

d

e

f

g

5 a

c

d

e

P(x) = 6x

c 0<x4

Domain = (0, 4]; Range = (0, 24]

P: (0, 4] R where P(x) = 6x

A: (0, 4] R where A(x) = 2x2

Length = 3, Width = 6

A(x) = 0.2 + 0.3x b B(x) = 0.5 + 0.2x

i 80 cents

ii 90 cents

i 16 min

ii 22.5 min

3 min

f Plan B

215

ChaPTeR 5

Exponential and

logarithmic functions

DiGiTal DoC

doc-9749

10 Quick Questions

ChaPTeR ConTenTS

5a

5B

5C

5D

5e

5F

5G

5h

Index laws

Negative and rational powers

Indicial equations

Graphs of exponential functions

Logarithms

Solving logarithmic equations

Logarithmic graphs

Applications of exponential and logarithmic functions

introduction

Functions in which the independent variable is an index number are called indicial or exponential

functions. For example:

f (x) = ax where a > 0 and a 1

is an exponential function.

It can be shown that quantities that increase

or decrease by a constant percentage in

a particular time can be modelled by an

exponential function.

Exponential functions have applications

in science and medicine (for example, decay

of radioactive material, or growth of bacteria

like those shown at right), and finance (for

example, compound interest and reducing

balance loans).

5a

index laws

Recall that a number, a, that is multiplied by itself n times can be represented in index notation:

a

a a

a=

an

n lots of a

Base

where a is the base number and n is the index (or power or exponent).

The expression an is read as a to the power of n or a to the n.

multiplication

When multiplying two numbers in index form with the same base, add

the indic

es.

For example, 23 24 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = 27

am an = am + n

217

Division

When dividing two numbers in index form with the same base, subtract

the indices.

222222

= 24

For example, 26 22 =

22

am an = am n

Raising to a power

(am)n = am n = amn

For example, (24)3 = 24 24 24 = 24 + 4 + 4 = 24 3 = 212

Any number raised to the power of zero is equal to one.

For example

23 23 = 23 3 = 20

or

23 23 = (2 2 2) (2 2 2)

=88

=1

So

23 23 = 1

Using [1] and [2] we have 20 = 1.

a0 = 1, a 0

[1]

[2]

(ab)n = anbn

For example,

(2 3)4 = (2 3) (2 3) (2 3) (2 3)

=23 23 23 23

=2222 3333

= 24 34

n

n

a = a

b

bn

WoRkeD examPle 1

Simplify.

a 2x3y2 4x2y

b (2x2y3)2 xy4

c (3a)5b6 9a4b3

Think

218

the same base.

powers with the same base. (Note: y = y1.)

(The power of the 2 inside the bracket is 1.)

6 2

3 5

d 8 p m (3 p) m

6 p4 m

WRiTe

a 2x3y2 4x2y

= 2 4 x3 x2 y2 y

= 8x5y3

b (2x2y3)2 xy4

= 22 x4 y6 xy4

terms with the same base.

= 4 x4 x y6 y4

= 4x5y10

c (3a)5 b 6 9a 4 b 3 =

(3a)5 b6

9a 4 b 3

243a5 b6

9a 4 b 3

27a5 b6

a 4 b3

with the same base. (Note: a1 = a.)

= 27ab3

the power of 3.

6 2

3 5

6 2

3 3 5

d 8 p m (3 p) m = 8 p m 3 p m

4

4

6p m

6p m

8 27 p6 p3 m 2 m 5

6 p4 m

and then reducing the variables by adding

the indices for multiplication and subtracting

the indices for division.

= 36p6 + 3 4m2 + 5 1

= 36p5m6

WoRkeD examPle 2

3

Simplify

6 a 4 b3 3 a 2 b

.

16 a7 b6 2 a3 b2

Think

WRiTe

6a 4 b3 3a 2 b

16a 7 b6 2a3 b 2

replace the second term with its reciprocal (turn

the second term upside down).

6a 4 b 3 2a 3 b 2

16a 7 b6 3a 2 b

6 a 4 b 3 23 a 9 b 6

16a 7 b6 33 a6 b3

same base.

6 8a 4 + 9 7 6 b 3 + 6 6 3

16 27

a0 b0

9

Simplify.

1

9

WoRkeD examPle 3

95 34

a 23 162

b

27 3

Think

WRiTe

a 23 162 = 23 (2 2 2 2)2

= 23 (24)2

= 23 28

= 211

= 2048

ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

219

95 34 (3 3)5 34

=

273

(3 3 3)3

(32 )5 34

(33 )3

310 34

39

= 35

= 243

Complex expressions involving terms with different bases have to be simplified by replacing each

base with its prime factors.

WoRkeD examPle 4

Simplify

3 4 n 18 n + 1

.

63 n 2

Think

WRiTe

34 n 18n + 1 34 n (3 3 2)n + 1

=

63 n 2

(2 3)3n 2

34 n (32 21 )n + 1

(2 3)3n 2

34 n 32 n + 2 2 n + 1

23n 2 33n 2

powers in the products and subtracting the powers in

the quotients.

Simplify.

= 36n + 2 3n + 2 2n + 1 3n + 2

= 33n + 4 2 2n + 3

= 33n + 4 23 2n

index laws

exercise 5a

1 We1a, b

a

x2

2 We1c

a

a7b8

x5

b 52 57 (53)3

x3

c (xy)3 x4y5

c (3x5)y11 6x2y2

d p13q10 ( pq4)2

a2b5

b 2a12b9 (2a)3b4

6 p8 m 4 2 p7 m 6

(3 x )2 y 2 5 x 6 y3

a

b

9 p5 m 2

10 x 7 y

3 We1d

14u11v 9 (3u 2 )3 v

21u6 v 5

5k 12 d

6 kd 4

3 2

(2 k )

25( k 2 d 3 )3

15a8 b3 2a3 b

a

9a 4 b5 3ab 2

220

(5e3 )2 f 4 8e 4 f 3

20e f 5

3 p3 m 4

can be simplified to:

p1m 2

5 mC a

a 3p2m2

6 5

B 3p4m6

C 3p3m8

D 3p3m2

C x30y16

C 3a6b

6x y

x

x 5 y3 (2 y)2

a 2x5y4

B 3x5y4

2

3ab3 a 2 b

c

is equal to:

ab a5

a a18

B 3a6

3 x 9 y10

2

x n + 1 y5 z 4 n

x

y4 n z 3 n

n2

42

c 53 152 32

34 272

f

64 35

Write the following in simplest index notation and evaluate.

45

27

(625)4

e

(53 )5

We4

b 94 35 27

(25)4

(125)3

8 52

23 10

(162 )3

(25 )4

272

(32 )3

411 82

163

272 81

93 35

4 n 7n 3 493n + 1

14 n + 2

92 n + 1

12 x 2 4 x

b

6n 2

6x 2

n 5n + 1

5n 4

3

n

5

3

16 9

d

e*

5n + 1 + 5n

4 n + 1 181 n 63 2 n

*Hint: Factorise the numerator and denominator first.

362 n 6n + 3

10 mC In simplest index notation,

is equal to:

216n 2

a 216n + 5

B 65n + 1

C 62n + 5

a

e 3a6

b6

( x n y m + 3 )2

x2 y

x n + 2 y3 m x n 5 y5 3m

b 37 92 273 81

d 205 84 125

8

3x 5

2

7 We3

24

3a15

a

e 3

2n

5B negative and

negative powers

D 69

e 62n + 9

rational powers

Wherever possible, negative index numbers should be expressed as positive index numbers using the

simple rule:

When an index number is moved from the numerator to denominator

or vice versa, the sign of the power changes.

1

a n = n , a 0

a

This is easily verified as follows:

1 a0

=

since a0 = 1

an an

= a0 n using the division rule for indices

=a n

simplifying the inde x.

a n

1

1

an

= n and n = .

In other words,

1

a

a

1

A simple way to remember this rule is change the level, change the sign.

221

WoRkeD examPle 5

5

a

8

4

b x y

( x 4 y)

x 3 y3

TUToRial

eles-1417

Worked example 5

Think

WRiTe

a 5

5

8

84

54

changing the signs of the powers.

power of 4.

8

=

5

4

b x y

( x 2 y)

x 3 y3

powers on the numerator and subtracting the

powers on the denominator.

x4 y

=x

x 6y 7

x 3 y3

6 ( 3)

= x 3y

3

x 10 y

x 3 y3

73

10

1

x 3 y10

Rational powers

Until now, the indices have all been integers. In theory, an index can be any number. We will confine

ourselves to the case of indices that are rational numbers (fractions).

1

1

an = n a

For example, we know that a a = a

1

a2 a2 = a2

= a1

=a

but

1

2

a = a2

Therefore,

1

Similarly, 3 a = a 3 , 4 a = a 4 etc.

1

In general,

m

an

222

1

= an

( n a )m = n a m

WoRkeD examPle 6

a

3

16 2

9

b

25

Think

WRiTe

3

a 16 2 = (24 ) 2

prime factors.

2

powers.

= 26

= 64

b 9

25

32

= 2

5

powers.

3

5

interchanging the numerator and

denominator.

53

33

basic numbers.

125

27

WoRkeD examPle 7

a

128 4 64

x 2 y6 x 3 y 5

Think

WRiTe

128 4 64

1

= 128 7 64 4

= (27 ) 7 (26 ) 4

= 21 2 4

= 21 2 2

= 22

b 1 Write the expression.

x 2 y6 x 3 y5

1

= ( x 2 y6 ) 3 ( x 3 y5 ) 2

powers.

= x 3 y2 x 2 y 2

223

subtracting the powers.

= x3

=x

3

5

2

2y 2

1

6y 2

exercise 5B

DiGiTal DoC

doc-9750

SkillSHEET 5.1

negative and

rational powers

1 We5a

a 6

(3 2 )2 (2 5 ) 1

e

(24 ) 2 (34 ) 3

x 3 y 2 ( xy 2 ) 3

(2 x 3 )2 ( y 3 )2

3 We6

1

92

1

16 4

81

3

4 mC

a

34

c 3

2

Simplify each of the following, expressing your answer with positive index numbers.

( x 2 )3 ( y 4 ) 2

( m)2 m 3

2 4

b

c

x 5 ( y 2 )3

(p 2) 1 p 4

2 3

( 22))3

x5 (x 4 )

d

x 3 (x 2 )

3

5

2 We5b

a

1

5 1

x6 y2

b 27 3

c 83

d 814

3

25 2

16

3

81 4

2

8 3

27

5

25 6

11

13

B 56

C 52

D 56

e 56

5 We7 Simplify each of the following, expressing your answer with positive indices.

d

g

9 3 81

5

24

(64 m 6 ) 3

e

4m 2

( x + 1)2

x +1

5C

(xy3 ) ( x 2 y)

x3 x6

1

x

h ( y 4) y 4

indicial equations

1

1

( x 3 ) 3 = 23

The left-hand side becomes x, so

x = 8.

However, when the unknown (or variable) is not a base number but is an index number, a different

approach is required.

Take the cube of both sides:

To attempt to solve index equations exactly, express both sides of the equation to the same base and

equate the powers.

If am = an, then m = n.

224

WoRkeD examPle 8

a 3x = 81

b 4x 1 = 256

c 63x 1 = 362 x 3

Think

2

2

both sides.

WRiTe

3x = 81

3x = 34

x=4

4x 1 = 256

4x 1 = 44

x1=4

x=5

63x 1 = 362x 3

63x 1 = (62)2x 3

63x 1 = (6)4x 6

3x 1 = 4x 6

1

=x6

x=5

WoRkeD examPle 9

23n 16n + 1 = 32

Think

1

the powers.

WRiTe

23n 16n + 1 = 32

23n (24)n + 1 = 25

23n 24n + 4 = 25

27n + 4 = 25

7n + 4 = 5

7n = 1

n=

1

7

In some cases indicial equations can be expressed in a quadratic form and solved using the Null

Factor Law. Look for numbers in index form similar to a2x and ax appearing in different terms.

ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

225

WoRkeD examPle 10

Think

WRiTe

5

2x

4(5x)

5=0

Note that 52x = (5x)2.

(5x)2 4(5x) 5 = 0

Let y = 5x

y2 4y 5 = 0.

(y 5)(y + 1) = 0

y = 5 or y = 1

Substitute 5x for y.

5x = 5 or 5x = 1

5x = 51 and 5x = 1

x=

TUToRial

eles-1418

Worked example 10

Note that in step 9, the possible solution 5x = 1 was rejected because there is no value of x for which

it will be satisfied. Recall that exponential functions such as 5x are always positive.

If answers are not exact, the CAS calculator can be used to solve indicial equations.

WoRkeD examPle 11

2x+1

1

. Write your answer correct to 2 decimal places.

45

Think

1

WRiTe

1

solve 3 2 x + 1 = 5 , x

Solving 3

exercise 5C

1

for x gives x = 3.65,

45

correct to 2 decimal places.

2x +1

indicial equations

1 We8a

Find the value of x in each of the following equations.

a 2x = 32

b 5x = 625

c 3x = 243

d 10

1

= 100

e 4

= 16

6x =

1

216

2 We8b

Find the value of n in each of the following equations.

3n

+

1

a 2

= 64

b 52n + 3 = 25

c 32 n = 27

d 16n + 3 = 23

3 We8c

364n 3 = 216

b 274 x = 92x + 1

c 163x + 1 = 128x 2

3x + 5

=

d 9

c 34x 27x + 3 = 81

1

243

a 2x 83x 1 = 64

226

1

7

a 42x = 8x 1

4 We9

5 3n

=

e 49

b 52x 1253 x = 25

812 x

= 92 x

27 x + 3

5 We10

Solve for x in each of the following.

a 32x 4(3x) + 3 = 0

b 22x 6(2x) + 8 = 0

2x

x

c 3(4 ) = 15(4 ) 12

d 25x 30(5x) + 125 = 0

6 mC Consider the indicial equation 32x 12(3x) + 27 = 0. The equation can be solved by making the

substitution:

a y = 3x

D y = 2x

B y = 2x

e y = 3x

C y = 32x

a y2 3y + 27 = 0

D y2 12y + 27 = 0

B y2 11y + 27 = 0

e y2 9y + 3 = 0

C y2 + 12y + 27 = 0

a 2 or 3

D 0 or 1

B 1 or 2

e 0 or 2

C 1 or 3

a 2x = 3

b 3x = 8

c 10x = 45

d 4x = 10

10 mC The nearest solution to the equation 3x = 10 is:

a x = 2.5

D x=2

5D

B x = 2.3

e x = 2.1

C x = 1.9

Functions of the form f (x) = ax, where a is a positive real number other than 1 and x is a real number, are

called exponential functions.

In general, there are two basic shapes for exponential graphs:

y = ax, a > 1

or

y = ax, 0 < a < 1

y

y = ax, a > 1

1

Asymptote

y=0

Asymptote

y=0

Decreasing exponential

x

Increasing exponential

the y-intercept is (0, 1)

the domain is R

the asymptote is y = 0 (x-axis)

the range is R+.

x

x

Verify the shapes of these graphs by graphing, say y = 2x, y = 3x, y = 1 and y = 1 on a graphics

2

3

calculator. What is the effect of changing a on the steepness of the graph?

The graph of y = a x is obtained by

reflecting y = ax in the y-axis.

reflecting y = ax in the x-axis.

y

y=

ax,

a>1

y = ax, a > 1

1

y=

1

0

ax,

a>1

Asymptote

x

y=0

x

y = ax, a > 1

Asymptote

y=0

227

functions

The graph of y = a x + b is obtained by translating y = ax:

1. b units to the right if b < 0

2. b units to the left if b > 0.

For example, the graph of y = 2x 3 is obtained by translating

y = 2x to the right 3 units.

Check this graph using a graphics calculator. Note also that

y

y = 2x

3 units

2

1

()

8

multiplying by a constant.

y = 2x 3

functions

Asymptote

y=0

1 0 1 2 3 4

y = 10 x

10

1. up by c units if c > 0

2. down by c units if c < 0.

Furthermore the equation of the asymptote becomes y = c.

For example, the graph of y = 10x 5 is obtained by translating y = 10x

down by 5 units.

5 units

The equation of the asymptote is y = 5.

4.

The y-intercept is

Check this graph using a graphics calculator.

5

y = 10 x 5

1

1

4

5

Asymptote

y = 5

The graph of y = Aax (for positive, real values of A) has a dilation factor of A. The graph is stretched along

the y-axis, away from the x-axis (as each y-value is being multiplied by the constant A). Consider the graphs

below. The y-intercept in each case is equal to A. Also, as A increases, the graph becomes steeper; as A

decreases, the graph becomes less steep. The domain, range and asymptotes are the same as for f (x) = ax.

y f(x) = 4 2x

f(x) = 3 2x

f(x) = 2x

4

3 (0, 3)

2

1

(0, 1)

Asymptote

x

0

y=0

3 2 1

1 2 3

(0, 4)

2

(0, 1)

(0, 12)

1

(1, 2)

f(x) = 2x

f(x) =

1

2

f(x) =

2x

1

4

2x

(1, 1)

1

x

0

y=0

1

The graph of y = akx (for k > 0) has a dilation factor of k from the y-axis. The graph is said to be stretched

along the x-axis. Consider the graphs at below. The y-intercept is (0, 1) in each case. As k increases, the

graph becomes steeper and closer to the y-axis. The domain, range and asymptotes are the same as for

f (x) = ax.

y

4

f(x) = 22x

f(x) = 2x

x

f(x) = 22

2

(0, 1)

3 2 1

228

01 2 3

Asymptote

y=0

WoRkeD examPle 12

Find the equation of the asymptote and the y-intercept for each of the following functions. Hence,

sketch the graph of each function and state its domain and range.

a f : R R, f (x) = 2x + 3 5

x

b f : R R, f ( x ) = 3 2 2

Think

WRiTe/DRaW

a f (x) = 2x + 3 5

3 units left and 5 units down.

The asymptote is y = 5.

When x = 0, y = 23 5

=3

Therefore, the y-intercept is (0, 3).

of axes.

the y-intercept and asymptote as a guide.

y f(x) = 2x +3 5

3

x

Asymptote

y = 5

5

7

x

b f (x) = 3 2 2

0

the y-intercept is equal to A in f (x) = Aa x.

f (0) = 3 2 2

= 3 20

= 31

=3

The y-intercept is 3.

to be able to see the effect of the dilation. Locate

the second point by substituting a value for

x into the equation and evaluating a corresponding

y-value.

f (2) = 3 2 2

= 3 21

= 3 2

=6

Another point is (2, 6).

Note: The asymptote remains at y = 0 as there is no

vertical translation.

f(x) = 3 22

6

(2, 6)

(0, 3)

0

6

Asymptote

x y=0

229

WoRkeD examPle 13

Use a CAS calculator to solve 2x = 15 (correct to 2 decimal places) by finding the intersection of

two graphs.

Think

WRiTe

CAS calculator.

f1(x) = 2x

CAS calculator.

f2(x) = 15

intersection points feature of the CAS

calculator. Write the answer.

exercise 5D

1 Sketch the graph of each of the following on separate axes. (Use a table of values or copy a

DiGiTal DoC

doc-9751

SkillSHEET 5.2

Substitution in

exponential functions

a y = 3x

c y = 10x

e y=4 x

g y = 3 x

b y = 5x

x

d y=2

x

f y= 3

h y = 0.5x

2 Sketch the following graphs, using a table of values or by copying a CAS calculator screen. State the

a y = 2(3x)

c

b y = 0.5(4x)

y = 4 (2 x )

y = 4 1

Find the equation of the asymptote and the y-intercept for each of the following. Hence,

sketch the graph of each and state its domain and range.

a f : R R, f (x) = 2x 1

b f : R R, f (x) = 3x + 2

c f : R R, f (x) = 51 x

d f : R R, f (x) = 2x + 3

e f : R R, f (x) = 3x 3

f f : R R, f (x) = 2x + 3 1

x

h f : R R, f (x) = 102 x + 5

6

g f : R R, f (x) =

+3

3 We12a

a

B

C

D

e

y = 3x 2

y = 3x

y = 2x 3

y = 3x + 2

y = 3x 1

3

2

1

a

B

C

D

e

Asymptote

0 1 2 3 x y=0

y

y = 2x 3

y = 3x 2

y = 2x + 1 3

y = 2x 1 + 3

y = 2x 1 3

0

2

3

4

(1, 2)

y = 3

5 We12b Sketch the graph of each of the following, stating the domain and range.

a f : R R, f (x) = 22x

b f : R R, f (x) = 23x

x

c f : R R, f (x) = 3 2

d f : R R, f (x) = 5 32x

x

e f : R R, f ( x ) = 2 5 2

230

f : R R, f ( x ) = 2 2 3

6 Sketch a graph of f (x) = 4 23x + 3, stating the domain and range. Compare your answer to that found

7 We13 Use a CAS calculator to solve the following indicial equations using the intersection of two

a 2x = 10

b 10x = 20

c 3x = 12

5e

d 2x = x + 3

e 3x = x + 4

DiGiTal DoC

doc-9752

WorkSHEET 5.1

logarithms

also known as a logarithm.

This means that y = ax can be written in an alternative form:

loga (y) = x, which is read as the logarithm of y to the base a is

equal to x.

For example, 32 = 9 can be written as log3 (9) = 2.

105 = 100 000 can be written as log10 (100 000) = 5.

Logarithm

y = ax

Base numeral

Base

Using the indicial equivalent, it is possible to find the exact value of some logarithms.

WoRkeD examPle 14

1

a log6 (216)

b log 2 ( 8 )

Think

WRiTe

2

6x = 216

6x = 63

x=3

2

1

b Let x = log2

2x =

1

8

= 1

= (2 1 )3

x

2 =2 3

x = 3

logarithm laws

The index laws can be used to establish corresponding rules for calculations involving logarithms. These

rules are summarised in the following table.

Name

Logarithm of a product

Rule

Restrictions

m, n > 0

a > 0, a 1

m, n > 0

a > 0 and a 1

Logarithm of a power

m>0

a > 0 and a 1

loga (a) = 1

a > 0 and a 1

Logarithm of one

loga (1) = 0

a > 0 and a 1

Logarithm of a quotient

231

It is important to remember that each rule works only if the base, a, is the same for each term.

The logarithm of a product and logarithm of a quotient rules formed the basis for the pre-1970s

calculation device for multiplication and division the slide rule.

WoRkeD examPle 15

Simplify, and evaluate where possible, each of the following without a calculator.

a log10 (5) + log10 (4)

b log2 (12) + log2 (8) log2 (3)

Think

WRiTe

a 1 Apply the logarithm of a product rule. a log10 (5) + log10 (4) = log10 (5 4)

2

b 1

= log10 (20)

Simplify.

b log2 (12) + log2 (8) log2 (3) = log2 (12 8) log2 (3)

logs being added since their bases

are the same.

law.

= log2 (96 3)

of 2.

= log2 (32)

= log2 (2)5

power and logarithm of the base

laws.

= 5 log2 (2)

=5

WoRkeD examPle 16

Think

WRiTe

index numbers.

law.

Simplify.

= log2

WoRkeD examPle 17

log 8 (49)

a

b 2 log10 (x) + 1

log 8 (343)

c 5 log10 (x) 2

Think

232

WRiTe

=

log8 (343) log8 (7)3

2 log8 (7)

3 log8 (7)

factor of log8 (7).

2

3

5

4

or log2 (1.25)

= log10 (10x2)

product law.

2 as 2 log10 (10).

c 5 log10 (x) 2

quotient law.

x5

= log10 2

10

x5

= log10

100

WoRkeD examPle 18

a log2 (5)

b log7 (8)

Think

WRiTe

log2 (5)

log7 (8)

2

b log7 (8) = 1.069, correct to 3 decimal places.

logarithms

exercise 5e

1

b 35 = 243

c 50 = 1

2

1

d 0.01 = 10

e bn = a

f 2 4=

16

a 23 = 8

= 1

log2

d log3 (27) = 3

e log5 (625) = 4

log2 (128) = 7

log3 1

9

= 2

h logb (a) = x

a 2

B 5

C 1

D 2

= 512 is:

B log3 (512) = 8

e log8 (3) = 512

a log3 (8) = 512

D log512 (3) = 8

1

2

a log4 (16) = 2

83

C log8 (512) = 3

a

= 10 000

B 10 0004 = 10

C 10 00010 = 4

10

000

10

D 10

=4

e 4 = 10 000

mC

104

6 We14

a log2 (16)

b log3 (81)

e log10 (1000)

log2 1

64

log2 (32)

1

4

1

log3

243

logn (n5)

c log5 (125)

d log2

g log2 (0.25)

k log3

(3)

233

7 We15

d log6 (8) + log6 (7)

g log2

1

3

+ log2 (9)

e log2 (20) log2 (5)

f log3 (36) log3 (12)

1

5

8 We16

Simplify each of the following.

a 3 log10 (5) + log10 (2)

b 2 log2 (8) + 3 log2 (3)

c log5 (12) 2 log5 (2)

d 4 log10 (2) 2 log10 (8)

e

g

1

3

1

2

h 2 log10 (x + 3) log10 (x 2)

a

log3 (25)

log3 (125)

log2 (81)

log2 (9)

2 log10 (8)

log10 (16)

3log5 (27)

2 log5 (9)

log3 ( x 6 )

log3 ( x 2 )

log10 ( x 3 )

log10 ( x )

2 log2 ( x + 1)3

log2 ( x + 1)

C

log10 ( x )

log10 ( y)

a log10 (x) log10 (y)

D y log10 (x)

e log10 (x) + log10 (y)

a x log5 (y)

B y log5 (x)

C 5 logx (y)

e 5y

a log2 (40)

B 1

13 mC The expression

a log4 (x3)

log2

64

15

320

D log2 (20)

e log2

3

e log4 (x7)

log4 ( x 5 )

can be simplified to:

log4 ( x 2 )

5

log4 ( x 2 )

5

2

a log3 (27) + 1

b log4 (16) + 3

d 2 + 3 log10 (x)

c 3 log5 (2) 2

1

2

+ 3 log10 ( x 2 )

a log2 (16)

b log3 (81)

c log10 (0.001)

d log2 (9)

e log3 (4) + log2 (7)

5F Solving logarithmic

logarithms to the base 10

equations

Logarithms to the base 10 are called common logarithms and can be evaluated using the log function on

a calculator.

Note: The logarithm of a negative number or zero is not defined. Therefore:

loga (x) is defined for x > 0, if a > 0.

This can be seen more clearly using index notation as follows:

Let n = loga (x.)

Therefore, an = x (indicial equivalent of logarithmic expression).

However, an > 0 for all values of n if a > 0 (positive based exponentials are always positive).

Therefore, x > 0.

234

WoRkeD examPle 19

Think

1

power law and the fact that log3 (3) = 1.

WRiTe

log3 (9) = x 2

log3 (32) = x 2

2 log3 (3) = x 2

2=x2

x=4

WoRkeD examPle 20

Think

1

WRiTe

log6 (x) = 2

Therefore, x = 6 2.

x=

=

1

62

1

36

WoRkeD examPle 21

Think

WRiTe

2 logx (25) = 4

x2 = 52

Note that x = 5 is rejected as a solution, because x > 0.

x=5

logx (25) = 2

Therefore, x2 = 25.

WoRkeD examPle 22

Think

1

power, x, to the front of the logarithmic equation.

at least one more than the answer requires.

Solve for x.

WRiTe

2x = 7

log10 (2x) = log10 (7)

x log10 (2) = log10 (7)

Therefore x =

logg10 ((7)

logg10 ((2)

0.8451

0.3010

x = 2.808

x=

235

If ax = b, then x =

logg a ( b)

logg a ( a)

= logg a ( b)

This rule applies to any base a, but 10 is the most commonly used base for this solution technique.

Exercise 5F

1 WE19

b log9 (1) = x

e 2 log2 (8) = x

log3 (81) = 2x

b

e

h

k

log3 (x) = 2

c log5 (x) = 4

log8 (x) = 1

f log3 (x) = 3

log2 (3x + 1) = 4

i log10 (2x) = 1

log3 (5) log3 (4) = log3 (x) log3 (8)

Solve for x.

log2 (x) = 3

log10 (x) = 1

log3 (x 3) = 3

2 log6 (3x) = 1

c log10

1

10

a log2 (4) = x

=x

d log3

1

9

=x

g log10 (1000) = 2x 1

2 WE20

a

d

g

j

3 WE21

a logx (36) = 2

d

2 log 1

x 100

b logx (125) = 3

=4

g logx + 1 (27) = 3

1

log x

2

c 3 logx (16) = 6

(64) = 3

log3 x 1

1

32

5 logx (625) = 10

= 5.

A x=2

B x=3

C x=1

D x=0

E x = 2

A 4096

B 512

C 64

D 2

D 1

E 9

1

1

2

A 3

B 6

C 81

A x=8

B x=6

D x = 4

C x=9

E x=2

a 2x = 11

b 2x = 0.6

c 3x = 1.7

x

x

1

e 0.7 = 3

f 10

= 18

g 22x + 1 = 5

i 82 x = 0.75

d 5x = 8

h 10 2x = 7

A x = 0.86

DIGITAL DOC

doc-9753

WorkSHEET 5.2

C x = 1.25

A x = 0.18

5G

INTERACTIVITY

int-0264

Logarithmic graphs

B x = 1.2

B x = 0.13

0.62x 1

C x=

= 2 is:

0.18

D x=1

E x = 0.5

D x = 0.71

E x = 0.13

Logarithmic graphs

The graphs of y = loga (x) and y = ax are reflections of each other across the line y = x. Functions such as

these that are reflections of each other in the line y = x are called inverses of each other.

Consider the logarithm loga (ax). This logarithm can be simplified using the log laws.

=x1

=x

Notice how the logarithm with base a and the exponential with base a have a cancelling effect on one

another, demonstrating that they are inverse operations. This is similar to the way that multiplication and

division have a cancelling effect. Multiplication and division are also inverse operations of each other.

236

5_61_10586_MQ11_MMCAS_3E_05.indd 236

8/05/13 2:37 PM

Consider now the exponential aloga (x). As the logarithm with base a is the inverse operation to the

exponential with base a, the expression aloga (x) simplifies to give x. That is, aloga (x) = x.

The inverse properties of logarithms and exponentials can be used to plot the graphs of logarithmic

functions. Alternatively, a table of values can be used. For example:

y = log10 (x)

1

x

y

undefined undefined

0.301

0.477

0.602

y Asymptote

x=0

f(x) = log10 (x)

an increasing function. There is a vertical asymptote along the

y-axis, and so there are no y-intercepts. The x-intercept for all

values of a is always (1, 0). Thats because loga (1) = 0. Another

point on the graph is (a, 1). Thats because loga (a) = 1. The

domain of the function is R+ and the range is R.

WoRkeD examPle 23

Think

1

WRiTe/DRaW

so these two graphs are reflections of each other

across the line y = x.

Alternatively, recall the basic shape of the logarithmic

graph. Sketch the basic shape on a set of axes.

this case is (2, 1).

f(x) = 2x

y=x

(2, 1)

0 (1, 0)

WoRkeD examPle 24

Think

WRiTe

y = 2x

Interchange x and y.

x = 2y

log2 (x) = y

exercise 5G

logarithmic graphs

log (b)

a log2 (2x)

b 10 10

c 3 log5 (5y)

a f (x) = log2 (x)

b f (x) = log5 (x)

d f (x) = log10 (x)

e f (x) = log12 (x)

d 5 20 log20 (x)

c f (x) = log8 (x)

f f (x) = log15 (x)

ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

237

3 Compare the steepness of each of the graphs in question 2, and hence explain how changing the base, a,

affects the steepness of a logarithmic graph of the type f (x) = loga (x).

a f (x) = 3x

b f (x) = 4x

c f (x) = log5 (x)

DiGiTal DoCS

doc-9754

logarithmic graphs

doc-9755

Extension

logarithmic graphs

logarithmic functions

5h

Exponential and logarithmic functions can be used to model many practical situations in science,

medicine, engineering and economics.

WoRkeD examPle 25

a Find a rule that gives the thickness, T mm, as a function of the number of folds, n.

b What is the thickness after 10 folds?

c How many folds are required for the thickness to reach 6 cm?

Think

238

doubling implies that the base should be 2.

for values of n from 0 to 5.

term (2n) and a multiplying constant for the

starting thickness (0.1).

values in step 2.

WRiTe

by 1, T doubles.

n

T

0

0.1

1

0.2

2

0.4

T(n) = 0.1(2n)

b When n = 10,

T(10) = 0.1(210)

T = 102.4 mm

Calculate T.

Change 6 cm to millimetres.

power n to the front of the logarithm.

n=

Evaluate.

n 9.23

number, as the number of folds are positive

integers and if you round down the thickness will

not have reached 60 mm.

Therefore, n = 10 folds.

c 6 cm = 60 mm

When T = 60,

60 = 0.1 (2n)

600 = 2n

log10 (600)

log10 (2)

3

0.8

4

1.6

5

3.2

WoRkeD examPle 26

ounce), can be modelled by the function

P = 400 + 50 log10 (5t + 1), where t is the

number of years since 1980.

a Find the price of gold per ounce in 1980.

b Find the price of gold in 2006.

c In what year will the price pass $550

per ounce?

TUToRial

eles-1419

Worked example 26

Think

WRiTe

In 1980, when t = 0,

= 400 + 50 log10 (1)

Evaluate P.

P = 400

2

b t = 2006 1980

= 26

When t = 26,

P = 400 + 50 log10 [5(26) + 1]

= 400 + 50 log10 (131)

= 400 + 105.864

= $505.86

and evaluate P.

equation.

3 = log10 (5t + 1)

103 = 5t + 1

1000 = 5t + 1

999 = 5t

199.8 = t

The price of gold will reach $550 in

1980 + 199.8 = 2180 (approximately).

logarithmic functions

exercise 5h

1 We25 Before a mice plague that lasts 6 months, the population of mice in a country region is

estimated to be 10 000. The mice population doubles every month during the plague. If P represents the

mice population and t is the number of months after the plague starts:

a express P as a function of t

b find the population after:

i 3 months

ii 6 months

c calculate how long it takes the population to reach 100 000 during the plague.

ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

239

2 We26 The population of a town, N, is modelled by the function N = 15 000(20.01t), where t is the

Find the population in 1980.

Find the population in: i 1985

ii 1990.

What is the predicted population in 2015?

In what year will the population reach 20 000?

a

b

c

d

3 The weight of a baby, W kg, t weeks after birth can be modelled by W = 3 log10 (8t + 10).

a Find the initial weight.

b Find the weight after: i 1 week

ii 5 weeks

iii 10 weeks.

c Sketch the graph.

d When will the baby reach a weight of 7 kg?

4 If $A is the amount an investment of $P grows to after n years at 5% p.a. using compound interest:

a write A as a function of P

b use the function from a to find the value of $10 000 after 10 years

c calculate how many years it will be until an investment of $10 000 reaches $26 500.

5 The value of a car, $V, decreases according to the function V = 25 000 2 0.1t, where t is the number of

a Find the value of the car when new.

b Find the value of the car after 6 years.

c In how many years will the car be worth $10 000?

t is the number of minutes after it is poured.

a Find the initial temperature.

b Find the temperature:

i 3 minutes after pouring

ii 6 minutes after pouring.

c How long is it until the temperature reaches half its initial

value?

7 A number of deer, N, are introduced to a reserve. The deer population can be predicted by the model

a Find the initial number of deer in the reserve.

b Find the number of deer after:

i 2 years

ii 4 years

iii 6 years.

c How long does it take the population to treble?

d Sketch the graph of N versus t.

e Explain why the model is not reliable for an indefinite time period.

8 After a recycling program is introduced, the weight of rubbish disposed of by a household each week

is given by W = 80(2 0.015t ), where W is the weight in kg and t is the number of weeks since recycling

was introduced.

a Find the weight of rubbish disposed of before recycling starts.

b Find the weight of rubbish disposed of after recycling has been

introduced for:

i 10 weeks

ii 40 weeks.

c How long is it after recycling starts until the weight of rubbish

disposed of is half its initial value?

d i Will the model be realistic in 10 years time?

ii Explain.

9 The number of hectares (N) of forest land destroyed by a fire t hours

after it started is given by N = 40 log10 (500t + 1).

a Find the amount of land destroyed after:

i 1 hour

ii 2 hours

iii 10 hours.

b How long does the fire take to burn out 155 hectares?

240

10 A discus thrower competes at several competitions during the year. The best distance, d metres,

that he achieves at each consecutive competition is modelled by d = 50 + log10 (15n), where n is the

competition number.

a Find the distance thrown at the:

i 1st competition ii 3rd competition iii 6th competition iv 10th competition.

b Sketch the graph of d versus n.

c How many competitions does it take for the thrower to reach a distance of 53 metres?

P = 400(100.08t), 0 t 20. After 20 months, fishing is allowed and the population is then modelled by

P = 15 000 + 924 log10 [10(t 19)], t 20.

a Find the initial population.

b Find the population after:

i 5 months

ii 15 months

iii 25 months

iv 40 months.

c How long does it take the population to pass 10 000?

7

12 A ball is dropped from a height of 5 metres and rebounds to 10 of

its previous height.

a Find the rule that describes the height of the ball

(h metres) after n bounces.

b Find the height after: i 4 bounces ii 8 bounces.

c Sketch the graph of the height of the ball after n bounces.

13 A computer appreciates in value by 10% per year. If the computer

costs $5000 when new, find:

a the rule describing the value, V, of the computer at any time,

t years, after purchase

b the value of the computer after 6 years

c the number of years it takes to reach double its original value.

14 From the start of 1996, a small mining town has seen a steady increase in population until 2000 as the

Year

Population (P)

1996

700

1997

750

1998

804

1999

870

2000

925

What does the shape of the curve look like?

Calculate the ratio of the population in 1997 to the population in 1996.

Calculate all the ratios in successive years, and hence estimate the percentage annual increase or

growth.

To obtain an accurate estimate of population growth, follow these steps.

e On the table above, evaluate log10 (P).

f Plot log10 (P) against t. Are the points approximately collinear?

g Draw a line of best fit and find its gradient and the intercept on the y-axis.

h Write the equation for the line.

i Show that P = 700(1.07)t. Is this close to your estimate in d?

j Use this formula to estimate the population in 2001 and 2002.

k When might the population have reached 2000?

l In fact there was a downturn in the population as the mine output decreased. From 2000 onwards

there was an annual decline of 10% in population. During which year did the population reduce to

below 600?

a

b

c

d

15 A used car dealership keeps data on the value of the Fraud Atlas (new at the start of 2005) over 5 years.

Year (t)

Value (V)

a

b

c

d

e

2005

45 000

2006

35 500

2007

28 000

2008

22 500

2009

18 000

What does the shape of the curve look like?

Calculate the ratios of values of the car in successive years, e.g. V2006 V2005 and so on.

Estimate the annual rate of depreciation.

For a more accurate result, evaluate log10 (V).

ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

241

f

g

h

i

j

k

l

Draw a line of best fit and find its gradient and the intercept on the y-axis.

Write the equation for the line.

Show that V = 45 000(0.79)x (or a formula close to it).

What is the annual rate of depreciation?

Use this formula to estimate the cars values in 2010 and 2011.

When will it reach a value of $7000?

16 Johannes Kepler was a German astronomer born in the 16th century. He used data collected by Tycho

Brahe to formulate an equation or law connecting the period of a planets revolution around the sun

to the radius of its orbit. The following table contains the data Kepler used. The radius of the orbit is

expressed as a proportion of Earths orbit (with the period given in days).

Planet

Mercury

Venus

Earth

Mars

Jupiter

0.389

0.724

1.000

1.524

5.200

Period (T)

87.77

224.70

365.25

686.98

4332.62

a Plot T against R (using (0,0) too). What does the graph look like?

The graph has the form T = aRb, where a and b are constants.

b To find them, find log10 (R) and log10 (T).

c Plot log10 (T) against log10 (R) on graph paper. Are the points collinear?

d Draw a line of best fit and find its gradient, correct to 2 decimal places.

e Read off the intercept on the y-axis and write it as the equivalent logarithm.

f Write an equation for the straight line.

g By transposition, show that T = 365.25R1.50 (or a formula close to it).

h If Saturns orbit has a radius of 9.510, find its period using the formula above. The actual period is

10 759.2 days. Why is there a difference in the results?

i Keplers Law is T 2 = kR3. What is the value of k?

242

Summary

am an = am + n

am an = am n

(am)n = amn

a0 = 1

(ab)n = anbn

n

n

6. a = a

b

bn

To simplify indicial expressions:

when dealing with questions in the form (expression 1) (expression 2), replace expression 2

with its reciprocal and change to

remove brackets using laws 4, 5 and 6

collect plain numbers and terms of the same base

simplify using laws 1, 2 and 3.

index laws

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

powers

1

,a0

an

an = n a

m

n

a n = (a n ) m = ( n a ) m = a m

indicial equations

If am = an, then m = n.

A graphics calculator may be used to solve indicial equations, using the solve function.

Graphs of exponential

functions

The y-intercept is (0, 1).

The asymptote is y = 0 (x-axis).

The domain is R.

The range is R+.

y

1

0

Asymptote

x y=0

Asymptote

x y=0

Reflections:

f ( x) = ax, a > 1; f ( x) = ax, a > 1

1

0

Asymptote

x

y=0

y

f(x) = ax, a > 1

1

1

Asymptote

y=0

243

Translations

f ( x) = ax, a > 1; f ( x) = ax + b, a > 1, b > 0

x+b

y f(x) = a , a > 1, b > 0

x

b f(x) = a , a > 1

b

1

x

Asymptote

y=0

x

y f(x) = a + C, a > 1, C > 0

Asymptote

y=C

C

1

x

Dilations

f ( x) = ax, a > 1; f ( x) = Aax, A > 0, a > 1

f(x) = ax, a > 1

A

1

0

y

4

Asymptote

y=0

f(x) = 22x

f(x) = 2x

x

f(x) = 22

2

(0, 1)

3 2 1

logarithms

244

Asymptote

y=0

If y = ax, then loga ( y) = x, where a = the base, x = the power, index or logarithm, and y = the base

numeral.

Log laws:

loga (m) + loga (n) = log a (mn) m, n > 0

m

loga (m) loga (n) = loga n m, n > 0

loga (mn) = n loga (m)

loga (a) = 1

loga (1) = 0

Solving logarithmic

equations

0 1 2 3 x

m>0

1. simplifying using log laws

2. expressing in index form

3. solving as required.

If ax = b, then x =

loga (ax) = x

log10 (b)

= loga (b)

log10 (a)

log ( x )

a a =x

logarithmic graphs

The logarithmic function f ( x) = loga (x) is the inverse function of the exponential function

f ( x) = ax.

y

y=x

f(x) = loga (x), a > 1

1

0 1

The asymptote is x = 0.

The domain is R+.

The range is R.

245

Chapter review

S h oRT

anS WeR

2 Solve the following equations.

a 4x3 = 500

3 Find the solutions to:

a 9x 1(3x) 6 = 0

4 For the function with the rule f ( x) = 3x 2 + 1:

a find the y-intercept

b state the equation of the asymptote

c sketch the graph of f ( x)

d state the domain and range.

b 8x + 1 22x = 43x 1

b 2x + 2

x + 1

= 3.

a find the y-intercept

b state the equation of the horizontal asymptote

c find a second point on the graph

d sketch the graph of f ( x)

e state the domain and the range of the function.

6 a Evaluate log3

1

.

27

7 Simplify the following.

a 3 log4 (5) 2 log4 (6)

2 log5 ( x 2 )

1

logg5 ( x )

3

a log6 (x) = 3

b 2 logx (125) =

10 If f (x) = 3x:

a sketch the graph of f (x) and label:

i the y-intercept

ii the equation of the asymptote

b sketch the line y = x, use this line to sketch the inverse function g(x) = log3 (x), and label:

i the x-intercept

ii the equation of the asymptote.

11 The number of bacteria in a culture, N, is given by the exponential function N = 1500(20.4t ), where t is

a Find the initial number of bacteria in the culture.

b Find the number of bacteria (to the nearest 100) after: i 5 days

ii 10 days.

c How many days does it take for the number of bacteria to reach 12 000?

mUlTiP l e

Ch oiCe

1 When simplified,

a

x 4 y7

7

5m 4 p2 (5m 2 p6 )3

may be simplified to:

2m 3 p

3m 7 p

m2

3m10

3m 2

a

16

B

C

47 p

50 p16

2 p32

3 The value of

a

246

(2 xy3 )2 3 x 5 y 2

is equal to:

7x3

4y

3x 4 y7

3 y7

B

C

7

x2

1

20

1

2 64 3

5

125

B 5

3x 4

y6

x

y

m15

p29

m 20 p24

25

is:

4

C 5

D 4

e 5

1

a 1

C 1

B 2

a 1 or 16

B 0 or 1

C 2 or 8

D 2

e 5

D 1 or 4

e 0 or 2

x

1

2

a y = 3x 2

B y = 3x + 2

D y = 2x

C y = 3x 2

e y = 2x + 2

7 The graph that best represents this function is:

a

B

y

y

3

D

x

e

0

1

a (3, )

a [1, )

a 3

a 2

e R\{3}

B R

C R+

D (1, )

e (1, )

e log250 (x) = 5

log3 25

is nearest to:

log3 5

B 5

C log5 (250) = x

C 0

D 69

e 1

C 2

D 9

e 20

5

(x 4 )

log7

simplifies to:

log7 ( x )

3

log7 ( x 2 )

a 25

D R

B 7

13 The expression

C R+

12 The value of

B 125

log7 ( x 4 )

B 7

C 1

D 625

e 20

C 5

D 14

a 2

B 1

5

8

D 4

a 3

B [1, )

D logx (250) = 5

y

1

a 3

C 3

D 2

7

11

4

247

a x = 1

D x = 0.2

B x = 0.35

e x=0

C x = 0.604

a y = log16 (x)

(4, 2)

B y = log2 (x)

C y = 2 log8 (x)

D y = log10 (x)

e y = 2 log10 (x)

y

(2, 1)

1

0

a

x

B

0

1

(1, 2)

1

x

(1, 2)

248

1

0

(1, 2)

(2, 1)

0

(2, 1)

i find the y-intercept

ii find the values f (1) and f (1)

iii find the equation of the asymptote

iv sketch the graph of f (x)

v state the domain and range.

i state the transformations to change f (x) to g(x)

ii state the equation of the asymptote

iii sketch the graph of g(x)

iv state the domain and range of g(x).

e x Ten D eD

ReS P o n S e

2 The number of lions, L, in a wildlife park is given by L = 20 (100.1t ), where t is the number of years

since counting started. At the same time the number of cheetahs, C, is given by C = 25(100.05t ).

a Find the number of:

i lions

ii cheetahs

when counting began.

b Find the numbers of each after

i 1 year

ii 18 months.

c Which of the animals is the first to reach a population of 40 and by how long?

d After how many months are the populations equal, and what is this population?

y

3 The graph of the function f : R R, where f (x) = A 102x + 4, is shown at right.

a Give the equation of the horizontal asymptote in the form y = c.

c

b The graph passes through the point (0, 3.8). Use this information to

find the value of A.

(0, 3.8)

c Find the x-intercept, correct to 3 decimal places.

d Find the values of:

ii f (4).

i f (3)

e Find the value of x if f (x) = 5.2.

x

f State the domain and range of f (x).

4 The temperature, T C, of a coffee in a ceramic mug at time t minutes

a Find the initial temperature of the coffee.

b Find the temperature of the coffee, correct to one decimal place, at:

i 2 minutes after it is poured

ii 25 minutes after it is poured.

c Sketch the graph of the equation for 0 t 50.

If the coffee can be comfortably drunk when it is between temperatures of 30 C and 45 C, find:

d the time available to drink the coffee

e the final temperature the coffee will settle to.

5 The number of bacteria (N) in a culture is given by the exponential function N = 12 000(20.125t), where

t is the number of days.

a Find the initial number of bacteria in the culture.

b Find the number of bacteria in the culture after:

i 4 days

ii 2 weeks.

c Find the time taken for the bacteria to reach 32 000.

When the bacteria reach a certain number, they are treated with an anti-bacterial serum. The serum

destroys bacteria according to the exponential function D = N0 3 0.789t, where D is the number

of bacteria remaining after time t and N0 is the number of bacteria present at the time the serum is

added. The culture is considered cured when the number of bacteria drops below 1000.

d If the bacteria are treated with the serum when their numbers reach 32 000, find the number of

days it takes for the culture to be classed as cured.

e How much longer would it take the culture to be cured if the serum is applied after 6 weeks?

DiGiTal DoC

doc-9756

Test Yourself

Chapter 5

249

ICT activities

Chapter opener

DIGITAL DOC

10 Quick Questions doc-9749: Warm up with ten quick questions on

exponential and logarithmic functions (page 217)

5B

TUTORIAL

WE5 eles-1417: Watch a tutorial on writing exponential

expressions with positive indices (page 222)

DIGITAL DOC

SkillSHEET 5.1 doc-9750: Practise working with negative and rational

powers (page 224)

5C

Indicial equations

TUTORIAL

WE10 eles-1418: Watch a tutorial on solving an indicial equation

by using substitution (page 226)

5D

DIGITAL DOCS

SkillSHEET 5.2 doc-9751: Practise substituting values into exponential

functions (page 230)

WorkSHEET 5.1 doc-9752: Write expressions with their simplest index

notation and solve indicial equations (page 231)

5F

5G

Logarithmic graphs

INTERACTIVITY

Logarithmic graphs int-0264: Consolidate your understanding of

logarithmic graphs and their features (page 236)

functions

DIGITAL DOCS

doc-9754: Investigate graphs of logarithmic functions

(page 238)

Extension doc-9755: Practise sketching logarithmic graphs and

identifying rules of functions (page 238)

TUTORIAL

WE26 eles-1419: Watch a tutorial on calculating the price

of gold, where the price is modelled by a logarithmic function

(page 239)

Chapter review

DIGITAL DOC

Test Yourself doc-9756: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your

progress (page 249)

DIGITAL DOC

WorkSHEET 5.2 doc-9753: Simplify logarithmic expressions and solve

logarithmic equations (page 236)

250

5_61_10586_MQ11_MMCAS_3E_05.indd 250

8/05/13 2:45 PM

Answers CHAPTER 5

exPonenTial anD

loGaRiThmiC FUnCTionS

exercise 5a

index laws

1 a x10

c x7y8

x 3 y9

c

2

4 p10 m8

3a

3

a9b5

4

9 xy 4

2

125k 11d 6

24

c B

b x5y6m 1

5a A

6 a x3yn + 1z

bE

7 a 211

b 324

c 55 34

f 2

8a 8

3

24

b 59 049

d 1

e 5

g 16

h 3

c 16

1

d x10

3 a 3

1

xy 2

e 213 38

b3

d 27

2

3

p2

m

1

f

4 x 6 y2

c 4

c

h 4

4E

5 a

7

33

5

x6

e 64m10

7

24

g (x

125

64

g 27

3

+ 1) 2

7 D

exercise 5D

Graphs of exponential

1 a

1 a 5

c 5

e 2

2 a 5

d

3

9

4

2

11

6

y=3

y = 0.5(4x)

y

5

y = 5x

y = 0, (0, 0.5)

c

y = 14 (2x)

1

0

y

10

4

3

1 0

y

y = 4x

y = 2x 1

1

2

b y = 0, (0, 9)

1

0

y = 0, (0, 4)

1

3 a y = 0, (0, 2 )

dom = R, ran = (0, )

y

y = 4( 13 )x

1

4)

y = 0, (0,

y = 2x

y = 10x

1

0

y

y = 3x + 2

y

0

c y = 0, (0, 5)

y

1 1 0

c 1

9

8

1

2

1

4

y = 0, (0, 2)

0.5

2

x3

indicial equations

b4

d2

f 3

b

3

( y 4) 2

1

y2

f x2

y = 2(3x)

y = 3x

exercise 5C

8 B

2 a

b 1.89

d 1.66

212

52

b 2

c 316

3

b

b 1 or 2

d 1 or 2

functions

2 a 22

1

1

2

1

11

b 23x 2

d 25n 6 39n 3

1

1 a 3

6

b 7

10 E

exercise 5B

y = 0.5x

f 5

9 a 22 33n + 4

c 2n 2 76n 3

5

9

10

5

7

10 E

d 222 58

18

6A

9 a 1.58

c 1.65

d 10e9f 2

15

4

b 7

5

d

5 a 0 or 1

c 0 or 1

d p11q2

c 18u11v5

4a

4 a

b 518

d 6m9p17

2 a a5b3

10

3 a 3

3

y = 3x

y = 51 x y

x

5

0

251

c dom = R, ran = R+

d y = 3, (0, 4)

y

y = 2x + 3

2 a 42 = 16

f(x) = 3 2x

e 5 = 625

2

g 3

e y=

2)

(0,

dom = R, ran = (3, )

y

d

g

j

7 a

c

e

g

i

8 a

d dom = R, ran = R+

y = 3x 3

y

x

(1, 45)

45

f(x) = 5 32x

2

3

y

5

y = 2x + 3 1

0

6

log2 (80)

log10 (100) = 2

log2 (4) = 2

log2 (3)

log3 (20)

log10 (250)

10

(2, 10)

4

3

x

f(x) = 2

b E

f(x) = 4 23x + 3

(1, 4)

y

8

(1, 8)

f(x) = 23x

13

7 a 3.32

c 2.26

e 1.56,

d log10 (100x3)

6

f log10 ( 10 x )

3.99

e log b (a) = n

g 30

i 5

k 10

6

2

B

3.459

1.292

0.661

b 5

f 25

b A

( )

c 4

g 2

c E

b

e

h

0.737

3.080

0.423

h5

d 10

h1

dC

c 0.483

f 2.255

i 2.138

7C

logarithmic graphs

b b

c 3y

1

0

d 2.44, 2.86

f log2 1 = 4

16

c 3

6

3

b 1.30

13 C

b log4 (1024) = 5

f 27

2 a

d 4

b 0

c 1

d 2

f 2

g 2

b 9

c 625

d 10

1 a x

logarithms

1 a log 2 (8) = 3

b log 3 (243) = 5

c log 5 (1) = 0

d log 10 (0.01) = 2

12 D

b 4

e 4.070

exercise 5G

y=3

exercise 5e

1

f 6

11 B

6 B

( 13, 5) 7

5

3

c 2

g 6

e 8

3 a

e

4 a

5 a

d

g

b dom = R, ran = R+

( x + 3)2

x 2

b 2

1 a 2

e 6

2 a 8

(3, 4)

h log10

4

2

g log3 (64)

exercise 5F

x

23

y = 102 x + 5

f(x) = 22x

15 a 4

d 3.170

2 x

f dom = R, ran = R+

h y = 5, (0, 105)

4 a A

5 a dom = R, ran = R+

b log2 (1728)

e log3 (4)

0 1

Undefined

log3 (105)

log6 (56)

f log3 (3) = 1

h log4 (5)

e log2 = 1

2

f 5

i 5

l 5

c log5 25

y=6 +3

h

k

b

d

5A

c 3

d log10

4

14 a log3 (81) = 4

f(x) = 2 52

252

10 E

4 C

b 4

e 3

9 a 3

e 3

dom = R, ran = R+

g y = 3, (0, 4)

4

3

2

1

h bx = a

c log5 (3)

f y = 1, (0, 7)

15

f 27 = 128

1

9

3D

6 a 4

0

3,

d 33 = 27

(1, 6)

c 2 1= 2

f(x) = log2(x)

(2, 1)

1

0

(5, 1)

5

f(x) = log5(x)

x

d 5x

some stage.

8 a 80 kg

b i 72.1 kg

c 67 weeks

1

0

d i

d

10

x

12

15

or so, which is unlikely.

9 a i 108 hectares

ii 120 hectares

iii 148 hectares

b 15 h

10 a i 51.18 m ii 51.65 m iii 51.95 m

iv 52.18 m

b

0

2

3

c

11 a

b

c

12 a

b

c

26 weeks

A = P(1.05)n

$25 000

90 C

i 76.3 C

12 min 37 s

120

i 145

20

1 2 3 4

10

h

5

4

3

2

1

b $14 427

c 10 years

1 2 3 4 5

N

N = 120(1.1t)

120

x 0

log10(V)

4.5

4.4

4.3

g

h

i

4 t(years)

possible exponential growth.

c 1.071

d 1.072, 1.082, 1.063. Estimated % annual

growth is 7%.

e

x(year)

4.6

700

iii 213

4.2

ii 176

800

ii 64.7 C

exponential decay.

c 0.789, 0.789, 0.804, 0.800

d The ratio is about 0.795 or a 20.5% rate

of depreciation.

e

h = 5(0.7n), n 0, n J

900

c 11 1 years

30

13 a V = 5000(1.1t)

b $8857.81

c 8 years

14 a P(people)

P = 100.03t 102.845

P = 700 1.072t, i.e. 7.2% growth

similar to d

j P5 = 982 people; 2002 (t = 6),

P6 = 1051

k During 2011

l During 2004

40

67

400

i 1005 ii 6340 iii 16 643 iv 17 146

17.48 months

h = 5(0.7n)

i 1.20 m ii 0.29 m

0

W = 3 log10(8t + 10)

h log10 (P) = 0.03 t + 2.845

i P = 10(0.03t + 2.845)

d = 50 + log10(15n)

W

3

15 a V($000)

52

51

4 a log3 (x) for x > 0

1

b 2 log2 (x) for x > 0

exercise 5h applications of exponential

and logarithmic functions

1 a P = 10 000(2t)

b i 80 000

ii 640 000

c 3.32 months

2 a 15 000

b i 15 528

ii 16 077

c 19 118

d 2022

3 a 3 kg

b i 3.77 kg

ii 5.1 kg

iii 5.86 kg

50

c 5x

1

0

5

4

W = 80(20.015t)

1

0

2.9

2.8

3.0

1

0

4

5

6

3.1

ii 52.8 kg

W

80

d

a

a

a

b

c

a

b

f log10(P)

j

k

l

m 0.099; y-intercept = 4.65

log10 (V ) = 0.099t + 4.65

log10 (V ) = 0.099t log10(10)

+ 4.65 log10(10)

= log10(10 0.099t)

+ log10(104.65)

V = 10 0.099t 104.65

4.65

= 10 (10 0.099)t

= 45 000(0.79)t

The rate of depreciation is about 21%.

In 2010 (x = 5), V = $13 847; in 2011,

V = $10 939.

During 2012

253

16 a

7

10

13

16

19

y y = 3x 2+ 1

T

5000

)

(0,10

9

4000

(2, 2)

3000

1000

(0, 0)

slightly up to the right like a positive

exponential function.

log10 R

0.410

1.943

0.140

2.352

2.563

0.183

2.837

0.716

3.637

log10 (T )

4

3

ChaPTeR ReVieW

ShoRT anSWeR

4 y2

3x 4

2 a x=5

3 a x=1

b x=5

b x = 0 or x = 1

4 a (0, 9 )

b y=1

10

254

1

1 0

6 a 3

b y=

(x +

x

b 12

8 a x = 216

b x=5

14

y = 3x

(1, 3)

y = 3x

(1, 3)

y = log3(x)

(1, 1)

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

x=0

11 a 1500

b i 6000

ii 24 000

c 7.5 days

mUlTiPle ChoiCe

2 C

5 E

3 A

6 C

iv Domain R, range ( 1, )

2 a i 20

ii 25

b i L = 25, C = 28

ii L = 28, C = 30

c Lions by 1 year 1 month

d 31 after 1 year 11 months

3 a y= 4

b A = 0.2

c x = 0.651

d i 3.999 998 ( 4)

ii 19 999 996 ( 2 107)

e 0.831

f Domain R, range (, 4)

4 a 80 C

b i 72.2 C

ii 30.6 C

c T

(3, 1)

01

c x= 3

1 B

4 B

ii y = 1

iii y = 5(x + 3) 1

y = 1

y=x

v Domain R, range R+

b i Horizontal translation of 3 units to the

1)2

ey 3 + 6

7

y

(4, 4)

7 a log4 125

36

iii y = 0

x

y = 3

y=0

E

C

B

B

(1, 5)

(1, 3)

4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 log10 (R)

m 1.50

The y-intercept is 2.5614 or log10 (364.25)

log10 (T ) = 1.50 log10 (R) + 2.5614

log10 (T ) = log10 (364.25 R1.50)

T = 364.3 R1.50

T = 10 711.76 days. The difference may

be due to rounding errors or ignoring the

small effects of other planets and moons

on Saturns orbit.

k = 133 407.5625

9

12

15

18

y

y = 5x

y=0

10 a

D

B

D

C

ii 5 ,

f(x) = 3 2x 3

9 x=

d

e

f

g

1 a i 1

iv

5 a y=0

b y = 3

c (1, 3) (for example)

log10 T

8

11

14

17

exTenDeD ReSPonSe

2000

A

C

A

E

C

d

5 a

b

c

T(x) = 60 (40.05t) + 20

(25, 30.6)

10 20 30 40 50 x

13.2 minutes

e 20 C

12 000

i 16 970

ii 40 363

11.3 days

d 4 da ys e 4 more days

Chapter 6

Circular functions

DiGital DoC

doc-9757

10 Quick Questions

Chapter ContentS

6a

6B

6C

6D

6e

6F

6G

6h

6i

The unit circle

Radians

Symmetry

Identities

Sine and cosine graphs

Tangent graphs

Solving trigonometric equations

Applications

6a

O = opposite

A = adjacent

H = hypotenuse.

These ratios can be memorised using

the term SOH CAH TOA.

sin ( ) =

H

O

O

H

cos ( ) =

A

H

tan ( ) =

O

A

WorkeD exaMple 1

Find the value of x in each of the following triangles. Express lengths correct to 2 decimal places

and angles to 1 decimal place.

a

9

64

4.1

x

x

27

c

x

7.5

8.6

255

Write

think

2

cos (64 ) =

x

9

= 3.95

O

b Use sin ( ) =

H

4.1

sin (27 ) =

x

x=

4.1

sin (27 )

= 9.03

c Use tan ( ) =

DiGital DoCS

doc-9758

SkillSHEET 6.1

trigonometry review i

A

H

x = 9 cos (64 )

keeping plenty of decimal places at this stage.

inverse tan notation.

the inverse tan function of the calculator.

exercise 6a

a Use cos ( ) =

tan ( x ) =

O

A

8.6

7.5

= 1.146 67

x = tan 1 (1.14667)

= 48.9

1 We1a Find the value of x in each of the following, correct to 2 decimal places.

a

b

c

10

x

18

doc-9759

SkillSHEET 6.2

trigonometry review ii

12

x

81

a

b

8

54

y

36

10.6

32

y

y

72

6.8

2.4

3 We1c Find the value of a in each of the following. Give answers correct to the nearest tenth of a degree.

b

c

a

a

8

2.5

9

6.4

10.2

a

a

3.7

256

a

10 cm

a x is nearest to:

a 60 cm

21.98 cm

20

B 22 cm

C 7.5 cm

D 8 cm

e 9 cm

B 64

C 37

D 26

e 39

B 6 cm

C 5 cm

D 10 cm

e 7 cm

a 53

c y is nearest to:

a 8 cm

a 0.000 29

D 1.32

B 0.0166

e 0.309

C 3.076

6 MC If 0 < a < 90 and cos a < 0.5, then which of the following is correct?

a a < 30

D a < 45

B a > 30

e a > 60

C a < 60

7 A tree 5 metres tall casts a shadow so that the angle of elevation from the end of the shadow to the top

5m

35

8 A mathematically able tree removalist measures the angle of elevation of two points on a diseased

section of a large eucalypt at a distance of 40 m from the base of the tree. If the angles are 20 and 24

respectively, how tall is the diseased section of the tree?

Diseased section

20 24

40 m

9 A 60-metre flying fox cable is set up to cross a river so that it will drop 10 metres vertically. What is the

10 A soccer player has a shot for goal from the position shown in the figure below right. Find the scoring

angle, .

Goal

5m

7.3 m

12 m

257

6B

triangle. But trigonometric functions can be defined over a larger domain

by considering their definition inside a unit circle. This is a circle with

centre (0, 0) and a radius of 1 unit.

A point P (x, y) is a point on the circle. Its location can also be defined

as P (), where is the anticlockwise rotation from the positive x-axis. A

negative value denotes a clockwise rotation.

Using the SOH, CAH definitions in the diagram:

x

cosine () = = x

1

y

sine () = = y

1

These may be abbreviated:

x = cos ()

y = sin ()

y

1

P( )

1

0 x

1x

Note: As increases, the x- and y-coordinates oscillate between 1 and +1, so 1 sin () +1 and

1 cos () +1 for all .

The tangent line on a unit circle is the line that is a tangent to the circle at the point (1, 0).

Tangent (), or tan () for short, is the height at which a line along an angle hits the tangent line. The

diagrams below show tan for angles in the first and second quadrants.

y

tan ( )

x

tan ()

sin ( )

y

.

Note: Tangent (), or tan (), may also be defined as the ratio x . That is, tan ( ) =

cos ( )

This formula and its derivation will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter.

Quadrants

The coordinate axes divide the unit circle into four quadrants as shown in the diagram below left.

The angle measurements, in degrees, between the quadrants are shown in the diagram below right.

y

y

90

2nd quadrant

1st quadrant

3rd quadrant

180

4th quadrant

270

258

x

0 or 360

Therefore:

quadrant 2 is where 90 < < 180

quadrant 3 is where 180 < < 270

quadrant 4 is where 270 < < 360.

y

sine is negative in quadrants 3 and 4.

Since x = cos (), cosine is positive in quadrants 1 and 4 and

cosine is negative in quadrants 2 and 3.

y

Since tan ( ) = , tangent is positive in quadrants 1 and 3 and

x

tangent is negative in quadrants 2 and 4.

The diagram at right summarises which of the trigonometric

functions is positive in each quadrant.

The word CAST will assist in recalling this.

You could also use a short phrase, such as All Stations To Croydon.

Sine

positive

All

positive

Tangent

positive

Cosine

positive

WorkeD exaMple 2

a sin (a) > 0 and tan (a) < 0

b sin (a) < 0 and cos (a) > 0.

think

Write

a Quadrant 2

b Quadrant 4

exact values

Calculated trigonometric values (sin, cos and tan) of most angles

are rational approximations correct to several decimal places.

However, for a few particular angles, exact trigonometric

values can be determined. These include multiples of 90 and the

ratios of isosceles and equilateral triangles.

Exact values can be determined for 0 and any multiple of 90

using this diagram and the fact that y = sin (), x = cos () and

y

tan () .

x

The isosceles triangle with equal sides of one

unit each gives the exact trigonometric values

for 45.

The hypotenuse is calculated using

Pythagoras theorem:

hypotenuse =

12

0 or 360

x

(1, 0)

(0, 1)

270

45

2

1

45

SOH

sin (45) =

180

(1, 0)

(0, 1)

+ 12

= 2

So, using

y

90

1

2

1

2

2

2

2

2

CAH

TOA

1

cos (45) =

2

=

2

2

tan (45) =

1

1

=1

259

The equilateral triangle with each side 2 units long, shown in the figure below, has been bisected.

Line of bisection

30

2

60

1

line of bisection = 22 12

= 3

So, using

SOH

sin (30 ) =

CAH

1

2

TOA

1

3

1

3

=

3

3

3

2

cos (30) =

tan (30) =

3

3

3

tan (60 ) =

1

=

sin (60 ) =

3

2

cos (60 ) =

1

2

= 3

These exact values are summarised in the table below.

Angle ( )

0

sin ()

0

cos ()

1

tan ()

0

30

1

2

3

2

3

3

45

2

2

2

2

60

3

2

1

2

90

Undefined

WorkeD exaMple 3

a sin (90 )

b cos (180 )

c tan (270 ).

think

Write

2

2

sin (90 ) = 1

b

260

y

x on the unit circle.

where = 270.

The value of

1

0

is not defined.

cos (180 ) = 1

c

tan (270 ) =

WorkeD exaMple 4

a sin (45 )

b cos (60 )

c tan (30 ).

think

Write

O

sin ( ) = .

H

45

1

45

1

a sin (45) =

1

2

1

2

2

2

b cos (60) =

A

cos ( ) = .

H

2

2

1

2

30

3

60

1

c Read the value from the table, or

O

tan ( ) = .

A

30

3

3

60

1

exercise 6B

c tan (30 ) =

3

3

a sin (40)

f sin (260)

b sin (65)

c sin (110)

d sin (160)

g sin (215)

h sin (321)

i sin (425)

Compare your answers with those found using a calculator.

e sin (230)

j sin (36)

a cos (27)

f cos (295)

State whether the following values are positive (P) or negative (N).

b cos (68)

c cos (115)

d cos (200)

g cos (402)

h cos (83)

i cos (240)

Compare your answers with those found using a calculator.

e cos (250)

j cos (157)

b tan (75)

c tan (118)

d tan (166)

g tan (308)

h tan (500)

i tan (45)

Compare your answers with those found using a calculator.

e tan (199)

j tan (137)

a tan (12)

f tan (255)

DiGital DoC

doc-9760

the unit circle

a sin (a) < 0 and tan (a) > 0

b sin (a) > 0 and cos (a) > 0.

5 MC

a If 0 < a < 360, sin (a) < 0 and cos (a) < 0, then which one of the following is true?

a 0 < a < 90

D 270 < a < 360

e 0 < a < 180

a 0 < a < 90

D cos (a) > 0

e 270 < a < 360

a one solution

D three solutions

B no solution

e four solutions

C two solutions

a no solutions

D one solution

B two solutions

e four solutions

C three solutions

b If 0 < a < 360, sin (a) > 0 and tan (a) < 0, then which one of the following is true?

c Given that 0 < a < 360, then the equation cos (a) = 1 has:

d If 0 < a < 360, then the equation sin (a) = cos (a) has:

261

a 60

D 0

B 150

e 90

6 We3

Find:

a cos (180)

f cos (360)

7 We4

DiGital DoC

doc-9761

WorkSHEET 6.1

b sin (270)

g tan (270)

c tan (360)

h tan (180)

d sin (180)

i sin (630)

e cos (270)

j cos (720)

c tan (30)

h cos (0)

d cos (60)

i sin (90)

e sin (30)

j tan (90)

a sin (60)

f tan (45)

6C

C 45

b cos (45)

g sin (45)

radians

You are used to measuring angles in degrees (), and will recall

that there are 360 in a circle. An alternative unit for angle measurement

is the radian (c). This is given on the calculator as (r).

Radians are derived from the circumference of the unit

circle, that is, a circle of radius 1 unit. In a unit circle, the

circumference = 2r = 2(1) = 2 units. So, the angle swept in

one revolution is equivalent to 2 c.

Therefore 2 c = 360, so:

c

180

1 =

c = 180

1c =

180

ius

rad

1 radian

An arc length of

one radian is 1c.

These formulas may be used to convert degrees to radians and vice versa.

WorkeD exaMple 5

a 120

b 270 using a CAS calculator

think

a 1 Multiply 120 by

Write/DiSplaY

c

.

180

a 120 = 120

2 c

3

3

2

common factor, 60.

c

180

b 270

2

270 =

3 c

2

WorkeD exaMple 6

3 c

a

using a CAS calculator

4

b 0.8 c

think

262

Write/DiSplaY

3

4

b 1 Multiply 0.8 c by

= 135

3 c

= 135

4

180

.

c

b 0.8 c = 0.8

180

Cancel out c.

= 0.8 180

Simplify.

= 144

When working in degrees, all angles should be expressed to the nearest tenth of a degree unless

otherwise stated.

WorkeD exaMple 7

a 57.2 to radians, correct to 3 decimal places

b 2.75c to the nearest tenth of a degree.

think

Write

a 1 Multiply 57.2 by

2

a 57.2 = 57.2

180

.

c

180

= 0.998c

b 1 Multiply 2.75 by

2

c

.

180

b 2.75 = 2.75

180

= 157.6

Since c = 180,

c

= 90

2

c

= 30

6

c

= 45

4

and

c

= 60

3

Angle ( c)

sin ()

cos ()

tan ()

1

2

3

2

1

2

2

2

1

2

3

2

1

2

1

3

2

2

3

3

1

3

Undefined

263

c

4

45

5

c

6 15

35

0

12

3

c

4 1

60 c

3

c

2

3

90 2

30

0 0c

c 180

x

360 2 c

330 1

1 c

0

21

7

c

4

c

5

3

c

3

270

2

4 c

3 24

25

31

5

0

30

5

c

4 2

c

7

6

( 6 sectors shaded)

include radians as shown.

30

2

2

exercise 6C

radians

45

e 3.6

2

3

60

a 30

b 45

d 20

e 50

g 270

h 360

j 225

k 420

2 We6 Convert the following angles to degrees.

c

f

i

l

2

9

g

4

c

60

90

150

300

d

11

6

h 0.375

a 85

C 1.92c

2

3

5

4

e 3.84c

e 135

a 3

4

3

C 250

a

C 50

2

5

6 We7a Use a calculator to convert the following angles to radians, correct to 3 decimal places.

a 49

b 78.2

c 125

d 191.4

e 234.6

f 327.5

g 170.25

h 216.8

264

7 We7b Use a calculator to convert the following radian measurements to degrees, to the nearest tenth

of a degree.

a 0.35

e 15.6

8

b 1.47

f 2.71

c 3.142

g 4.06

a sin

b cos

4

3

e tan

6D

cos

6

d 0.958

h 8

c tan

d sin

g sin

h cos

Symmetry

The unit circle can be divided into symmetrical sections, as shown in the diagram below.

Relationships between the circular functions sine, cosine and tangent can be established, based

on these symmetrical properties.

For simplicity, assume is an acute angle, although the following properties hold for any .

interaCtiVitY

int-0265

Symmetry

P( )

1

y

P( ) = (cos ( ), sin ( ))

= (x, y)

c x

1

P( + )

0 or 2 c

x 1

P(2 )

1

c

3

Quadrant 2

By symmetry:

sin ( ) = y = sin ( )

cos ( ) = x = cos ( )

y

tan ( ) = = tan ( )

x

Quadrant 3

By symmetry:

sin ( + ) = y = sin ( )

cos ( + ) = x = cos ( )

tan ( + ) =

y

= tan ( )

x

Quadrant 1

As already seen:

sin ( ) = y

cos ( ) = x

y

tan ( ) =

x

Quadrant 4

By symmetry:

sin (2 ) = y = sin ( )

cos (2 ) = x = cos ( )

y

= tan ( )

tan (2 ) =

x

degree symbolis given.

Provided an angle is expressed as or 2 , the trigonometric

function remains the same, only the sign (+ or ) may change. Use this

diagram to determine the sign.

265

WorkeD exaMple 8

a

b

c

d

If cos () = 0.44, find cos (360 ).

If tan () = 1.72, find tan ( ).

If cos () = 0.83, find cos ( + ).

tUtorial

eles-1420

Worked example 8

think

Write/DraW

180

sin (180 + )

+ )

(180

sin ( )

x

= 0.93

y

S

cos ( )

x

cos (360 )

(36

0

cos(360 ) = cos ()

= 0.44

y

tan ( )

x

tan ( )

tan( ) = tan ()

= 1.72

y

cos ( + )

+

266

cos ( )

C

cos( + ) = cos ()

= 0.83

WorkeD exaMple 9

a tan (150 )

b sin (330 )

tUtorial

eles-1421

Worked example 9

7

d tan

6

c cos

think

Write/DraW

2

the first quadrant.

(18

30

or

3

.

3

3

3

A

30

sin (30)

x

sin (360 30)

(36

0)

c 1 Express cos

.

as cos

2

or

the first quadrant.

2

tan (30)

= tan (180 30)

x

A

30

1

2

3 =

cos

4

4

c cos

the first quadrant.

cos ( 4 )

C

cos ( 4 )

4

4

4

cos = cos

4

4

1

2

or

2

.

2

1

2

or

2

2

267

7 as tan + .

d 1 Express tan

6

7 = tan +

6

d tan

quadrant.

6

6

6

tan (6 )

= tan ( + 6 )

x

tan = tan

6

6

1

3

3

.

3

or

1

3

3

3

or

WorkeD exaMple 10

3

If sin

= 0.924 , evaluate each of the following.

8

11

.

8

a sin

b sin

think

Write

3

8 3

5

a 1 Express sin

= sin .

as sin

8

3

3

Using symmetry express sin as sin .

8

3

= sin

8

3

Replace sin with 0.924.

8

= 0.924

3

11 as sin 8 + 3 =

b 1 Express sin

sin + .

268

11 =

sin

8

b sin

+ 3

3

3

By symmetry express sin + as sin .

8

3

= sin

8

3

Replace sin with 0.924.

8

= 0.924

Symmetry

1 We 8

If sin ( ) = 0.63, find:

a sin (180 )

b sin (180 + )

2

exercise 6D

DiGital DoC

doc-9760

the unit circle

3

5 =

sin

8

8

a sin

a cos ( )

a tan (2 )

c sin ( )

d sin (360 ).

b cos ( + )

c cos (2 )

d cos ( ).

b tan ()

c tan ( + )

d tan ( ).

Given that sin (a) = 0.3, cos (b) = 0.7 and tan (c) = 0.9, write down the value of each of the

following.

a sin (180 + a)

b cos (180 b)

c tan (360 c)

d sin (a )

e sin (180 a)

f cos (b )

g cos (360 b)

h tan (180 c)

i tan (180 + c)

5 We9a, b

Find the exact value of each of the following.

a sin (150 )

b cos (135 )

c tan (240 )

e sin (240 )

f cos (210 )

g tan (120 )

i cos (60 )

j sin (135 )

k tan (180 )

6 We9c, d

5

a cos

4

5

7

b sin

c tan

4

6

d sin

7

3

tan

6

g sin

h cos

11

tan

6

sin

4

k cos ()

e cos

i

d tan (330 )

h sin (300 )

l sin (270 )

7

6

sin

2

If sin = 0.383, cos = 0.924 and tan = 0.414, evaluate each of the following.

8

8

8

9

17

7

a sin

b cos

c tan

8

8

8

7 We 10

d cos

e sin

7

8

15

tan

8

Given that sin (75) = 0.966, cos (75) = 0.259 and tan (75) = 3.732, find the value of each of the

following.

a sin (105 )

b cos (255 )

c tan (285 )

d sin (255 )

e cos (435 )

f tan (75 )

9

If sin (0.7) = 0.644, cos (0.7) = 0.765 and tan (0.7) = 0.842, find the value of each of the following.

(Hint: = 3.142, approximately.)

a sin (2.442)

b cos (3.842)

c tan (5.584)

d sin (0.7)

8

6e

identities

of a variable or variables. For example, a simple identity is x + x = 2x.

P( )

1

Consider the right-angled triangle in the unit circle shown.

Applying Pythagoras theorem to this triangle gives the identity:

sin2 ( ) + cos2 ( ) = 1

sin ()

cos ( )

the tangent

Consider the unit circle on the right.

A tangent is drawn at A and extended to the point C, so that OC

is an extension of OP. This tangent is called tangent ( ), which is

abbreviated to tan ( ).

Triangles ODP and OAC are similar, because they have their

three corresponding angles equal.

tan ( )

sin ( )

It follows that:

=

(corresponding sides)

1

cos ( )

or tan ( ) =

sin ( )

cos ( )

y

1

B

P( ) C

1

sin ( )

cos ( )

D 1A

tan ( )

x

269

complementary functions

Consider the unit circle shown on the right.

The triangles OAB and ODC are congruent because they have all

corresponding angles equal and their hypotenuses equal (radius = 1).

Therefore all corresponding sides are equal and it follows that:

sin (90 ) = cos ( ) = x

and cos (90 ) = sin ( ) = y

or

1

sin

= cos ( )

2

and

y

1

D

x

cos = sin ( )

2

C(90 )

1

B( )

y

A1

Though not required for this course, you may like to try to find the complementary function for

tangent, that is, tan (90 ) = ?

WorkeD exaMple 11

If sin () = 0.4 and 0 < < 90, find, correct to 3 decimal places:

a cos ()

b tan ().

think

Write

2

places.

the first quadrant.

a sin2 ( ) + cos2 ( ) = 1

(0.4)2 + cos2 ( ) = 1

sin ( )

.

cos ( )

cos2 ( ) = 1 0.16

= 0.84

cos ( ) = 0.84

= 0.917 or 0.917

For 0 < < 90, cos is positive

so cos ( ) = 0.917.

b tan ( ) =

sin ( )

cos ( )

0.4

0.917

= 0.436

=

WorkeD exaMple 12

think

270

angle could be in either the first or fourth quadrants.

Write

sin2 ( ) + cos2 ( ) = 1

sin2 ( ) + (0.75)2 = 1

sin2 ( ) = 1 0.5625

= 0.4375

sin ( ) = 0.4375

= 0.661 or 0.661

WorkeD exaMple 13

think

Write

2

(complementary functions).

sin (a ) = sin (48 )

a = 48

b cos (a ) = sin (73 )

2

cos (a ) = cos (17 )

a = 17

WorkeD exaMple 14

2

If 0 < a < 90 and cos (a) = 3 , find the exact values of:

a sin (a)

b tan (a)

c cos (90 a)

d sin (180 + a).

think

tUtorial

eles-1422

Worked example 14

Write/DraW

the hypotenuse (H = 3).

a

H=3

A=2

O= 5

3

opposite side (O) to a.

Substitute O = 5 and H = 3.

O

.

H

O

.

A

Substitute O = 5 and A = 2.

2

5

.

3

sin (180 + a ) =

sin

(a ).

5

.

3

O2 = 32 22

=5

O= 5

a sin (a) =

O

H

5

3

b tan (a) =

O

A

5

2

5

3

5

3

(Note: The above results could have been obtained using the identities directly.)

271

exercise 6e

identities

30

81

129

193

260

47

350

sin2 ( )

cos2 ( )

sin2 ( ) + cos2 ( )

2 We11a If sin ( ) = 0.8 and 0 < < 90, find, correct to 3 decimal places:

a cos ( )

b tan ( ).

3 We11b If cos ( ) = 0.3 and 0 < < 90, find, correct to 3 decimal places:

a sin ( )

b tan ( ).

4 We12 Find all possible values of the following, correct to 3 decimal places.

a cos (x ) if sin (x ) = 0.4

b cos (x ) if sin (x ) = 0.7

c sin (x ) if cos (x ) = 0.24

d sin (x ) if cos (x ) = 0.9

5

b sin (x )

a c

c cos (x ).

a b

b cos (x)

c tan (x).

12

a cos (x) if sin (x) = 13 and 90 < x < 180

b sin (x) if cos (x) =

c cos (x) if sin (x) =

2 7

x

5

7

25

9 We13

Find a if 0 a 90 and:

a sin (a ) = cos (20 )

b sin (a ) = cos (58 )

d cos (a ) = sin (82 )

e sin (8 ) = cos (a )

g sin (89 ) = cos (a )

h cos (17 ) = sin (a ).

36

c

54

b

f cos (44 ) = sin (a )

sin ( )

0.8

0.28

cos ( )

0.6

0.96

tan ( )

272

bc

3

3

< x < 2 .

d sin (x) if cos (x) = 2 and

2

8 MC

Examine the diagram at right and answer the following questions.

a sin (54 ) is equal to:

a cos (54 )

B cos (36 )

C tan (36 )

D sin (36 )

e tan (54 )

b cos (54 ) is equal to:

a tan (36 )

B cos (36 )

C tan (54 )

D sin (36 )

e sin (54 )

c tan (36 ) is equal to:

cos (36 )

sin (36 )

a

B sin (36 ) cos (36 )

C

sin (36 )

cos (36 )

D sin (54 ) cos (54 )

e sin (36 ) + cos (36 )

d tan (54 ) is equal to:

cos (36 )

cos (54 )

a

B sin (54) cos (54 )

C

sin (36 )

sin (54 )

D sin (54 ) cos (54 )

e sin (36 ) cos (36 )

10

0.77

0.3

3.18

0.573

0.447

1.207

0.7

11 We14

a

d

g

j

sin (b )

tan (a )

sin (90 a )

sin (180 a )

b

e

h

k

2

,

5

tan (b )

sin (c )

cos (90 b )

cos (180 + b )

the graph of y = sin (x)

11

,

5

c

f

i

l

find:

cos (a )

cos (c )

sin (90 c )

tan (180 + c ).

graphs

To get an idea of the shape of the y = sin (x) graph, we can construct a table of values, plot the points and

join them with a smooth line.

The values for the table can be generated from the unit circle. You may recall that continuing

on the unit circle past 2, the sine values begin repeating themselves. For example,

9

sin = sin 2 + = sin . We have gone exactly once around the circle from .

4

4

4

4

x

y = sin (x)

3

4

5

4

3

2

7

4

0.71

0.71

0.71

0.71

0.71

0.71

interaCtiVitY

int-0251

Sine and cosine graphs

y

( 2 , 1)

1

0.71

(, 0)

( 4 ,

(0, 0)

0

2 4

( 34 , 0.71)

( 2 , 1)

0.71)

y = sin (x)

( 3

, 0.71)

4

(2, 0)

( , 0)

( 5

, 0.71)

4

0.71

( 74 , 0.71)

( 32 , 1)

You can verify the shape of this curve using a CAS calculator. It can be observed that the curve repeats

itself in cycles after an interval of 2 units. Due to this repetition it is called a periodic function; the

period is the interval between repetitions. The

y

period of y = sin (x) is 2 radians (or 360).

When dealing with graphs of circular functions

Period

such as sin (x), unless otherwise stated, we

assume that the units for x are radians.

Amplitude

The mean position of the graph of y = sin (x) is

y = 0 and the maximum and minimum values are

x

1 and 1 respectively. The distance from the mean

Mean

position to the maximum (or minimum) position

position

is called the amplitude of the periodic function.

Period

The amplitude of y = sin ( x) is 1 unit.

As for the graph of y = sin (x), the graph of y = cos (x) can be established by first completing a table

of values.

x

3

4

3

4

5

4

3

2

7

4

y = cos (x)

0.71

0.71

0.71

0.71

0.71

0.71

273

axes and joined with a smooth curve, the

graph looks like the diagram at right.

It can be seen that the basic shape of

the curve y = cos (x) is the same as that

of y = sin (x). It is also a periodic function

with:

period = 2

amplitude = 1.

y

y = cos (x)

(4 , 0.71)

1 (0, 1)

(4 , 0.71)

( 2 , 0)

( 2 , 0)

( 34, 0.71)

( , 1)

2 4

0.71 3

1 ( 4 , 0.71)

(2 , 1)

(74 , 0.71)

0.71)

( 32 , 0)

3

( 54 , 0.71)

( , 1)

Note: The graph of y = cos (x) is exactly the same as that of y = sin (x) translated units or 90 to

2

the left.

In general, the graphs of y = a sin (bx) + c and y = a cos (bx) + c (for a, b, c R) have the following

properties:

1. Amplitude = | a |

2

360

2. Period =

(or

)

b

b

3. Mean position at y = c

4. Maximum = c + a and minimum = c a

1

5. When c = 0, x-intercepts for cosine are at x =

and every 2 period to the left and right of these;

2

b

1

x-intercepts for sine are at x = and every 2 period to the left and right of these.

b

Note: | a | means the size or magnitude of a, expressed as a positive number, as the amplitude must

always be positive.

If a < 0, then the resulting graph is a reflection in the x-axis of the graph for which a > 0. For example,

the graph of y = 2 sin (x) is the reflection of y = 2 sin (x) in the x-axis (think of the x-axis as a plane or

flat mirror).

WorkeD exaMple 15

State i the period and ii the amplitude of each of the following functions.

a y

b y = 1.5 sin (4 x)

4

4

think

2

maximum position is 4 units.

274

Write

a i Period = 3

ii Amplitude = 4

b i Period =

2

where b = 4

b

Substitute b = 4.

2

4

Simplify.

ii Amplitude = | 1.5 |

= 1.5

WorkeD exaMple 16

Sketch the graphs of the following functions and state i the period and

ii the amplitude of each.

2

x x [0, 12]

a y = 4 cos

b y = sin (4 x) x [0, 2]

3

3

think

tUtorial

eles-1607

Worked example 16

Write/DraW

a i Period =

2

b

2

Substitute b = 3 .

= 6

written as a positive value.

imagine horizontal guidelines at y = 4

and 4.

period (every 6) along the x-axis, for

x [0, 12], showing key x-values.

1

3

ii Amplitude = 4

y

4

0

6 152 9

21

12 x

b i Period =

2

b

Substitute b = 4.

2

4

written as a positive value.

or imagine horizontal guidelines at

2

2

y = 3 and 3 .

ii Amplitude =

y

2

3

0

23

period (every 2 ) along the x-axis, for

x [0, 2].

these on the graph.

2

3

2 x

275

WorkeD exaMple 17

a the pe

riod

b the amplitude

c the maximum and minimum values.

think

Write/DiSplaY

a Period =

2

b

2

2

Substitute b = 2.

2

the amplitude is 1, mark or imagine horizontal

guidelines at y = +1 and y = 1.

Sketch one cycle of the graph every period

(every ) along the x-axis, for x [0, 2].

y

1

0

3.

y=

The maximum and minimum are at

c + a and c a.

2 x

translate y = cos (2x) vertically to this position.

c Maximum = 3 + 1

= 2

Minimum = 3 1

= 4

y

1

0

1

2

3

4

5

WorkeD exaMple 18

2

think

276

the graph.

b Amplitude = 1

Write/DraW

, where b = .

2

b

The amplitude is 2.

x-axis from 2 to 4 (the specified domain).

Period =

=4

Amplitude = 2

2 x

10

is 2.

x

y = 2 cos

2

(4, 2)

( )

y

2

of y = a cos (bx).

cycle of the cosine function forward to (4, 2).

(2, 2)

(2, 2).

The x-intercepts are halfway between the

maximum and minimum points.

exercise 6F

State i the period and ii the amplitude for each of the following functions.

1 We15a

a

y

2

0

1.5

y

3

3

2

h

y

2.5

0

2.5

DiGital DoCS

doc-9762

Sine graphs

doc-9763

Cosine graphs

3 x

4

g

y

2

y

4

y

1.5

2

d

y

0.5

8

6

4

2

0.5

2

2 We15b

State i the period and ii the amplitude of each of the following functions.

a y = sin (x)

b y = 3 sin (x)

c y = 2 sin (2x)

d y = 4 sin (3x)

g y = 0.4 cos

x +1

3

y = sin (6x) + 4

e y=

1

2

x

sin

3

h y = 3 cos (5x)

k y=

1

5

sin ( x )

f

i

y = 2 cos (4x)

x

y = 2.5 cos

4

x

cos

2

y=

4

Sketch the graph of the following functions, showing one complete cycle, and state i the

period and ii the amplitude of each.

x

a y = sin (2x)

b y = 2 cos (x)

c y = 3 sin

2

3 We16

d y = 4 cos (2x)

e y = 2 sin (3x)

x

g y = 5 sin

h y = 4 cos

3

j y = 3 sin (2x)

x

2

2

3

x

cos

2

y=

y = 2 cos (4x)

277

y

3

3

a The amplitude of the function is:

B 3

D 3

e 6

D 6

e 3

C

2

c The equation of the function could be:

a y = 3 sin (2x)

B y = 3 sin (x)

x

D y = 3 sin (2x)

e y = 3 sin

2

a 2

C y = 3 cos (2x)

x

2

x

D y = cos

2

a y = 2 cos (x)

B y = 2 sin

C y = 2 cos (x)

e

x

y = 2 cos

2

1.5

2

3 x

0

1.5

2

y

4 x

1

0

5

e

y

4

3

2

x

6

278

b f (x) = 3 cos x for x [4, 4]

c f (x) = 2 sin (3x) for x [0, 2]

d f (x) =

3

2

cos (2x) for x [0, 2]

8 We17 Sketch the graph of the following functions and state i the period, ii the amplitude, and iii the

a y = cos (2x) + 1

x [0, 2]

x

c y = 2 cos + 3

x [0, 2]

2

b y = 2 sin (x) 2

x [2, 2]

x

d y = sin 1

x [0, 6]

a f : [, 2] R, f (x) =

3

2

2x

sin

3

x

3

3 x

d f : [0, 8] R, f (x) = 3 cos

10 For each of the functions graphed below, state the rule using full function notation.

a

y

3

y

f(x)

5

2

f(x)

0

5 x

5

2

1.8

f(x)

0

f(x)

f(x)

f(x)

x

13 0

y

0

2.4

2.4

1.8

3

2

2 10

2

3

4

2 x

DiGital DoC

doc-9764

WorkSHEET 6.2

279

6G tangent graphs

the graph of y = tan (x)

To manually plot the graph of y = tan (x), the following table of values may be used.

x

y = tan (x)

3

4

5

4

3

2

7

4

Undefined

Undefined

Undefined

Note: Multiples of 8 could be used to give more points to plot and a clearer indication of the shape of

the graph.

sin ( x )

Note the presence of some undefined y-values. This is because y =

and cos (x) = 0 at these

cos

(x)

values.

These undefined values are shown as vertical asymptotes at the given value of x for which they occur.

(An asymptote is a line that a graph approaches, but never quite reaches. In the case of y = tan (x), y

approaches (but never actually reaches) and + for particular x-values.)

The graph of y = tan (x) is shown in the figure below.

Vertical asymptotes

y

y = tan (x)

5

3

(

, 1)

( 4 , 1) ( 4, 1)

4

1

( , 0)

(, 0)

(0, 0)

0

2 4

4 2

1

( 34, 1)

(2 , 0)

2

1)

3

2

( 74,

3

1. It has vertical asymptotes through x =

, ,

,

2 2 2

2. It has no amplitude.

3. It has a period of .

4. It has a range of R (the set of all real numbers).

In general, the graph of y = a tan (bx) + c has the following properties.

y

2b

2b

2b

3

2b

1. No amplitude

2. Period = .

b

3. When c = 0, the graph has x-intercepts at x = and every period to the left and right of these.

b

4. It has asymptotes at x =

and x =

and every period to the left and right of these.

2b

2b

(2n + 1)

5. The following formula for asymptotes applies: xasymptote =

, where n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

2b

6. Mean position at y = c. The graph is translated vertically to c.

280

WorkeD exaMple 19

For each function below, state i the period and ii the equation of the two asymptotes closest to the

y-axis.

1

x + 3

a y = 2 tan (4 x)

b y = 3 tan

2

think

Write

a i Period =

Substitute b = 4.

asymptotes to the y-axis.

Substitute b = 4.

x=

24

Simplify.

x=

ii Asymptotes: x =

b i Period =

1

.

2

Substitute b =

Simplify.

asymptotes to the y-axis.

Substitute b =

Simplify.

2b

1

2

= 2

1

.

2

ii Asymptotes: x =

x=

2b

1

2 2

x=

WorkeD exaMple 20

x

over [2, 4] without a

Sketch the graph of the function y = 3 tan

2

CAS calculator.

think

tUtorial

eles-1423

Worked example 20

Write

.

2

2

=2

by substituting b = into x = .

2

2b

Asymptotes: x =

the period, 2 units, to/from the first asymptotes,

x = 1.

x = 1 + 2 + 2 etc.

Period =

= 1

281

establish two definite points on the graph.

1

When x = 2 , y = 3 tan

4

=31

=3

When x = 2 , y = 3 tan

4

= 3 1

= 3

x

y = 3 tan

2

( )

x = 1, x = 3.

standard tan curve.

2 1 2

1

2

CAS calculator.

tangent graphs

exercise 6G

DiGital DoC

doc-9765

tangent graphs

x = 1, x = 3.

State i the period and ii the equation of the two asymptotes closest to the y-axis for each of

the following.

x

x

a y = tan (2x)

b y = tan (3x)

c y = tan

d y = tan

3

2

x

x

e y = 3 tan (x)

f y = 2 tan

g y = tan

h y = 2 tan (2x)

4

2

i y = tan (x) 1

j y = tan (2x) 3

1 We19

2 Sketch the graph of each function in question 1, showing the first two cycles.

3 We20

B

C

D

4

2

MC

a 4

4 MC

Use the graph to answer questions a and b.

a The period of the function is equal to:

C

2

e 3

b The equation of the function is:

a

C y = 1.5 tan (2x)

e y = 3 tan (x)

B

D 2

1.5

0

x

2

D y = 1.5 tan (3x)

e 2

B y = 1.5 tan

5 We20 Sketch the graphs of each of the following functions over the given domain.

a y = 3 tan

DiGital DoC

doc-9766

Investigation

tangent graphs

282

x , [0, 2]

2

2 x , [0, 5]

d y = 1.8 tan

b y = tan

x , [0, 3]

3

c y = 2 tan

x , [0, 2]

3

6h

y

1

1

2

3

2

5

2

7

2

y = 8 sin ( )

1

1

By drawing a horizontal line through y = , it can be seen that there are four solutions in the domain

2

[0, 4].

The solution for 0 < x < , that is, in the first quadrant, is (from our knowledge of exact values).

2

4

Note: For inexact solutions in the first quadrant, use a calculator.

The sine function is also positive in the second quadrant.

y

3

Using sine symmetry, the next solution is =

4

4

(different symmetry properties are used for cosine and

sin ( 4 )

sin ( 4 )

S

A

tangent). Since the graph is periodic, any further solutions are

4

found by adding (or subtracting) the period (in this case 2) to

x

(or from) each of the first two solutions.

T

C

For example, two further solutions are:

3

+ 2 and

+ 2

4

4

9

11

=

and

4

4

3 9

11

Therefore, four solutions in the specified domain are ,

,

and

.

4 4 4

4

However, if a domain is not specified, there are an infinite number of solutions, as multiples of 2

3

can be added (or subtracted) indefinitely to (or from) and

. In this situation a general solution is

4

4

obtained where the solutions are in terms of a parameter, n, where n is an integer, i.e. n Z.

The general solution for the first quadrant solution x = becomes x = 2n + where n Z.

4

4

3

3

becomes x = 2n +

The general solution for the second quadrant solution x =

where n Z.

4

4

3

Note that the general solution x = 2n +

can be expressed as x = 2n + = (2n + 1) .

4

4

4

Substituting different integer values of n will give specific solutions as shown in the table below.

x = 2n +

, n Z

4

x = 2n +

3

, n Z

4

x = 2 +

7

=

4

4

x = 2 +

3 5

=

4

4

x = 0+

x = 2 +

x = 4 +

=

4 4

9

=

4

4

17

=

and so on

4

4

x = 0+

3 3

=

4

4

x = 2 +

3 11

=

4

4

x = 4 +

3 19

=

and so on

4

4

283

In general, if:

sin (x) = a, then x = 2n + sin 1 (a) and x = (2n + 1) sin 1 (a) where a [1, 1] and n Z.

1

When solving trigonometric equations, the following need to be determined:

1. The first quadrant angle, irrespective of the sign

2. The two quadrants in which the given function is positive or negative

3. Two solutions between x = 0 and x = 2 (use the appropriate sine, cosine or tangent symmetry property).

If more solutions are required:

1. Repeatedly add (or subtract) the period to the two solutions as many times as required, noting

solutions after each addition or subtraction.

2. Stop when all solutions within the specified domain are found.

3. If no domain is given, a general solution is required.

WorkeD exaMple 21

Find to the nearest tenth of a degree if cos ( ) = 0.58, given that [0, 360].

think

Write/DraW

cos ( ) = 0.58

cos ( ) = 0.58 to the nearest tenth of a degree.

= 54.5

(1

80

.5

54

54.5

0.58 + 0.58

180

(1

80

54

.5

(0.58)

required for [0, 360].

= 125.5 or 234.5

WorkeD exaMple 22

Give answers correct to 3 decimal places, unless exact answers may be found.

a sin (x) = 0.3

1

b cos ( x) = 2

think

284

Write

x [0, 4]

quadrant angle (since no exact answer exists).

Ensure your CAS calculator is set to radians.

= 0.305

for x [0, 2].

2.83

.305

0.3

x

7c

0.3

For x [0, 2]

x = 0.305 or ( 0.305)

= 0.305 or 2.837

5

2 (= 6.283) to each of the solutions above.

For x [0, 4]

x = 0.305, 2.837, (0.305 + 6.283),

(2.837 + 6.283)

would give solutions beyond the specified

domain, so stop here.

b cos( x ) =

x [0, 4]

1 1

2

quadrant angle. Note: This is not a solution in

this case.

for x [0, 2].

3

1

For x [0, 2]

x = or +

3

3

2

4

=

or

3

3

5

each of the solutions above for x [0, 4].

Adding 2 (=

6

) to the last two solutions

3

would give solutions beyond the specified

12

domain (4 or

), so stop here.

3

For x [0, 4]

2 4 2

4

x=

+ 2 ,

+ 2

,

,

3 3 3

3

2 4 2 6 4 6

=

+

+

,

,

,

3 3 3

3 3

3

x=

2 4 8 10

,

, ,

3 3 3 3

285

WorkeD exaMple 23

Find solutions to 2 sin (x) = 0.984 over the domain [0, 2].

think

Write/DraW

2 sin (x) =

x [0, 2]

correct to 3 decimal places.

= 0.514

0.984

0.51

4) c

0.492

0.492

x

0.514c

x = 0.514 or ( 0.514)

6

are required over the domain [0, 2].

= 0.514 or 2.628

Note: Any equation not in the form sin (A) = B (or cos or tan) should be transposed before the solutions

are found.

WorkeD exaMple 24

1

a cos ( x) =

b 2 sin (x) 1 = 0

c tan ( x) = 3

2

Hence, find all the solutions for 2 x 2 for each equation.

think

cos (x) = a.

286

tUtorial

eles-1424

Worked example 24

Write

1

a x = 2n cos

(a)

Substitute a =

1

into the general equation

2

1

, recognising that it

and evaluate cos 1

2

is an exact angle.

1

x = 2n cos 1

2

x = 2n

4

specify n Z.

x = 2n +

of the general solutions.

n = 1: x =

and x = 2n , n Z

4

4

9

and x =

7

4

n = 0: x =

and x =

4

4

7

9

n = 1: x = 2 =

and x = 2 + =

4

4

4

4

1

a = 2 into the general equations. Evaluate

1

sin 1 ( 2 ), recognising that it is an exact angle.

x=

7 7

, , ,

4 4 4 4

1

2

b sin ( x ) =

x = 2n + sin

x = 2n

Specify n Z.

1

+ sin 1 ( 2 )

and x = (2n + 1)

(a)

1

sin 1 ( 2 )

and x = (2n + 1) or

6

6

5

x = 2n +

, where n Z

6

x = 2n +

general solutions.

n = 1: x = 2 +

11

=

and

6

6

7

=

6

6

5

n = 0: x = and x = =

6

6

6

x =

x=

11 7 5

,

, ,

6

6 6 6

c x = n + tan

(a)

x = n + tan = ( 3)

x = n + , n Z

3

1

n = 2 : x = 2 +

each of the general solutions.

n = 1: x = +

=

n = 0: x =

2 4

, ,

3 3 3

exercise 6h

1

x=

4

3

2

3

n = 1: x = +

=

Find the exact value of x in terms of in each of the following equations, given that x is in the first

quadrant.

a cos ( x ) =

1

2

b sin ( x ) =

c tan ( x ) =

d cos ( x ) =

3

2

sin ( x ) =

3

2

e tan (x) = 1

1

2

DiGital DoC

doc-9767

trigonometric

equations

287

2 We21 Find the value of to the nearest tenth of a degree in each of the following equations, given

b cos () = 0.25

e cos () = 0.195

h cos () = 0.757

a sin () = 0.6

d sin () = 0.85

g sin () = 0.333

c tan () = 5.72

f tan () = 0.837

3 We22 Find the value of x in each of the following equations if x [0, 4]. Give answers correct to

a sin (x) = 0.8

b cos (x) = 0.5

d tan ( x ) =

e sin (x) =

0.39

cos ( x ) =

2

2

2

2

a 150 or 210

B 135 or 225

C 225

D 135 or 315

e 120

2

a

B

C

D

e

6

2

3

4

5

5 We23 Find solutions, exact where possible, to the following over the domain [0, 2].

a 2 sin (x) = 0.586

b 2 cos (x) = 1

c 2 tan ( x ) = 2 3

d 2 sin (x) + 0.893 = 0

3 tan ( x ) + 1 = 0

e 1.8 cos (x) + 1.236 = 0

f

4 MC a If sin ( x ) = cos ( x ) =

The solution to the equation 2 cos (x) + 1 = 0 over the domain [0, 2] is:

5 7

2 4

2

5

a

B

C

D

,

,

,

,

6 6

3 3

3 3

6 6

6 MC

4 5

,

3 3

7 Solve each of the following, to the nearest tenth of a degree, over the domain [0, 360].

a 4 sin (x) = 1

b 3 cos (x) = 2

c 2 tan (x) 7 = 0

d 4 + sin (x) = 3

e 1 + 2 cos (x) =

3 tan (x) + 9 = 0

a sin (x + 30) = 1

c tan (x + 45) = 1

b cos (x 60) = 0

d 2 sin (x 60) = 1

2 cos (x + 90) + 1 = 0

x =1

g 2 cos

2

3 tan (2 x ) = 1

k tan (2 ( x 30) ) =

9 We24

sin (2x) = 0

x

h 2 sin = 2

2

2

cos

(3 x ) = 1

j

l

sin

1

2

( x 40) = 0.6

a 2 cos ( x ) 3 = 0

1

3

2 sin ( x ) 1 = 0 .

b tan ( x ) =

c

10 Find the general solution of the equation 2 sin (2x) 1 = 0. Hence, find all solutions for x .

11 Find the general solution of the equation 2 cos (3x) 1 = 0. Hence, find all solutions for x .

6i

applications

Many situations arise in science and nature where relationships between two variables exhibit periodic

behaviour. Tide heights, sound waves, biorhythms and ovulation cycles are examples.

In these situations trigonometric functions can be used to model the behaviour of the variables. The

independent variable (x) is often a measurement such as time.

When modelling with trigonometric functions you should work in radians unless otherwise instructed.

288

WorkeD exaMple 25

P parts per million (ppm), at a particular beach

over a 12-hour period t hours after 6 am is

described by the function

t

P = 0.05 sin + 0.1.

12

a Find i the maximum and ii the minimum

E. coli levels at this beach.

b What is the level at 3 pm?

c How long is the level above 0.125 ppm

during the first 12 hours after 6 pm?

tUtorial

eles-1425

Worked example 25

think

Write/DraW

a P = 0.05sin

t + 0.1

12

is 1.

2

t

Substitute sin = 1 into the equation

12

for P and evaluate.

= 0.15

is 1.

t = 1.

12

t = 1.

12

t

Substitute sin = 1 into the equation

12

for P and evaluate.

= 0.05

evaluate.

At 3 pm, t = 9.

9

When t = 9, P = 0.05 sin + 0.1

12

3

= 0.05 sin + 0.1

4

1

+ 0.1

2

= 0.035 + 0.1

= 0.135

= 0.05

0.135 ppm.

understanding of this question.

Amplitude = 0.05

Period = 2

12

Period = 24

289

t

The basic graph is P = 0.05 sin .

12

translation is 0.1 units up.

P (parts per million)

0.150

0.125

0.100

0.050

0

12 t (hours)

first two points where P = 0.125.

first two values of t.

When P = 0.125,

t

0.05 sin + 0.1 = 0.125

12

t

0.05 sin = 0.025

12

t

sin = 0.5

12

t

= or

12 6

6

5

= or

6

6

t

1

5

= or

12 6

6

t = 2 or 10

10

t = 2 and t = 10.

11

million for 8 hours.

exercise 6i

applications

1 The weight of a rabbit over a period of time is modelled by the graph shown below.

W (kg)

4

3

2

1

0

b Express W as a function of t.

290

10

t (days)

2 The graph below shows the heart rate of an athlete during a particular hour of a workout.

H (beats/min)

160

110

60

0

15

30

45

60

t (min)

b State i the amplitude and ii the period.

c Express H as a function of t.

3 We25 The height above the ground, h metres, of a child on a swing at any time, t seconds, after being

released is:

Find:

t

h = 1 + 0.6 cos

2

b the height after

4

i 3 seconds and ii seconds

3

c the length of time that the swing is below 1.5 metres, travelling from one side to the other.

4 The temperature, T (C), inside a building on a given day is given by the function:

t

T = 8 sin + 18

12

where t is the number of hours after 8 am.

a What is the maximum temperature in the building and the time at which it first occurs?

b Find the temperature at i 8 pm, ii 6 pm and iii 12 am (midnight).

5 The displacement, x (in mm), of a harp string t seconds after it is initially plucked is modelled by the

function:

x (t) = 12 sin (20 t)

a

b

c

d

How many vibrations (that is, cycles) will it complete in one second?

Find the displacement after 0.08 seconds.

At what time will its displacement first be 6 mm?

Chapter 6 Circular functions

291

6 The height of a bungee jumper, h metres, above a pool of water at any time, t seconds, after jumping is

h (t) = 20 cos (0.8t) + 20

a What is the initial height of the bungee jumper?

b When, if at all, does the bungee jumper first touch the water?

c Assuming the cord is perfectly elastic, how long is it until the bungee jumper returns to the lowest

position?

7 A cyclist rides one lap of a circular track at a constant speed so that her distance, d metres, from her

t

d = 50 50 cos

30

Find:

a the time taken to complete one lap

b the radius of the track

c the maximum distance from the start

d the length of the track

e the distance from her starting point after i 15 seconds and ii 40 seconds

f the times at which she is 93.3 metres from her starting points.

8 The depth of water, d metres, at a port entrance is given by the function:

t

d (t ) = 4.5 + 1.5 sin

12

where t is in hours.

a Find i the maximum and ii the minimum depth at the port entrance.

b A certain ship needs the depth at the port entrance to be more than 5 metres. The ship can be

loaded and unloaded, and in and out of the port, in 9 hours. Assuming that the ship enters the port

just as the depth at the entrance passes 5 metres, will the ship be able to exit 9 hours later? How

long will it have to spare, or by how many minutes will it miss out?

9 The Australian dollars value (a) in US dollars was observed to follow the equation

a = 0.9 + 0.01t + 0.02 sin (0.5 t) over a period of 8 days (t represents the number of days).

Using a CAS calculator, sketch a graph of a for 0 t 8.

When will the Australian dollar first reach US$0.95?

At what other times will it be worth US$0.95?

Find all of the maximum turning points of the graph (to 3 decimal places).

What is the highest value reached?

a

b

c

d

e

292

Summary

trigonometric ratio

revision

O

A

cos ( ) =

sin ( ) =

H

H

tan ( ) =

O

A

tio

leva

of e

gle

Horizontal

An

gle

An

the unit circle

sio

res

ep

of d

sin () = y

cos () = x

90

y

1st quadrant

P( )

2nd quadrant

S

cos ( )

C

, 180

sin ( )

x

0, 360, 2

3rd quadrant

4th quadrant

270

3

tan () = the height of the point where the angle line meets the tangent line (at the RHS of the unit

circle)

tan ( )

tan ( ) =

radians

y

x

c = 180

180

1c =

1 =

180

293

30

2

2

Angle ()

0

or 30

6

or 45

4

or 60

3

or 90

2

45

cos ()

1

1

2

3

2

1

2

2

2

1

2

3

2

1

2

60

sin ()

0

1

1

tan ()

0

1

3

2

2

3

3

1

3

Undefined

Symmetry

Relating a given angle back to the first quadrant of the unit circle is often helpful. Provided an

angle is expressed as or 2 , the trigonometric function (sin or cos) remains the same,

3 4 6 8

only the sign (+ or ) may change. So may be written as

etc.

,

,

,

3 4 6 8

sin ( + ) = sin ()

sin (2 ) = sin ()

sin ( ) = sin ()

cos ( ) = cos ()

cos ( + ) = cos ()

cos (2 ) = cos ()

tan ( ) = tan ()

tan ( + ) = tan ()

tan (2 ) = tan ()

identities

sin2 () + cos2 () = 1

sin ( )

tan ( ) =

cos ( )

2

2

graphs

1. y = a sin (bx) + c

y = a cos (bx) + c

2

2. Period =

, amplitude = | a |

b

y

a

0

a

294

y

y = a sin (bx)

y = a cos (bx)

x

= period

0

a

2b

2b

When sketching:

1. Recall the basic graph type.

2. Find the period and amplitude.

3. Sketch in sections of one period.

4. Find x-intercepts between other known intercepts or minimum and maximum points.

5. Translate the graph vertically by c.

tangent graphs

y = a tan (bx) + c

Period = , no amplitude

b

Asymptotes at x =

and every period to the

2b

left and right of these

The formula for asymptotes applies:

(2n + 1)

xasymptote =

,

2b

where n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

2b

2b

2b

3

2b

Solving trigonometric

equations

1. The first quadrant angle, irrespective of the sign

2. The two quadrants in which the given function is positive or negative

3. Two solutions between x = 0 and x = 2 (use the appropriate sine, cosine or tangent symmetry

property).

If more solutions are required:

1. Repeatedly add (or subtract) the period to the two solutions as many times as required, noting

solutions after each addition or subtraction.

2. Stop when all solutions within the specified domain are found.

3. If a general solution is required, the answer will be in tems of n, n Z.

In general, if:

sin (x) = a, then x = 2n + sin 1 (a) and x = (2n + 1) sin 1 (a) where a [1, 1] and n Z.

1

cos (x) = a, then x = 2n cos (a) where a [1, 1] and n Z

applications

To find the maximum value of a function, replace sin x or cos x with +1.

To find the minimum value of a function, replace sin x or cos x with 1.

Initial values occur at t = 0.

A sketch graph may provide greater understanding.

295

Chapter review

S h ort

anS Wer

1 The angle of elevation from an observer to an aircraft when it is 4.5 km away is 30. How high is the

aircraft above the ground if the observers eye level is 1.75 m above the ground?

4.5 km

30

1.75 m

2 Find the exact values of:

a tan (120 )

3

4

3 If cos ( ) =

a sin ()

5 .

6

b cos (150 )

c sin

b tan ().

a 140

b 310

c 1

a

2

5

b 1

a sin (180 )

7

2

b cos (2 )

c tan ( + ).

7 If cos (x) =

and < x < , evaluate:

2

a sin (x)

b tan (x).

8 Sketch the graphs of the following functions.

x

a y = 4 sin over [2, 4]

b y = 1.5 cos (2x) over [, ]

2

9 Sketch the graph of:

1

x

a y = 2 tan (4x) for x [, ]

b y=

tan for x [0, 12].

6

2

1

10 Find all of the solutions to the equation sin ( x ) =

over the domain [0, 3].

2

11 Solve the equation 3 + 2 cos (x) = 0 over the domain [0, 360].

3

12 Find the general solution of the equation sin ( x ) =

. Hence find all solutions for 2 x 2.

2

13 If cos () = 0.40 and sin () = 0.92, find:

a tan ()

b cos (180 )

c sin ()

d cos (90 ).

14 With the aid of a diagram if necessary, find exact values for:

7

a sin

b cos

6

6

0.9

c tan

d cos ().

3

2

1

c tan ( x ) =

3

e tan (x ) = 1

a sin ( x ) =

296

b cos ( x ) =

d cos (x ) = 1

16 The sound level of a siren follows the rule L (t) = 6 sin ( t) + 80, where L is the sound level measured

a What is the amplitude and period of L(t)?

b What are the minimum and maximum sound levels of the siren?

c How long does it take for the sound to reach its maximum level the first time?

d Find the first time the sound level reaches 83 dB.

e Sketch the graph of L(t) for 0 t 2.

M U ltip l e

C ho iC e

x

a

y

a tan (a) =

y

x

sin (a) =

x

y

C tan (a) =

x

y

D cos (a) =

y

x

e sin (a) = xy

4.2

x

56

a 2.35

B 2.83

C 5.07

D 7.51

e 3.48

3 The angle that the 3-metre ladder makes with the wall in this diagram is closest to:

3.0 m

1.2 m

a 23.6

B 21.8

a 1 and 2

B 1 and 4

C 66.4

D 18

e 76

C 2 and 4

D 2 and 3

e 1 and 3

a positive, as 320 is in the 1st quadrant

C negative, as 320 is in the

3rd drant

qua

e positive, as 320 is in the 4th quadrant

D negative, as 320 is in the 4th quadrant

6 If tan (a) < 0, sin (a) < 0 and 0 < a < 360, then which one of the following is correct?

a 0 < a < 90

D 0 < a < 180

e 270 < a < 360

297

7 If tan ( ) =

a

1

2

3

2

C 1

5

9

a

2

3

7

6

a 405

B 315

4

is:

10 The value of cos

3

a

3

2

B 2

9

is:

4

C 540

e 0

5

6

D 270

3

2

4

3

e 300

Use the following information to answer questions 11 to 13: sin (a) = 0.6 and 0 < a < .

2

11 sin (2 a) is equal to:

a 0.36

B 0.8

C 0.6

D 0.8

12 cos (a) is equal to:

a 0.6

B 0.8

C 0.6

D 0.8

13 tan ( a) is equal to:

a 0.75

C 1.33

B 1.33

D 0.75

14 The one value that is equal to sin (53) is:

a tan (37 )

B cos (37 )

C cos (53 )

D sin (37 )

Questions 15 to 17 refer to the function f (x) = 2 sin (3x).

15 The amplitude of f (x) is equal to:

a 3

D 2

B 2

C 3

16 The period of f (x) is equal to:

2

a 6

B 4

C

D 2

3

17 The range of f (x) is:

a [0, 2]

B [0, 4]

C [2, 0]

D [1, 1]

18 The rule for this graph is:

y

x

a y = 3 cos

2

3

e 1

e 0

e 1.4

e cos (127 )

e 1

e 3

e [2, 2]

B y = 3 sin (2x)

x

3

D y = 3 cos (2x)

e y = 3 cos (2x)

C y = 2 cos

4 x

19 The function y = 5 tan (4x) has a period and asymptote respectively of:

D 4 and x = 8

e

and x =

4

2

20 If sin (3x) = 0.966, then x could be equal to:

a 65

B 75

D 25

e 20

21 If tan (2x) = 0.839 has one solution of x = 20, then another solution could be:

a 160

B 110

D 380

e 70

a 4 and x = 2

298

B and x =

and x =

4

8

C 105

C 200

x

22 The maximum value of y = 3 sin 1 is:

a 1

B 0

C 2

a 6

B 5

C 8

D 3

e 4

D 3

e 4

1 The temperature in an office is controlled by a thermostat. The preferred temperature, P, can be set to

The temperature, T (C) in the office at time t hours after 9 am is given by the rule T = P + 2.4 sin ( t).

If the preferred temperature on the thermostat has been set to 23 C:

ex ten D eD

r eS p o n S e

b find the temperature at

i noon nd

a

ii 3.30 pm

c sketch the graph of the function between 9 am and 5 pm.

d Find the amount of time between 9 am and 5 pm that Freddy feels thirsty.

2 A standing wave on a guitar string may be

y

x ,

20

L

where x cm and y cm are defined on the diagram

x

at right.

a Find the period of the standing wave.

b If the frets coincide with the mean positions

of the wave, find the value of L.

c If the frets were to be spaced at 16 cm, what would be the equation of a similar standing wave of

amplitude 0.3 cm such that a fret is at each mean position?

by the function:

t

P = 2 0.8 sin

6

where P is in thousands.

a Find:

i the maximum number of rabbits

ii the minimum number of rabbits

iii the median number of rabbits.

b Find i the period and ii the amplitude

of the function.

Chapter 6 Circular functions

299

c

d

e

f

Find the population after 5 months.

How long is the population below 1600?

How long is the population above 2100?

4 The height (in cm) that a clocks pendulum swings above its base can be approximated by the function

7

H = 14 + 5.9 cos

t at any time t seconds after being released. Give all answers correct to

4

3 decimal places.

a Find i the maximum and ii the minimum heights that the pendulum reaches.

b Find the height after i 1.5 seconds and ii 1 minute.

c Sketch the graph of the function for the first 2 seconds.

d On the same set of axes, sketch the median position.

e Find the length of time that the pendulum is below 14 cm travelling from one side to the other.

f Find the number of times the pendulum swings in 1 minute.

The pendulum is found to be losing time and needs its swing adjusted to 75 swings per minute.

g Find the new function H(t) that approximates the height of the pendulum.

5 The depth, h(t), of water in metres at a point on the coast at a time t hours after noon on a certain day is

2 (t + 2)

given by h(t ) = 2.5 + 0.5 cos

.

11

DiGital DoC

doc-9768

Test Yourself

Chapter 6

300

a What is the depth of the water at noon (correct to 2 decimal places)?

b What is the period of h(t)?

c What is the depth of the water (and what time does each occur) at:

i high tide?

ii low tide?

d Sketch the graph of h(t) for 0 t 12.

e The local people wish to build a bonfire for New Years celebrations on a rock shelf near that

point. They estimate that they can pass the point safely and not get splashed by waves if the depth

of water is less than 2.25 m. Between what times can they work?

f How long do they have?

ICT activities

Chapter opener

DiGital DoC

10 Quick Questions doc-9757: Warm up with ten quick questions on

circular functions (page 255)

6a

DiGital DoCS

SkillSHEET 6.1 doc-9758: Practise identifying the hypotenuse,

adjacent and opposite sides of a right-angled triangle with respect

to a given angle (page 256)

SkillSHEET 6.2 doc-9759: Practise calculating trigonometric ratios

(page 256)

6B

DiGital DoCS

doc-9760: Investigate the unit circle (page 261)

WorkSHEET 6.1 doc-9761: Locating exact values in the unit circle,

finding unknown angles and sides in a right-angled triangle and

converting radians to degrees and degrees to radians (page 262)

6D

Symmetry

interaCtiVitY

Symmetry int-0265: Use the interactivity to consolidate your

understanding of symmetry in the unit circle (page 265)

tUtorialS

We 8 eles-1420: Using symmetry find the value of trigonometric

functions of angles given in radians and degrees (page 266)

We 9 eles-1421: Find the value of trigonometric functions in exact

values (page 267)

DiGital DoC

doc-9760: Investigate the unit circle using a spreadsheet (page 268)

6e

identities

tUtorial

We 14 eles-1422: Watch how to find the value of trigonometric

functions in exact values (page 271)

6F

interaCtiVitY

Sine and cosine graphs int-0251: Use the interactivity to investigate

the features of sine and cosine functions (page 273)

tUtorial

We 16 int-0298: Watch how to sketch the graphs of a sine and

cosine function over a set domain, stating the amplitude and period

of each (page 275)

DiGital DoCS

doc-9762: Investigate sine graphs (page 277)

doc-9763: Investigate cosine graphs (page 277)

Worksheet 6.2 doc-9764: Sketching trigonometric graphs,

solving trigonometric equations and recognising exact values

(page 279)

6G

tangent graphs

tUtorial

We 20 eles-1423: Watch a tutorial on how to sketch the graph of a

tangent function over a given domain (page 281)

DiGital DoCS

doc-9765: Investigate tangent graphs (page 282)

Investigation doc-9766: Investigate tangent graphs

(page 282)

6h

tUtorial

We 24 eles-1424: Watch a tutorial on finding a general

solution to three trigonometric equations using a CAS calculator

(page 286)

DiGital DoC

doc-9767: Investigate solutions to trigonometric equations

(page 287)

6i

applications

tUtorial

We 25 eles-1425: Watch a tutorial on applying understanding

of trigonometric graphs and equations to a real world model

(page 289)

Chapter review

DiGital DoC

Test Yourself doc-9768: take the end-of-chapter test to test your

progress (page 300)

301

Answers CHAPTER 6

CirCUlar FUnCtionS

exercise 6a

1

2

3

4

5

8

a

a

a

a

3.09

8.41

18.2

D

C

3.25 m

b 1.88

c 4.00

b 2.97

c 12.50

b 24.3

c 51.1

bA

c B

6E

7 7.14 m

9 9.6

10 23.1

4 a

c

e

g

i

0.3

5 a

1

2

3

2

1 a

e

i

2 a

e

i

3 a

e

i

4 a

b

5 a

d

6 a

d

g

j

7 a

e

P

bP

cP

N

f N

gN

P

j N

P

bP

cN

N

f P

gP

N

j N

P

bP

cN

P

f P

gN

N

j P

Quadrant 3

Quadrant 1

C

bB

B

e C

1

b 1

0

e 0

Undefined

h 0

1

3

2

1

2

i 1

e

i

radians

b

f

j

2 a

b

e

f

3 E

4 C

5 B

6 a 0.855

d 3.341

g 2.971

7 a 20.1

d 54.9

g 232.6

8 a

d

2

2

1

2

g 1

302

5

4

120

30

0.63

0.63

0.25

0.25

2.1

2.1

c

g

k

c

g

1

3

2

2

1

2

i

d P

h N

d N

h P

d N

h N

7 a

d

8 a

d

9 a

c

c A

c 0

f 1

j

2

2

b

f

3

3

0.383

h 2

5

3

d 330

h 67.5

l

c 2.182

f 5.716

b

e

h

b

e

h

1.365

4.095

3.784

84.2

893.8

458.4

1

2

e 1

c 180

f 155.3

1

2

=

2

2

3

2

1 a i 4

c 1

3

3

2

2

0.63

i i 2

2 a i 2

3

2

0.924

0.383

0.259

0.259

0.765

0.644

c i

3

2

l 1

c

f

c

f

0.414

0.414

3.732

3.732

g i 6

ii 0.4

i i 8

ii 2.5

k i 2

1

5

identities

sin2 + cos2

30

0.25

0.75

81

0.976

0.024

129

0.604

0.396

193

0.051

0.949

260

0.970

0.030

350

0.030

0.970

47

0.535

0.465

2 a 0.6

3 a 0.954

4 a 0.917, 0.917

c 0.971

5 a 2

b

b

5

13

8 a B

9 a 70

e 82

b

b

b

d

7

4

c

c

bD

b 32

f 46

24

25

3 7

7

c C

c 51

g 1

d A

d 8

h 73

cos

0.6

0.96

d 2

0.25

2.1

2.1

1

5

2

5

5

5

2 5

5

h

k

c

11

6

4

5

3

5

ii 2

i 4

ii 3

ii 4

5

6

5

6

5

5

ii

1

2

i 4 ii

2

3

2 x

3

23

3 4 x

i 6

y

5

0

11

5

2

3

2

3

0.7

1

5

1

2

0.8

4

3

i 2

4 x

y

4

sin

ii 1

10

4

5

12

11 a

ii

3

2

2

3

0.5

3

4

ii 1

2

3

3

7

ii 3

1.333

3.180

0.714, 0.714

0.436

5

3

ii 2

f i

cos2

7 a

ii

ii

2

2

h i

5

j i

3

l i 4

1

2

e i 6

3 a

sin2

0.63

0.25

g i

3

2

k 1

b

e

b

e

b

d

e i 2

3

3

3

2

l 1

k 0

ii 2

ii

b i

3

ii 1.5

d i

ii

2

4

ii 2

f i

ii

3

2

ii 2.5

h i

ii

3

ii 4

ii 1

b i 2

ii

2

ii 2

d i

ii

3

c i 3

Symmetry

b

d

b

d

b

d

exercise 6F

0.3

0.7

0.9

3

2

2

1

2

0.7

1

2

2

2

0.924

0.966

0.966

0.644

0.842

h 1

3

3

2

7

3

40

45

1

2

exercise 6e

i 1

3

3

6 a

6 a 6

exercise 6D

1 a

c

2 a

c

3 a

c

j Undefined

6

5

18

5

6

36

648

1

2

f 1

exercise 6C

1 a

2

2

0.9

0.3

0.7

0.9

exercise 6B

b

d

f

h

ii 5

1

4

i 4

4

0

ii 4

2 3 4 x

x

i

2

y

2

ii 2

2

3

10 a f : 0,

8 a i

0

ii 1

iii 2, 0

2 x

b i 2

d f : [ 1, 3] R, f ( x ) = 1.8cos

iii 0, 4

ii 2

4 a D

5E

bC

2x

3

d y = 4 cos

3x

e y = sin

f y = 3 cos ( 3x)

c i 4

7 5

4

3

2

3

4

0

1

7

4

5

4

3

2

d i 6

iii 0, 2

ii 1

2

4

9 a

2

3

0

2

3

f i 4

g i 2

ii

ii

h i

ii

2

i i

ii

ii

2 x

1

0

3 3

4

8 4

y

1.8

1.8

y

1.4

1

0

1.5

6

ii

2 a y

2 x

4

3

e i

y

3

0

ii

ii

ii

j i

y

2

0

x=

6

x =

3

x=

2

x = 2

x =

x=

4

x=

2

x=

4

ii x =

d i 3

tangent graphs

1 a i

2

b i

3

c i 2

exercise 6G

iii 5, 1

5

4

3

2

1

1

3

4

4

ii 2

2x

3

h f : [, 2] R, f (x) = 2 sin (4x) 1

b y = 2 cos (2x)

x

2

1

3 x

2

3

4

c y = 5 sin

7 a

1

2

c A

6 a y = 1.5 sin

2 x

x

2

2x

2 x

e f : [0, 3] R, f ( x ) = 3sin

y

2

5

cos

2

c f : [ 1, 1] R, f (x) = 2 sin ( x)

0

1

ii 3

3x

8

R, f ( x ) = 3sin

2

6

b f : [0, 5 ] R, f ( x ) =

8 x

y

3

1.5

12 6

6 x

2

3

1.4

303

x =

2

1

1

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

3 4 x

1

0 3 3 3 9

1 a

2 a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

3 a

4 2

equations

3 B

4 a D

b B

5 a y

6 x

exercise 6h

x = 3

d

e

4 a

5 a

0 2 4 6 8 x

0 3

3

2

c

d

e

y

3 4 x

2 3

3

3

2

4 2

1.8

0

8 4

0 5 5

5

2

8 4

15

x =

2

304

1

4

3

2

2 x

1 1 0

2 2

b

c

4

6

3

e

f

6

4

3

36.9 and 143.1

104.5 and 255.5

80.1 and 260.1

238.2 and 301.8

78.8 and 281.2

140.1 and 320.1

199.5 and 340.5

40.8 and 319.2

0.927, 2.214, 7.210, 8.497

2 4 8 10

,

,

,

3 3 3

3

0.983, 4.124, 7.266, 10.408

5 11 17 23

,

,

,

6

6

6 6

3.542, 5.882, 9.826, 12.165

7 9 15

,

,

,

4 4 4

4

C

b A

0.297, 2.844

5

,

3 3

4

,

3 3

5.820, 3.604

2.328, 3.955

5 11

,

6 6

6 D

7 a 14.5, 165.5

b 131.8, 228.2

c 74.1, 254.1

d 270

e 78, 282

f 108.4, 288.4

8 a 60

b 150, 330

c 0, 180, 360

d 90, 210

e 45, 135

f 0, 90, 180, 270, 360

g 120

h 90, 270

i 15, 105, 195, 285

j 45, 75, 165, 195, 285, 315

k 60, 150, 240, 330

l 113.74, 326.26

, n Z

6

11 11

For 2 x 2 : x =

,

, ,

6

6 6 6

b General solution: x = n + , n Z

6

11 5 7

For 2 x 2 : x =

,

, ,

6

6 6 6

9 a General solution: x = 2n

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

x = 3

Solving trigonometric

1

2

1 x

or

4

and 2n + , n Z

4

4

7 5 3

For 2 x 2 : x =

,

, ,

4

4 4 4

10 General solution:

(12n + 5)

(12n + 1)

x=

and

, n Z

12

12

11 7 5

For x : x =

,

, ,

12 12 12

12

(6n 1)

11 General solution: x =

, n Z

9

x :

For

7 5 5 7

x=

,

,

, ,

,

9

9

9 9 9 9

x = 2n +

exercise 6i

applications

1 a i 1 kg

ii 6 days

b

2 a

b

c

3 a

b

c

4 a

b

5 a

t

W = cos + 3

3

110 beats/min

i 50

ii 60 min

t

H = 50sin + 110

30

1.6 m

i 1m

ii 0.7 m

3.254 s

26 C at 2 pm

i 18 C

ii 22 C

iii Approx. 11.1 C

i 12 mm

c t = 6.582; t = 6.987

d (1.206, 0.931) and (5.266, 0.971)

e $0.98 when t = 8

Chapter reVieW

Short anSWer

1 2251.75 m

2 a

3 a

4 a

5 a

b

c

6 a

b

c

7 a

b

7

4

7

9

72

57.3

630

0.724

0.690

1.049

0.436

0.484

3

2

1

2

180

7

3

31

18

13 a

14 a

c

c

e

16 a

b

c

2 3 4 x

3

2

d 1

80

74

0

2

40 m

3.9 s

7.8 s

60 s

50 m

100 m

314.16 m

i 50 m

ii 75 m

f 25 s and 35 s

8 a i 6 m ii 3 m

b Yes, by approx. 24 minutes

6 a

b

c

7 a

b

c

d

e

MUltiple ChoiCe

1

6

11

16

21

1.5

9 a

y

2

C

E

C

C

B

2

7

12

17

22

D

B

B

E

C

3

8

13

18

23

A

D

D

A

E

4

9

14

19

E

A

B

C

5

10

15

20

E

E

D

D

extenDeD reSponSe

1

S

120

1 a 25.4 C, 20.6 C

b i 23 C

ii 25.4 C

c

7

8

5

8

3

4

3

8

0

4

5

8

3

4

T (C)

27

26

25

24

25.4

23

2

b y

22

21

20

19

20.6

18

(8, 0.98)

0.96

0.93

0

0.90

0

86

11.41 mm to the left (or vice versa).

0.99

d 0.92

L (t)

1.5

1

S

10

9 a a ($A)

1

2

1

6

b 0.40

2

3 5

b

,

,

3 3

4 4

7

d 0, 360

,

6 6

135, 315

Amplitude = 6, period = 2

Minimum = 74, maximum = 86

1

s

2

15 a

2 0

23

10

0.92

y

4

8 a

ii

b 10

c 11.41 mm; if the displacement is

3 9 11

,

,

,

4 4 4 4

11 150 and 210

12 General solution: x = 2n +

and

3

x = (2n + 1) , n Z

3

5 4 2

,

, ,

For 2 x 2 : x =

3 3 3

3

10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 t (days)

3 6

9 12 x

5

4

t (hours)

8 t

d 2 hours, 40 minutes

2 a 40 m

c

c 0.3sin

x

16

b 80 cm

305

3 a i 2800 ii 1200

b i 12 months

ii 0.8

c P (thousands)

iii 2000

306

5 a 2.71 m

b 11 hours

c i 3 m at 9 pm

ii 2 m at 3:30 pm

d h(t) (m)

2.0

0

ii 8.1 cm

ii 8.1 cm

2.5

8.1

3 6 9 12 t (months)

f Approx. 5 months

4 a i 19.9 m

c

b i 11.742 m

c

g H = 14 + 5.9cos

14

d 1600

e 4 months

1

2

8 t

5

H

19.9

2.8

2

1.2

0

d See c.

e 0.571 s

f 52.5 times

1.5

0

(9, 3)

(12, 2.25)

(3.5, 2)

3

f 3 h 40 min

12 t (hours)

1 Determine the centre and radius of the circle described by x2 + 6x + y2 + 8y 24 = 0.

4 marks

20 minutes

2x + 2

f (x) = x + 2

2x + 8

3< x <0

0x<2

2<x 5

4 marks

1 mark

a 23x = 5

b log2(x + 1) log2(3x) = 2

2 marks

3 marks

M U ltip l e

C ho iC e

1 For the function f (x) = (x 2)2 + 3, what are the coordinates of the turning points for f (x 1)?

a (3, 3)

B (2, 3)

C (1, 3)

D (2, 3)

e (3, 3)

C [6, )

D [6, 1]

3 Which one of the following represents a many-to-one relationship?

2 The range for the function f:

a [5, 1]

[5,

one mark.

e [0, 12.25]

12 minutes

x2,

B [0, 6]

S ho rt

a n S W er

2

a 2 2 x + 2 x 32 x

B 364x + 1

D 23x + 1 33x

2

e 62 x +3 x

3

2

C 62 x + 2 x

3

7

5

7

7

11

a

B

C

and

and

and

6

6

2

2

2

2

1

7

11

11

D

e

and

and

2

2

2

2

6 A possible equation for the rule of the function whose graph is shown below is:

y

a y = 2 sin (x)

B y = 2 sin (3x)

x

C y = 2 sin

D y = 2 cos (x)

3

x

5 The two x-values that satisfy the equation 2 sin

x

e y = 2 cos

Exam practice 2

307

2

. The equations of the asymptotes would be:

(2 x + 1)

1

f (x) = 3

2

B x = 1

f (x) = 3

C x=0

f (x) = 0

1

D x=

f (x) = 3

2

e x=2

f (x) = 1

8 For the function g(x) = 4 2 x , the implied domain and range would be respectively:

a (, 2) and (4, )

B R /{2} a nd R +

C [2, ) and [4, )

D ( , 2] and ( , 4]

e R {0} and R+

a x=

e x t enDeD

r e S ponS e

35 minutes

DiGital DoC

doc-10162

Solutions

exam practice 2

308

1 Rock pools in a tropical lagoon form when the depth of water in the lagoon falls below 6metres. The

(t 3)

depth of water in a lagoon can be modelled using d (t ) = 1.5 sin

+ 5.5, where d is the depth

6

in metres and t is the time in hours after 7am in the morning.

a Determine the maximum and minimum water depth.

2 marks

b Determine the time, in hours, taken for the water depth to increase from the minimum

depth to the maximum depth.

1 mark

c Sketch the graph of d(t) in the time interval 0 t 24.

3 marks

d At what time will the depth of water first be 6 metres deep?

1 mark

e Billy and Tommy swim only in the safety of the rock pools. They arrive at the lagoon

at 9:30am and leave at 4:15pm.

i Determine how long they will be able to swim in the rock pools. Write your answer

correct to 2 decimal places.

1 mark

ii Determine the total time Billy and Tommy would be able to swim in the rock pools.

Write your answer to the nearest whole minute.

2 marks

kt

2 Over the summer months, the number of mosquito larvae in a dam was modelled using M=M0 e ,

where M0 is the initial population, t is the time in days and k is a positive constant. The number of

mosquito larvae was recorded each morning at 8 am. The first day of recording was taken as t = 0. The

recording lasted only until the end of summer (90days).

a On the first day of recording, there were 150 mosquito larvae. Determine the value of M0. 1 mark

b At 8 am on the fifth day there were 235 mosquito larvae.

i Write an equation that determines the number of larvae on the fifth day.

1 mark

ii Show that the value of k is 0.11.

2 marks

c If the mosquito larvae continue to increase according to the model, determine the expected

number of larvae present in the dam at the end of summer (90 days).

2 marks

d Frogs were introduced to the dam during the twentieth day. Mosquito larvae are part of the frogs

diet. Since the frogs were introduced, the number of mosquito larvae has decreased. The decrease

in mosquito larvae can be modelled using D = 200 e(20 t) + 300, where D is the decrease in

mosquito larvae after the twentieth day. The recording of the mosquito larvae has remains the

same as before.

i State the domain of the function D.

1 mark

ii Determine the number of mosquito larvae expected in the dam over the long term.

1 mark

iii By how much had the mosquito larvae decreased in the first twenty-four hours of

recording after the frogs were introduced?

1 mark

ChApTer 7

Matrices

diGiTAL doC

doc-9769

10 Quick Questions

ChApTer ConTenTS

7A

7B

7C

7d

Multiplying matrices

Solving matrix equations

Matrices and transformations

7A Addition

introduction

In all walks of life we deal with the mathematical phenomenon called the matrix. A train timetable, a

football scorecard and examination results are all examples of matrices. Anytime there is a rectangular

grouping of numbers, there is a matrix.

A summary of cricket scores after three matches is shown in the table below.

Overs

Maidens

Wickets

Runs

Smith

10

35

Brown

14

29

Nguyen

39

an array of numbers:

10 3 2 35

14 2 3 29

9 2 3 39

This is called a matrix. The plural of matrix is matrices. The

matrix above is a (3 4) matrix as it has 3 rows and 4 columns.

This number of rows and columns gives the order, or the

dimensions, of the matrix.

6

3

5

4

matrix.

ChApTer 7 Matrices

309

Each individual entry in a matrix is called an element. In general, the elements of a matrix are identified

by the row and column that pinpoint their position in the matrix. Thus if A is a (3 2) matrix, we write:

a11 a12

A = a21 a22

a31 a32

The elements of the matrix A are referred to as aij, where i refers to the position of the element in the

row and j refers to the position of the element in the column. So, a21 refers to the element that is in row

2, column 1.

Imagine, for the three players in the cricket team, that a fourth match gave the following results:

Total

Overs

Maidens

Wickets

Runs

Smith

10

Brown

10

34

Nguyen

15

54

Clearly we can add these results to the previous results, giving the total figures for four matches:

Total

Overs

Maidens

Wickets

Runs

Smith

13

45

Brown

24

63

Nguyen

24

93

10 3 2 35 3 1 0 10 13 4 2 45

14 2 3 29

+ 10 1 2 34 = 24 3 5 63

9 2 3 39 15 2 4 54 24 4 7 93

Matrices are added by adding corresponding elements.

It follows that:

13 4 2 45 3 1 0 10

24 3 5 63

10 1 2 34

24

4

7

93

15 2 4 54

10 3 2 35

14 2 3 29

=

9 2 3 39

The matrices we have added or subtracted have the same order, i.e. the same number of rows (three)

and the same number of columns (four).

Addition and subtraction of matrices can be performed only if the matrices are of the same order.

of matrices

The Commutative Law

Simply stated, if this law holds, matrices can be added in reverse position. Consequently for matrix

addition, A + B = B + A, provided A and B are of the same order. And clearly with subtraction,

A B = A + (B) = (B) + A, if A and B are the same order.

The Commutative Law holds for matrix addition for matrices of the same order.

310

Simply stated, if this law holds, any number of matrices (of the same order) can be added together,

adding any pair of matrices first. Thus:

A + B + C + D = (A + B) + C + D

= (B + C) + A + D

= (B + D) + A + C provided the matrices are the same order.

Thus for subtraction, A B C = [A + (B) + (C)] = [A + (B)] + (C) or A + [(B) + (C)] and so on.

The Associative Law holds for matrix addition for matrices of the same order.

Worked exAmpLe 1

Show that the Commutative Law holds for matrices A and B given below.

1

A= 0

2

2

1

0

1 0

4 , B = 5 3

0 0

3

1

2

Think

1

TUToriAL

eles-1426

Worked example 1

WriTe

Both matrices have the same order so it is possible

to add them.

Find A + B by adding the corresponding

elements in each matrix.

elements in each matrix.

addition to occur.

1

A+ B = 0

2

2

1

0

1 0

4 + 5 3

3 0 0

2 2

= 5 2

2 0

1 0

B+ A= 5 3

0 0

2 2

= 5 2

2 0

1

2

5

5

1

1 + 0

2 2

2

1

4

3

5

5

A and B as A + B = B + A.

Worked exAmpLe 2

A= 0

2

3

1

0 5

5 4

, B = 1 0 and C = 7 0

2 3

3 1

4

2

Find, if possible:

A+B

AB

AC

the answers to parts a, b and c using a calculator.

a

b

c

d

ChApTer 7 Matrices

311

Think

WriTe

1

3 0 5

a A and B have the same order, so it is

a A+ B = 0

1 + 1 0

possible to add them. Add the corresponding

2 4 2 3

1 8

= 1 1

4 1

elements of each matrix.

(3 3).

calculator.

= 1

0

3

1

0 5

1 0

2 3

1

7

different order.

1

d 0

3

1

4

0 5

1 0 b

2 3

5 4

7 0

3 1

matrix addition A + B.

matrix subtraction A B.

matrix subtraction A C.

4 c

2

a + b = 1

4

ab= 1

0

8

1

1

7

2

ERROR

(The two matrices are of different orders.)

In life it is convenient to associate shapes with names. Thus we all know what a round shape looks like,

what a pear-shaped person looks like and so on. A similar principle can be applied to describing the

shapes of matrices.

312

Type

Column

matrix

Shape

Consists of a

single column

Row matrix

of columns, but only one (1 10)

row.

(1 56)

(1 n)

Consists of an

Any number of rows.

(1 1)

equal number of

Must have the same

(2 2)

rows and columns number of columns.

(6 6)

(20 20)

A diagonal

Must be a square matrix (1 1)

matrix is a square

(3 3)

matrix with every

(6 6)

element, not on the

(25 25)

leading diagonal,

equal to 0.

A unit matrix

Must be a square matrix (1 1)

is a diagonal

(2 2)

matrix with all the

(6 6)

elements on the

(20 20)

leading diagonal

equal to 1.

Any

A zero matrix can Any shape

be any shape, but

order

all the elements

are 0.

Must

Any shape

If matrices

have

are equal, then both

same

their shape and all

corresponding elements order

must be identical.

Square

matrix

Diagonal

matrix

Unit matrix

Zero matrix

Equal

matrices

Description

Order

There can be any number (2 1)

of rows, but only one

(5 1)

column.

(27 1)

(m 1)

Consists of a

single row

Example

Order of example

(4 1)

3

2

0

[5

(1 5)

4]

(2 2)

2 0

0 0

0 0

0

0

3

(3 3)

(3 3)

0 0 0

0 0 0

(2 3)

x

y 1 3

2 p 3q = 4 9

1 4 1 4

x = 1, y = 3, p = 2, q = 3

Both

(3 2)

1 0 0

0 1 0

0 0 1

Worked exAmpLe 3

2x + y

Solve for x and y in the following equal matrices.

3 x 2 y

Think

write these as equations.

Solve the simultaneous equations.

4

=

13

WriTe

TUToriAL

eles-1427

Worked example 3

2x + y = 4

3x 2y = 13

2x + y = 4

[1]

3x 2y = 13

[2]

Multiply equation [1] by 2.

4x + 2y = 8

[3]

Add equations [2] and [3].

7x = 21

x=3

Substitute x = 3 into [1].

y = 2

x = 3 and y = 2

ChApTer 7 Matrices

313

As in ordinary arithmetic, multiplication is simply a shorthand method of addition. Rather than 4 + 4 +

4 + 4 + 4 = 20, we say 5 4 = 20. Similarly, this method also applies to matrices.

2

2

+

0 1

4

=

0 2

10

2

2

1

4

=

0 2

10

A scalar is a single (real) number.

When a matrix is multiplied by a scalar, each element of the matrix is multiplied by the scalar.

Worked exAmpLe 4

If A =

a 3A

1

and B =

7

b 4B

c 3A + 4B

4

5

0

2

, find :

d 2(A + B)

Think

WriTe

a 3A = 3

9 12

=

6 15

b Multiply each element of B by 4.

a and b.

1

7

4

=

28

b 4B = 4

9 12 4

+

6 15 28

c 3A + 4B =

13 12

=

22 7

d 1 Find A + B by adding the

3 4 1

+

2 5 7

b A+ B =

4 4

=

5 3

2

resulting matrix by 2.

4 4

2( A + B) = 2

5 3

8 8

=

10 6

314

calculator.

3

2

7

2

5(ba) and write the result.

4

5

0

b

10

5(b a) =

45

35

20

If A and B are matrices of the same order and a and b are real numbers, then:

1. aA + bA = (a + b)A

2. aA + aB = a(A + B)

3. (ab)A = a(bA).

If aA = 0, then a = 0, or A is a zero matrix.

exercise 7A

Show that the Commutative Law holds for matrices A and B given below.

1 We1

A=

3

1 6

and

=

B

4 2

2 3 0

2 We2

, C = 1

1 2 1

4

b BA

a A+B

c B+D

d A+C

e C D.

3 Find [2 5 3 0 4] [3 4 1 6 3].

4 We3 Solve for x and y in the following equal matrices.

1 3

If A =

2 1

x + 2y

2 x 3 y

5

5

3

, B =

3

0

and D = 2

,

1

11

2 4

5

a 0

1 2

b

4 3 6

c [2x + y]

d [1

5]

1

3

4

0

3]

= [3 4 2].

p 8

7 If 3 q = 9 , find p, q and r.

r 10

8 What does [ 5

2

4] equal?

1

ChApTer 7 Matrices

315

3[2 3 4] 5[1

A [11 1 27]

C [11 19 27]

e [1 1 27]

9 mC

3]

equals:

B [0

d [1

19

19

3]

27]

3 2 y

=

:

1 2m 2 p 12

10 mC If 2

A x = 1, y = 3, p = 1, m = 3

C x = 1, y = 3, p = 1, m = 6

e x = 2, y = 6, p = 1, m = 12

11 We4

mC

B x = 1, y = 6, p = 1, m = 3

d x = 2, y = 3, p = 1, m = 3

16]

A [9

C [9 19]

e [13 16]

B [5

d [5

19]

16]

12 George, Linda and Mary sat two examinations in each of English, Mathematics and Science. In the first

examination they scored 40%, 50% and 60% respectively for English; 62%, 87% and 28% respectively

for Mathematics; and 100%, 14% and 73% respectively for Science.

a Write this information as a (3 3) matrix, labelling names on columns and subjects on rows.

In the second examination their results were 50%, 65% and 80% respectively for English; 87%, 76%

and 45% respectively for Mathematics; and 95%, 37% and 89% respectively for Science.

b Write this information as a (3 3) matrix, labelling names on columns and subjects on rows.

c Add the matrices together.

d Hence calculate their average mark in each subject.

e Write Marys average as a (1 3) matrix.

13 At the Queen Victoria market, 5 people each bought 3 apples and 2 oranges, 7 people each bought

1 apple and 6 oranges, and 8 people each bought 4 apples and 2oranges. Write this information in

matrix form, and use matrix addition to calculate the total number of apples and oranges bought by

the group.

7B

multiplying matrices

Stage 1: Identification of the correct conditions for multiplication to occur

Stage 2: The multiplication itself.

Stage 1: We need to establish whether multiplication is possible. This can best be thought of as two tiles,

side by side, in the game of dominoes.

A similar principle applies to the multiplication of matrices, if we think of each domino as row

column. Specifically, only those matrices that have the same number of columns in the first matrix as the

number of rows in the second matrix can be multiplied. Further, if we can join the dominoes (matrices)

as shown, that is by placing a three against a three, not only can we multiply the matrices, but the order

of the resulting matrix is given by the two outside numbers, in this case a (2 4) matrix.

In general we can multiply an (m n) matrix by an (n p) matrix, because the inside numbers are the

same (both n). These inside numbers are called the inner product. The outer numbers (outer product)

give the order of the resultant matrix (m p).

316

Stage 2: We know from our dominoes that we can multiply because the inner product is equal (3 3).

The resulting answer matrix is of order (2 4). For example:

4 2

and B = 1 7

3

0 2

2 5

A=

1 2

a

A B = AB =

e

0

2

1

2

c d

g h

b

f

(2 3) (3 4) = (2 4)

In the answer matrix, the letter a marks the intersection of the first row and the first column. To

calculate the value of a, we multiply the first row of the first matrix by the first column of the second

matrix. (In matrix multiplication we always multiply rows of the first matrix by columns of the second

matrix).

1

4

1

2 5 1 0

a = 2 4 + 5 1

= 8 + 5 + 0

=3

2

To calculate the value of f, at the intersection of the second row and second column of the answer

matrix, we multiply the second row of the first matrix by the second column of the second matrix.

1

f = 1 2 +

f = 2 + 14 + 6

f = 18

2

7

2

27

32

3 37

so A B =

6 18

b11 b12

a11 a12

In general, if A =

and B =

b21 b22

a21 a22

12

2

15

.

6

then A B =

a21 b11 + a22 b21 a21 b12 + a22 b22

Worked exAmpLe 5

4 1 3

1 0

P=

, Q =

2 5 7

3 2

a Write the order of the two matrices.

c Does QP exist?

Think

2

(2 3) matrix, so it exists.

TUToriAL

eles-1428

Worked example 5

b Does PQ exist?

d Calculate the product(s) that do exist.

WriTe

a P is a (2 2) matrix.

Q is a (2 3) matrix.

b PQ exists.

ChApTer 7 Matrices

317

d PQ = 1

0 4 1

3 2 2 5

1 4 + 0 2 11+ 0 5 1 3 + 0 7

=

3 4 + 2 2 3 1 + 2 5 3 3 + 2 7

2

4 1

=

16 13

Simplify PQ.

Note: In worked example 5, PQ exists but QP does not exist, indicating that matrix multiplication is

not commutative.

exercise 7B

multiplying matrices

1 3

A=

2 1

1 We5

, B =

5

3

a AB

b BA

diGiTAL doC

doc-9770

WorkSHEET 7.1

Evaluate 2

1 3

,Q =

If P =

2 1

5 0

5 3 0

R= 1 4

1 4 1

0 1

b R(P + S)

c R(P + SQ).

a QR

5

and N =

0

3

4

a Show that MN NM.

b Evaluate M2.

2

3 0

M+

c Find 2 N

0

0 3

1

2

c BD

3

0

and D = 2

d AC

and S = 1

0

2

1 5 x 11

=

3 4 y 5

b Write the answer to 5a in a form that does not contain matrices.

c Solve for x and y.

6 A is a (2 2) square matrix.

2 1

0 3

4 0

.

0 4

a Find A2 3 A

b Find A3.

318

. Find each of

1

e CB

5 0 3 .

2

4 M=

2 3 0

, C = 1

1 2 1

4

4

, evaluate:

2x + 5y = 11

+ 2y = 12

3x

as a matrix equation.

2

8 E = 2 3 4 and F = 3 .

4

a Find EF.

b Find FE.

1

9 If A =

3

1 0

4

2

and I =

, find A + 5A 3I.

2

0 1

3 4

3.

, find P

1 2

10 a If P =

0

.

9 12

3

P=

1

11 mC

2

P=

3

12 mC

1

9

0

and Q =

2

1

. PQ equals:

5

11

7 2

6 3

. P2 equals:

0

7

6

1

6

2

3

7 2

9 3

The order of the answer matrix when we multiply a matrix of order (2 3) by a matrix of

order (1 2) is:

A (1 2)

B (1 3)

C (2 1)

d (3 2)

e (3 1)

13 mC

a For which pairs of matrices does the product exist? State the order of the answer(s).

b Is it possible to multiply all three matrices together? If so, state the order of the answer.

c For which pairs of matrices does the sum exist? State the order of the answer(s).

1 0

2

2

and I =

, evaluate M and solve for a and b such that aM bM I = 0.

0 1

16 Fast-food chain McDonuts has outlets in the centre of the city. An overall view of sales is maintained to

monitor demand. Hamburgers, drinks and chips were surveyed.

In January, Store A sold 1200 hamburgers, 2367 drinks and 4219 serves of chips.

a Write this as a (1 3) matrix.

b The selling price of each product is $4.50, $1.95 and $2.45 respectively. Write this as a

(3 1) matrix.

c Multiply these matrices to calculate the total income from these three items.

17 Mayfleet, the international hotel chain, is building a new hotel in Arcadia Waters South. The guest

accommodation comprises 80 standard rooms, 45 suites and 3 presidential suites. Each standard room

has 1 king-size bed, 1 table, 2 chairs and 1 TV. Each suite has 1 king-size bed, 2 single beds, 2 tables,

5 chairs and 3 TVs. The presidential suites have 2 king-size beds, 6 single beds, 7 tables, 18 chairs

and 6 TVs.

a Set this information out in the form of two matrices.

b Multiply these matrices to calculate the total number of pieces of furniture that Mayfleet must

purchase to fit out the guest rooms.

15 If M =

5

0

ChApTer 7 Matrices

319

The multiplicative identity matrix

The unit matrix, previously defined as a significant square matrix, does not alter any other matrix by

which it is multiplied. It is denoted by I and is known as the multiplicative identity matrix.

1 0 0

I = 0 1 0 is an example of a multiplicative identity matrix.

0 0 1

2 3

If A =

0 2

1

4

4

3

1 0

and I =

, then:

0 1

1 0 2 3

IA =

0 1 0 2

2 3

Notice that

0 2

4

4 3

2 3

=

0 2

4

.

4 3

1 4 1 0

is not possible.

4 3 0 1

When any square matrix is multiplied by its inverse we obtain the identity, I. The inverse of matrix A is

written as A 1. By definition:

A A 1 = A 1 A = I.

1 0

Thus, if A is a (2 2) matrix, then A A 1 =

.

0 1

Similarly, if A is a (3 3) matrix, then:

A A

1 0 0

= 0 1 0

0 0 1

a b

1

Only square matrices have inverses. If A =

, then its inverse A equals

c

d

1 d b

. The number (ad bc) is called the determinant of the matrix A and is

ad bc c

a

written as det (A) or | A |. The determinant may be positive, negative or zero.

Notice that if det (A) = 0, the inverse does not exist, as 1 is undefined. In this case, matrix A is called a

0

singular matrix.

Worked exAmpLe 6

If F =

1

2

5

3

, find F 1 .

Think

320

WriTe

Find det (F ).

det (F ) = (1 3) (2 5)

= 13

matrix f.

1 5

f

2 3

determine f 1.

Note that this is the same result as in step 4.

f 1

1 3

13 2

3

13

5

13

2

13

1

13

equations

Matrices may be used to solve simultaneous equations of the form:

2x + 5y = 11

3x + 2y = 12

These simultaneous equations may be expressed as the matrix equation:

2 5 x 11

=

3 2 y 12

2 5

x

11

If A =

, X = y and B =

,

3 2

12

then AX = B,

A 1AX = A 1B

IX = A 1B

X = A 1B

det (A) = 2 2 (5 3) = 19

1 2 5

A 1=

19 3 2

x 1 2

y =

19 3

=

5 11

2 12

1 38

19 57

2

=

3

x = 2, y = 3

Worked exAmpLe 7

3x y = 7

2x + 5y = 9

Think

1

matrix equation.

WriTe

1

5

TUToriAL

eles-1429

Worked example 7

x 7

y =

9

ChApTer 7 Matrices

321

matrix.

this inverse matrix.

det

= 15 2 = 13

5

The inverse is

1 5 1

.

13 2 3

1 5 1

13 2 3

1 x 1 5 1

=

5 y 13 2 3

x 1 26

I =

y

13 13

4

Simplify.

x 2

y =

1

x = 2 and y = 1.

Worked exAmpLe 8

Solve the simultaneous equations using matrix methods. Interpret your findings.

2x 4y = 10

3x 6y = 5

Think

1

WriTe

matrix equation.

4

6

x 10

y = 5

2 4

det

= 12 + 12 = 0

6

3

singular matrix.

There is no point of intersection between

the lines. It follows that the lines are

parallel.

Worked exAmpLe 9

rx y = 1

x ry = 2

Think

TUToriAL

eles-1430

Worked example 9

WriTe

matrix equation.

x 1

y =

r

2

r

det

1

1

r

= (r r ) (1 1) = r 2 + 1

The inverse is

322

1

r2

+ 1

r

1

1

r

matrix.

x

1

y = 2

r + 1

Thus

x=

or

x=

r

1

1 1

r 2

+2

1 + 2r

,y= 2

r +1

r +1

r2

1 2r .

,y=

1 r2

1 r2

Worked exAmpLe 10

A cubic equation is of the form y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d. The points (1, 1), (0, 3), (1, 3), (2, 1) lie on

the curve. Use matrices to find a, b, c and d.

Think

WriTe

involving a, b, c and d.

y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d

1 = a(1)3 + b(1)2 + c(1) + d

3 = a(0)3 + b(0)2 + c(0) + d

3 = a(1)3 + b(1)2 + c(1) + d

1 = a(2)3 + b(2)2 + c(2) + d

Simplify.

1=a+b+c+d

3=0+0+0+d

3 = a + b c + d

1 = 8a + 4b + 2c + d

1 1

0 0

1 1

8 4

1

0

1

2

1

1

1

1

1 1

0 0

1 1

8 4

1

0

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

3

3

1

1

3

3

1

1

A B=

a

b

c

d

3

1

3

a = 3 , b = 1, c =

4

3

,d =3

ChApTer 7 Matrices

323

exercise 7C

a 1

2

3 4

diGiTAL doC

doc-9771

WorkSHEET 7.2

6 5

x 2

3 y

d 0

0

2 4

1

4

x2

x

x2

9

x

+

1

3

2 5

3 We6

a Find the inverse of matrix A =

1

3

2 A=

1

1

b Show that A A = A A = I, where I is the multiplicative identity matrix.

4 If it exists, find the inverse of each of the following matrices.

5

0

a 2

b 1 1

1 2

2 0

15

3

8

d 3

e 6

1

2

1

3

x +1

2

If A =

, for what values of x is A singular?

x 1

4

6 We7, 8 Solve each of the pairs of simultaneous equations by a matrix method.

a 2x 5y = 6

b x 3y = 7

c 2x + 4y = 1

5x + y = 7

x+y=2

2x + 4y = 0

7 We9

d x y = 1

2x y = 6

2px y = 3

3x + py = 2

9 mC

A 30

d 16

10 mC

1

For what value of p does |D| = 0, where D =

p

B 20

e None of these

1 4

1 1

7 1

1

1

7 1

3

4

2

?

3

B 4

1

3

1

1 4

7 1

C 13

1 4

7 1

11 mC If x + y = 4 and 4x + 6y = 5, then

equals:

y

10

324

10

6

4

6

1 4

1 5

4

5

10

1

10

1

4

1 4

6 5

1 4

5

10

6

4

1 4

1 5

1

4

12 If A =

12

1 1

12

, find A3 and A1.

1 0

13 P =

and Q = 1 0 . Show that P and Q do not commute when multiplied.

0 1

cos ( )

sin ( )

( )

.

cos ( )

sin

0 1

1 0

and J =

, find the condition for pI + qJ to have a multiplicative inverse.

1 0

0 1

15 If I =

2 1

1 0

1 1

and N =

. If MX = XN, show that X = k

.

0

2

1

2

0 0

The point of intersection of the lines 2x + 3y = a and x 2y = 5 is (7, 1). Use a matrix method to find a.

We10 The points (1, 3), (2, 5), (1, 1) and (3, 15) lie on the curve y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d. Establish the

equation of the curve.

Solve for x, y and z in terms of r.

rx + y + z = 1, 2x ry z = 3, 3x + 4y rz = 5

Solve for a, b, c and d.

a+b+c+d=0

a 2b + 3c + d = 7

2a + b 2c d = 1

3a + 2b + c 4d = 11

Show that the following equations have a unique solution only if b 1, 2.

x+y+z=3

x + by + z = 3b

2x + 4y + bz = 2

Tercell, the clothing shop in Church Street, sells 15 suits, 45 shirts and 43 ties per week. It has another

branch in High Street that sells 24 suits, 23 shirts and 37 ties per week. If the profit from each sale is

$100 per suit, $18 per shirt and $14 per tie, use a matrix method to calculate the total weekly profit

from the two shops.

Slapstick, Brush and Company manufactures four main brands of paint, which they mix up using four basic

ingredients urg, blog, slug and nog. The four main brands of paint are Quix, Runns, Splash and Thix.

Each litre of Quix requires 0.2 kg of urg, 0.5 kg of blog, 0.3 kg of slug and 1 kg of nog.

Each litre of Runns requires 0.1 kg of urg, 0.4 kg of blog, 0.7 kg of slug and 0.8 kg of nog.

Each litre of Splash requires 0.2 kg of urg, 0.7 kg of blog, 0.1 kg of slug and 1 kg of nog.

Each litre of Thix requires 1.0 kg of urg, 0.5 kg of blog, 0.3 kg of slug and 0.0 kg of nog.

Each week the company uses 2000 kg of urg, 1945 kg of blog, 1800 kg of slug and 3230 kg of nog.

Use a matrix method to find out how many litres of each paint the company produces per week.

16 M =

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

7d

Matrices can be used to describe transformations (translation, reflection, rotation and dilation) of points or

curves in the xy plane. The point (x, y) is the image of the point (x, y) following a sequence of transformations.

Translation

inTerACTiViTY

int-0266

matrices and

transformations

A point P (x, y) is moved to the point P (x, y) by translating a units in the positive direction of the

x-axis (right) and b units in the positive direction of the y-axis (up). A horizontal translation of a units

and a vertical translation of b units can be represented by:

x x' x a

(x, y) = (x + a, y + b) or T =

= y +

y

y' b

ChApTer 7 Matrices

325

Worked exAmpLe 11

The point (2, 3) is translated by the matrix 4 . Find the new coordinates of the point.

2

Think

WriTe

x x' x a

Use the formula T =

= y + .

y

y' b

x' 2

y' = +

x' 2

y' =

1

(x, y) = (2, 1)

It is useful to summarise the effects of various transformations as set out in the table below. Here we deal

with (2 2) matrices that cause a change in the position of a point. These can be done on calculators or

by hand, using the usual matrix multiplication techniques.

Matrix

What it does

Calculation

Change

1 0

0 1

Nothing

x x' 1 0 x x

T =

=

y = y

y

y' 0 1

0 1

1 0

y=x

x x' 0 1 x y

T =

=

y =

y

y' 1 0 x

0

1

y = x

x x' 0

T =

=

y

y' 1

Reflection in the

x-axis

x x' 1

T =

=

y

y' 0

1 0

0 1

Reflection in the

y-axis

x x' 1 0 x

T =

y =

=

y

y' 0 1

k 0

0 1

Dilation by factor k

from the y-axis

x x' k 0 x kx

T =

=

y = y

y

y' 0 1

(x, y) = (kx, y)

1 0

0 k

Dilation by factor k

from the x-axis

x x' 1 0 x x

T =

=

y = ky

y

y' 0 k

Anticlockwise

rotation of A degrees

about the origin

x x' cos ( A)

T =

=

y

y' sin ( A)

cos ( A)

sin ( A)

326

( A)

cos ( A)

sin

x

=

0 y

0 x

y =

1

(x, y) = (y, x)

(x, y) = (y, x)

(x, y) = (x, y)

(x, y) = (x, y)

( A) x

cos ( A) y

sin

(x, y) = (x, y)

y = x sin (A) + y cos (A)

Worked exAmpLe 12

5

Think

1

WriTe

TUToriAL

eles-1431

Worked example 12

5

( 5, 1) =

x x' x a

Use the formula T =

= y +

y

y' b

to translate the point.

x' 5 3

+

y' =

1 5

x' 8

y' =

6

(x, y) = (8, 6)

0 1

The reflection matrix in y = x is

from the

1 0

table.

x' 0 1 8 6

=

y' =

1 0 6 8

x x' 0 1 x

Use the formula T =

=

y

y

y' 1 0

to reflect the point.

5

Worked exAmpLe 13

Find the image of the point (3, 8) under 30 anticlockwise rotation about the origin.

Think

WriTe

x x' cos ( A)

T

=

=

y y' sin ( A)

where A is 30.

( A) x

,

cos ( A) y

sin

3

(3, 8) =

8

y' =

sin (30 )

2

=

1

1

2

3

2

3 3

4

= 2

3

4 3+

2

(30 ) 3

cos (30 ) 8

sin

3

8

3 3

3

4, 4 3 + . As a

The new point is

2

2

decimal approximation, the point is

(1.40, 8.43).

ChApTer 7 Matrices

327

exercise 7d

Find the new coordinates of the point P (3, 2) after the following transformations.

1 We11,12

0 1

c 1 0

b 1 0 followed by 3

1 0

0 2

2

0 1

d Reflection in the y-axis

e Translation of 6 units to the left and 4 units upwards, followed by reflection in the x-axis

a

0 1

followed by reflection in the line y = x

1 0

2n

b Reflection in the line y = x followed by a translation of

3m

3 Two transformations as shown are applied to the point M (x, y).

a Reflection by the matrix

3 0 0 1 x

0 1 1 0 y

a Find the single (2 2) matrix that can be used to describe the combined transformations.

b If M is the point (1, 0), find its new coordinates after the transformations.

4 Write the matrices for the following rotations about O.

a 90 clockwise

b 180 clockwise

d 360 clockwise

e 90 anticlockwise

g 120 clockwise

h 150 anticlockwise

j 120 anticlockwise

c 270 clockwise

f 45 anticlockwise

i 300 clockwise

a The image of this point after a reflection through the line y = x followed by a rotation of 180

anticlockwise is:

d (5, 3)

A (5, 3)

B (3, 5)

C (5, 3)

b

The image of the point (3, 5) after a rotation of 270 clockwise followed by

4

a translation of is:

2

A (1, 3)

B (9, 5)

C (7, 1)

d (1, 1)

e (3, 5)

e (6, 4)

(3, 5)

x-axis and then an anticlockwise rotation of 45 is:

A (

2, 2 2)

d ( 4 2,

2)

B (

2, 4 2)

C (2 2, 2 2)

2, 4 2)

e (

6 mC The point (x, y) is dilated by a factor of 3 from the x-axis, then reflected in the line y = x and then

translated 2 units to the left and 1 unit down. The coordinates of the final point are:

B (3x + 2, y 1)

C (y 2, 3x + 1)

d ( 2 + 3y, 1 + x)

e (y + 2, 3x + 1)

A (3x 2, y 1)

7 a Combine a dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis and factor 3 from the y-axis to find the new

coordinates of the square (0, 0), (1, 0), (1, 1), (0, 1).

c Write down the single matrix that would represent dilations of factor n from both the x-axis and

the y-axis.

8 The point P (a, b) is subjected to a sequence of transformations as follows:

a translation of 5 to the left and 3 downwards

a reflection in the x-axis

a reflection in the line y = x.

Find the new coordinates of P after all of the above transformations have been completed in the

given order, using matrix methods.

328

9 We13 Find the images of each of the following points under each of the anticlockwise rotations, iv.

a A (4, 0)

i 30

b B (5, 4)

ii 45

c C (3, 6)

iii 90

d D (0, 9)

iv 180

60

10 Find the image of the point (7, 2) after a rotation of 270 anticlockwise followed by a translation

2

of .

4

11 The triangle ABC, with vertices A (2, 1), B (4, 0) and C (5, 2), is rotated by a clockwise rotation of

45 (i.e. an anticlockwise rotation of 45).

a Find the new coordinates (A, B and C) of the rotated triangle.

b Compare the area of triangle ABC to that of triangle ABC.

12 Consider the point A (a, b).

a Is an anticlockwise rotation of 30 equivalent to a reflection in the line y = x followed by a

clockwise rotation of 60? Give reasons for your answer.

b Is a reflection in the x-axis followed by an anticlockwise rotation of 45 equivalent to a

transformation by the identity matrix? Give reasons for your answer.

13 The point P (3, 4) is transformed to become the point P ( 2 3, 13).

a Prove that this transformation represents an anticlockwise rotation of about the origin.

b Calculate the value of in degrees.

ChApTer 7 Matrices

329

Summary

Addition and

subtraction of matrices

Matrix definitions:

A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers arranged in rows and columns.

An m n matrix has m rows and n columns.

The individual entries in the matrix are called the elements of the matrix.

Operations with matrices:

Addition and subtraction of matrices are performed by adding or subtracting corresponding

elements.

Addition and subtraction can be performed only if the matrices are of the same order.

Scalar multiplication is performed by multiplying every element of the matrix by the scalar.

x y ax ay

a

=

p q ap aq

The Commutative Law holds: A + B = B + A

The Associative Law holds: A + B + C = (A + B) + C = A + (B + C )

multiplying matrices

b11 b12

a11 a12

In general, if A =

,

and B =

b21 b22

a21 a22

a11 b11 + a12 b21 a11 b12 + a12 b22

then A B =

.

a21 b11 + a22 b21 a21 b12 + a22 b22

The orders are (m n) (n p) = (m p).

Matrix multiplication is not usually commutative. That is, AB BA.

Solving matrix

equations

The multiplicative inverse of matrix A is A 1, and A A 1 = A 1 A = I.

a b

1 d b

If A =

, then its inverse is A 1 =

ad bc c a

c d

The number (ad bc) is called the determinant of the matrix A and is written as det (A) or |A|.

If det (A) = 0, then A 1 does not exist and A is said to be singular.

matrices and

transformations

A horizontal translation of a units and a vertical translation of b units can be represented by

(x, y) = (x + a, y + b)

x x' x a

or T =

= y + .

y

y' b

Pre-multiplying by a (2 2) matrix causes a change of the position of a point. For example,

0 1

pre-multiplying by

causes a reflection in the line y = x.

1 0

x x' 0 1 x y

T =

=

y =

y

y' 1 0 x

An anticlockwise rotation about the origin can be represented by

x x' cos ( A)

T =

=

y

y' sin ( A)

330

( A) x

cos ( A) y

sin

Chapter review

1 State the order of:

1

0

8

4

1

2

1

2

4

0

4

2

5

0

5

1

S ho rT

A n S W er

3

1

D = 5

0

3

0

.

3 x

= . Find x and y.

1 y

4 A=

1

2

and B = [1 0 4 1]. Evaluate:

0

3

5 P=

, Q = [0

1

3] and R = [0 2

a PQ

1].

a AB

Evaluate:

b QP

b BA

c PR

d P(Q + R)

.

6

x y

, show that AA1 = I.

2 3

8 Solve for x, y, and z.

7 For A =

2x 3y + z = 3

+ y 2z = 1

xyz=6

3x

9 Find the new coordinates of the point R(p, q) after reflection in the x-axis followed by a translation

of a .

b

10 The point (3, 2) is dilated from the y-axis. Its new coordinates are (6, 2). Write down the (22) dilation

matrix.

11 The point A (1, 2) is rotated clockwise about the origin through an angle of 60. Find the new

2 1

0 1

12 M =

. Find MN(NM) 1.

, N =

1 4

3 5

1 4

0

13 P = 2 0 , Q =

2

1 3

0 4 . Find (QP)1.

5 1

1 3

1

3 0

, C = .

, B =

2 0

2

4 1

a Find |A|.

b Find the inverse of C if it exists.

14 A =

c Calculate BC.

ChApTer 7 Matrices

331

3

2

0

, find P2 2P. Hence, express the inverse of P in terms of P.

15 If P =

3

0

m U LT ip L e

C h oiCe

5 c

, N =

. M and N commute under multiplication. Evaluate c.

0 3

5

3

16 M =

5

2 3

0 2

equals:

A 2, 3, 0

3 2[5

A

6]

[4

= 6

0

2 If 3

3 [2

9]

2

1

4 If A =

5

2

9

, x, y and z are respectively equal to:

B 2, 3, 0

1]

equals:

B [16

15]

C 6, 9, 4

d 6, 9, 0

e 2, 3, 4

C [4

d [16

e [4

15]

9]

9]

B 4

4

C 5

4

B 1

6

A 5

C [6]

d [5]

6 0

3 0

1 2 2

, M 2M equals:

4 0

5 If M =

12

d 3

B 11

12

12

C 7

4

3

A (1 2)

B (2 3)

C (3 2)

d (2 1)

e (3 1)

B 7

C 5

d 6

e 4

C 4, 1

d 4, 1

e 1, 2

1

6 P = 2 , Q = [1 2] and R =

3

A 7

2

4

equals:

x +1

2

is singular if x equals:

3 x 4

B 1, 2

A 1, 2

332

1 2

is:

1 4

9 The inverse of

4

1

1 4

6 1

1

4

1

2 1

1

A (0, 0)

C (0, 2)

B (4, 0)

d (4, 2)

e (0, 2)

1

11 The point (a, b) is reflected in the line y = x and then translated by the matrix

. Its new

coordinates are:

3

A (a 1, b + 3)

B (a + 1, b 3)

C (b + 1, a 3)

d (b 1, a + 3)

e (a + 1, b + 3)

10 The point (2, 1) is translated by the matrix

12 Reflection in the line y = x followed by a dilation of factor 2 from the y-axis is equivalent to pre-

1

2

0

A 0

B 0

0

2

1 0

0 2

0

1

13 The point (2, 1) is reflected in the y-axis followed by an anticlockwise rotation of 90 about the origin.

B (1, 2)

A (1, 2)

C (2, 1)

e (2, 1)

d (1, 2)

1

0

A (3, 4)

B (3, 4)

C (3, 4)

0

are:

1

d (3, 4)

e (4, 3)

ex Ten d ed

r eS p o n S e

a Show that A2 B2 = (A B)(A + B) only if A and B are commutative for multiplication.

1

9

B

and

=

.

3

a Show that (A + B)2 = A2 + 2AB + B2 only if A and B are commutative for multiplication.

b Use the matrices in question 1b to prove the result in question 2a numerically.

3 Potatoes cost $p per kg, carrots cost $q per kg, onions cost $r per kg and eggs cost $s per dozen.

George buys 14 kg of potatoes, 10 kg of carrots, 8 kg of onions and 2 dozen eggs for a total cost of $60.

Mary buys 10 kg of potatoes, 11 kg of carrots, 3 kg of onions and 5dozen eggs for a total cost of $52.

Cindy buys 4 kg of potatoes, 21 kg of carrots, 12 kg of onions and 1 dozen eggs for a total cost of $56.

Amy buys 15 kg of potatoes, 5 kg of carrots, 11kg of onions and 4 dozen eggs for a total cost of $69.

Establish a matrix equation and hence calculate the values of p, q, r and s.

a

4 a The point P (1, 3) is translated by the matrix

. Find its new coordinates.

b

b The new point is reflected in the line y = x. Find the new coordinates.

c This point is now rotated counterclockwise through 90 before being reflected in the x-axis. Find

d Find the transformation(s) needed to return the point found in part b to the point (1, 3).

ChApTer 7 Matrices

333

4 0

.

0 1

a Find the coordinates of the new vertices, calling them O, A and B.

b Has the area altered? If so, how?

c The new triangle is now reflected in the line y = x. Find the coordinates of the new vertices,

calling them O, A and B.

3

d Finally, OA B is translated by

. Find the final coordinates of the vertices.

1

3i 0

, where i2 = 1.

6 A=

i

2

3

a Find A 2A2.

b Find A 1.

1 0

2

3

4

c Show that A2 A 2I = (A 2I)(A + I), where I =

. Note: I = I = I = I etc.

0

1

mx 3 y = 6

5 The triangle O (0, 0), A (2, 3), B (5, 4) is transformed by the matrix

2x + m2 y = 3

8 Use a matrix method to solve the following simultaneous equations.

a+b+c+d = 5

a + b c + d

= 5

8a + 4 b + 2c + d = 19

8a + 4 b 2c + d = 25

9 Tickets for a one-way trip on a Melbourne to Sydney passenger train can be purchased as either adult,

child (under 15 years old) or pensioner. The table below shows the number of passengers and the total

takings for three trips.

Number of adult

passengers

145

130

142

Number of child

passengers

103

110

115

Number of pensioner

passengers

121

90

80

20 260

18 400

19 200

a Let x equal the cost of an adults ticket. Let y equal the cost of a childs ticket. Let z equal the cost

d Use your CAS calculator to determine the costs of a train ticket for an adult, a child and a

pensioner.

10 Describe the transformation given by the following matrices. It may be helpful to use a graph and

consider the effect of the matrix on the points (a, b).

b

0 1

1 0

diGiTAL doC

doc-9772

Test Yourself

Chapter 7

334

1 0

1

a 0

0 1

1 0

0

1

1

0

0 1

3 0

0 3

ICT activities

Chapter opener

DIGITAL DOC

10 Quick Questions doc-9769: Warm up with ten quick questions on

matrices (page 309)

7A

TUTORIALS

WE1 eles-1426: Watch a tutorial on showing that the Commutative

Law holds for two matrices (page 311)

WE3 eles-1427: Watch a tutorial on solving for variables in two

equivalent matrices (page 313)

7B

Multiplying matrices

TUTORIAL

WE5 eles-1428: Watch a tutorial on recognising the order of

matrices, and the products of two matrices if they exist (page 317)

DIGITAL DOC

WorkSHEET 7.1 doc-9770: Determine the order of a matrix, add,

subtract and multiply by a scalar and practise matrix multiplication

(page 318)

7C

simultaneous literal equations (page 322)

DIGITAL DOC

WorkSHEET 7.2 doc-9771: Calculate determinants and inverses of

matrices and solve matrix equations (page 324)

7D

INTERACTIVITY

Matrices and transformations int-0266: Use the interactivity to

consolidate your understanding of matrices and transformations

(page 325)

TUTORIAL

WE12 eles-1431: Watch a tutorial on finding the new coordinates

of a point after translating then reflecting it in the line y = x

(page 327)

Chapter review

DIGITAL DOC

Test Yourself doc-9772: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your

progress (page 334)

TUTORIALS

WE7 eles-1429: Watch a tutorial on using matrices to solve

simultaneous equations (page 321)

CHAPTER 7 Matrices

5_61_10586_MQ11_MMCAS_3E_07.indd 335

335

8/05/13 2:54 PM

Answers CHAPTER 7

mATriCeS

exercise 7A

matrices

1 A+ B =

4 1

= B+ A

2 3

5

2 a 1 6

2

1 3

c Does not exist.

5 7

1 3

3 1

[5 9 2 6

x = 1, y = 3

a 33

c 11

[4 6 3]

e

3

4

5

6

10 0

8

, NM =

10 4

0 10

7]

b 41

d 14

6 a

8 a [29]

b 6

8

c No

11

12

13

14

57.5 70

81.5

36.5

97.5 25.5 81

45

42 + 32 16

multiplying matrices

b Does not exist.

2 3

6 8

2 [13]

336

2

3

27

19

9

12

a AC, CA, CB

c None

13

7 x=

1

c

e

2

1

3

b Yes. ACB

1 0 1 2 1

45 3 1 2 2 5 3

2 6 7 18 6

Solving matrix equations

b 8

d 0

f 5x2

9

xy 6

4, 3

1 5

3 a 1

13

3 2

1

4

0.5

1.5

16

29

b x = 14, y = 7

d 7, 8

3p + 2

4p 9

,y= 2

2 p2 + 3

2p + 3

5 19

3

8 3, 3,

exercise 7C

0.5

0.5

c x = 22 , y = 22

12

16

0

1

3

6

5 x = 3

17 a 80

1 2

1

e 1

3

59 92

23 36

6 a x= 7 ,y= 7

15

; a = 0.1, b = 0.3

10

4.50

16 a [1200 2367 4219]

b 1.95

2.45

c $20 352.20

28

d

1

D

C

B

= 54 68

8

0

1

4

c None

15

6

36.5 81

11

10 a

d 74.5

5 2 5

2 3 1

13 0

1

=I

= 13

0 13

4 a

15 16

12 3

90 115 140

c 149 163 73

195 51 162

17

1

1

13

3

60

12

60

c

108

50 65 80

b 87 76 45

95 37 89

6

5

40 50 60

12 a 62 87 28

100 14 73

2 x + 5 y 11

7

3 x + 2 y = 12

9 C

10 B

11 A

exercise 7B

2

4 ] does not exist.

1

13 15 10 + 7

1

2

1 1 5

1 13

3 2

13 0

=I

0 13

1

= 13

4 a MN =

10

e 70

12

1 15

22

x + 5 y 11

=

5 a

3 x + 4 y 5

b x + 5y = 11, 3x + 4y = 5

c x = 1, y = 2

7 p = 3 , q = 3, r = 3

8 [ 5

3 a

3 0

5

3 1 4

d Does not exist.

5 35

5 1

1 2

9 E

10 E

11 D

12 I;

1

2

3

2

3

2

1

2

2 0 1 1

1 0 1 1

13

sin( )

sin( ) cos( )

p2 + q2 0

Check with your teacher.

a = 17

y = x3 2x2 + x + 3

r 2 7r + 2)

r 2 + 8r + 11

(3

x= 3

,

,y=

r + 9r + 5

r 3 + 9r + 5

2

5r + 9r 7

z= 3

r + 9r + 5

a = 1, b = 1, c = 2, d = 2

10

10

x=

, y = 3, z =

; unique solution

b+2

b+2

cos( )

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

if b 1 or 2.

If b = 2, division by 0

If b = 1, equations 1 and 2 become identical.

22 $2912 + $3332 = $6244

23 2834, 120, 1120, 1037

iii (9, 0)

iv (0, 9)

exercise 7d

b (6, 0)

c (3, 4)

1 a ( 2, 3)

d (3, 2)

e (3, 2)

2 a (m, n)

b (3n, 4m)

0 3

1 0

3 a

1

3

1

2

1

b B

1

1

3

3

5 a D

c E

6D

7 a (0, 0), (3, 0), (3, 2), (0, 2)

3 0

b

0 2

n 0

0 n

8 (3 b, 2a 5)

c

ii (2 2, 2 2)

iii (0, 4)

b i

2,

1

2

9

2

ii

iii

(4,

5

2

i

ii

5

2

9

2

5 3

2

3,

3

ChApTer reVieW

3

2

d i

ii

(

(

9

2

9 3

2

9

2

9

2

12

0

3

3 3

2

+3

1

5

9

13

d Impossible

6

y

=

x

2

3x 2 y

0

=

0

3x 2 y

12

37

8 x = 11 , y = 11 , z = 11

9 (a p, b q)

2 0

10

0 1

11

b [2]

6 4

5 2

1

2

+ 3,1

1

2

2

6

10

14

B

C

B

A

3 A

7 B

11 D

4 E

8 B

12 E

1 a (A B)(A + B) = A2 + AB BA B2 =

b [3]

C

B

E

A

exTended reSponSe

3

4

17

+ 3 3,

1 0

0 1 =I

iv (3, 6)

v

3 x 2 y

iii (6, 3)

3

y

1

2 3 3 x 2 y

+3 3

mULTipLe ChoiCe

2

2 1

3 x = 3 and y = 1

7 x

+2

1 a 41

b 52

2 6

1

27

16 c = 3

ShorT AnSWer

+ 2 3,

2

5)

3 3

+2 3

iv (5, 4)

v

)

)

5 a

3)

5 3

2

0 6

0 3

0 4 2

c

0 2 1

iv (4, 0)

v (2,

2

3

2

b

moves. Only if tan 1 = 22.5 would

a

this be true.

13 a OP = 5 = OP. The transformation could

be a rotation (in this case anticlockwise)

about the origin. (It could also be a

translation, but that is not the question.)

b 80.72

2

4 a

0

9 a i (2 3, 2)

7

2

12 a No. Single matrix combined matrices.

b No. Under the identity matrix nothing

3)

(

C' = (

9 3 9

,

2

2

3

, B' = ( 2 2, 2 2)

11 a A' = 1 ,

1 0

0 1

0

e

1

g

1

b

0

0

1

10 (0,

b (0, 1)

0 1

4 a

1 0

1 5 12

62 19

13 64

257

67

7 4

14 a | A | = 6

b C is not a square matrix. No inverse.

3

c BC =

2

15 P(P 2) = 3I

P2 1 1 0

=

The inverse of P is

.

3

3 2 3

12

are commutative for multiplication.

54 12

b

6

42

a (A + B)(A + B) = A2 + AB + BA + B2 =

A2 + 2AB + B2 only if AB + BA = 2AB,

i.e., if A and B are commutative for

multiplication.

b Not equal

p = 2, q = 1, r = 2 and s = 3

a (a + 1, b 3)

b (3 b, a 1)

c (1 + a, 3 + b)

d Translation by (a, b)

a O (0, 0), A (8, 3) and B (20, 4)

b Yes, by a factor of four. The new

triangle is now reflected in the line

y = x.

c O (0, 0), A (3, 8) and B (4, 20).

d The final coordinates of the vertices are

(3, 1), (0, 7) and (1, 21).

27i + 18

0

a A3 2A2 =

14 8i

14 8i

i

0

1

b A 1=

2

3

i

c A2 A 2I

3i 0 2 0

= 9 0

2 i 0 2

4i 1

0

3i

4i 2 i 3

11

(A 2I )(A + I )

3i 2

= 2

0 3i + 1

i2 2

i +1

0

3i

4i 2 i 3

11

ChApTer 7 Matrices

337

x

1 6m 2 + 9

= 3

y

m

+ 6 3m 12

2

1

=

3

1

130x + 110y + 90z = 18 400

142x + 115y + 80z = 19 200

145 103 121 x 20 260

b 130 110 90

y = 18 400

19 200

142 115 80 z

338

a

b

c

d

c 130 110 90

142 115 80

155 1135 101

6068 12 136 1517

= 119 2791 67

3034 30 340 1517

67 2049 64

d $70 for an adults ticket, $50 for a

pensioners and $35 for a childs.

10 a None

b Rotation through 180

c Reflection in the x-axis

Reflection in the line y = x

Clockwise rotation of 90

Reflection in the line y = x

Dilation by a factor 3 from both the

x-axis and the y-axis

i Dilation by a factor 3 from both the

x-axis and the y-axis and rotation

through 180

j Anticlockwise rotation of 90

d

e

f

g

h

S ho rT

A n S W er

3

1

1 Let A =

.

2

2

a Determine det (A)

b Hence, find A 1.

20 minutes

1 mark

2 marks

3 2

and A =

1 2

2 Let B =

a B+A

b AB

c

1

2

4

2 0

2 marks

3 marks

A 2B

3 marks

3 The point P (4, 2) has been dilated by a factor of k from the y-axis to form a new

a Show that k = 1.

2 marks

1

1 Let C =

3

a

1

A 3

d

2 marks

m U LTip L e

C ho iC e

1

B

C 0

3

1

3

10 minutes

one mark.

e 3

a

. If the coordinates of the new point are

b

A a = 2, b = 1

B a = 2, b = 2

2

d a = 1, b = 1

C a = 2, b = 2

e a = 1, b = 2

(AB)C would result in a matrix of order m n.

A + C would result in a matrix of order (m + n) (n + p).

BC would result in a matrix of order n p.

(AC)B would result in a matrix of order m n.

(BA)C would result in a matrix of order p (nm) p.

A

B

C

d

e

4 Which one of the following matrix equations would provide a solution to the simultaneous equations

x 2y = 3, 3y 2z = 1 and 3x + 4z = 2?

x 3 1

A y = 1 = 3

z 2 3

x 1

d

y = 3

z 3

2

2

4

x 1

2 B y = 0

z 3

2

e

1

2

3 2

0 4

x 3 1

y =

1 0

z 2 3

3 2

0 4

x 1

C y = 3

z 3

2

4

1

2

Exam practice 3

339

e x T ended

r e SponS e

35 minutes

1 A triangle ABC has been transformed by a factor of 3 from the x-axis and a reflection in the line y = x.

a i Write down the (2 2) matrix that can be used to describe a dilation by a factor of 3 from the

x-axis.

ii Write down the (2 2) matrix that can be used to describe a reflection in the line y = x.

iii Hence, write down the (2 2) matrix that can be used to describe the combined

transformations.

1+1+1 = 3 marks

b A has coordinates (2, 3). Using your matrix from part a iii, determine the coordinates of A.

2 marks

c The triangle ABC is rotated anticlockwise by 90 to form three new vertices, A, B and C.

i Write down the (2 2) matrix to describe this transformation.

ii Hence, determine the coordinates of B if B is (5, 3).

1+1 = 2 marks

2 Jim owns a garden centre. He sells four varieties of fruit trees: apple, plum, nectarine and cherry. He

recorded the number of each tree he sold over a four-week period during spring.

In the first week, he sold 4 apple trees, 2 plum trees, 3 nectarine trees and no cherry trees. In the

second week, he sold 2 apple trees, 1 plum tree, 3 cherry trees and no nectarine trees. In the third

week, he did not sell any plum or apple trees but he did sell 2 nectarine trees and 1 cherry tree.

During the fourth week, Jims assistant did not record the number of plum trees sold. He did

record that he sold 2 apple trees and 3 cherry trees but did not sell any nectarine trees. Let the unit

cost, in dollars, of each type of tree sold be represented by the following variables:

e = cost of an apple tree f = cost of a plum tree g = cost of a nectarine tree h = cost of a cherry tree.

a Write a (1 4) matrix to record the number of apple, plum, nectarine and cherry trees sold in the

first week.

1 mark

b The (4 1) matrix C below shows the unit price, in dollars, of each type of fruit tree.

diGiTAL doC

doc-10163

Solutions

exam practice 3

340

e

f

C=

g

h

1 mark

Using the matrix above, write the cost of 3 cherry trees.

c The matrices W3 and C show the number of trees sold in the third week and the unit cost of each tree.

e

f

W3 C = 0 0 2 1

g

h

i Write the order of the product of W3C.

1 mark

ii In the context of this problem, what would the matrix W3C determine?

1 mark

d The number of trees sold over weeks 2 to 4 can be represented in the following matrix, T.

2 1 0 3

T = 0 0 2 1

2 p 0 3

where p is the number of plum trees sold during the fourth week.

By adding in your matrix from part a, write down the matrix that represents the total number of

fruit trees sold over the four-week period.

1 mark

The unit cost of a plum tree is $16.50. The amount of money Jim earns from selling the fruit trees for

each of the first three weeks is $195.30, $175.35, $74.65 and ($158.85 + the money from the selling

of p plum trees) respectively.

e Write down a matrix, A, that shows the amount Jim earned over the four-week period.

1 mark

f Set up a matrix equation that would determine the unknown values of e, g, h and p.

2 marks

g Using an appropriate method, solve the matrix equation to find the unit cost of an apple

tree, a nectarine tree and a cherry tree.

3 marks

h The amount of money collected from selling the fruit trees during the fourth week was

$208.35. Determine the number of plum trees that were sold during the fourth week.

1 mark

ChapTer 8

Rates of change

diGiTal doC

doc-9773

10 Quick Questions

ChapTer ConTenTS

8a

8B

8C

8d

8e

8F

8G

8h

8i

Identifying rates

Constant rates

Variable rates

Average rates of change

Instantaneous rates

Motion graphs (kinematics)

Relating the gradient function to the original function

Relating velocitytime graphs to positiontime graphs

Rates of change of polynomials

8a

identifying rates

In any subject dealing with things that move, grow or change it is often important to know the rate

(speed) with which quantities change. An example is the amount of water a city consumes per year.

Knowing this rate is important so that measures can be taken to ensure there are adequate supplies of

water stored in dams or reservoirs.

Rates describe how much one quantity

changes with respect to another.

Example 1. The speed of a car is 70km/h.

This rate is read as 70 kilometres per

hour, meaning that the car will travel

70kilometres in an hour.

Example 2. The council rates for a

household are $560 per year.

As with many rates, examples 1 and 2

involve time as the second variable. But this

is not always the case.

Example 3. The price of petrol is $1.129 per

litre. This rate means that the petrol will cost

112.9 cents for every litre purchased.

Rates usually have units associated with

them but not always.

1

Example 4. The gradient of a road is 25 . This rate is read as 1 in 25 and means the road rises one unit

vertically for every 25 units in length (horizontally). This is often expressed as a percentage, i.e. a 4%

grade in this case.

Road

25

Rate of change of A with respect to B = amount of A per B

change in A

.

=

change in B

ChapTer 8 Rates of change

341

Worked example 1

a 20 m/s

b 75 ents

c

pe

r pac

ket

c $13

Think

WriTe

a 20 m/s is a rate.

b 75 cents per packet is a rate as it compares cost and

packet.

c $13 is not a rate as there is only one quantity.

Worked example 2

A car travels 259 kilometres using 35 litres of petrol. Express this rate in km/L.

Think

WriTe

distance travelled

amount of petrol used

Rate =

259 km

35 L

travelled for each 1 litre of petrol.

7.4 km

1L

= 7.4 km/L

Rate =

35

In this case, that would be

100 = 13.5 L/100 km.

259

exercise 8a

identifying rates

1 We1

Which of the following represent a rate?

a 100 km/h

b $140 per week

d 80 beats per minute

e $2.75

g 25 kg

h 10 000 litre s

j 18 degrees

k 1.4% per quarter

m 5 per person

n A gradient of 0.8

p Cars per hour

2

a

B

C

d

e

F

G

h

i

342

c

f

i

l

o

64%

$35.90 per m2

$11.00 per dozen

33

3.4

Match each of the rates you identified in question 1 to the most appropriate description below.

The rental fee for a house

The slope of a buildings roof

The speed of a car

The number of cards dealt in a game of poker

The cost of oysters at a restaurant

The pulse rate of a person walking

The number of cars entering a car park

The price of carpet

The inflation rate one year ago

A horseriding school wishes to organise four-day riding treks for a group of twelve people. The

following arrangements are made.

a Each day the group will ride off at 9 am.

b They will travel 20 km each day.

c There will be four rest stops per day.

d Each person must bring sleeping gear.

e They will sleep two people per tent.

f Meals will be supplied.

g The cost will be $200 per person.

h Three spare horses will be taken.

Which of these arrangements represent a rate?

a 5 dozen eggs at $2.12 per dozen

c 27 hours of work at $11.25 per hour

e 3.8 m3 of sand at $19.75 per m3

d 4.9 kg of oranges at $1.14 per kg

f 55 427 people at $11 per person

5 mC Francis delivers 440 pamphlets in 2 hours and earns $5 per 100pamphlets delivered.

a The rate of delivery of pamphlets per hour is:

a 220

B 20

C 880

d 440

e 2.5

b How long will it take Francis to earn $55?

a 4 hours

B 4 hours, 20 mins

C 5 hours

d 6 hours

e 3 hours

6 We2 Express the following as the rate indicated in the brackets.

a Running 100 m in 12 seconds

(m/s)

b A rise of 21 C in 6 hours

(C/h)

c A meal costing $250 for 10 people

($/person)

d 2.34 kg of washing powder added to 9 litres of water

(g/L)

e 32 m2 of lawn costing $149.50

($/m2)

f Losing 12.76 kg in 11 weeks

(kg/week)

diGiTal doC

doc-9774

SkillSHEET 8.1

introduction to rates of

change

7 A 100-litre tank filled with water is leaking water at the rate of 2.5 litres per hour.

a How long will it take for the tank to be half full?

Once it is half full, water is added to the tank at the rate of 3 litres per hour.

b How much longer will it take until the tank is full again?

c mC Which of the graphs below correctly shows the volume of water in the tank, v litres, as a

function of time, t hours?

a

100

100

50

50

50

120 t

20

120 t

20

120 t

20

120 t

100

100

50

50

100120 t

8B

100

20

d

Constant rates

When the rate of change of one quantity with respect to another does not alter, the rate is constant.

For example, if petrol is $1.60 per litre, then every litre of petrol purchased at this rate always costs

$1.60. This means 10 litres of petrol would cost $16.00 and 100 litres of petrol would cost $160.00.

Calculating the gradient from the graph:

rise

run

$(160 16)

=

(100 10) litres

$144

=

90 litres

Gradient =

$1.60

1litre

Price ($)

160

16

10

100

= $1.60/litre

Number of litres (L)

= rate

That is, the gradient of this graph represents a rate.

A straight line graph shows that the rate of change between two quantities is constant.

343

Worked example 3

air balloon and time, T, in hours (h) after it is launched from a

mountain top. Use the graph to find:

a the gradient

b the rate of change

c the rule for height as a function of time.

Height (m)

1100

500

Time (h)

Think

WriTe

rise

.

run

appropriate units.

c As the graph is a straight line, express the rule in the

form y = mx + c.

Remember that m is the gradient and c is the

y-intercept.

1100 500

5 0

600

=

= 120

5

a Gradient =

c The rule is of the form H = mT + c where

m = 20 and c = 500.

H = 120T + 500

Worked example 4

The table below shows the number of people, N, left inside an office building Tminutes after the

alarm goes during a fire drill.

a Show that the relationship is linear.

T

0

1

2

3

4

b Find the rate of change.

N

140 105

70

35

0

c Express N as a function of T.

Think

WriTe/draW

N

140

105

70

35

1

whether they lie on a straight line.

the appropriate units.

344

the relationship is linear.

0 140

40

140

=

= 35

4

Rate of change = 35 people/min

The number of people left inside the

building is decreasing at a constant rate.

bm=

exercise 8B

1

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

2

A persons pulse rate when running 3 km

The rate of growth of Australias population

A persons pulse rate when lying down

The daily hire rate of a certain car

The rate of growth of a baby

The rate of temperature change during the day

The commission rate of pay of a salesperson

The rate at which the Earth spins on its axis

The rate at which students arrive at school in the morning

The rate at which water runs into a bath when the tap is left on

The number of hours of daylight per day

Which of the following graphs show a constant rate of change?

0

g

0

j

0

f

0

3

0

i

0

e

Constant rates

0

h

For the constant rates of change found in question 2, which of these rates are:

i positive?

ii negative?

iii zero?

The graph shows that the car is:

a slowing down

B speeding up

C travelling uphill

d travelling at constant speed

e stationary

5 mC

The volume of water, v litres, in a container is shown as

a function of time, t minutes, in the graph. The rate of change of

water in the container is:

a 2 L/min

B 8 L/min

C 2 L/min

d 8 L/min

e 0 L/min

Distance (metres)

4 mC

Time (hours)

v (litres)

18

10

t (min)

345

6 We3

For each of the functions graphed below, state:

i the gradient

ii the rate of change

iii the rule.

a d (m)

b v (litres)

260

200

0

c

50

4

t (h)

0

d

w (kg)

100

30

t (min)

h (m)

75

60

0

e

40

t (weeks)

f

w (g)

16

t (years)

10

w (g)

30

10

5

0

t (min)

120 v (litres)

20

7 mC Water is being pumped out of a swimming pool holding 30 000 litres at a constant rate. It takes

a The rate of change of the volume of water in the pool is:

a 400 L/min

B 1200 L/min

e 40 L/min

d 40 L/min

b The time taken to empty the pool is:

a 12 hours, 5 minutes

B 12 hours, 30 minutes

d 2 days

e 18 hours

8

1200

C 6 hours, 30 minutes

The number of crates of fruit picked by a fruit-picker over the course of a day is shown in the graph.

Number of crates

13

7

6

5 pm

11 am

12 pm

1 pm

8 am

0

Time

a What is the rate of pay per hour in the first 3 hours?

b Explain what probably happened between 12 pm and 1 pm.

c What is the rate of pay per hour in the last 4 hours?

d Suggest two possible reasons why the line is not as steep in the afternoon.

e How much is earned for the day?

346

L/min

9 An athlete runs at a constant speed of 6 m/s for the first 420 m of a race. The next 400 m are run at a

constant speed of 5 m/s and the final 180 m at a constant speed of 6 m/s.

a How far is the race?

b How long does it take to run the first 420 m?

c How long does it take to run the next 400 m?

d How long does it take to run the final 180 m?

e Sketch the graph of distance, D metres, versus time, T seconds.

10 We4

A spring is stretched a distance x cm beyond its natural length when a weight of W kg is

attached to one end as shown in the following table.

x

10

15

20

25

diGiTal doC

doc-9775

plotting relations

b What is the rate of change of W with respect to x?

c Express W as a function of x.

A bucket contains 40 litres of water when it starts leaking through a hole in the bottom, such that the

volume of water, V litres, in the bucket at any time, t hours, is given by the rule V = 40 6t.

a At what constant rate, in litres/hour, is the water leaking?

b How long will it take for the bucket to be empty?

12

Water is poured at a constant rate into the vessels a, b, c and d shown below.

11

Match the appropriate graph below, representing height of water, h, at any time, t, with each vessel

above.

i

ii

8C

iii h

Variable rates

For example, the amount of electricity used per hour by a household

is most likely to be a variable rate as the need for electricity will change

throughout the day.

Graphically, a variable rate will not be linear, because the gradient

(or rate of change) is not constant.

The distancetime graph at right shows a variable rate between t = 0

and t = 3, because the gradient is changing over this interval. However,

it shows a constant rate between t=0 and t = 1; t = 1 and t = 2; and t = 2

and t=3, because the gradient is not changing over these intervals.

Relationships that give curves when graphed show that the rate of

change is continually changing; that is, a variable rate exists.

iv h

347

Worked example 5

For each interval, state whether:

a the rate of change is constant or variable

b the rate of change is positive, negative or zero.

C

TUTorial

eles-1432

Worked example 5

A

Think

WriTe

graph is linear; otherwise it is variable.

Interval CD: constant rate of change

gradient is positive, negative or zero in each

interval.

exercise 8C

1

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

2

Interval CD: negative rate of change

Variable rates

The pulse rate of a person watching a horror movie

The cost per kilogram of tomatoes at the local greengrocer today

The speed of a car travelling through the city

The cost per kilogram of tomatoes at the local greengrocer during the year

The number of hours of sunlight per day

The hourly rate of a receptionist

The hourly rate of a private taxi driver

The speed of a marble rolling down an incline

Which of the following graphs show variable rates of change between points A and B?

b

B

A

A

B

A

348

runner from the starting line changes over the duration of

a race.

100

For the graph shown, state whether:

a the rate of change is constant or variable

50

b the rate of change is positive or negative.

A

c mC The rate of change of distance with respect to

time is greatest at point:

a A

B B

C C

d D

e E

d The runner is travelling slowest (but still moving) at point:

a A

B B

C C

d D

e E

e At point E, the runner is:

a moving very fast

B speeding up

d not moving

e just beginning to move

3 We5

Distance (m)

D

C

B

6

Time (s)

12

C slowing down

The following table shows how weight, W (kg) varies with time, t (min), for a particular box as it is

filled.

t (min)

W (kg)

a

b

c

d

0

0

1

3

2

6

3

9

4

12

What do you notice about the plotted points?

Is the rate of change variable or constant?

What is the rate of change in kg/min?

The following table also shows weight, W (kg), varying with time, t (min).

t (min)

W (kg)

0

2

1

4

2

7

3

11

4

18

Do these points form a straight line?

Is the rate of change variable or constant?

What is the rate of change during:

i the first minute?

ii the second minute?

iii the fourth minute?

6

The following tables of values show distance travelled, d km, at various times, t hours. Decide

whether the rate of change of distance with respect to time appears constant or variable.

a

b

c

d

8d

t

d

0

0

1

5

2

10

3

15

4

20

t

d

0

0

1

15

2

20

3

45

4

80

diGiTal doC

doc-9775

plotting relations

If a rate is variable, it is sometimes useful to know the average rate of change over a specified interval.

For example, a tree grew from 6.2 m this time last year to 6.75 m now.

The trees average rate of growth =

change in height

change in time

(6.75 6.2) m

1 year

= 0.55 m/year

=

This means that the tree grew by 0.55 metres over the past year but not necessarily constantly at that

rate during the year.

ChapTer 8 Rates of change

349

Worked example 6

Calculate the average rate of change between points P and Q marked on the graph.

Q

Distance (m)

48

P

30

Think

Time (s)

WriTe

48 30 18

=

= 3.6

5

72

Gradient of PQ =

change. Include the appropriate units.

Worked example 7

Find the average rate of change of height between t = 1 and t = 3 from the table below.

t (min)

h (m)

20

60

90

130

140

145

Think

with respect to time by considering the change

in each quantity. When the time changes from

t = 1 min to t = 3 min, the height changes from

60 m to 130 m.

WriTe

change in height

=

change in time

(130 60) m

=

(3 1) min

70 m

=

2 min

= 35 m/min

Worked example 8

function T(h) = h2 4h + 22, where T is the temperature in degrees

Celsius after h hours.

a What is the initial temperature of the room?

b Sketch the graph of the function over the given time interval.

c Draw a chord between the points where h = 1 and h = 5.

d What is the gradient of this chord?

e What is the average rate of change of temperature between h = 1 and h = 5?

Think

function to find T(0).

350

WriTe/draW

a When h = 0, T(0) = 0 0 + 22

= 22

The initial temperature is 22 C.

TUTorial

eles-1433

Worked example 8

b

.

2a

T (2) = 4 8 + 22

= 18

The turning point of the parabola is (2, 18).

Evaluate T (2).

c T (C)

27

T(1) = 12 4(1) + 22 = 19

T(5) = 52 4(5) + 22 = 27.

the graph and join with a straight line.

rise

and the points (1, 19)

Use gradient =

run

and (5, 27).

change. Include appropriate units.

exercise 8d

18

(2, 18)

1

5 H (hours)

27 19

51

8

=

4

=2

d Gradient =

b

y

8

y

10

0

2

diGiTal doC

doc-9776

SkillSHEET 8.2

Gradient of a

straight line

0

2

19

(5, 27)

22 (1, 19)

Calculate the average rate of change between the points P and Q marked on each graph.

1 We6

a

b

2a

4

=

2

=2

bh=

Which of the following graphs have a straight line drawn that can aid in finding the average rate of

change over a specified interval?

a

0

c

0

d

351

ii find the gradient of this chord

iii hence, find the average speed from t = 1 to t = 3.

a d (km)

b d (km)

70

70

50

10

0

c

t (h)

d (km)

70

t (h)

t (h)

t (h)

d (km)

70

60

40

0

e

t (h)

d (km)

70

d (km)

90

70

0

4

t (h)

W (kg), versus its length, L (m).

a Find the gradient of the chord to the graph for the interval L = 5

and L = 20.

b Find the gradient of the chord from L = 15 and L = 20.

c What is the average rate of change between:

i L = 5 and L = 20?

ii L = 15 and L = 20?

d Are these rates the same? Explain your answer.

W (kg)

32.5

30

10

0

gradient is the one from point 0 to point number:

a 4

B 3

C 2

d 1

e 5

5 10 15 20 L (m)

5 mC

0

6

The total number of people at the zoo at various times of the day is shown in the table below.

am

T (time of day)

N (number of

people at the zoo)

10.00

0

pm

11.00

200

b Draw chords to the graph for the interval:

i 10.00 am to 1.00 pm

ii 1.00 pm to 3.00 pm

iii 3.00 pm to 5.00 pm.

352

12.00

360

1.00

510

2.00

540

3.00

550

4.00

550

5.00

550

d What is the average rate of change from:

i 10.00 am to 1.00 pm?

ii 1.00 pm to 3.00 pm?

iii 3.00 pm to 5.00 pm?

e Briefly describe what these rates suggest about the number of people attending the zoo during the

The height, h metres, reached by a balloon released from ground level after t minutes is

shown in the table below.

7 We7

t (mins)

h (m)

0

0

2

220

4

360

6

450

8

480

10

490

a Without drawing the graph, find the average rate of change of height with respect to time

between:

i t = 0 and t = 2

ii t = 2 and t = 4

iii t = 4 and t = 6

iv t = 6 and t = 8

v t = 8 and t = 10.

b Is the average rate of change for each 2-minute interval increasing or decreasing?

8 We8 The temperature of an iron rod placed in a furnace is described by the function T(t) = t2 + 20

T represents the temperature of the rod in degrees Celsius and t is the time in seconds.

a What is the initial temperature of the iron rod?

b Sketch the graph of the function over the given time interval.

c Draw a chord between the points where t = 2 and t = 8.

d What is the gradient of this chord?

e What is the average rate of change of temperature between t = 2 and t = 8?

9 The weight of a rabbit in its first eight weeks is described by the function W(t) = t3 3t2 + 200, where

W represents the weight of the rabbit in grams and t is the time in weeks.

a What is the weight of the rabbit at birth?

b What is the average rate of change of weight of the rabbit between:

i weeks 1 and 3?

ii weeks 1 and 2?

iii weeks 2 and 4?

iv weeks 2 and 6?

8e

diGiTal doCS

doc-9777

Gradient between

two points

doc-9778

WorkSHEET 8.1

instantaneous rates

If a rate is variable, it is often useful to know the rate of change at any given time or point, that is, the

instantaneous rate of change.

For example, a police radar gun is designed to give an instantaneous reading of a vehicles speed. This

enables the police to make an immediate decision as to whether a car is breaking the speed limit or not.

y

P

0

Tangent

x

1. drawing a tangent to the curve at the point in question

2. calculating the gradient of the tangent over an appropriate interval (that is, between two points whose

coordinates are easily identified).

Note: The gradient of the curve at a point, P, is defined as the gradient of the tangent at that point.

ChapTer 8 Rates of change

353

Worked example 9

W (kg)

b Hence, find the instantaneous rate of change of weight, W,

with respect to length, L, when L = 10.

10

Think

WriTe/draW

(estimation).

2

W (kg)

12

convenient interval (between the points where

L = 5 and L = 15).

8

4

0

Use gradient =

appropriate units.

10 15 20 L (m)

48

15 5

4

=

10

= 0.4

rise

.

run

Gradient =

at a rate of 0.4 kg/m.

Worked example 10

where x = 1.

Think

2

x = 1. Do this by eye (estimation).

WriTe/draW

y

2

1

2 1 0

1

2 x

2

3

354

L (m)

(1.5 O) and (0, 3) on the tangent line.)

0 ( 3)

1.5 0

3

=

1.5

=2

Gradient =

Note: There are no units to include as the

required rate of change is the gradient.

b f1(x) = x2 1

calculator to draw a tangent to f1(x) at (2, 3).

f1(2) = 22 1

=3

the CAS calculator to determine the equation

of the tangent line. Point the cursor to (2, 3) on

the graph.

ytangent = 4x 5

The gradient is 4.

Hence, the instantaneous rate of change at

(2,3) is 4.

instantaneous rates

exercise 8e

Describe each of the rates below as either an instantaneous rate (I) or an average rate (A).

b An aircraft leaves the runway at 270 km/h.

c A household uses 560 litres of water in one

day.

d The pulse rate of a runner as he crosses the

e A gas heater raises the temperature of a

f A baby puts on 300 g in one week.

g A road drops 20 m over a distance of 100 m.

h Halfway along a flying fox, Jill is travelling

at 40 km/h.

2

Which of the following graphs have a tangent drawn at the point where x = 4?

y

0

c

0

e

0

d

0

f

355

In each of the following graphs, find an approximate value for the gradient of the tangent at

the point indicated.

3 We9a

a

x=1

3

2

y

20

x=2

10

1

0

c

y

x=4

22

20

x = 1.7

2

0

1 1.7

Find the approximate value for the instantaneous rate of change of weight with respect to

time at the time indicated on the graph.

4 We9b

a

w (g)

t = 20

130

160

70

t = 10

80

0

w (g)

10 20 30 t (min)

w (g)

140

5 10 15 t (min)

w (g)

110

t=1

t=4

50

40

0

0 1

6 t (min)

t (min)

5 The weight of a person over a 40-week period is illustrated in the graph below.

diGiTal doC

doc-9779

Gradient at a point

Weight (kg)

90

80

70

60

50

40

10

20

30

Time (weeks)

40

b Estimate the average rate of change of weight between week 10 and week 20.

c Estimate the rate of change of weight at 30 weeks.

356

6 The change of temperature in a restaurant kitchen over a 12-hour period is illustrated in the graph below.

Temperature (C)

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213

Time (hours)

a When is the rate of temperature rise greatest?

b Estimate the rate of temperature rise at 6 hours.

7 a Plot the graph of y = x2 from x = 0 to x = 4.

b Draw tangents at the points where x = 1, x = 2 and x = 3.

c mC The gradient of the tangent at x = 1 is closest to:

a 0

C 2

B 1

d mC The gradient of the tangent at x = 2 is closest to:

a 8

B 6

C 4

e mC The gradient of the tangent at x = 3 is closest to:

a 6

B 9

C 3

d 3

e 4

d 2

e 0

d 7

8 We10a

a Plot the graph of y = 9 x2 from x = 4 to x = 4.

b Draw tangents at the points x = 2, x = 0 and x = 2.

c Hence, estimate the instantaneous rate of change at the points:

i x = 2

ii x = 0

iii x = 2.

9 We10b A tank is being filled at a variable rate. The depth of the water, H cm, at any time, tminutes, is

described by the rule H = t2 + 2t. At what rate is the depth of water changing after 2 minutes?

8F

In this section we will consider only objects moving in straight lines, either right and left, or up and down.

Definitions

1. Position, x, describes the location of an object.

2. Distance, d, is how far an object has travelled.

3. Displacement, s, describes the change in an objects position; that is, displacement = change in

position = final position initial position, or s = xfinal xinitial.

distance

d

4. Speed =

or speed = .

time taken

t

5. Velocity is the rate of change of position with respect to time, so

change in position displacement

s

velocity =

=

, that is, v = .

change in time

t

time taken

Consider an object that begins at the 3-metre mark on a number line, moves 5 metres to the right, and

then moves 5 metres to the left, taking 2 seconds to do so.

For this example we have:

x

1. Position (initially and finally) = 3 m

4321 0 1 2 3 4

2. Distance = 10 m

3. Displacement = 0 m

10 m

4. Speed =

= 5 m/s

2s

0m

5. Velocity =

= 0 m/s

2s

Distance and speed are (technically) always positive. Displacement and velocity can be either positive

or negative, depending on the direction of motion.

inTeraCTiViTY

int-0267

motion graphs

(kinematics)

357

Note: Some texts use displacement and position interchangeably (perhaps assuming displacement

from a fixed origin).

Worked example 11

Consider a lift starting from the ground floor, moving up to the top floor,

stopping and then coming down to the fifth floor at the times shown

on the diagram.

Find:

Top

a the total distance travelled by the lift

t = 14 s

t = 20 s

b the displacement of the lift after 25 s

c the average speed of the lift

d the average velocity of the lift.

TUTorial

eles-1434

Worked example 11

Positive

100 m

150 m

t = 25 s

(5th floor)

t=0

Think

WriTe

b At t = 0 s, the position of the lift is 0 m.

c Average speed =

Ground floor

time taken

d Average velocity =

change in position

change in time

= 250 m

= +50 0

= +50 m

250 m

25 s

= 10 m/s

c Average speed =

(+ 50 0) m

25 s

= +2 m/s

d Average velocity =

Worked example 12

of a particle, x, travelling in a horizontal straight line at any

time, t, to find:

a where the journey started

b in which direction the particle moved initially

c when and where the particle changed direction

d when and where the particle finished its journey.

Think

a Find x when t = 0.

x (m)

20

10

5

0

4 t (s)

WriTe

b Compare the position at t = 0 to the position a

negative gradient during this time.

358

the origin or reference point in the negative

x-direction.

t = 2. When t = 2, x = 5.

direction.

20 m after 4 s.

Worked example 13

Using the graph in worked example 12, consider the interval between t = 2 and t = 4 to decide

whether:

a the velocity of the particle is positive or negative

b the particle is speeding up or slowing down.

Think

WriTe

as

rise

(or gradient) is the same

run

change in position

(or velocity).

change in time

So the gradient of a positiontime graph

gives the velocity.

2

and t = 4.

velocity of the particle is positive.

t = 4 is changing.

x (m)

20

Positive gradient

getting steeper

Negative gradient

getting less steep

10

5

0

t (s)

2. the magnitude of the velocity is decreasing because the magnitude of the gradient is decreasing. The

negative gradient indicates the direction in which the particle is moving.

3. the speed is decreasing between t = 0 and t = 2 because the magnitude of the gradient is decreasing.

exercise 8F

1

Match the correct description (a, B, C or d) to each of the quantities (a, b, c or d) below.

Quantity

a Distance

b Displacement

c Speed

d Velocity

a

B

C

d

Description

Rate of change of displacement with respect to time

Change in position

Length travelled

Distance travelled with respect to time

a Speed can be positive or negative.

b Displacement can be positive or negative.

c Distance travelled is positive only.

d Velocity is positive only.

ChapTer 8 Rates of change

359

A parachute ride takes people in a basket vertically up in the air from a platform 2 metres

above the ground, then drops them back to the ground. Use the diagram below showing the position of

the parachute basket at various times to find:

a the total distance travelled by the parachute basket

t = 55 s

t = 60 s

during a ride

b the displacement of the parachute basket after 80 s

c the average speed of the parachute basket during

the ride

d the average velocity of the parachute basket during

the ride.

3 We11

diGiTal doC

doc-9780

SkillSHEET 8.3

displacement

and distance

19 m

t=0

2 m Platform

4

Consider the position and direction, at various times, of a particle travelling in a straight line as

indicated below.

t=5

a

b

c

d

e

t=2

t=0

3 2 1

Where does the particle finish?

In which direction does the particle move initially?

When does the particle change direction?

mC Which positiontime graph below most accurately represents the particles motion?

a

x (m)

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

d x (m)

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

360

t = 80 s Ground

5 t (s)

5 t (s)

x (m)

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

5 t (s)

5 t (s)

x (m)

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

x (m)

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

5 t (s)

a 4m

B 13 m

d 14 m

e 11 m

g The displacement of the particle after 5 seconds is:

B 14 m

a 3 m

e 0m

d 4 m

h The average speed in the first 2 seconds is:

a 3 m/s

B 2.5 m/s

d 2.5 m/s

e 1 m/s

i The average velocity between t = 2 and t = 5 is:

a 3 m/s

B 2 m/s

d 2 m/s

e 1 m/s

j The instantaneous speed when t = 2 is:

a 2.5 m/s

B 0 m/s

d 2.8 m/s

e 1 m/s

f

C 9m

C 4m

C 6 m/s

m/s

C 3 m/s

The following positiontime graphs show the journey of a particle travelling in a straight

line. For each graph, find:

i where the journey started

ii in which direction the particle moved initially

iii when and where the particle changed direction

iv when and where the particle finished its journey.

5 We12

a x (m)

8

b x (m)

12

c x (m)

12

10

10

1 2 3 4 5 t (s)

d x (m)

18

e x (m)

1 2 3 4 5 6 t (s)

f

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 t (s)

x (m)

5

4

2

1 2 3 4 5 t (s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 t (s)

3

0

1 2 3 t (s)

5

6 For each position function of a particle given below (af ), sketch the positiontime graph. In each case

explain:

i where the particle started its journey

ii in which direction it moved initially

iii whether the particle changed its direction and, if so, when and where that happened

iv where the particle finished its journey.

a x(t) = 2t, t [0, 5]

b x(t) = 3t 2, t [0, 6]

c x(t) = t2 2t, t [0, 5]

d x(t) = 2t t2, t [0, 4]

e x(t) = t2 4t + 4, t [0, 5]

f x(t) = t2 + t 12, t [0, 5]

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SkillSHEET 8.4

interval notation

361

b Find the gradient at:

i t=0

ii t = 1

iii t = 2

iv t = 3

v t=4

c Hence, give the instantaneous rate of change of position with respect to time (that is,

velocity) at:

i t=0

ii t = 1

iv t = 3

v t=4

d Sketch the velocitytime graph from t = 0 to t = 5.

iii t = 2

8 We13

For each of the following positiontime graphs, determine:

i whether the velocity is positive or negative

ii whether the particle is speeding up or slowing down.

x

b x

c x

a

0

9

Match the following positiontime graphs (af ) with the corresponding velocitytime graphs

(aF ) on the opposite page.

Positiontime graphs

a

x (m)

x (m)

x (m)

4 t (s)

4 t (s)

x (m)

x (m)

4 t (s)

0

1

4 t (s)

4 t (s)

4 t (s)

x (m)

4

362

0

1

2

3

4

Velocitytime graphs

B v (m/s)

a v (m/s)

C v (m/s)

1

4 t (s)

4 t (s)

4 t (s)

e v (m/s)

d v (m/s)

4 t (s)

4 t (s)

F v (m/s)

4 t (s)

10 A ball is projected vertically upwards from the top of a building 25 m high. Its position relative to the

11

swimmers in a 200-metre race.

a Who won the race?

b Who was in front after 150 metres?

c What was the approximate winning margin (in metres)?

d What was the average speed of the winner?

e For approximately how many seconds did Bill lead

the race?

f How many times did the lead change?

Distance (metres)

ground is given by the equation x = 25 + 20t 5t2, where t is the time in seconds.

Sketch a positiontime graph for the ball and hence find:

a the greatest height reached

b when the ball reaches the ground

c when the velocity of the ball is zero

d an estimate for the velocity at which the ball is initially projected.

200

150

Alan

100

50

0

Bill

20 40 60 80 100 120

Time (seconds)

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WorkSHEET 8.2

363

original function

8G

Earlier we considered gradients calculated at a single point on a graph. However, if the gradients are

calculated at every point within the domain of the function, the results can be graphed. This is the graph

of the gradient function.

The gradient of the function below has been calculated at several points as shown, and a table of

gradient values has beenconstructed.

Graph of

original function

y

y = x3 2x2 + 2

6

4

Gradient = 7 2

0 1

2 1

2

x

Gradient

1.0

0.5

0.5

1.0

1.3

1.5

2.0

2.75

1.25

0.75

The table of values above may by be used to sketch a gradient function such

as that at right.

4

Note: The gradient function is zero at x = 0 and x = 3 , which corresponds to

the zero gradient (turning points) of f (x). The gradient function is negative in

4

the interval 0 < x < 3 , as is the gradient of f (x). The gradient function is positive

elsewhere, which corresponds to the positive gradient of f (x).

Graph of

gradient function

y

8

6

4

2

2 12 0 1

original function

exercise 8G

1 Select several points (at least 6) on each of the graphs below and construct a table of gradient values.

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Gradient at a point

doc-9775

plotting relations

Use each table to plot the gradient function in each case. You may use a CAS calculator to work

through these problems.

a

y y = x2 4

4

x

21 01 2

2

321 01 2 x

2

y = x3 + 3x2 + 2

2

1

y = ex

321 0 1 2 3

4

2

x

y = sin

4

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8x

y

6

y = 2x + 3

321 0 1 2 3

2

y

40

32

24

16

8

y = x4

x

21 01 2

2 What do you notice about the gradient function of the quadratic function in question 1a?

3 Investigate other quadratic functions and their related gradient functions. What do you notice?

364

4 Investigate the gradient functions of other cubics besides that shown in question 1c. What types of

5 Which functions have a gradient function similar to the original function?

6 What do you notice about the original functions at x-values where the gradient function intersects the

x-axis?

7 When the gradient function is negative, what do you notice about the original function?

positiontime graphs

8h

The gradient of a positiontime graph gives the velocity, because velocity is the rate of change of

position with respect to time.

Therefore, by measuring the gradient of a positiontime graph at various points, a velocitytime graph

can be derived.

Worked example 14

The positiontime graph for a particle moving in a straight line is shown below.

x

3

2

Gradient = 2

1 Gradient = 2

0

1

2

Gradient = 1

Gradient = 1

Gradient = 0

Use this information to draw a velocitytime graph for the particle.

Think

1

time values from the graph.

Use the table of values to plot the velocity

time graph.

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t

v

2

0

3

1

4

2

v

3

2

1

3 2 1 0

1

The value of the velocity at a given time is equal to the gradient of the positiontime graph at that

time. By obtaining several of these values and knowing the initial position of a particle, the general

shape of the positiontime graph can be produced.

The following example demonstrates the steps involved.

ChapTer 8 Rates of change

365

Worked example 15

v

4

3

2

1

in a straight line and starting at the origin is

shown in the diagram. Sketch the corresponding

positiontime graph.

0

1

2

3

4

Think

1

TUTorial

eles-1435

Worked example 15

1 2 3 4 5

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time values. (These velocity values represent

the gradient of the positiontime curve at the

given times.)

gradient of 4 decreasing to a gradient of 0

at t = 2 (the turning point). From t = 2 to

t = 4, the gradient changes from 0 to 4. This

means the curve will become steeper but

with a negative slope.

positiontime graphs

exercise 8h

For each positiontime graph for a particle moving in a straight line, draw a velocitytime

graph. The gradient of the curve at various times is indicated on each of thegraphs.

1 We14

x

Gradient = 0

Gradient = 3

Gradient = 3

0

Gradient = 2

Gradient = 2

Gradient = 2

Gradient = 1

2 mC

Gradient = 1

Gradient = 0

m=0

m = 6

m=6

m = 12

m = 12

0

366

1

2

Gradient = 2

v

12

v

12

v

12

12

12

v

12

v

12

12

Sketch the velocitytime graph for each of the following positiontime graphs.

3

a

x

5

x

4

x

1

x

8

7

2

1

0

1

4

3

1

4

4

5

3

4

5

6

7

8

For each velocitytime graph shown below, sketch a positiontime graph, given that the

particle starts at the origin.

4 We15

a

0

1

367

v

8

v

3

0

1

Gradient of xt graph

b Sketch the positiontime graph.

6

The velocities for a particle starting at the origin are given as a function

of time.

Sketch a positiontime graph for each using t [0, 4].

a v=t+2

b v=2t

c v = 3t

d v = t

v

3

4 t

4 t

graph shown at right. For a particle starting at the origin, this

positiontime graph will look like:

7 mC

4 t

2

0

4 t

4 t

Briefly describe the motion of a car during the first 30 seconds for each of the velocitytime

graphs below.

a v (m/s)

b v (m/s)

20

18

368

30 t (s)

c v (m/s)

25

15

30 t (s)

10

25 30 t (s)

Sketch a velocitytime graph for each car described below for its first 20 seconds ofmotion.

a A car, initially at rest, increases its speed at a constant rate until it reaches a speed of 35m/s after

b A car is travelling at a constant speed 30 m/s. After 15 s the brakes are applied, decreasing its

10 A parachutist jumps from an aircraft and freefalls

for 6 seconds.

a If a parachutist falls y metres in t seconds where

y = 5t2, find the average speed of the parachutist

between:

i t = 0 and t = 3

ii t = 3 and t = 6.

b What is the speed of the parachutist after 6 seconds

of freefall?

c When the parachute is released (after 6 seconds of

freefall), the speed of the parachutist is reduced by

2 m/s every second until a speed of 4 m/s is reached.

How long after jumping from the aircraft does it take

the parachutist to reach a speed of 4 m/s?

8i

We have seen that instantaneous rates of change can be found from a graph by finding the gradient of the

tangent drawn through the point in question. The following method uses a series of approximations to

find the gradient.

Worked example 16

b Draw a line through the following points on the curve and find the gradient of each line.

i x = 2 and x = 3

ii x = 2 and x = 2.1

iii x = 2 and x = 2.01

iv x = 2 and x = 2.001

c Hence, predict the gradient of the tangent at the point on the curve where x = 2.

Think

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x

y

0

0

1

2

2

8

3

18

4

32

y

32

i

ii

iii

18

iv

8

0

b i 1 Mark the points on the curve where x= 2 and

rise

.

gradient using

run

When x = 2, y = 8; when x = 3, y = 18.

b i Line i

18 8

3 2

10

=

1

= 10

Gradient =

369

ii Line ii

through them.

2

gradient. Calculate the y-value for

x = 2.1 using the rule y = 2x2.

8.82 8

2.1 2

0.82

=

0.1

= 8.2

Gradient =

through them.

2

gradient. This may be difficult, so select an

x-value and calculate the y-value using the

rule y = 2x2.

8.0802 8

Gradient =

2.01 2

0.0802

=

0.01

= 8.02

iv Line iv

through them.

2

= 8.008 002

8.008 002 8

Gradient =

2.001 2

0.008 002

=

0.001

= 8.002

gradient. Calculate the y-value for

x = 2.001 using the rule y = 2x2.

2, the gradient of the line is becoming closer to 8.

Notice that the slope of each line has progressively

become closer to the slope of the tangent at x = 2.

Worked example 17

a Using a CAS calculator, calculate the gradients of the chords connecting two points on the curve

with the following coordinates:

i x = 3 and x = 4

ii x = 3 and x = 3.1

iii x = 3 and x = 3.01

iv x = 3 and x = 3.001.

b Hence, predict the gradient of the curve at x = 3.

Think

complete the function entry lines as:

avgRC(2x2, x, 1) | x = 3

avgRC(2x2, x, 0.1) | x = 3

avgRC(2x2, x, 0.01) | x = 3

avgRC(2x2, x, 0.001) | x = 3

370

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a i

ii

iii

iv

avgRC(2x2, x, 1) | x = 3

avgRC(2x2, x, 0.1) | x = 3

avgRC(2x2, x, 0.01) | x = 3

avgRC(2x2, x, 0.001) | x = 3

chord approximates the tangent. The

gradient of this tangent is the gradient of

the curve at x = 3.

i

ii

iii

iv

Between x = 3 and x = 3.1, the gradient is 12.2.

Between x = 3 and x = 3.01, the gradient is 12.01.

Between x = 3 and x = 3.001, the gradient is 12.002.

The previous example demonstrates that the gradient of a tangent to a function at a given point, x = a,

can be approximated by finding the gradient of a line joining the point x=a and another point as close

as possible to x = a.

hybrid functions

A hybrid function is one that has different rules over different sections of its domain. For example:

x + 2, x 0

f (x) = 2

x>0

y

x ,

The graph of f (x) is shown at right.

This is a discontinuous function because there is a break (orjump) in

2

y = x2

the graph at x = 0. There is also no defined gradient at the point x = 0 on

y=x+2

this graph, because at x = 0 two different values of the gradient can be

obtained.

x

0

2

2

If the rate of change of y at x = 0 is calculated using points just to the

left of x = 0, and then calculated using points just to the right of x = 0,

different values are obtained:

rise 2

= =1

Straight line: m =

run 2

y

Parabola: At the turning point (x = 0), gradient = 0.

Not all hybrid functions have a break in them. For

example:

x , x 0

f (x) = 2

x , x > 0

Gradient of straight

line is 1 at x = 0. 2

y = x2

Gradient of parabola

The graph of f (x) is shown at right.

y=x

is 0 at x = 0.

However, even for this graph, there is no defined gradient

at x = 0.

The gradient of the tangent approaching x=0 from the left is equal to the gradient of the straight line,

that is, 1. The gradient of the tangent to the parabola approaching x= 0 from the right, is equal to zero.

Therefore the gradient (or instantaneous rate of change) does not exist at x = 0.

If the hybrid function is smooth at the point where the combined functions meet, then the gradient

does exist.

A function is smooth at a given point if the left-hand gradient equals

the right-hand gradient at that point.

For example:

y

x 1

2 x ,

f (x) = 2

x + 1, x > 1

y = x2 + 1

The left-hand gradient of f (x) at x = 1 is the gradient of the line

y = 2x, which equals 2.

The right-hand gradient of f (x) at x = 1 is the gradient of the

Both gradients

2

are 2 at x = 1.

parabola y = x2 + 1, which also equals 2. So the left-hand gradient

equals the right-hand gradient. Therefore, this hybrid function

x

0

1

is smooth at x = 1, and the gradient (or the instantaneous rate of

y = 2x

change) at x = 1 is equal to 2.

ChapTer 8 Rates of change

371

In summary, for a hybrid function to have a gradient (or instantaneous rate of change) at the point in

the domain where the rule changes:

1. the function must be continuous at that point

2. the left-hand gradient must equal the right-hand gradient at that point. This makes the curve smooth.

Worked example 18

2 x,

x2

f ( x) = 2

x>2

x

,

Think

WriTe