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MATHS QUEST 11

Mathematical
Methods CAS
ROBYN WILLIAMS | NICOLAOS KARANIKOLAS | KYLIE BOUCHER
GAYLE ROBERTS | JENNIFER NOLAN | GEOFF PHILLIPS
CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS
ROBERT CAHN | DOUGLAS SCOTT | HOWARD LISTON
SUPPORT MATERIAL
JOHN DOWSEY | DENNIS FITZGERALD | EMILY HUI | CAROLINE MEWS
VINOD NARAYAN | PETER SWAIN | DAVID TYNAN | IAN YOUNGER
WAYNE YOUNGS | SIMONE RICHARDSON | DINA ANTONIOU | NORRENE HILL

3RD EDIT ION

VCE M AT HEM AT I CS U N I T S 1 & 2

Third edition published 2013 by


John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd
42 McDougall Street, Milton, Qld 4064
First edition published 2009
Second edition published 2010
Typeset in 10/12pt Times LT Std
John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 2009, 2010, 2013
The moral rights of the authors have been asserted.
National Library of Australia
Cataloguing-in-Publication data
Title:
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Target audience:
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Other authors/
contributors:
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Maths quest 11 mathematical methods


CAS/Robyn Williams . . . [et a l.].
3rd ed.
978 1 118 31058 8 (paperback)
978 1 118 31067 0 (exisaver)
978 1 118 31060 1 (ebook)
Includes index.
For secondary school age.
Mathematics Textbooks.
Williams, Robyn (Robyn Ellen) 1967
510

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Contents
2K Using technology to solve quadratic equations

Introduction vi
About eBookPLUS viii
Acknowledgements ix

Exercise 2K 82
2L Simultaneous quadratic and linear equations
Exercise 2L 87

Chapter 1

Linear functions

1A Solving linear equations and inequations


1B
1C
1D
1E
1F
1G

1H

1
Exercise 1A 3
Rearrangement and substitution 4
Exercise 1B 6
Gradient of a straight line 8
Exercise 1C 10
Sketching linear functions 12
Exercise 1D 14
Simultaneous equations 15
Exercise 1E 17
Finding the equation of a straight line 18
Exercise 1F 20
Distance between two points and midpoint of a
segment 21
Exercise 1G 22
Linear modelling 24
Exercise 1H 25

Summary 27
Chapter review 28
ICT activities 34
Answers 35

Chapter 2

Quadratic functions
2A Polynomials
2B
2C
2D
2E
2F

2G
2H
2I

2J

39

39
Exercise 2A 40
Expanding quadratic expressions 41
Exercise 2B 43
Factorising quadratic expressions 44
Exercise 2C 46
Factorising by completing the square 47
Exercise 2D 50
Solving quadratic equations Null Factor Law 50
Exercise 2E 53
Solving quadratic equations completing the
square 55
Exercise 2F 57
The quadratic formula 58
Exercise 2G 61
The discriminant 62
Exercise 2H 66
Graphs of quadratic functions as power functions
(turning point form) 66
Exercise 2I 68
Graphs of quadratic functions (intercepts
method) 70
Exercise 2J 78

80
83

Summary 90
Chapter review 92
ICT activities 95
Answers 96

Chapter 3

Cubic and quartic functions

105

Polynomials of degree 3 and 4 105


105
Exercise 3A 106
3B Long division of polynomials 107
Exercise 3B 109
3C Polynomial values 109
Exercise 3C 110
3D The remainder and factor theorems 111
Exercise 3D 113
3E Factorising polynomials 114
Exercise 3E 116
3F Sum and difference of two cubes 117
Exercise 3F 118
3G Solving polynomial equations 118
Exercise 3G 120
3H Cubic graphs intercepts method 121
Exercise 3H 124
3I Quartic graphs intercepts method 126
Exercise 3I 127
3J Graphs of cubic functions in power function
form 128
Exercise 3J 130
3K Domain, range, maximums and minimums 132
Exercise 3K 134
3L Modelling using technology 136
Exercise 3L 137
3m Finite differences 138
Exercise 3M 142
3A Expanding

Summary 144
Chapter review 146
ICT activities 150
Answers 151

ExAm prACtICE 1

Based on Chapters 13

159

Chapter 4

Relations, functions and transformations


4A Set notation

161
Exercise 4A 162
4B Relations and graphs
Exercise 4B 165

163

161

4C Domain and range

6E Identities

4D

6F

4E

4F
4G

4H
4I
4J

167
Exercise 4C 170
Types of relations (including functions) 172
Exercise 4D 174
Power functions (hyperbola, truncus and square root
function) 175
Exercise 4E 182
Function notation 183
Exercise 4F 186
Special types of function (including hybrid
functions) 187
Exercise 4G 189
Inverse relations and functions 192
Exercise 4H 193
Circles 193
Exercise 4I 195
Functions and modelling 197
Exercise 4J 197

Summary 200
Chapter review 202
ICT activities 209
Answers 210

6G
6H

6I

Based on Chapters 1 6

Matrices

Summary 243
Chapter review 246
ICT activities 250
Answers 251

309

matrices 309
Exercise 7A 315
7B Multiplying matrices 316
Exercise 7B 318
7C Solving matrix equations 320
Exercise 7C 324
7D Matrices and transformations 325
Exercise 7D 328

217

Summary 330
Chapter review 331
ICT activities 335
Answers 336

ExAm prACtICE 3

Based on Chapters 1 7

Rates of change
8A Identifying rates
8B

8D
8E

255

6A Trigonometric ratio revision

Exercise 6A 256
6B The unit circle 258
Exercise 6B 261
6C Radians 262
Exercise 6C 264
6D Symmetry 265
Exercise 6D 268

255

339

Chapter 8

8C

Chapter 6

Contents

307

7A Addition and subtraction of

Introduction 217
5A Index laws 217
Exercise 5A 220
5B Negative and rational powers 221
Exercise 5B 224
5C Indicial equations 224
Exercise 5C 226
5D Graphs of exponential functions 227
Exercise 5D 230
5E Logarithms 231
Exercise 5E 233
5F Solving logarithmic equations 234
Exercise 5F 236
5G Logarithmic graphs 236
Exercise 5G 237
5H Applications of exponential and logarithmic
functions 238
Exercise 5H 239

iv

Summary 293
Chapter review 296
ICT activities 301
Answers 302

Chapter 7

Exponential and logarithmic functions

Circular functions

273

ExAm prACtICE 2

Chapter 5

269
Exercise 6E 272
Sine and cosine graphs
Exercise 6F 277
Tangent graphs 280
Exercise 6G 282
Solving trigonometric
equations 283
Exercise 6H 287
Applications 288
Exercise 6I 290

8F
8G

8H

341

341
Exercise 8A 342
Constant rates 343
Exercise 8B 345
Variable rates 347
Exercise 8C 348
Average rates of change 349
Exercise 8D 351
Instantaneous rates 353
Exercise 8E 355
Motion graphs (kinematics) 357
Exercise 8F 359
Relating the gradient function to the original
function 364
Exercise 8G 364
Relating velocitytime graphs to positiontime
graphs 365
Exercise 8H 366

8I Rates of change of polynomials

Exercise 8I

369

11B Calculating probabilities

373
11C

Summary 375
Chapter review 377
ICT activities 383
Answers 384

11D
11E

Chapter 9

Differentiation

389

9A Introduction to limits

Exercise 9A

11F

389

392

9B Limits of discontinuous, rational and hybrid

9C
9D
9E
9F
9G

functions 393
Exercise 9B 395
Differentiation using first principles 397
Exercise 9C 399
Finding derivatives by rule 400
Exercise 9D 405
Rates of change 407
Exercise 9E 410
Sketching graphs containing stationary points 412
Exercise 9F 417
Solving maximum and minimum problems 418
Exercise 9G 421

Summary 423
Chapter review 425
ICT activities 431
Answers 432

11G
11H
11I

Summary 516
Chapter review 518
ICT activities 523
Answers 524

Chapter 12

Combinatorics

12C

Antidifferentiation (integration)

12D

437

10A Antidifferentiation

12E

10B

12F

10C

10D

10E

437
Exercise 10A 439
Deriving the original function from the gradient
function 440
Exercise 10B 442
Approximating areas enclosed by
functions 444
Exercise 10C 448
The fundamental theorem of integral
calculus 452
Exercise 10D 456
Applications of antidifferentiation 457
Exercise 10E 459

12G
12H

Exercise 12A 531


Permutations 533
Exercise 12B 534
Factorials 536
Exercise 12C 537
Permutations using nPr 538
Exercise 12D 540
Permutations involving restrictions
Exercise 12E 544
Arrangements in a circle 545
Exercise 12F 546
Combinations using nCr 547
Exercise 12G 549
Applications to probability 551
Exercise 12H 554

Based on Chapters 112

565

567

Cumulative exam practice


Functions and graphs 569
Algebra 570
Rates of change and calculus
Probability 575

473

Chapter 11

Introductory probability

475

11A Introduction to experimental probability

477

541

Summary 557
Chapter review 558
ICT activities 561
Answers 562

Answers

ExAm prACtICE 4

Based on Chapters 1 10

529

ExAm prACtICE 5

Summary 463
Chapter review 465
ICT activities 468
Answers 469

Exercise 11A

529

12A The addition and multiplication principles


12B

Chapter 10

478
Exercise 11B 481
Tree diagrams and lattice diagrams 483
Exercise 11C 485
The Addition Law of Probabilities 487
Exercise 11D 490
Karnaugh maps and probability tables 492
Exercise 11E 495
Conditional probability 497
Exercise 11F 500
Transition matrices and Markov chains 501
Exercise 11G 506
Independent events 507
Exercise 11H 511
Simulation 513
Exercise 11I 515

475

Answers

Index

569

573

585

587

Contents

Introduction
Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS Third edition is specifically designed for the VCE
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vi

Introduction

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Introduction

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About eBookPLUS
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Acknowledgements
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Acknowledgements

ix

Chapter 1

Linear functions
diGital doC
doc-9695
10 Quick Questions

Chapter ContentS
1a
1B
1C
1d
1e
1F
1G
1h

Solving linear equations and inequations


Rearrangement and substitution
Gradient of a straight line
Sketching linear functions
Simultaneous equations
Finding the equation of a straight line
Distance between two points and midpoint of a segment
Linear modelling

Solving linear equations


and inequations
1a

A linear equation is one that involves a variable raised to the power of 1 only. Recall that x1 is the same
as x, so a linear equation involving x would contain only xs, and not x , x2, x3, x 1, x 2 and so on. For
8
example, y = 7x 3, ax + by = c and 3 x + 1 = 9 are all linear equations.
1
1
Note that y = is not a linear equation, as the is really x 1.
x
x
To isolate a particular variable known as making x (or whatever the variable is) the subject we
focus on the variable by undoing other terms and operations. Remember to do the same operation to both
sides of an equation, in the reverse order to that originally used to make up the equation.
Though the focus of this chapter is linear equations, some other types of equations will be included
for skills practice.
When there is only one variable involved in an equation, we may attempt to solve and find a numerical
value by rearranging to make the variable the subject.
1
2

Worked example 1

Solve the following linear equations.


3x 2
4x
+5=1
a 7x 4 = 17
b
c 2
1 = 6

5
4
think

a 1 Write the equation.


2

Add 4 to both sides.

Divide both sides by 7.

b 1 Write the equation.


2

Subtract 5 from both sides.

Write

a 7 x 4 = 17

7 x = 21
21
7
x=3
x=

3x 2
+5=1
4
3x 2
= 4
4
Chapter 1 Linear functions

Multiply both sides by 4.

Add 2 to both sides.

Divide both sides by 3.

3 x 2 = 16
3 x = 14
x=

14

4 x 1 = 6

5
4x
1 = 3
5
4x
=4
5

c 1 Write the equation.

c 2

Divide both sides by 2.

Add 1 to both sides.

Multiply both sides by 5.

Divide both sides by 4.

4 x = 20
20
4
x=5
x=

When an equation has variables on both sides, at some stage they must be gathered together on the
same side of the equation.
Worked example 2

Solve:
a 4x 3 = 3(6 x)

9 x + 3 13 x + 7
=
2
3

3 x 9( x + 7)
=
+ 1.
4
10

think

a 1 Write the equation.

a 4x 3 = 3(6 x)

Expand the right-hand side (RHS).

4x 3 = 18 3x

Collect xs on one side, for example, the side that results


in a positive x term, in this case, the left-hand side (LHS).
(That is, add 3x to both sides.)

7x 3 = 18

Add 3 to both sides.

Divide both sides by 7.

b 1 Write the equation.

7x = 21
21
7
x=3
x=

9 x + 3 13 x + 7
=
2
3
LCD = 6

Find the lowest common denominator for both terms.

Write all terms with the common denominator,


adjusting numerators accordingly (so that numerator and
denominator have been multiplied by the same amount).

3(9 x + 3) 2(13 x + 7)
=
6
6

Now that all terms have the same denominator, the


numerators must be equal. (Multiply each side by 6.)

3(9 x + 3) = 2(13 x + 7)

Expand all brackets.

Collect xs on the LHS and numbers on the RHS.

Simplify and solve.

c 1 Write the equation.


2

Write

Find the lowest common denominator for all three terms.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

27 x + 9 = 26 x + 14
27 x 26 x = 14 9
x=5
c

3 x 9( x + 7)
=
+1
4
10
LCD = 20

Write all terms with the common denominator,


adjusting numerators accordingly (so that numerator and
denominator have been multiplied by the same amount).

5(3 x ) 2 9( x + 7) 20
=
+
20
20
20

Now that all terms have the same denominator, the


numerators must be equal. (Multiply each term by 20.)

5(3 x) = 18(x + 7) + 20

Expand all brackets.

15 5x = 18x + 126 + 20

Collect xs on the RHS and numbers on the LHS.

15 126 20 = 18 x + 5 x
131 =

131

Simplify and solve.

23

23 x

=x
131

x=

23

There is only one solution to a linear equation. For example, the equation 3x + 2 = 8 has the solution
x = 2. The solution to a linear equation can be represented as a single point on a number line. If the
equals sign is replaced with an inequality sign, the solution is a portion of a number line. These
expressions are referred to as linear inequations (sometimes called inequalities).
Worked example 3

Solve the following linear inequations.


a 6x 7 3x + 5
b 3m + 5 < 7
think

Write

a 6x 7 3x + 5

a 1 Write the inequations.


2

Combine the variable terms by subtracting


3x from both sides.

Add 7 to both sides.

Divide both sides by 3.

3x 7 5
3x 12
x4
b 3m + 5 < 7

b 1 Write the inequations.

3m

Subtract 5 from both sides.

Divide both sides by 3. Reverse the inequality sign,


as you are dividing by a negative number.

exercise 1a

m>4

Solving linear equations and inequations

1 We1
Solve the following linear equations.
a 3x 19 = 13
b 4x + 25 = 7

12 3 x
=5
3
3 x 1 = 10
h 2

5
2 We2
Solve the following linear equations.
a 2x 9 = 3(2x 11) b 7x 1 = 17(3x 13)
x+2 x5
x + 11 2( x + 14)
=
=
e
f
6
3
3
9
6 x + 7 5x + 1
2 x + 29 x + 44
=
+1
=
+2
i
j
5
4
3
8
3x 1
=5
4
7x + 4
g
8 = 9
3
d

< 12

diGital doC
doc-9696
equation solvers

c 9x + 19 = 2

4x 6
7=3
3
x

i 7 8
= 77

c x + 11 = 2(x + 12)

4 x + 66 13 3 x
=
3
4
7 x 9 21 x
=
18
k
9
3
g

d 3x 7 = 3(35 2x)

x + 10 2(7 3 x )
=
9
5
17 x 49 + 2 x
=
+5
l
2
5

Chapter 1 Linear functions

Solve the following linear inequations.


11 3 x
b
6
a 15 6x 2
7

3 We3

d 16 4x < 7(1 x)

1B

e 3x 7 2(35 2x)

19 x
+ 3 > 1

4
4 x 2( x + 1)

f
3
6
c

rearrangement and substitution

When there is more than one variable involved in an equation, we may rearrange the equation to make a
particular variable the subject using the same rules of equation solving described in the previous section.
Worked example 4

Rearrange each of the following to make the variable in parentheses the subject.
1
m
a 6x + 8y 48 = 0 (y)
b s = ut + at 2 k(u)
c T = 2
k(k)
2
k
think

a 1 Write the equation.

a 6x + 8y 48 = 0

6x + 8y = 48

Add 48 to both sides.

Subtract 6x from both sides.

Divide both sides by 8.

y=

48 6 x
8

Cancel if possible. Here, divide the numerator and


denominator by 2.

y=

24 3 x
4

Other ways of representing the answer are shown


opposite.

b 1 Write the equation.

8y = 48 6x

24 3
x
4 4
3
= 6 x
4
3
=
x+6
4

or y =

s = ut + 12 at 2

Subtract 12 at 2 from both sides.

s 12 at 2 = ut

Multiply both sides by 2.

2s at 2 = 2ut

Divide both sides by 2t.

Write the equation with the desired variable on the left.

c 1 Write the equation.

Write

2s at 2
=u
2t
2s at 2
u=
2t
c

T = 2
T
=
2

m
k

Divide both sides by 2.

Square both sides.

T2
m
=
4 2 k

Form the reciprocal of both sides to make k the


numerator.

4 2 k
=
T2
m

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

m
k

Multiply both sides by m.

Write the equation with the desired variable on the left.

4 2m
=k
T2
k=

4 2m
T2

Once a variable is isolated, we may substitute values of other variables to calculate various values of
the isolated variable. The following worked example illustrates some practical applications.
Worked example 5

a The formula for converting temperature in degrees Fahrenheit (F) (which is the system used in

5( F 32)
the USA) to degrees Celsius (C ) is C =
.
9
i Make F the subject.
ii What is the temperature in degrees Fahrenheit when the temperature measured in degrees
Celsius is 21 C?
b The area (A) of a circle is given by A = r 2, where r is the radius. Calculate the value of r correct
to 2 decimal places when A=20cm2.
think

a i 1 Write the equation.

Write

C=

a i

5( F 32)
9

Multiply both sides by 9.

9C = 5( F 32)

Divide both sides by 5.

9C
= F 32
5

Add 32 to both sides.

Write the equation with F first. Sometimes it may be


appropriate to use a common denominator.

9C
+ 32 = F
5
9C
F=
+ 32
5
9C + 160
or F =
5

ii 1 Replace C with 21. Note that 9C means 9 C.


2

9 21
+ 32
5
189
+ 32
F=
5
F = 37.8 + 32
F=

ii

Evaluate F.

F = 69.8
so 21C = 69.8 F
b

Write the equation. Solve for r (make r the subject)


as follows.

Divide both sides by .

Take the square root of both sides, and write r first.


As r is the radius, we take the positive root only.

Substitute A = 20 into the new formula.

A = r2
A
= r2

r=

If A = 20,
r=

Evaluate r.

20

r = 2.52 cm, correct to 2 decimal


places

Chapter 1 Linear functions

Worked example 6

Note: In this example, m represents metres, m/s represents metres per second (velocity),
and m/s2 represents metres per second per second (acceleration).
The final velocity, v m/s, of an object that begins with velocity u m/s and accelerates at
am/s2 over a distance of s m is given by the equation v2 = u2 + 2 as.
a Find the value of v when u = 16, a = 2 and s = 36.
b Rearrange the given equation to make s the subject.
c Find the distance travelled by an object that begins with a velocity of 10 m/s and has a final
velocity of 4 m/s while accelerating at 1 m/s2.
think

Write

a 1 Write the given equation and then make v the subject

a v 2 = u 2 + 2as

by finding the square root of both sides.

v = u 2 + 2as

Substitute u = 15, a = 2 and s = 36.

= 162 + 2 2 36

Simplify and evaluate v.

= 256 + 144
= 400
= 20
The final velocity is 20 m/s.

b 1 Begin with the given equation.

v 2 = u 2 + 2as

Subtract u2 from both sides.

v 2 u 2 = 2as

Divide both sides by 2a.

v 2 u2
=s
2a

Reverse so that s is given on the left.

c 1 Match the variables with the given information.

s=

v 2 u2
2a

c u = 10

v=4
a = 1

Write the formula that has s as the subject


(see part b above).
Substitute the values given in step 1.

Simplify and evaluate.

Explain the answer in words.

exercise 1B

s=
=

v 2 u2
2a
4 2 10 2
2 1

16 100

2
84
=
2
= 42
=

The object travels 42 m in its initial


direction.

rearrangement and substitution

Each of the following is a real equation used in business, mathematics, physics or another
area of science. Make the variable shown in parentheses the subject in each case.
a A=L+P
(P)
b A = lw
(l)
d
(t)
c v=
d C = 2r
(r)
t

1 We4

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

()

kQq
r2

(r)

g Fd =

(v)

h v = rT

()

(w)

e E = + 2

1 2 1 2
mv mu
2
2
S = 2w(l + h) + 2lh

F=

S = 2r2 + 2rH

(H)

2 We5 Calculate the value of the subject (the first mentioned variable), given the values of the other

variables.
k
a I= 2
d
b E = K + mgh
c D = (n

k = 60, d = 15
K = 250, m = 2, g = 10, h = 5

1
)
2

n = 3, = 2.8

d E = hf0 W

h = 6.62, f0 = 5000, W = 20 000

e v = r 2 y2

= 2, r = 1.6, y = 1

Make the variable in parentheses the subject and find its value using the given information.
a A = l2

(l)

A = 60

4
r3
3

(r)

V = 1000

c v = u + at

(a)

v = 25, u = 0, t = 6

(l)

T = 4, g = 9.8

(c)

K = 6.9, = 0.05

b V=

d T = 2
e K=

l
g

c 2
1

4 We6 The perimeter, P, of a rectangle of length l and width w may be found using the equation

P = 2(l + w).
a Find the perimeter of a rectangle of length 16 cm and width 5 cm.
b Rearrange the equation to make w the subject.
c Find the width of a rectangle that has perimeter 560 mm and length 240 mm.

5 The area of a trapezium (Figure A) is given by A =

a + b , where a and b are the lengths


h
2

of the parallel sides and h is the height.


a Find the area of the trapezium shown in Figure B.
b Using Figure A, find an equation for determining side a in terms of the area A and side b.
c Find a in Figure C.
9m
a
h

Area
A

b
Figure A

16 m

50 cm
a

62 cm
Area = 2000 cm2

21 m
Figure B

Figure C

r 2

,
100
where A is the amount ($) in the account after two years, D is the initial deposit ($) and r is the
interest rate (%).
a Find the amount in such an account after two years if the initial deposit was $1000 and the
interest rate was 6%.
b Make r the subject of the equation.
c Find the rate required for an initial deposit of $1000 to grow to $2000 after 2 years.

6 The size of a 2-year investment account with a particular bank is given by A = D 1 +

Chapter 1 Linear functions

7 The object and image positions for a lens of focal length f are related by

1 1 1
+ = , where u is the distance of the object from the lens
u v f
and v is the distance of the image from the lens.
4
2 3
a Make f the subject of the equation.
b Make u the subject of the equation.
c How far from the lens is the image when an object is
30cm in front of a lens of focal length 25 cm?
b
8 The length of a side of a right-angled triangle can be found using
Pythagoras theorem: c2 = a2 + b2, where c is the length of the longest side, and a and b are the lengths
of the two shorter sides. Find the value of b in the triangle above.
1
9 The volume of a cone is given by the rule V = 3 r2h, where r is the radius of the widest
r
part of the cone and h is the vertical height of the cone. Given that the volume of a
cone is 100 cm3 and its radius at the widest point is 12 cm, find the height of the
h
cone, expressing your answer in terms of .
the formula

diGital doC
doc-9697
Career profile
rick morris vigneron

Gradient of a straight line

1C

cone

The gradient of a line describes its slope or steepness.


y

y
Negative
gradient

Positive
gradient

y
(x2, y2)
Rise
(x1, y1) Run
x

Zero
gradient

Infinite
gradient

The gradient may be calculated using the formula:


y y
rise
m = run or m = 2 1
x 2 x1
These terms are illustrated at left.
Here are two examples of where gradient can affect our
everyday lives. Can you think of others?

A cliff face with


a steeper
gradient
provides a
greater
challenge for
climbers.

Scientists calculate the required gradient of solar


panels so that the maximum amount of energy is
absorbed.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Worked example 7

Calculate the gradient of this linear graph using the intercepts shown.
think
1

Write

Identify the rise and run.


Rise = 14, run = 2.
Calculate m = rise .
run

14

14
2
=7

m=

Worked example 8

Calculate the gradient of the line passing through the points (3, 6) and (1, 8).
think

Write

y2 y1
.
x 2 x1

m=

Use the formula m =

Match up the terms in the formula with the values given.


(x1, y1) (x2, y2)
(3, 6) (1, 8)

Substitute the given values.

Simplify.

Cancel if possible.

y2 y1
x 2 x1

8 6

1 3
14
14
=
=
44

7
= 7
= 2
2

m=

If the angle a line makes with the positive direction of the x-axis is known, the gradient may be found
using trigonometry applied to the triangle shown below.
y
rise

run

tan ( ) = opposite = rise = m


adjacent run
Worked example 9

a Calculate the gradient (accurate to 3 decimal places) of a line making

an angle of 40 to the positive x-axis.

b Calculate the gradient of the line shown at right. Express your answer

60

to 2 decimal places.

think

a Since the angle the line makes with

the positive x-axis is given, the


formula m = tan () can be used.

Write

a m = tan ()

= tan (40)
= 0.839, correct to
3 decimal places

40

Chapter 1 Linear functions

b = 180 60

The angle given is not the one between


the graph and the positive direction of the
x-axis. Calculate the required angle .

60

Use m = tan () to calculate m to


2 decimal places.

exercise 1C
1 We7

= 120

m = tan ()
= tan (120)
= 1.73

Gradient of a straight line

Calculate the gradient of each of the following linear graphs using the intercepts shown.

Without drawing a graph, calculate the gradient of the line passing through:
a (2, 4) and (10, 20)
b (4, 4) and (6, 14)
c (10, 4) and (3, 32)
d (5, 31) and ( 7, 25).
3 We9a Calculate the gradient (accurate to 3 decimal places) of a line making the angle
given with the positive x-axis.
a 50
b 72
c 10
d 30
e 150
f 0
g 45
h 89

2 We8
diGital doC
doc-9698
Gradient of a
straight line

4 We9b

Calculate the gradient of each line below. Give answers to 2 decimal places.
y

43

69

x
28

15

5 Which of these lines has:


a a non-zero positive gradient?
b a negative gradient?
c a zero gradient?
d an undefined gradient?

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

5
4
3
2
1

10

54321 0 1 2 3 4 5
1
2
3
4
5

C
x

6 mC
a Which of the following lines has a

b Which of the following lines has a

gradient of 2?

y
5
4
3
2
1

gradient of 3?

5
4
3
2
1

54321 0 1 2 3 4 5
1
2
3
4
5

B C

54321 0 1 2 3 4 5
1
2
3
4
5
E

7 Burghar plots the coordinates of a proposed driveway on a plan that is shown below. What is the

gradient of the proposed driveway?

Garage

way
Drive
2m

17m
8 An assembly line is pictured below. What is the gradient of the sloping section? (Give your answer as a

fraction.)
BOFFO
Made in
Austra
lia

BOFFO
Made in
Austra
lia

BOFFO
Made in
Austra
lia

0.85 m
15 m

9 Determine the value of a in each case so the gradient joining the points is equal to the value given.
a (3, 0) and (5, a), gradient 2
b (2, 1) and (8, a), gradient 5
c (0, 4) and (a, 11), gradient 3
d (a, 5) and (5, 1), gradient 2
10 For safety considerations, wheelchair

ramps are constructed under regulated


specifications. One regulation requires
that the maximum gradient of a ramp
exceeding 1200 mm in length is 1 .
14
a Does a ramp 25 cm high with a
horizontal length of 210 cm meet
the requirements?
1
b Does a ramp with gradient meet
18
the specifications?
c A 16 cm high ramp needs to be
built. Find the horizontal length
of the ramp required to meet the
specifications.

diGital doC
doc-9699
SkillSHEET 1.1
Using a gradient to
find the value of a
parameter

Chapter 1 Linear functions

11

1d

Sketching linear functions

The general form for linear equations is y = mx + c, where m is the gradient of the line and c is the
y-intercept.
y
ie

ad

Gr

y = mx + c
Gradient

m
nt

y-intercept
x

y-intercept

x-intercept
These lines have identical
gradients (equal m values).

diGital doC
doc-9700
WorkSHEET 1.1

To sketch a graph from a linear equation expressed in general form, follow these steps.
Step 1 Plot the y-intercept on a set of axes.
Step 2 Find and plot a second point on the line. Do this by substituting any value of x into the equation
and finding the corresponding y-value.
Step 3 Join the two points.
Alternatively, you can use a CAS calculator or other graphing technology.
To find the equation of a line given the gradient and y-intercept, simply substitute the values of m and
c into y = mx + c.

Sketching linear graphs using intercepts

To draw a graph, only two points are needed. A line may then be drawn
through the two points, and will include all other points that follow the
given rule. The two points can be chosen at random; however, it is often
easier to sketch a graph using the points where the graph crosses the axes.
These points are called x- and y-intercepts. The x-intercept occurs when
y = 0, and the y-intercept occurs when x = 0.

Worked example 10

Sketch the graph of y = x + 6, showing x- and y-intercepts.


think
1

Write/draW

Find the y-intercept (when x = 0). Substitute


x = 0 into the equation.

If x = 0: y = 1 0 + 6
y= 6

Find the x-intercept (when y = 0).


Substitute y = 0 into the equation.

If y = 0: 0 = x + 6

Mark the intercepts on a set of axes.

Join the intercepts with a straight line.

x=6

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

6)

(6, 0)

y
(0, 6)

(6, 0)

12

(0,

Worked example 11

Sketch the graph of 3x 2y = 12.


think

Write/draW

Find the y-intercept (when x = 0). Substitute


x = 0 into the equation.

If x = 0: 3 0 2y = 12
2y = 12
12
y=
2
y = 6

Find the x-intercept (when y = 0). Substitute


y = 0 into the equation.

If y = 0: 3x 2 0 = 12
3x = 12
x=4

Mark the intercepts on a set of axes.

Join the intercepts with a straight line.

The graphs of some equations do not have two intercepts, as they pass through the origin (0, 0). Such
equations are of the form y = k x or a x + by = 0.
To sketch graphs of such equations, we use (0, 0) and any other point, for example the point where
x = 1. (We could choose any other non-zero value.)
Worked example 12

Sketch the graph for the equation 4 x 3y = 0.


think
1

Try substituting x = 0 to find the y-intercept.

Note that the graph passes through


(0, 0). There is no point substituting
y = 0, as we know well get x = 0.

Substitute another x-value. In this example


we use x = 1.

Plot the points (0, 0) and (1, 43 ) on a set of


axes. Note that 4 is 1 1 , which is a little less
3
3
than 1 1 .
2

Write/draW

4 0 3y = 0
3y = 0
y=0

If x = 0:

tUtorial
eles-1404
Worked example 12

(0, 0)

If x = 1:

4 1 3y = 0
4 3y = 0
4 = 3y
4
y=
3
4
(1, )
3

y
2
(1, 43 )

1
(0, 0)
1

Chapter 1 Linear functions

13

Sketching linear functions

exercise 1d

1 Use a CAS calculator or other method to sketch graphs of the following equations on the same set of axes.
a y=x
b y = 2x
c y = 3x
d y = x
e y = 2x
2 In question 1, what is the effect on the graph of the number in front of the x (the x-coefficient or

gradient)?
3 Use a CAS calculator or other method to sketch graphs of the following equations on the same set of axes.
a y=x+1
b y=x+2
c y=x+3
d y=x4
diGital doC
doc-9701
linear graphs

4 Use a CAS calculator or other method to sketch graphs of the following equations on the same set of

axes.
a y = 2x + 1

c y = 3x + 6

b y = 2x 7

d y = 3x 5

5 In questions 3 and 4, what is the effect on the graph of the number at the end of the equation (the

y-intercept)?
6

Write the equation of a line having the following properties (where m = gradient and
c = y-intercept).
a m = 2, c = 7
b m = 3, c = 1
c m = 5, c = 2
1
3
2
1
f y-intercept 12, gradient 2
d m= ,c=
e m = 4, c = 2
3
3
Rearrange the following equations and state the gradient and y-intercept for each.

a 2y = 8x + 10
e 21x + 3y = 27
i 15 6y + x = 0

b 3y = 12x 24
f 10x + 5y = 25
j 2y + 7 + 5x = 0

c
g

= 3x 1
2x = 66

d 16 4y = 8x
h 8x + 3y 2 = 0

11y

8 State the equation for each of the following graphs.


a

y
1
2

6
5
4
3
2
1

3
2
1
2

0
1
2

0
1
2
3
4
5

5
4
3
2
1

0
1
2
3
4
5

14

0
1
2
3
4
5

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

3x

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

5
4
3
2
1
1

3
2
1
2

0
1
2
3
4
5

x
3

1 10
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

9 We10
Sketch graphs of the following linear equations, showing x- and y-intercepts.
a y = 6x + 18
b y = 3x 21
c y = 2x 3
d y = 10 5x
e y = 9x + 30
f y = 2(x 8)
10 We11
Sketch graphs for each of the following equations.
a 2x + 3y = 6
b 4x + 5y = 20
c 6x 3y = 18
d 7x 5y = 35
11 Sketch the graph for each equation.
a 6x + 7y + 42 = 0
c 3x + 4y 16 = 0
12 We12 Sketch the graph for each equation.
a x+y=0
c 2x + y = 0

b 5x 2y + 20 = 0
d y 3x + 6 = 0
b xy=0

13 mC Which of the following is in the form ax + by = c?


a 2x 3y 1 = 0
C 2x + 3y = x
e y=

2
3

B 2x + 3y + 1 = 0
d 2x + 3y = 1

x1

The x- and y-intercepts for the equation 2y = 3x + 12 are (respectively):


a 2 and 3
B 3 and 12

C 4 and 6
d 4 and 6
e 4 and 6

14 mC

15 mC Which of the following has a y-intercept of 3?


a y = 3x 3
C x + 3y = 9

B y = 3x + 3
d x 3y + 9 = 0

e 3x + y + 9 = 0

1e

Simultaneous equations

Simultaneous equations are groups of equations containing


two or more variables. In this section, we look at pairs of linear
equations involving the variables x and y. Each equation, as
we have learned in previous sections, may be represented by a
linear graph that is true for many x- and y-values. If the graphs
intersect (when wouldnt they?), the values of x and y at the
intersection are those that make both equations true.

y
Both graphs have
the same x- and
x y-values here.

Graphical solution
Finding the point of intersection of two straight lines can be done graphically; however, the accuracy of
the graph determines the accuracy of the solution.
Consequently, using a calculator to solve the equations graphically is more reliable than reading the
solution from a hand-drawn graph.

Worked example 13

Use a CAS calculator to solve the following simultaneous equations graphically.


y = 3x + 5 4x 7y + 8 = 0
think
1

Using a CAS calculator, make y the subject of the


second equation.
Complete the entry line as:
solve (4x 7y + 8 = 0, y)

Write

solve (4x 7y + 8 = 0, y)
4( x + 2)
Result: y =
7

Chapter 1 Linear functions

15

On a Graphs page, complete the function entry


lines as:
f 1(x) = 3x + 5
4 ( x + 2)
f 2( x ) =
7
Use the calculator to find the intersection point.

f 1(x) = 3x + 5
4( x + 2)
f 2(x) =
7

Write the answer.

Solving y = 3x + 5 and 4x 7y + 8 = 0
simultaneously produces the solution
(1.08, 1.76).

algebraic solution
It is possible to solve simultaneous equations without graphs, that is, algebraically. The methods of
substitution and elimination taught in earlier years may be used.
Worked example 14

Use the substitution method to solve the following simultaneous equations.


y = 2x + 5
x + 3y = 25
think
1

Write down and label the equations.

Substitute [1] into [2] and label the resulting


equation [3].

Solve [3] for x and label the solution as [4].

Write

Use the solution to solve for y and label the


solution as [5].

x
x

+ 3(2x + 5) = 25

+ 6x + 15 = 25
5x + 15 = 25
5x = 10
x=2

Substitute [4] into [1].


y = 2(2) + 5
y=4+5
y=9

State the complete answer.

Solution: (2, 9)

Optional check: substitute [4] and [5] into [2]


to check that these values for x and y make
[2] true.

Check in [2].
LHS = x + 3y
= 2 + 3(9)
= 25
= RHS

y = 2x + 5
+ 3y = 25

[5]

Worked example 15

Use the elimination method to solve these simultaneous equations.


2 x + 9y = 5
5 x 2y 12 = 0
think

16

Write down and label the equations.

Rearrange [2] so it is in a similar form to [1].


Call this [3]. Write down [1] again.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Write

2x + 9y = 5
5x 2y 12 = 0

[1]
[2]

5x 2y = 12
2x + 9y = 5

[3]
[1]

[1]
[2]
[3]

[4]

Obtain 10x in both [1] and [3].

2 [3] 10x 4y = 24
5 [1] 10x + 45y = 25

[4]
[5]

Eliminate x as shown.

[5] [4]:

Solve for y.

49y = 49
49
y=
49
y = 1

[6]

Substitute [6] into [1] to find x.

Substitute [6] into [1].


2x + 9 (1) = 5
2x 9 = 5
2x = 5 + 9
2x = 4
x=2

[7]

1)

State the solution.

Solution: (2,

Again, [6] and [7] may be checked in [2] if desired.

Check in [2].
LHS = 5x 2y 12
= 5(2) 2(1) 12
= 10 + 2 12
=0
= RHS

Worked example 16

Two shoppers buy the following at a fruit shop, paying the amounts given. What was the cost of
each apple and each banana?
Shopper 1: 4 apples and 3 bananas for $2.59
Shopper 2: 6 apples and 5 bananas for $4.11
think

Write

Decide on variable names for the unknown


quantities.

Let a = cost of an apple (in cents).


Let b = cost of a banana (in cents).

Write equations involving these variables.


Work in terms of cents.

4a + 3b = 259
6a + 5b = 411

Choose a variable to eliminate, in this case b.

5 [1]: 20a + 15b = 1295


3 [2]: 18a + 15b = 1233

[3]
[4]

Find [3] [4] and solve for a.

[3] [4]: 2a = 62
a = 31

[5]

Substitute [5] into [1].


4 31 + 3b = 259
124 + 3b = 259
3b = 135
b = 45

[6]

Solve for b.

State the answer using [5] and [6] as a guide.

exercise 1e

[1]
[2]

The cost of an apple is 31 cents, and


the cost of a banana is 45 cents.

Simultaneous equations

1 We13 Use a CAS calculator to solve the following simultaneous equations.


a y = 2x, y = 4x 6
b y = 3x 5, y = 20
c y = 3x + 5, y = 7x 4
e y = 10x + 1, 2x + y = 6

+ y = 4, y = 6x + 5
f 9x + y = 17, x + y = 14
d

3x

diGital doCS
doc-9702
Simultaneous linear
equations
graphical method

Chapter 1 Linear functions

17

2 We14
Use the substitution method to solve the following simultaneously.
a y = 3x + 1, y = 2x + 2
b y = 5x + 5, y = x 19
c y = x + 2, 3x 4y = 1

3y = 2, y = 6x + 7
f y = 10 x, 2x + 7y = 5
We15
Use the elimination method to solve these simultaneous equations.
a 9x + 10y = 153, 3x y = 12
b 7x 11y = 13, x + y = 11

c 6x 2y = 10, 2x + 5y = 8
d 3x + y = 8, 4x + 2y = 21
e 7y x = 11, x + y = 10
f x 11y = 15, y + 6x = 9
We16 At the conclusion of a tour of Wonky Willys confectionery factory, Nutrina buys 10 choc
balls and 8 fizz wizzers for $4.30, and her friend purchases 6 choc balls and 9 fizz wizzers for $4.05.
Determine the cost of each type of lolly.
The sum of two whole numbers, x and y, is 41. The difference between them is 3. Write two equations
involving x and y and solve them to find the numbers.
A farmer counts emus and sheep in a paddock, and notes there are 57 animals and 196 feet. Assuming
no animal amputees, how many of each animal are there?
A sports store supplies 24 basketballs and 16 cricket balls to one school for $275.60, and delivers
12 basketballs and 32 cricket balls to another school for $211. If delivery is free, how much did the
supplier charge for each type of ball?
e

5
6
7

d y = 2x + 3, 5x + 2y = 1

4x

8 A businessperson hires a stretch limousine for 2 days and a sedan for 3 days while on an interstate trip.

If the total car hire cost of the trip was $675, and the limousine cost triple the price of the sedan, find
the cost per day of the limousine.
9 mC A manufacturing plant produces square and circular metal panels in fixed sizes. If the mass of a
square panel is 13 kg and that of a circular panel is 22 kg, how many of each panel are there in a truck
loaded with 65 panels of total mass 1205 kg?
The equations to solve are:
a 13s + 22c = 1205, s + c = 65
B 22s + 13c = 1205, s + c = 65
C 13s + 22c = 65, s + c = 1205
d 22s + 13c = 65, s + c = 1205
e 13s + 22c = 1205, s + c = 35
10 mC Which of the following is a solution of 11x + 2y = 121 and 10x + 12y = 222?
a (11, 2)
C (10, 12)
e (6, 10)
B (121, 222)
d (9, 11)

1F

Finding the equation of a straight line

Consider a general linear graph containing the particular points (x1, y1),
(x2, y2) and the general point (x, y) (which could be any point).
Using the first two of these points in the formula for gradient, we have
y2 y1
[1]
m= x x
2
1
Using the first point and the general point in the same formula yields
y y1
[2]
m=
x x1
Putting [2] = [1] gives

y y1 y2 y1
, which may be rearranged to
=
x x1 x 2 x1
y y
y y1 = 2 1 ( x x1 )
[3]
x 2 x1

(x2, y2)
(x, y)
(x1, y1)
x

y2 y1
, equation [3] may be written
x 2 x1
y y1 = m(x x1)
[4]
This last formula may be used to find the equation of a straight line when two points are given or
when the gradient and only one point are given. When two points are given, the gradient m may be found
y2 y1
first using m = x x and substituted into the formula y y1 = m(x x1) along with one of the points.
2
1
Since m =

18

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Worked example 17

Find the equation of the line having gradient 34 that passes through (7, 11).
Express your answer in the forms i ax + by + c = 0 and ii y = mx + c.
think

Write

As one point and the gradient are known, use the


formula y y1 = m(x x1).

y y1 = m(x x1)

List the given information.

m=

Substitute for all variables except x and y.

Simplify, expressing in the form


ax + by + c = 0.

4y 44 = 3(x 7)
4y 44 = 3x 21
3x 4y + 23 = 0

Express your answer in the form


y = mx + c.

ii

3x + 23 = 4y

3
4

(x1, y1)
(7, 11)
y 11 =

3
4

(x 7)

y= 4x+

23
4

Worked example 18

Find the equation of the straight line containing the points (2, 5) and (3, 1).
Express your answer in the forms i ax + by + c = 0 and ii y = mx + c.
think

Write

Write down the points so they match the


variables in the formula.

(x1, y1)
(2, 5)

As two points are known, first use the


y2 y1
formula m =
to find m.
x 2 x1

m=

(x2, y2)
(3, 1)

y2 y1
x 2 x1

1 5

3 2
6
=
5
=

=
3

Write the formula y y1 = m(x x1).

Substitute the calculated gradient m = 5 and


the first point (x1, y1) = (2, 5). Leave x and y as they are.

Simplify and express in the two forms required.

6
5

y y1 = m(x x1)
6

y 5 =

6
5

( x 2)

i
ii

y + 5 = 5 ( x 2)
5y 25 = 6(x 2)
5y 25 = 6x 12
5y = 6x + 13
So 6x + 5y + 13 = 0, or
y=

6
5

13
5

perpendicular lines
Perpendicular lines are lines that meet at right angles. The gradients of two perpendicular lines, when
multiplied together, equal 1. Stated mathematically:
m1 m2 = 1
Chapter 1 Linear functions

19

1
Another way to write this relationship is m1 = m . This type of relationship is known as a negative
2

reciprocal. For example, the negative reciprocal of


gradients are negative reciprocals.

exercise 1F

2
3

is

3
2

. So, two lines are perpendicular if their

Finding the equation of a straight line

1 Copy and complete the table below.

Gradient of
equation 1
(m1)

Equation 1
f1(x)

diGital doC
doc-9703
SkillSHEET 1.2
reciprocals and
negative reciprocals

y = 2x + 1

y=

y = 3x 4

y=

y = 4x + 6

y = 5x 3

y=

1
2
1
3

x+2

y = 4x 9

y=

5
2

m1 m2

Gradient of
equation 2
(m2)

Equation 2
f2(x)

x+4

y = 9x + 1

2 Sketch f1(x) and f2(x) for part a above using a calculator or using graph paper with identical scales on

each axis to produce accurate graphs. What do you notice about the graphs?

3 Repeat question 2 for graphs b to e. Do you notice anything special about each pair of graphs?
4 Find the gradient of a line perpendicular to another line that has a gradient of:
a 4

1
7

7
2

1.

5 Find the gradient of a line that is perpendicular to the line with equation:
a y = 5x + 2
d y=

7
6

x2

2
3

b y=x1

c y=

x+1

e 2x + y = 5

f 3x 4y = 7.

Find the equation of a straight line having the gradient given and passing through the point
listed. Express your answer in the forms i ax + by + c = 0 and ii y = mx + c.
a (1, 2)
gradient 3
b (4, 1)
gradient 5
c (3, 2)
gradient 1
d (3, 2)
gradient 1

6 We17
diGital doC
doc-9704
equation of a
straight line

Find the equation of the line containing each pair of points. Express your answers in the
forms i ax + by + c = 0 and ii y = mx + c.
a (5, 2)
(3, 1)
b (1, 1)
(5, 5)
c (6, 3)
(8, 2)
d (2, 2)
(0, 1)

Find the equation of the line passing through (3, 3) that makes an angle of 45 with the positive x-axis.
Find the equation of the line containing (7, 2) that makes an angle of 71.565 with the positive x-axis.
Find the equation of the line (in y = mx + c form) that:
a is perpendicular to the line with equation y = 3x + 1, passing through (3, 6)
2
b is parallel to the line with equation y = x 9, passing through (4, 7)
5
c is parallel to the line with equation 3x + 6y = 8, passing through (2, 2)
d is perpendicular to the line with equation 6x + 7y 2 = 0, passing through (4, 0)
e has gradient 2, passing through the intersection of the lines with equations y = 3x 5 and y = 2x + 5
3
f has gradient 4 , passing through the intersection of the lines with equations x + 4y = 14 and
5x + 2y = 4.
Find the equation of the line that passes through the point of intersection of the lines whose equations
are 7x 3y 19 = 0 and 3x + 2y + 5 = 0, given that the required line is parallel to the line with equation
5x 2y = 3.
Find the equation of a line containing the intersection of the lines with equations y = 3x + 4 and
5x 3y + 40 = 0 that:
6
2
a has a gradient of 7
b is perpendicular to the line with gradient 3

7 We18

8
9
10

11

12

c passes through the point (1, 9)

20

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

d is parallel with the line joining (8, 5) and (0, 4).

13 A line passes through the points (8, 5), (4, 3) and (a, 12). Find the value of a.
14 The points (2, 7) and (6, 9) lie on the same straight line. Does the point (4, 8) also lie on this line?
15 The height of a particular young pine tree is found to increase in a linear manner each month in the first

year after planting. Find an equation connecting height with time in months after planting, using the
information supplied in the diagram below.

DIGITAL DOC
doc-9705
WorkSHEET 1.2

52 cm
34 cm

After 5 months

After 2 months

Distance between two points and


y
(x , y )
midpoint of a segment
y
1G

The distance, d, between any two points on the Cartesian plane may be
found using Pythagoras theorem applied to a right-angled triangle as
shown at right.
Using Pythagoras theorem: c2 = a2 + b2 or c = a 2 + b 2 and
replacing c with d, a with (x2 x1) and b with (y2 y1),

d
(x1, y1)
y1

(y2 y1)

INTERACTIVITY
int-0260
Distance between
two points

(x2 x1)

we have d = ( x 2 x1 )2 + ( y2 y1 )2 .
x1

x2 x

WORKED EXAMPLE 19

Find the distance between the points (3, 7) and (5, 2) correct to 3 decimal
places.
THINK

WRITE

Match up (3, 7) and (5, 2) with (x1, y1)


and (x2, y2).

(x1, y1)
(3, 7)

Substitute into the formula for d and


simplify.

d = ( x 2 x1 )2 + ( y2 y1 )2

TUTORIAL
eles-1405
Worked example 19

(x2, y2)
(5, 2)

= (5 3)2 + ( 2 7)2
= (8)2 + ( 9)2
= 64 + 81
= 145
= 12.042, correct to 3 decimal places

CHAPTER 1 Linear functions

5_61_10586_MQ11_MMCAS_3E_01.indd 21

21

8/05/13 2:27 PM

midpoint of a segment
The middle or midpoint M (xm, ym) of a segment joining two general points A (x1, y1) and B (x2, y2) is
shown on the Cartesian plane below.
y

B (x2, y2)
y2 ym
M (xm, ym)
A (x1, y1)

ym y1
xm x1

x2 xm

E
D
x

Consider the triangles ACM and MEB.


MAC = BME (since AM and BM have the same slope)
CMA = EMB (since ACM and MEB are both 90)
AM = BM
(given, as M is the midpoint)
Therefore ACM MEB.
Since the horizontal and vertical sides of the two triangles must be equal, we have:
xm x1 = x2 xm
and
ym y1 = y2 ym
Simplifying these,
2xm = x2 + x1
2ym = y2 + y1
xm =

x 2 x1
2

ym =

y2 + y1
2

x +x y +y
So the point M has coordinates 1 2 , 1 2 .
2
2
Worked example 20

Find the midpoint of the segment joining (5, 9) and (3, 11).
think
1

Match (5, 9) and (3, 11) with (x1, y1) and (x2, y2).

Substitute values into the formula for M and simplify.

Write

(x1, y1)
(5, 9)
M=

(x2, y2)
(3, 11)

x1 + x 2 y1 + y2
,
2
2

5 + 3 9 + 11
=
,
2
2
2 20
= ,
2 2
= (1,10)

distance between two points and


midpoint of a segment
exercise 1G

diGital doC
doc-9706
distance between
two points

1 We19
Find the distance between each of the following pairs of points.
a (4, 5) and (1, 1)
b (7, 14) and (15, 8)
c (2, 4) and (2, 3)

d (12, 8) and (10, 8)

2 Calculate the distance between each of the pairs of points below, accurate to 3 decimal places.
a (14, 10) and (8, 14)
b (6, 7) and (13, 6)
c (11, 1) and (2, 2)
3 Find the distance between each of the following pairs of points in terms of the given variable(s).
a (a, 1), (2, 3)
b (5, b), (0, 6)
c (c, 2), (4, c)
d (d, 2d), (1, 5)
22

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

4 Two hikers are about to hike from A to B (shown on the map below). How far is it from A to B as the

crow flies, that is, in a straight line?

N
50 m
100 m
200 m

100 m
200 m

B (E7, N4)

300 m
Lake Phillios

A (W12, S5)

Grid spacing : 1 km

5 Using the coordinates shown

y (in metres)

on the aerial photo of the golf


course, calculate (to the nearest
metre):
a the horizontal distance travelled
by the golf ball for the shot down
the fairway
b the horizontal distance that needs
to be covered in the next shot to
reach the point labelled A in the
bunker.

(225, 96)

A (320, 148)
x (in metres)

(80, 64)

6 We20 Find the midpoint of the segment joining each of the following pairs of points.
a (1, 3) and (3, 5)

b (6, 4) and (4, 2)

c (2, 3) and (12, 1)

7 Find the midpoint of the segment joining each of the following pairs of points.
a (7, 2) and (4, 13)
b (0, 22) and (6, 29)
c (15, 8) and (4, 11)

d (6, 3) and (10, 15)


d

(3, 40) and (0, 27)

8 Find the coordinates of the midpoint of each of the following pairs of points, in terms of a variable or

variables where appropriate.


a (2a, a) and (6a, 5a)

diGital doC
doc-9707
midpoint of a segment

c (3f, 5) and (g, 1)

b (5, 3c) and (11, 3c)

9 Find the value of a in each question below so that the point M is the midpoint of the segment joining

points A and B.
a A (2, a), B (6, 5), M (4, 5)

b A (a, 0), B (7, 3), M (8, 2 )


Chapter 1 Linear functions

23

10 A fun-run course is drawn (not to scale) at right.

If drink stations D1, D2 and D3 are to be placed at


the middle of each straight section, give the map
coordinates of each drink station.
11 Find the equation of a line that has a gradient
of 5 and passes through the midpoint of the segment
joining (1, 7) and (3, 3).
12 Find the equation of a line parallel to the line with
equation 9x 3y = 5 that passes through the midpoint
of the segment connecting (0, 4) and (2, 10).

1h

(1.5, 3.5)

(4.5, 5)

D1

Official tent

D2

(1.5, 2)
START/
FINISH

Coordinates
are in kilometres.

(3, 7)

D3

(13, 8)

linear modelling

Many real-life applications, such as fees charged for services, cost of manufacturing or running a
business, patterns in nature, sporting records and so on, follow linear relationships. These relationships
may take the form of a linear equation; for example, F = 50 + 30t may be used by a tradesperson to
calculate her fee (in dollars) for t hours of work.
Here, F is the fee in dollars, and t the time in hours. The 50 represents an initial fee for simply turning
up, while the 30t is the amount charged for the time spent on the job.
For example, if t = 2 hours, 30t = 60, so the total charge for the work would be $(50 + 60) = $110.
Equations like F = 50 + 30t are sometimes referred to as linear models, a common form of which is:
Total cost = Fixed cost + Cost per unit Number of units.
This is, of course, equivalent to y = mx + c.

y = c + mx.

Worked example 21

A generator company charges a $200 delivery fee, and a rental fee of $1500 per day.
a Find an expression relating total charge to the number of days for which the generator is hired.
b Sketch a graph of the relationship.
c What would be the charge for 4 weeks of rental?
think

a 1 Define convenient variables.


2

The fixed cost is $200, and the cost per unit is


$1500. (c = 200, m = 1500)

b 1 Find the vertical intercept (when n = 0).


2

The total cost rises $1500 each day, so the


graph must show this.

Write/draW

a Let T = total charge (in dollars) and

n = number of days the generator is hired.


T = 200 + 1500n

b If n = 0, T = 200
T ($)
3200
1700
200
1

c 1 After 4 weeks, n = 28. Substitute this


in the equation from part a.

24

Write the answer in words.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

n (Days)

c If n = 28

T = 200 + 1500 28
= 200 + 42 000
= 42 200

After 4 weeks, the total cost is $42 200.

Worked example 22

Rent-a-Chef provides food cooked and served by a qualified chef at parties.


The company charges $120 as a booking fee, and an additional $30 per hour.
Another company, Greased Lightning, provides fast food served by two
students at a cost of $65 per hour, with no booking fee. Under what conditions
would it be cheapest to hire Greased Lightning?
think

tUtorial
eles-1406
Worked example 22

Write

Define convenient variables.

Let C = cost (total) in dollars and t = time in hours.

Write an equation for the cost of hiring both


organisations.

Rent-a-Chef
C = 120 + 30t
Greased Lightning C = 65t

Use simultaneous equations to find when the


cost is the same with each group.

Put [1] = [2]


120 + 30t = 65t
120 = 35t
120
t=
35
= 3.4 hours

At 3.4 hours, the cost is the same. Since Greased


Lightning has the higher per hour cost, after
3.4hours, they would be more expensive.

It is cheaper to hire Greased Lightning for food


preparation and service of less than 3.4 hours
(3 hours and 26 minutes) duration.

[1]
[2]

Notes
1. 0.4hours = 0.4 60 minutes = 24 minutes.
2. An alternative approach would be to use a CAS calculator and find the point at which the
two graphs crossed.

exercise 1h

linear modelling

The cost of hiring a floodlit


tennis court consists of a booking fee and
an hourly rate.
a Use the photo to write an equation
for the total hire cost in terms of the
hourly rate.
b Sketch a graph of the relationship.
c What would be the charge for
3 hours?

1 We21

diGital doC
doc-9708
Simultaneous linear
equations

2 A singing telegram service charges a $60

appearance fee, and $8 per minute sung.


a Write an equation for the total cost
of a singing telegram in terms of the
number of minutes sung.
b Sketch a graph of the relationship.
c What would be the charge for a 5-minute singing telegram?
3 Colleen delivers junk mail and is paid $32 to traverse a particular route, and a further 10 cents per

leaflet delivered.
a Write an equation for the total payment she receives.
b Sketch a graph of the relationship expressed in a.
c What would be Colleens pay if she delivers 1650 leaflets along the route?
4 A pay-TV salesperson receives $300 per week plus $20 for every household he signs up to have pay-

TV connected. How much does the salesperson receive for a week in which he signs up 33 households?
5 We22 A computer firm, SuperComputers Inc., offers a back-up plan covering the ongoing service and

troubleshooting of its systems after sale. The cost of signing up for the service plan is $215, and there is an
Chapter 1 Linear functions

25

hourly rate of $65 for the servicepersons time. Purchasers not signing up for the plan are charged a flat rate
of $150 per hour for service. Would it be advisable to sign up for the service plan if you expected to need
3 hours of service assistance during the life of a computer purchased from SuperComputers Inc?
6 Two amusement parks show the following information for school-age tourists in a promotional
brochure. After how many rides does an excursion to Fun World become the cheaper option for the
same number of rides?

A qua Wor ld
$8.00 entry
$2.50 per ride

$12 entry
$1.50 per ride

7 A telephone company, Opus, offers calls to Biddelonia for a connection fee of $14, and thereafter

$1 per minute. Its rival, Elstra, offers calls for $2 per minute (no connection fee) to the same country.
a Compare the cost of a 10-minute call to Biddelonia using each company.
b At what point would it be cheaper to use Opus?
8 It costs you $6 to get into a taxi (the flagfall), and $1.50 per kilometre if you use PinkCabs, while
NoTop taxis charge $8 flagfall, and $1.20 per kilometre.
a How much would it cost with each company to travel 15 kilometres in one of its cabs?
b When would it cost the same to use both companies?
9 Medirank, a health insurance company, charges $860 per year (for a single person) and requires
customers to pay the first $100 of any hospital visit. HAB, on the other hand, charges an annual fee
of $560 and requires its members to pay the first $150 of any hospital visit. Determine the number of
hospital visits in a year for which the cost of health services is the same whichever company insures you.
10 Nifty is a car hire firm that charges insurance of $135 and $50 per day car hire. A competitor, Savus,

simply charges $65 per day and offers free insurance. You are planning a holiday, and would prefer to
use Savus. Under what conditions (days hired) could you justify this choice?
26

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Summary
Solving linear
equations and
inequations

Do the same to both sides and remember inverse operations + and , and , and 2.
Aim to get a single variable by itself.
Solve inequations the same way as equations, keeping the original inequality sign at each step,
unless multiplying or dividing by a negative number.

rearrangement and
substitution

Make x the subject means manipulate into the form x = .


Substitute means to replace a variable with a value.

Gradient of a straight
line

m=

Sketching linear
functions

Simultaneous
equations

Simultaneous equations can be solved with a calculator.


For equations of the form y = ax + b, y = cx + d, consider using substitution.
For equations of the form ax + by = c, dx + ey = f, consider using elimination.

Finding the equation


of a straight line

Formulas for finding the equation of a straight line:


y y
y y1 = 2 1 ( x x1 )
y = (mx + c)
y y1 = m(x x1)
x 2 x1
For perpendicular lines, m1 m2 = 1.

distance between two


points and midpoint of
a segment

d = ( x 2 x1 )2 + ( y2 y1 )2

linear modelling

y2 y1
m = tan ( )
x 2 x1
where is the angle the line makes with the positive direction of the x-axis.

The general equation for a straight line of gradient m and y-intercept c is y = mx + c.


Lines with the same gradient (m) are parallel.
To find the y-intercept, let x = 0 and find y.
To find the x-intercept, let y = 0 and find x.
If y = 0 when x = 0, substitute another x-value (for example x = 1) to find another point
on the line.
Join two points and/or intercepts with a straight line.

x1 + x 2 , y1 + y2
M=
2
2
Total cost (y) = fixed cost (c) + cost per unit (m) number of units (x)
y = c + mx

Chapter 1 Linear functions

27

Chapter review
S h ort
anS Wer

3(5 x 4) 6(4 x + 3)
.
=
7
5
7x + 8
= 4 x 9.
2 Find the value of x where 3
10
1 Solve the equation

3( x

1 x
.
4
2
4 The following formula may be used to study planetary motion.
3 Solve the inequality

+ 4)

GmM m 4 2 R
=
R2
T2
Make T the subject of the equation.

5 Using Pythagoras theorem, find the length of the hypotenuse of the

triangle shown. Express your answer:


a in surd form
b to 3 decimal places.

6 Calculate the gradient of each of the following lines.


y
a
6

1 grid
square = 1 unit

6
5
4
3
2
1

5 4 3 2 1 0
1
2
3

1 2 3 4 5 6x

y
x
(12, 3)

(4, 10)
7 Find the gradient of the line joining (7, 15) and (2, 6).
8 Find the gradient of the line shown.
y

77
x
9 State the gradient of the line below.
y

28

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

10 State the gradient and y-intercept (in that order) for each of the following.
a y = 3x 7

b 5x + 3y = 30

11 Find the equation for a linear graph having gradient


12 Sketch graphs of the following, showing intercepts.
a y = 3x + 24

b x + 8y = 40

c 2x 4y 8 = 0

and y-intercept 3.

2
5

c 9x 7y 63 = 0

d y + 6x = 0

2x

13 Solve y = 3x + 10 and y =
15 graphically.
a Sketch the solution on a set of axes.

b State the solution (point of intersection).

14 Solve y = 3x, y = 6x 15 using substitution.


15 Use the method of elimination to solve 4x 7y = 21, 2x + y = 6.
16 A piggybank contains 67 coins. If there are only one- and two-dollar coins in the piggybank,

and there are 25 more one-dollar coins than two-dollar coins, how many of each type are there?
17 Find the gradient of a line perpendicular to 3x 9y = 7.
18 Find the equation of the line containing (4, 8) and (3, 1).
6

19 Find the equation of the line having gradient

that passes through (1, 4).


1
4

20 Find the equation of the line perpendicular to y = x 5 that passes through (8, 6).
21 The distance between (2, 7) and (a, 2) is

41 units. Find the value of a if it is positive.

22 Show that the triangle with vertices (3, 7), (3, 3) and (6, 3) is a right-angled triangle.
23 The midpoint of the line joining (k, 2h) and (9k, 6h + 2) is (20, 11). Find k and h.
24 The washing machine repair company Washed out charges $75 to come to your house, as well as an

hourly charge of $65, calculated to the nearest half hour.


a Write an equation that may be used to calculate the cost of any service call if the
time taken by the repairer is known.
b Sketch a graph of the relationship between repair cost and time taken to do a repair.
1
c How much would it cost to have a repair done that takes 3 2 hours?
7 x 23
= 99 would be to:
3
a add 23 to both sides
B divide both sides by 3
C divide both sides by 7
d multiply both sides by 3
e multiply both sides by 7

m U ltip l e
C ho iC e

1 The first step in solving

2 x = 5 is a solution to the equation:


a 3x + 7 = 8

B 2x 7 = 5

d 2(x + 3) = 10

3 The solution to
a x 10

5x

x + 14
2( x + 2) is:
3
2
B x5

x + 25
=5
6

= 45

C x5

d x

2
5

e x 5

4 When c2 = a2 + b2 is rearranged to make a the subject, the equation becomes:


a c=

a2 + b2

B a2 = b2 + c2

d a=

c2 b2

e a=b+c

C a2 =

c2 b2

5 Which values, when substituted into K = 2 mv 2, give a value for K of 4?


a m = 2, v = 4

B m = 4, v = 2

d m = 8, v = 1

e m = 1, v = 16

C m = 8, v = 2

6 Using the equation P = m1v1 + m2v2, if P = 10, m1 = 2, m2 = 6 and v1 = 4, v2 would equal:


a

1
3

1
2

C 1

d 2

e 3

Chapter 1 Linear functions

29

7 The line shown has a gradient of:


a
B
C
d
e

3
2

2
6
3

8 The gradient of the line shown at right is 3. The value of a must be:
a 2
B 1
C 5
d 7
e 11

y
(6, a)

9 The gradient of the line joining (1, 0) and (4, 10) is:
a

d 4

C 2

e 5

(2, 5)

10 Which of the graphs below has a gradient of


y

6
?
7

C y

6
6
7 x

11 The gradient of the line with equation y =


a 1

6
7

x 1 is:
7

6
7

C 6

12 The y-intercept of the line with equation y = 12 x +


a

2
3

3
2

2
3

d 6

e 7

d 3

e 12

is:

C 2

13 The gradient and y-intercept (in that order) of the line with equation 2x 3y = 7 are:
a 2 and 3
d

2
3

and

B 2 and 7

and

C
7
2

2
3

and 7

14 Which of the following could be the graph of y = 2x + c?


a

c
x
c

30

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

c
x

e y

x
y

15 The equation of the line shown at right is:


a 2x 5y = 1
C 15x + 6y = 30
e

x y
=1
2 5

B 2x y = 4
d 10y x = 2

16 To solve the equations 2x + y = 5 and 3x 6y = 12 graphically on a calculator, you would enter the

equations in the function entry line as:


f 1(x) = 2x + y and f 2(x) = 3x 6y
f 1(x) = 5
and f 2(x) = 12
f 1(x) = 5 2x and f 2(x) = 12 + 6y
f 1(x) = 2x + 5 and f 2(x) = 3x + 12
x
f 1(x) = 2x + 5 and f 2(x) = 2 2

a
B
C
d
e

17 Which of the following would be the most effective way to solve the following equations

simultaneously?
y = 2x 13 [1]
y = 7x + 2
[2]
a Multiply [1] by 2 and [2] by 13 and add the newly formed equations.
B Multiply [1] by 7 and put it equal to [2].
C Multiply [2] by 2 and put it equal to [1].
d Multiply [1] by 2 and [2] by 7 and subtract the newly formed equations.
e Put [1] equal to [2].
18 The gradient of a line perpendicular to a line with a gradient of 7 is:
a 1

B 7

d 7

7
1

19 The gradient of a line perpendicular to y =


a

1
7
5

d 16

20 The equation of the line containing (1,

+5
is:
16

2)

7x

B 7
e

16
7

16

and (2, 3) could be expressed as:

a y2=x1

B y+2=1x

d x 2y = 3

e 3x 5y = 1

21 A line with equation y 7 = 5(x 1) has:


a gradient 5 and contains the point (7, 1)
C gradient 5 and contains the point (1, 7)
e gradient 1 and contains the point (5, 7)

C y+3=x1

B gradient 7 and contains the point (1, 7)


d gradient 5 and contains the point (1, 7)

22 The distance between (4, 3) and (2, 1) is equal to:


a (2 4)2 + (1 3)2

(4 3)2 + ( 2 1)2

(4 + 2)2 + (3 1)2

( 2 4)2 (1 3)2

(4 2 + 32 ) ( 22 12 )

Chapter 1 Linear functions

31

23 The midpoint of the segment joining (11, 3) and (5, 17) is:
1
1
2
2
1
1
( 2 2 ,8 2 )

a ( 5 , 1 )

B (3, 7)

e (4, 6)

C (6, 14)

24 Bote lives 5 kilometres from the nearest post office. At noon one day he begins cycling (from home) at

20 kilometres per hour in a constant direction away from the post office. At t hours after Bote begins
cycling, the distance, D km, that he is from the post office is given by:
a D = 5t
B D = 20t
C D = 5t + 20
d D = 20t + 5

e D = 20t 5

25 The linear function f : D R, f ( x ) = 6 2 x has range [4, 12]. The domain D is:
a [3, 5]
d
e x t ended
r e SponS e

[14,

B [5, 3]

18]

[18,

C R

14]

1 The graph at right is a rough sketch of three points on a section of

sheet metal that are to be drilled by a programmed robotic drilling


arm. Any deviation from a straight path, no matter how slight,
means the arm must be programmed for more than one direction. 16
The coordinates marked are correct. Will the robotic arm be able to 12
move in one direction only to drill all three holes?
2 Points A, B and C have the coordinates (1, 6), (0, 0) and (2, 2).

Find the coordinates for a point D so that the four points form a
parallelogram.
(4, 2),

1)

C
B
A

14

20

7).

3 Consider the points


(6, 2), (4,
and (0,
a Find the coordinates of the midpoints of each side of the quadrilateral formed by the points.
b Show that the shape formed by the midpoints is a parallelogram.
c Repeat parts a and b for a different set of starting points.
d What can you conjecture based on your answers?
4 The cost of a parachuting course consists of a charge of $250, which covers equipment hire and tuition,

and a further expense of $55 per jump.


a Express the total cost, C, as a function of j, the number of jumps.
b How many jumps could a person doing the course afford if she was prepared to spend up to
$1000?
5 A physics student conducts an experiment to find out how much a spring stretches when various

weights are hung from it. Her results are shown in the table below.

a
b
c
d
32

Length of spring (cm)

Force applied (N)

10

12

20

16.5

30

20.5

40

25

50

What is the natural or unstretched length of the spring?


Plot a graph of the students results.
Draw a straight line through the points that best describes the data.
Select two points on the line and use them to fit a linear equation to the line.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

A second student conducts the same experiment on a similar


spring. His results are shown below.
Length of spring (cm)

Force applied (N)

10

10

16

20

21

30

24

40

28

50

e On the same set of axes you used in part b, plot the results of

the second experiment and join the points with a line of best fit.
f Write an equation that describes the relationship between the

force applied and the length of the second spring.


The gradients of graphs such as the ones you have drawn give an
indication of the stiffness of a spring. The greater the gradient, the
harder it is to stretch the spring. The lower the gradient, the easier
it is to stretch the spring.
g Comment on the stiffness of the two springs investigated by the
students.
h Is it likely that these two springs will ever be the same length at
a given force; that is, is it likely that the intersection of the two
graphs could ever really happen? Explain your answer.

diGital doC
doc-9709
Test Yourself
Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Linear functions

33

ICT activities
Chapter opener
DIGITAL DOC
10 Quick Questions doc-9695: Warm up with ten quick questions on
linear functions (page 1)

1A

Solving linear equations and inequations

DIGITAL DOC
doc-9696: Use trial and error to balance an equation and hence
solve for the unknown variable (page 3)

1B

Rearrangement and substitution

DIGITAL DOC
Career profile doc-9697: Learn how a vigneron uses substitution and
other areas of mathematics in his work (page 8)

1C

Gradient of a straight line

DIGITAL DOCS
doc-9698: Calculate the gradient between two given points (page 10)
SkillSHEET 1.1 doc-9699: Practise using the gradient to find the value
of a parameter (page 11)

1D

Sketching linear functions

DIGITAL DOCS
WorkSHEET 1.1 doc-9700: Solve linear equations, use substitution
and calculate gradients of straight line graphs (page 12)
doc-9701: Investigate the effect of changing the gradient and
y-intercept for a linear graph (page 14)
TUTORIAL
WE 12 eles-1404: Watch a tutorial on how to sketch a linear
graph by hand (page 13)

1E

Simultaneous equations

DIGITAL DOC
doc-9702: Use the graphical method to solve simultaneous linear
equations (page 17)

34

1F

Finding the equation of a straight line

DIGITAL DOCS
SkillSHEET 1.2 doc-9703: Practise writing positive and negative
reciprocals of rational numbers (page 20)
doc-9704: Investigate the equations of straight lines (page 20)
WorkSHEET 1.2 doc-9705: Sketch linear graphs, determine equations
of linear graphs and application problems (page 21)

1G Distance between two points and midpoint of


a segment
INTERACTIVITY
Distance between two points int-0260: Consolidate your
understanding of how to calculate the distance between two
points (page 21)
TUTORIAL
WE 19 eles-1405: Watch how to calculate the distance between
two points on a Cartesian plane (page 21)
DIGITAL DOCS
doc-9706: Investigate the distance between two points (page 22)
doc-9707: Investigate the midpoint of a segment (page 23)

1H

Linear modelling

DIGITAL DOC
doc-9708: Investigate simultaneous linear equations (page 25)
TUTORIAL
WE 22 eles-1406: Watch how to apply linear algebra skills to
determine the conditions for which it would be cheapest to hire a
catering company (page 25)

Chapter review
DIGITAL DOC
Test Yourself doc-9709: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your
progress (page 33)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

5_61_10586_MQ11_MMCAS_3E_01.indd 34

8/05/13 2:48 PM

Answers CHAPTER 1
linear FUnCtionS

3 a
d
g
4 a
c
5 a
c
6 a
2
7

exercise 1a

Solving linear equations


and inequations
b 8

7
1
6

e 1
h 10
b 5

d 112

e 12

f
i
c
f

j 4

76
59
9

1 a 2
d
g
2 a

13

b x

3 a x 6

d x < 3
exercise 1B

substitution

31

c x>3

e x 11

f x2

b
5 a
b
6 a

f r=

j H=
b 350
e 2.498

kQq
F

S 2 r 2
2 r

c 224 cm

7
21
y

32

y=x+2

3 ad

y=x+1

10

y=x+3

30
1
x

4
y=x 4

c 18 cm

01

y = 2x 7
x

16

10 a

g 11 ,
1 5
,
6 2

y
4

y-axis (hence the name y-intercept).


6 a y = 2x + 7
b y = 3x + 1
2
1
c y = 5x 2
d y= 3x+3

5 The number is where the graph cuts the

y = 3x + 6

e y= 4x 2
7 a 4, 5
c 3, 1
e 7, 9

y = 2x + 1
y = 3x 5

c 40 mm

10

1
2

x
y

y = 2x
y=x

4 ad

Gradient of a straight line


b5

x5

graph. Positive values make the graph


slope up when moving (or tracing) to the
right; negative values make the graph
slope down when moving to the right.

c 7

25
9 h=
cm

2
5

d y = 6x + 5
f y = 5x

y = 3x

18

2 The higher the number, the steeper the

x2

9 a

17
300

y = 2x

b y=

8 b=2

4
3

Sketching linear functions

3V
, 6.204
br=3
4
T 2
d l = g
, 3.972
2

A, 7.746

c y=

A
A D
1 = 100
b r = 100
D
D

c 41.4%
fv
uv
7 a f =
b u=
v f
u+v
c 150 cm

2 a 2

1 ae

8 a y = 4x + 2

e y = 2x 1

y = x

v2
h =
rT

vu
, 4.167
t
(1 ) K
c=
, 2622
2
42 cm
P
P 2l
w = l or w =
2
2
240 m2
2A
2 A bh
a=
b or a =
h
h
$1123.60

1 a 2

b 31
d 3
b Yes

c 0.176
f0

A
w
C
d r=
2

E
2

exercise 1C

5
No

exercise 1d

3.078

0.577
57.290
2.61

3.73
C
B
E

b l=

c a=

4 a

b
e
h
b
d
b
d
b
8

rearrangement and

2 a 0.267
d 13 100

9 a
c
10 a

2 Fd + mu 2
g v=
m
S 2lh
i w=
2(l + h)

3 a l=

17

l 7

d
v

e =

9
12
13
5

i 3

1 a P=AL
c t=

1.192

0.577
1
0.93

0.53
D
A
B

f y = 2x + 12

4, 8
2, 4
2, 5
8 2
h
,
3 3
b
d
f
j

5 7
, 2
2

y
6

Chapter 1 Linear functions

35

y = 20

exercise 1F Finding the equation


of a straight line

11 a

e
x

5
5

4 a

10

5 a 5

( 94 , 47
4)

y = 3x + 5

y
4

16
3

5
y = 6x + 5
0

y = 4 + 3x
x

f 1

1
2

ii y = 2 x + 2

7 a i x 2y 1 = 0
b i xy=0

ii y = 2 x 2
ii y = x

c i x + 2y 12 = 0

ii y = 2 x + 6

d i 3x + 2y 2 = 0

ii y = 2 x + 1
9 y = 3x 23

(1, 1)

7 , 29
( 12
6 )

(1, 1)

y = 17 9x

x
14

17

( 38 ,

109 )
8
y = 14 x

2 a (1, 4)

(1, 2)

13 D

14 E

c (7, 5)

15 A

Simultaneous equations
y

1 a

23 20
(14 , 7 )

3 a (7, 9)

(3, 6)
y = 4x 6

17
9

c
e

1
11 1

x
y = 2x

4
6
7
8
9

(1,

2)

59 21
(8, 8)

9 9

f (13,

3)

b (6, 5)
d

1 19
( 2, 2 )

84 99
( 67 , 67 )

15 cents and 35 cents


5 22 and 19
16 emus, 41 sheep
Basketballs $9.45, cricket balls $3.05
Limousine $225 (sedan $75)
A
10 D

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

43

14

3
2

x +7

b y= 5x 5

x+3

d y= 6x+ 3

1
2

f y= 4x 2

3
82

12 a y = 7 x + 7

b y=

39

d y= 8 + 4
14 Yes

exercise 1G distance between two


points and midpoint of a segment
1 a 5
b 10
c 1
d 2
2 a 7.211
b 14.765
c 13.038

3 a
b (4, 15)
5 17
d( , )

x+5

13 94
15 H = 22 + 6t

c y = x + 8

y = 6 2x

11 y = 2 x 2

d i x 2y + 7 = 0

2
4

ii y = 3x 1
ii y = 5x 19
ii y = x + 1

y = 10x + 1

6 a i 3x y 1 = 0
b i 5x y 19 = 0
c i x+y1=0

e y = 2x 3
5

36

6
7

c y=

exercise 1e

b 1

10 a y =

(3, 13)

c 7

8 y=x6

12 a

b 9

d 8

y = 7x 4

1
9

9 7
, , 1
7 9

d 5 , 2 , 1

2 They are perpendicular.


3 They are perpendicular.

2 5

y
7

b 3, 3, 1

c 4 , 4, 1

y = 3x 5

1 a 2, 2 , 1

, 20 )
( 25
3

20

a2 4a + 8

b 2 12b + 61

2(c 2 6c + 10)

5d 2 22d + 26

4 21.024 km
5 a 216
6 a (2, 4)
c (7, 2)
1
2

1
2

7 a (1 , 5 )
1

c ( 9 2 , 9 2)

8 a (4a, 3a)

c 3 f + g , 2

b 108
b (5, 1)
d (8, 9)

1
b ( 3, 3 2 )
1

d ( 1 2 , 6 2)

b (8, 3c)

2
9 a 5
b 9
10 D1 (1.5, 4.25), D2 (1.5, 1.5), D3 (8, 7.5)
11 y = 5x 7
12 y = 3x + 6

linear modelling

9 Undefined

1 a C = 25 + 5t

10 a 3, 7

b Cost ($)

1
2

35
30
25

3,

22 Teacher to check.
23 k = 4, h = 3
24 a C = 75 + 65t
b C ($)

10

, 2
2

11 y = 5 x 3
12 a

1 2 Time (h)

140

75

24

c $40
2 a C = 60 + 8m

76
68
60

1
5
9
13
17
21
25

8
y

b
1 2 Time (min)

c $100
3 a P = 32 + 0.1n

40

b Payment ($)
34
33
32

c $197

$960
Yes ($410 compared to $450)
After 4 rides
a Opus $24, Elstra $20
b After 14 minutes
8 a PinkCabs $28.50, NoTop $26
2
b After 6.7 km (6 3 km)
9 6 visits
10 Savus would be cheaper for up to 9 days
hire.

13 a

5 a
6 a

3
4
5

c 11
7

7
3

b (5, 5)

y
f(x) = 3x + 10
5

Chapter reVieW

5
(5, 5) 5

f(x) = 2x 15

4 2 R3

or 2 R

R
GM
b 3.873
7

b 11
d

63 33

5
14 ( , 5)

15 ( 10 , 5 )

16
17
18

21 two-dollar and 46 one-dollar coins


3
y = x + 4
6

C
C
B
E
C
B

4
8
12
16
20
24

D
D
A
E
B
D

a parallelogram.

(1, 6)

1
26
3 x 14

3
7
11
15
19
23

4 a C = 250 + 55j
b 13 jumps
5 a 4 cm
b, c, e

A
A
B
B
A
D

d The midpoints of any quadrilateral form

4
5
6
7

Short anSWer

2
6
10
14
18
22

be shown by calculating gradients or


equations for lines joining different pairs
of points.
2 (1, 8)
9
1
3 a Midpoints: (1, 0), (5, 2 ), (2, 4), (2, 2 )

D
D
B
D
E
C
A

1 No, the points are not collinear. This may

15

t (h)

extended reSponSe

10 20 Number
of leaflets

GM

mUltiple ChoiCe

b Cost ($)

4 T=

c $302.50

205

19 y = 7 x + 7

8 4.331

20 y = 4x 26

34

21 6

Force applied to spring (N)

exercise 1h

60
50
40
30
20

Student 1
Student 2

10
0

10 15 20 25
Length of spring (cm)

30

d Answers will vary. One possible answer


30

95

is y = 13 x 13 .
f Answers will vary. One possible answer
is y = 2x 10.
g The first spring is stiffer than the second,
as the gradient of its graph is greater
than that of the second spring.
h The graphs intersect at the point
(8.75, 27.5). It is not possible for the
springs to have a negative length, so this
point is not achievable.

Chapter 1 Linear functions

37

Chapter 2

Quadratic functions
diGital doC
doc-9710
10 Quick Questions

Chapter ContentS
2a
2B
2C
2d
2e
2F
2G
2h
2i
2J
2k
2l

Polynomials
Expanding quadratic expressions
Factorising quadratic expressions
Factorising by completing the square
Solving quadratic equations Null Factor Law
Solving quadratic equations completing the square
The quadratic formula
The discriminant
Graphs of quadratic functions as power functions (turning point form)
Graphs of quadratic functions (intercepts method)
Using technology to solve quadratic equations
Simultaneous quadratic and linear equations

2a

polynomials

A polynomial in x, sometimes denoted by P(x), is an expression containing only non-negative whole


number powers of x. The degree of the polynomial is given by the highest power of the variable x.
Examples of some polynomials are:
10
3x + 1
x2 + 4x + 7
5x3 + 0.5x2
2x4 x3 + 2x2 + x + 5

is a polynomial of degree 0 as 10 can be written as 10x0


is a polynomial of degree 1, or a linear polynomial
is a polynomial of degree 2, or a quadratic polynomial
is a polynomial of degree 3, or a cubic polynomial
is a polynomial of degree 4, or a quartic polynomial.

Expressions such as 3x2 4x + , 5x4 + x3 2 x and x 2 + sin (x) + 1 are not polynomials.
x
The general form of a degree n polynomial is given by
P(x) = an x n + an 1xn 1 + . . . + a2x2 + a1x + a0
where n is a positive whole number and an, an 1, . . . a2, a1, a0 are called coefficients (or constants)
provided the leading coefficient an 0.
This chapter will deal with polynomials of degree 2, or quadratics. The general form of a quadratic
polynomial is P(x) = a2x2 + a1x + a0. It is also commonly written as y = ax2 + bx + c when graphing
applications are involved.
In the polynomial equation P(x) = 13x2 x + 1:
x is the variable.
13 is the coefficient of x2 and 13x2 is the quadratic term.
1 is the coefficient of x and x is the linear term.
The constant term is 1.
The degree of the polynomial is 2.
The leading term is 13x2 as it is the term with the highest power of x.
Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

39

An example of where polynomials are useful is shown below.

The surface area, S, of a plant hothouse of length L


and height x can be approximated by the quadratic
polynomial S ( x ) = x 2 + L x 4.

Value of a polynomial
diGital doC
doc-9711
History of mathematics
variste Galois

A polynomial may be evaluated by substitution of a number for the variable. For example, for the
polynomial P(x) = 13x2 x + 1, the value of P(x) when x = 3 is given symbolically as P(3) and is
found by substitution:
P( 3) = 13( 3)2 ( 3) + 1
= 13 9 + 3 + 1
= 121
This process can be completed on your CAS calculator. A CAS calculator is particularly useful for
performing multiple substitutions simultaneously.
1. Using a CAS calculator, define the polynomial
1. Define t(x) = 3x2 2x + 16.
t(x) = 3x2 2x + 16.
2. To evaluate t(x) for x-values of 3, 2 and 5,
2. t({ 3, 2, 5})
complete the entry line as:
The result is (49, 24, 26.5279).
t({ 3,2, 5})

exercise 2a
1

polynomials

State the degree of each of the following polynomials.


b 65 + 2t
u4
1
d x6 3x5 + 2x4 + 6x + 1
e 2u
6 + u5
3
2
a x3 9x2 + 19x + 7

c 2x 8 + 3x2

2 State the variable for each polynomial in question 1.


3 Which polynomial in question 1 is:
a linear?
b quadratic?

c cubic?

4 For each of the following expressions:

if it is a polynomial, write P
if it is not a polynomial, write N and circle the term(s) that made it so.
x2
5
+x
a 7x + 6x2 +
b
c 3x 4 2 x 3 3 x 4
9
x
d k
40

+ k 3k 3 + 7

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

e 2x 8x + 1

5 Consider the polynomial P( x) = 2x3 3x + 4x2 + 5.


a What is the degree of the polynomial?
b What is the variable?
c What is the coefficient of the linear term?
d What is the value of the constant term?
e Describe the role of the 4 using the terminology of polynomials.
6 For the polynomial T(m) = 5m 2m2 1, evaluate the following.
a T(2)
b T(2)

c T(x + 1)

7 A sports scientist determines the following equation for the action of a breaststroke swimmer during

one complete stroke:


v(t) = 63.876t 6 247.65t 5 + 360.39t 4 219.41t 3 + 53.816t 2 + 0.4746t
where t = time (sec) and v(t) = velocity (m/s).
a
b
c
d

What is the degree of the polynomial?


What is the variable?
Evaluate v(0.2) and interpret the meaning of your answer.
How much faster is she swimming at 0.7 seconds than she is at 0.5 seconds?

2B

expanding quadratic expressions

A quadratic expression is a polynomial of degree 2. It must contain a quadratic term; any others (a linear
term and a constant term) are optional. Examples of quadratic expressions include:
x2 3x 1

5x

10x2

3t 2 + 1

Quadratic expressions can be produced when two linear expressions are multiplied.
Consider the expansion (4x + 9)(2x 3).
When expanding brackets, multiply everything by everything else as shown
on the diagram at right. That is,
first term everything in the second brackets, then
second term everything in the second brackets.
The results of each part of the expansion are:
2 4x 3 = 12x
1 4x 2x = 8x2
3 9 2x = 18x
Parts 2 and 3 may be combined to give 6x, so we have:

(4x + 9)(2x 3)
3

9 3 = 27

(4x + 9)(2x 3) = 8x2 + 6x 27


This method can be easily extended to deal with brackets containing more than two terms.
The above method can be used on all types of binomial expansions, though a couple of shortcuts for
special cases are shown in worked examples 1, 2 and 3.
Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

41

Worked example 1

Expand the following.


a (3x + 5)(6x 7)

b (2x 9)2

d 2(x 9)(4 x)

c (5x 3)(5x + 3)

think

a 1 Write the expression and mark the required

multiplications.

Write

a
(3x + 5)(6x 7)

First term everything in the second brackets gives


18x2 21x.

Second term everything in the second brackets gives


30x 35.

= 18x2 21x + 30x 35

Combine the middle (x) terms.

= 18x2 + 9x 35

b 1 Write the expression. Recognise it as a perfect square.


2

Remember the shortcut: Square the first term, double the


product of the two terms and square the last term.

Square the first term to get 4x2.

Double the product of the two terms to get


2 (2x) (9) = 36x.

Square the last term to get 81.

c 1 Write the expression. Recognise that the only difference

between the two sets of brackets is the sign in the middle,


so the answer is a difference of two squares.
2

The shortcut for the expansion of this type is


(first term)2 (second term)2.

d 1 Write the expression.

b (2x 9)2

= 4x2 36x + 81
c (5x 3)(5x + 3)

= (5x)2 32
= 25x2 9
d 2(x 9)(4 x)

Rewrite the question so x is the first term in both


brackets. This is not essential as long as all combinations
of terms are multiplied in the next step.

= 2(x 9)(x + 4)

Expand the brackets first.

= 2(x2 + 13x 36)

Multiply the brackets contents by 2.

= 2x2 26x + 72

Worked example 2

Expand (x 7)(x + 2) (2x 1)(x + 4) and simplify.


think

42

Write

Write the expression.

(x 7)(x + 2) (2x 1)(x + 4)

Expand the first pair of brackets.

(x 7)(x + 2) = x2 5x 14

Expand the second pair of brackets.

(2x 1)(x + 4) = 2x2 + 7x 4

Subtract the two expanded groups in the order given.


Use new brackets for clarity as shown.

(x 7)(x + 2) (2x 1)(x + 4)


= (x2 5x 14) (2x2 + 7x 4)

Apply the negative sign to the contents of the second


brackets.

= x2 5x 14 2x2 7x + 4

Collect like terms and simplify.

= x2 12x 10

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Worked example 3

If P(x) = (2x 3)2 (2x + 1)(3x + 9):


a evaluate P(1)
b expand and simplify P(x)
c use your result in b to confirm your answer in a.
think

Write

a 1 Substitute x = 1 into the rule for P(x).

a P(1) = (2 1 3)2 (2 1 + 1)(3 1 + 9)

Simplify each bracketed term.

P(1) = (1)2 (3)(12)

Simplify P(1).

P(1) = 1 36
= 35

b 1 Expand the first bracketed term.

b (2x 3)2 = 4x2 12x + 9

Expand the second and third bracketed terms.

(2x + 1)(3x + 9) = 6x2 + 21x + 9

Subtract the second result from the first result


to obtain P(x).

P(x) = 4x2 12x + 9 (6x2 + 21x + 9)

Simplify.

P(x) = 2x2 33x

c 1 Evaluate P(1) using the formula from part b.

c P(1) = 2(1)2 33 1

= 2 33
= 35

The answers are the same.

Compare with the result from part a.

exercise 2B

expanding quadratic expressions

Simplify your answers to questions in this exercise as fully as possible.


1 We1a
Expand the following.
a (2x + 6)(x + 5)
c (5x 7)(5x + 2)
e (x + 4)(7x 9)
g (6x 13)(2 3x)
i (x 9)(9x 1)

b
d
f
h
j

(3x + 1)(4x 3)
(8x 3)(6x 1)
(x + 6)(x + 15)
(5 x)(6 x)
(4x + 21)(x 3)

2 We1b
Expand using the shortcut for perfect squares.
a (2x + 3)2
b (3x 5)2
2
c (6x + 1)
d (7x 6)2
2
e (x 8)
f (x + 13)2

2
g ( 2x + 9)
h (2x + 9)2
2
i (4 3x)
j (6 x)2
3 We1c
Expand (remember the shortcut for difference of squares).
a (2x 6)(2x + 6)
b (3x + 5)(3x 5)
c (6x + 1)(6x 1)
d (2x 9)(2x + 9)
e (11x + 3)(11x 3)
f (x 12)(x + 12)
g (x + 6)(x 6)
h (7 2x)(7 + 2x)
i (1 x)(1 + x)
j (5x + 1)(5x 1)
4 We1d
Expand.
a 2(x + 6)(3x + 5)
c 4(x + 2)(2x 5)
e 8(3x 1)(4x 1)
g 4(4 x)(7 x)
i a(2x + 9)(x 6)

diGital doCS
doc-9712
SkillSHEET 2.1
expanding perfect
squares
doc-9713
SkillSHEET 2.2
expanding differences
of squares

b 3(x 4)(2x + 7)
d 3(4x 9)(2x 1)
f 7(2x + 3)(5x 10)
h 5(7x 4)(2 x)
j b(8 2x)(x + 4)
Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

43

Expand the following.


a (6x 13)(6x + 13)
c 3(7 + 2x)(x 8)
e (2x 14)(2x + 14)
g (x + 16)(x 9)
i 4(5x 3)2

b
d
f
h
j

6 We2 Expand and simplify.


a (x 9)(x + 2) + (x + 4)(x 4)
c 2(x + 5)2 + 5(2x + 7)(x 3)
e 4(x 3)(3x + 5) 2(2x + 1)2
g ( x + 3)( x 3)
i 12 (2x + 1)(4x + 7)

(5x + 2)(12x 5)
(3x + 11)2
(6x 5)2
(x 4)(x + 4)
5(2x + 7)(2x 7)

b (3x + 7)(2x 1) + (4x 3)(3x 4)


d (x 12)(x + 12) 3(x + 1)(x + 5)
f 6(2x 5)(2x + 5) (x 6)(x + 6)
h (3 x + 2)(4 x 2)
j (5x + 13)(3x 5)

7 We3 Expand. Use a calculator to verify the answers.


a (2a + 4)(2a + b)
b (x + 2y)(3x 5y)
c (6 7c)(2 7c)
d (u + 4v)2
e (6r s)(2r + 5s)
f (3u 2t)(3u + 2t)
g 2(h 8k)(h + 8k)
h 3(m 6n)2

Factorising quadratic expressions

2C

Factorising is the reverse process to expanding. It involves writing an expression as a product of two or
more factors. Four methods of factorising will be considered.

highest common factor (hCF)


Always look for a common factor first. Take out the highest common factor from every term in the
expression and place it in front of the expression. This makes the factorisation process simpler if further
factorisation is required. For example, 4x2 + 8x 12 can be factorised to 4(x2 + 2x 3). We would then
use inspection (see below) on the bracketed quadratic.

Factorisation by inspection
A quadratic polynomial of the form ax2 + bx + c is called a quadratic trinomial. It should first be checked
to see if it is a perfect square:
a2x2 2abx + b2 = (ax b)2 or a2x2 + 2abx + b2 = (ax + b)2
If not, factorisation is carried out by inspection or trial and error. This method involves finding
factors of a c that add up to b, i.e. the coefficient of the x term.

perfect squares
a2x2 + 2abx + b2 = (ax + b)2
A test for a perfect square is as follows:
1. Arrange the expression in order of decreasing powers of x.
2. Does first term coefficient last term 2 = middle
term coefficient?
(Coefficients are numbers or variables in front of x2 and
x terms.)
3. If yes, you have a perfect square.

For example:
4x 2 + 20x + 25
Double
2

10
Multiply
(2 5)

difference of two squares (dotS)


ax2 b =

ax + b

For example,
44

49x2

)(

a x b where a and b may simplify to a rational number.

9 = (7x + 3)(7x 3).

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Worked example 4

Factorise the following.


a 6x2y + 15xy
b x2 + 7x + 12
2
d 27x 75
e 9x2 30x + 25

c 6x2 + 28x 48

think

Write

a 6x2y + 15xy

a 1 Write the expression.


2

Take out a common factor of 3xy. Make the common


factor negative so the leading term inside the brackets
will be positive.

= 3xy(2x 5)

b x2 + 7x + 12

b 1 Write the expression.


2

Look for a common factor. (There isnt one.)

Write (x )(x ) and look for factors of +12 that add to


give +7. +4 and +3 achieve this.

= (x + 4)(x + 3)
c 6x2 + 28x 48

c 1 Write the expression.


2

Is there a common factor? Yes (2).

Attempt to factorise by inspection. Write 2(3x


and try factors of 24.
A few possibilities are:
(3x + 12)(x 2) = 3x2 + 6x 24 NO
(3x + 1)(x 24) = 3x2 71x 24 NO
(3x + 4)(x 6) = 3x2 14x 24 NO
(Nearly, just a wrong sign on the x term.)
(3x 4)(x + 6) = 3x2 + 14x 24 YES

= 2(3x2 + 14x 24)


)(x

= 2(3x 4)(x + 6)
d 27x2 75

d 1 Write the expression.


2

Look for a common factor. There is one (3).

= 3(9x2 25)

Recognise the difference of squares in the brackets.

= 3(3x + 5)(3x 5)
e 9x2 30x + 25

e 1 Write the expression.


2

There are no common factors.

There seem to be a few square numbers in the


expression, which looks suspiciously like a perfect
square. The square root of the first term is 3x, and the
square root of the last term is 5 or 5. Since we need a
negative middle term, take 5. Double the product of
these is 2 3 5 = 30, which is the middle term, so
we have a perfect square.

= (3x 5)2

Worked example 5

Factorise: a (x + 3)2

24

b (x 6)2 + 5(x 6) + 6.

think

Write

a 1 Write the expression, and recognise a difference of

squares.
2

(
(

)
second term )

a (x + 3)2 24

first term + second term

= ( x + 3) + 24 ( x + 3) 24

first term

= x +3+2 6 x +32 6

)(

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

45

b (x 6)2 + 5(x 6) + 6

b 1 Write the expression, and notice the linear expression

(x 6), which is in the usual position of the variable.

Let X = (x 6) and rewrite the expression.


Note: This is often called a substitution method.

Let X = (x 6)
X2 + 5X + 6

Factorise the new version of the expression.

= [X + 2][X + 3]

Replace X with x 6.

= [(x 6) + 2][(x 6) + 3]

Simplify.

= (x 4)(x 3)

Worked example 6

Factorise the following using an appropriate method.


a 6x2y + 15xy
b 50 2(x 4)2
think

Write

a 6x2y + 15xy

a 1 Remove the common factor of 3xy.


2

= 3xy(2x + 5)

=3 xy(5 2x)
or 3xy(2x 5)

Simplify.

b 50 2(x 4)2 = 2(25 (x 4)2)

b 1 Remove the common factor of 2.


2

Factorise the expression within the brackets


using the difference of two squares method.

= 2(52 (x 4)2)
= 2(5 (x 4))(5 + (x 4))

Simplify.

= 2(5 x + 4)(5 + x 4)
= 2(9 x)(1 + x)

exercise 2C

Factorising quadratic expressions

1 We4a
Factorise the following.
a 5x2y3 + 20xy2
b 8ax2 + 14ax
4
3
2
d 22r s + 11r s
e 5x2 + 10x + 75
2 We4b, c
Factorise the following.
a x2 + 16x + 63
b x2 17x + 66

2
d 3x 6x + 24
e x2 4x + 96
2
g 6x 37x + 45
h 40x2 + 46x + 14

c 2x2 + 22x + 48
f 6x2 11x 35

3 We4d
Factorise the following.
2
a 4x 9
b 81x2 25
d 18x2 162
e (x + 1)2 4
g 98 2(x + 3)2
h 3(5x 8)2 + 27

c 2x2 32
f (3x 4)2 1

4 We4e
Factorise the following.
a x2 + 14x + 49
b 25x2 10x + 1

12x + 12
2
g 4x 4 5 x + 5
d

3x2

72x2

+ 24x 2
2
h 4x 12 2x + 18
e

5 We5a
Factorise the following.
a (x + 3)2 9
b (x 3)2 16
2
d (3x 2) 81
e 2(x + 1)2 8
2
g 50(3x + 2) 98
h 1 (6 x)2
46

c 7p2q 21p + 7
f 3x2 18x + 6

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

c 2x2 + 12x + 18
f

x2 + 2 3 x + 3

c 36 (2x + 7)2
f 3(x 4)2 + 48
i 64 (2 3x)2

6 We5b
Factorise the following.
a (x + 7)2 + 9(x + 7) + 20
c (2x + 7)2 9(2x + 7) + 8

b 6(x 3)2 + 13(x 3) + 5


d 12(3x 11)2 19(3x 11) 18

7 We6 Factorise the following, using an appropriate method.


a 3x2 24x 27
b 25x2 + 10x + 1
2
c (x 13) 2(x 13) + 1
d x2 28x + 196
2
e 18 x 6 x
f 60x2 + 40x + 5
2
g 60x 5x
h 9 9x2y2

4(3x 1)2 (x + 2)2


j 12x2 + 70x + 98
8 mC a Which of the factors below could be multiplied by (x + 5) to get x2 + 14x + 45?
a (x 19)
B (x + 5)
C (x + 9)
d (x + 14)
e (x + 31)
i

b The factorised form of 6x2 67x 60 is:


a 2(3x + 5)(x + 6)
d (6x 5)(x + 12)

B 2(3x 5)(x 6)
e (6x + 5)(x 12)

c A factor of 6x2 54 is:


a (x 3)

B (x 6)

C (3x + 6)(2x + 10)

C (x 9)

d (6x 9)

e 6x

9 Quadratic polynomials are said to be identical if they have the same factorised forms and the same

expanded forms; the relevant coefficients must be equal. Suppose that P(x) = 5(x + 3)2 + 35(x + 3),
Q(x) = 60 5x2 + kx and R(x) = 5(x + 3)(x + m). Use written algebra to find the values of k and m, if
it is known that the three polynomials are identical. Use a mental arithmetic substitution technique to
verify your answers.

2d

Factorising by completing the square

Factorising by inspection works best when whole numbers are involved for example (2x + 3)(x 7).
Sometimes it is clear that it is impossible to find whole numbers to complete a factorisation. For
example, with x2 + 6x 1, there is no pair of factors of 6 that add to 1. In such cases, completing the
square may be used to factorise a quadratic.
The method of completing the square involves manufacturing a perfect square so that an expression
may be factorised as a difference of squares.
Because this method often produces surds, factorising this way is sometimes referred to as factorising
over R, where R is the set of real numbers that includes surds.
Worked example 7

Use the method of completing the square to factorise the following over R.
a x2 + 6x 1
b x2 7x + 8
think

a 1 Write the expression.

Write

a x2 + 6x 1

x 2 + 6 x + ( 62 )2 ( 62 )2 1

Halve and square the x-coefficient (6), and then


add and subtract it from the equation. Since the
same value has been added and subtracted, the
expression is equivalent to that in the question.

Evaluate the brackets.

= x2 + 6x + 9 9 1

Combine the first three terms as a perfect square,


as x2 + 6x + 9 = (x + 3)2.

= (x + 3)2 10

Recognise a difference of two squares.

= ( x + 3) + 10 ( x + 3) 10

Simplify.

= x + 3 + 10 x + 3 10

)(

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

47

b x2 7x + 8

b 1 Write the expression.


2

Halve and square the x-coefficient (7), and then


add and subtract it from the equation.

Evaluate the brackets.

Combine the first three terms as a perfect square,


7 2.
since x 2 7 x + 49
4 = (x 2 )

Combine the last two terms.

x 2 7x + (

) ( 27 )2 + 8

7 2
2

49
= x 2 7 x + 49
4 4 +8
8
= ( x 72 ) 49
4 +1
2

32
= ( x 72 ) 49
4 + 4
2

= ( x 72 ) 17
4
2

Recognise a difference of squares.

= ( x 72 ) +

Simplify the surd part if possible.

= x 72 +

Use a common denominator for the last two terms


if desired.

17
2

17
4

( x 7 )2
2

)( x

7
2

)(

17
2

or x 7 2 17 x 7 +2 17

17
4

Worked example 8

Consider the quadratic polynomials represented by P(x) = x2 + bx + 4, where b can be any real
number. Answer the following questions.
a Factorise P(x).
b Find the linear factors of P(x), if they exist for b = 3, 4, 5 and 6.
Discuss the differences in the formats of your answers.
think

a 1 Write the expression.

Write

a x2 + bx + 4

b2 b2
= x 2 + bx + + 4
2
2

Complete the square: halve and square the


x-coefficient (b), and then add and subtract
it in the expression.

Recognise the first three terms as a perfect


square.

b 2 b2
= x + + 4

2
4

Simplify.

b 2 b 2 16
= x +

2 4

Recognise a difference of two squares.

b
b 2 16
b
b 2 16
=x+ +
x+

2
4
2
4

Simplify the surds.

b
b 2 16
b
b 2 16
=x+ +
x+

2
2
2
2

Put all the terms over a common


denominator (2).

State the factors.

2 x + b + b 2 16 2 x + b b 2 16
=

2
2

The factors of P(x) are


x+

48

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

b 2 16 + b
.
2

2 x + b b 2 16
or
2

b 1 Evaluate the factors for b = 3.

b x+

32 16 + 3
2

32 16 =

Evaluate the surd.

Since the surd is the square root of a


negative number, there are no possible
linear factors.

There are no linear factors for b = 3.

Evaluate the factors for b = 4.

x+

Simplify.

State the factors.

When b = 4, x + 2 is a repeated factor, so P(x) is


a perfect square.

Evaluate the factors for b = 5.

x+

Simplify.

4 2 16 + 4
2

0 +4
2
=x+2
= x+

52 16 + 5
2

= x+

25 16 + 5
2

9 +5
2
3 + 5
= x+
2
8
2
= x + or x +
2
2
= x + 4 or x + 1
= x+

State the factors.

The factors are x + 4 and x + 1.

10

Evaluate the factors for b = 6.

x+

11

Simplify.

62 16 + 6
2

= x+

36 16 + 6
2

= x+

20 + 6
2

= x+

2 5 + 6
2

= x 5+3
12

State the factors.

The factors are x + 5 + 3 and x 5 + 3.

13

Note the differences in the number and


format of the linear factors; when b = 3,
there were no linear factors. Write your
observations.

b = 3: There are no linear factors.


b = 4: x + 2 is a repeated linear factor so P(x) is a
perfect square.
b = 5: The linear factors are x + 1 and x + 4.
b = 6: The linear factors are x + 5 + 3 and
x 5 + 3; they are found by completing
the square.

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

49

exercise 2d

Factorising by completing the square

1 We7a Use the method of completing the square to factorise the following over R.
a x2 + 4x 3
b x2 + 10x + 20
2
c x + 6x + 7
d x2 + 2x 7
e x2 + 8x + 13
f x2 4x 1
g x2 12x + 19
h x2 2x 5
2
i x 8x + 10
j x2 6x 4
2 We7b Use the method of completing the square to factorise the following over R.
a x2 + 3x + 1
b x2 + 5x 3
2
c x 7x + 2
d x2 x 1
2
e x + 9x + 4
f x2 + 11x 6
2
g x 3x + 5
h x2 + 5x + 2
2
i x 13x 1
j x2 + x 3
3 mC Which of the following could be added to and subtracted from x2 + 36x + 1 to assist factorising

using completing the square?


a 6
B 18

C 72

d 144

4 mC Which of the following could be added to and subtracted from

using completing the square?


a 4
B 17
4

C 16

C
e

( x 3 + 2 )( x 3 2 )
( x + 3 + 7 )( x + 3 7 )
( x + 3 + 6 )( x + 3 6 )

e 324

17x 8 to assist factorising

d 17

5 mC The expression x2 + 6x 2 factorises to:


a

x2

B
d

(x + 3 +
(x 3 +

)(
10 )( x 3

289
4

)
10 )

11 x + 3 11

6 mC The expression x2 + 4x + 12:


a
B
C
d
e

can be factorised using whole numbers


can be factorised using the method of completing the square
cannot be factorised using the methods covered in this topic so far
is a linear expression, and so cannot be factorised
is already factorised

7 Challenge: Factorise the following.


a 3x2 18x 3
c 5x2 10x + 15

b 2x2 + 10x + 4
d 12x2 + 4x 8

Solving quadratic equations


null Factor law
2e

As a quadratic equation is a degree 2 polynomial (highest x power of 2), it will have at most two
solutions.
To solve the quadratic equation x2 4x + 3 = 0, factorise by inspection.
x2 4x + 3 = 0
(x 1)(x 3) = 0
or A B = 0
where A = (x 1) and B = (x 3).
For A B to equal zero, either A or B or both must be zero.
This is known as the Null Factor Law.
That is,
A=0
or
B=0
So
(x 1) = 0
or
(x 3) = 0
Solving these two equations gives:
x1=0
or
x3=0
x=1
or
x=3
50

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Worked example 9

Solve the following.


a (x + 5)(7x 11) = 0
c 4x2 + 25 = 20x

b 12x2 11x 15 = 0
d 6x2 = 54

think

a 1 Write the equation.


2

Note that the equation is already factorised.

Apply the Null Factor Law and solve two


equations.

b 1 Write the equation.


2

Factorise by inspection. This may take


several attempts.

Solve two equations.

c 1 Write the equation.


2

Rearrange (transpose) so all terms are on the


side on which the x2 term is positive. Write
terms in order of decreasing powers of x.

Factorise (in this case by recognising a


perfect square).

Solve (one equation here, or two identical


equations if you like).

d 1 Write the equation.

Write

a (x + 5)(7x 11) = 0

x+5=0
x = 5

or
or

7x 11 = 0
7x = 11
x = 11
7

or
or
or

3x 5 = 0
3x = 5
x = 53

or
or

x3=0
x=3

b 12x2 11x 15 = 0

(4x + 3)(3x 5) = 0
4x + 3 = 0
4x = 3

x = 43
4x2 + 25 = 20x

4x2 20x + 25 = 0

(2x 5)2 = 0
2x 5 = 0
2x = 5
x = 52
6x2 = 54

Rearrange.

6x2 54 = 0

Take out the common factor, 6.

6(x2 9) = 0

Notice a difference of squares.

6(x + 3)(x 3) = 0

Solve.

x+3=0
x = 3

Worked example 10

The height of a triangle is 5cm more than its base length. If the area of the
triangle is 18cm2, find the base length and height.
think
1

Define the length and height in terms of a


variable. Here, x is used.

Draw a diagram.

Write

tUtorial
eles-1407
Worked example 10

Let base length = x


Then height = x + 5
x+5
x

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

51

Use the given information about area to form


an equation involving the variable.

Area = 12 bh
18 = 12 (x)(x + 5)
36 = x(x + 5)
36 = x2 + 5x
x2 + 5x 36 = 0

Rearrange and form a quadratic equation.

Factorise.

(x + 9)(x 4) = 0

Solve.

x = 9 or x = 4

Discard the negative answer, as length in this


context must be positive.

x=4

Calculate the height (x + 5).

h=x+5
=9

Write the answer in words.

Base length = 4 cm, height = 9 cm.

(as x > 0)

Worked example 11

Consider the quadratic equations below.


Equation 1: (2x + 1)(x 3) = 4x
Equation 2: (2x + 1)(x 3) = 4x2
Use a calculator to determine which equation(s) has rational solutions.
think

Write

Equation 1
(2x + 1)(x 3) = 4x
2x2 5x 3 = 4x

Expand the brackets.

Put all the terms on the left-hand side


(add 4x to both sides).

Factorise.

(2x 3)(x + 1) = 0

Apply the Null Factor Law.

2x 3 = 0
3
x=2

Evaluate the solutions.

Both solutions are rational.

2x2 x 3 = 0

x+1=0
x = 1

or
or

Equation 2
1

Expand the brackets.

Put all the terms on the left-hand side


(add 4x2 to both sides).

Divide all the terms by 6.

Complete the square.

(2x + 1)(x 3) = 4x2


2x2 5x 3 = 4x2
6x2 5x 3 = 0
x2 56 x 12 = 0
x2 5 x +
6

25
144

25
144
12 = 0

+ 72
=0
( x ) 25144
(x ) ( ) = 0
5 2
12

5 2
12

52

97
12

97
12

Apply the Null Factor Law.

x 12 +

Evaluate the solutions.

Both solutions are irrational.


Only equation 1 has rational solutions.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

= 0 or x 12

97
12

=0

Fixed point iteration


Fixed point (or simple) iteration is a way of solving equations numerically rather than algebraically. To
use this method, the equation to be solved must be manipulated into the form x = g(x).
For example, if the equation to be solved is f (x) = x2 7x + 1 = 0, a possible manipulation is
x2 7x + 1 = 0
x2 + 1 = 7x
x2 + 1
=x
7
In this case, we have x = g(x), where g( x ) =
Fixed point iteration works as follows:
1. Make an initial guess, say x = 1.

x2 + 1
.
7

2. Substitute the guess into g(x).

g( x ) =

x 2 + 1 12 + 1 2
=
= 7 = 0.2857
7
7

3. Substitute the improved guess, 0.2857.

g( x ) =

x 2 + 1 0.28572 + 1
=
= 0.1545
7
7

4. Substitute the improved guess, 0.1545.

g( x ) =

x 2 + 1 0.15452 + 1
=
= 0.1463
7
7

5. Substitute the improved guess, 0.1463.

g(x) =

x 2 + 1 0.14632 + 1
=
= 0.1459
7
7

6. Repeat the process until successive values for


g(x) are equal (within a tolerance of, say, 0.0001).

g( x ) =

x 2 + 1 0.14592 + 1
=
= 0.14589
7
7

7. In this example, the equal successive values


of g(x) are 0.1459 and 0.14589, within the
tolerance of 0.0001.

x = 0.1459 is a solution to x2 7x + 1 = 0.

Solving quadratic equations


null Factor law
exercise 2e

Solve the following.

1 We9a

a (x + 6)(2x + 3) = 0

b (x + 1)(6x 1) = 0

c (x 5)(x + 2) = 0

d (7x + 12)(9x + 2) = 0

e (16x + 8)(2x 6) = 0

g (6 7x)(x + 6) = 0

3x(x

2 We9b
Factorise and solve the following.
a x2 + 6x 72 = 0
b 2x2 7x 4 = 0
d 2x2 + 12x 110 = 0

e 3x2 27 = 0

g 12

h 15x

75x2

3 We9c, d

=0

=1

g 32x2 = 162
j

32x2 16x + 2 = 0

=0

b 6x2 + 7x = 49
e

32x

6x2

+ 10

h 5x2 = 8x

+5
=x
13

6x 2

c 1 + 8x = 16x2
f
i

27 + 12x2 = 36x
10 x
x2 =
2

The solutions to the equation (x 3)(x + 7) = 0 are:


x = and x = 7
x = 3 and x = 7
x = 3 and x = 7
x = 3 and x = 7
x = 4 and x = 21

4 mC
a
B
C
d
e

3x2

c 4x2 + 13x + 10 = 0

diGital doC
doc-9714
Quadratic
expressions

Rearrange and solve the following.

a x2 + 45 = 14x

36x2

(7 + x)(23 x) = 0

1) = 0

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

53

5 mC
a

2
13

Which of the following is a solution of 2x2 11x = 13?


B

13
2

2
C 13

d 1

e 13
2

The solutions to a quadratic equation are x = 9 and x = 25 . The equation could be:
a (x 9)(x 25 ) = 0
B 5(x 9)(x 2) = 0
C 2(x + 9)(x 5) = 0
d (x + 9)(5x 2) = 0
e (x + 9)(2x 5) = 0
x
7 We10 The width of a rectangle is 3 cm less than its
2
length. If the area of the rectangle is 40cm , find the
length and width.
8 We11 A rectangular piece of metal with length 6 cm and
width 4 cm is to be enlarged by increasing both of these
4 cm
dimensions by x cm as shown at right.
a If the value of x is 2, describe the change in area that
occurs.
b Find the exact dimensions of the enlarged rectangle if its
6 cm
area is (20 2 + 32) cm2.
6 mC

9 The temperature, T (C), in an office follows the equation T = 85 t 2 5t + 30, where t is the time (in

10

11

12
diGital doC
doc-9715
WorkSHEET 2.1

13

14

15

hours) the offices climate control system has been operating. How long does it take the temperature to
reach 20 C?
A number pattern follows the rule n2 + 3n + 2; that is, the number pattern is 6, 12, 20, . . . (found by
substituting n = 1, n = 2, n = 3 into the rule).
a Find the next value by substituting n = 4 into the rule.
b What positive n value gives the number 210 when substituted into the rule?
The diagram at right demonstrates the idea
of rectangular numbers.
The formula N = w(w + 1) gives the value
of a rectangular number based on a shape
with a width of w dots.
w=1
w=2
w=3
a Which rectangular number has a
N=1
N=6
N = 12
width of 6?
b What is the width of the rectangular number 272?
The amount of bending, B mm, of a particular wooden beam under a load is given by
B=0.2m2 + 0.5m + 2.5, where m kg is the mass (or load) on the end of the beam. What mass will
produce a bend of 8.8 mm?
A window washer drops a squeegee from a scaffold 100 m off the ground. The relationship between the
height of the squeegee (h), in metres, and the length of time it has been falling (t), in seconds, is given
by h = 100 5t 2.
a When does the squeegee pass a window 30 m off the ground?
b Exactly how long does it take for the squeegee to hit the ground?
The following equations are already in the form x = g(x). Find a solution using fixed point iteration with
an initial guess of x = 1.
x2 + 6
x2 2
a x=
b x=
5
3
Find a solution to each of the following (correct to 3 decimal places) using fixed point iteration. First
manipulate each equation into the form x = g(x) in a similar way to that shown on page 53.
a x2 9x + 2 = 0
b x2 + 5x 7 = 0
2
c x 4x + 1 = 0
d 2x2 11x + 8 = 0

16 Show that an alternative manipulation of x2 7x + 1 = 0 into the form x = g(x) is x =

7 x 1. Does this
form converge using fixed point iteration? If so, state the solution found.
17 Find a manipulation of 4x2 + x 3 = 0 that converges using fixed point iteration. State the solution.
18 Investigate when equations of the form x2 bx + 1 are likely to converge to a solution using
x2 + 1
fixed point iteration with a manipulation of the form x =
.
b

54

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Solving quadratic equations


completing the square
2F

Recall that when you cannot factorise quadratics by the method of sensibly guessing whole numbers,
the method of completing the square may be used. Completing the square may also be used to solve
quadratic equations that dont appear to easily factorise.
Worked example 12

Solve the following, giving answers in exact (surd) form.


a x2 + 10x + 2 = 0
b x2 7x + 1 = 0
c x2 8 = 0
think

a 1 Write the equation. Notice that there are no

factors of 2 that add to 10, so this equation is a


candidate for completing the square.

tUtorial
eles-1408
Worked example 12

Write

x2 + 10x + 2 = 0

x 2 + 10 x + ( 102 )2 ( 102 )2 + 2 = 0

Halve and square the x-coefficient and then


add and subtract it.

Evaluate the terms in brackets.

Partially simplify (the last two values) as


shown.

(x2 + 10x + 25) 23 = 0

Form a perfect square with the first three


terms.

(x + 5)2 23 = 0

Take the constant term (in this case the 23) to


the other side of the equation, remembering to
change the sign.

Take the square root of both sides.

Solve for x.

b 1 Write the equation.

x2 + 10x + 25 25 + 2 = 0

(x + 5)2 = 23

x + 5 = 23
x = 5 23
b x2 7x + 1 = 0

Decide that completing the square is


appropriate.

Halve and square the x-coefficient. Add and


subtract this term.

Evaluate the terms in the brackets.

49
x 2 7 x + 49
4 4 +1 = 0

Partially simplify.

49
4
x 2 7 x + 49
4 4 +4 =0

x 2 7 x + ( 72 )2 ( 72 )2 + 1 = 0

45
( x 2 7 x + 49
4 ) 4 = 0

Form a perfect square.

Solve for x. Note that the surd part has been


simplified where possible.

( x 72 )2 45
4 =0
( x 72 )2 =

45
4

x 72 =
=

45
4
95
4

= 3 25
x = 72 3 2 5
=

73 5
2

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

55

c 1 The equation may be solved for x immediately,

without completing the square.


2

Rearrange the equation.

Take the square root of both sides and simplify.

c x2 8 = 0

x2 = 8
x= 8
= 42
= 2 2

Worked example 13

Use the method of completing the square to solve the following equations, or to explain why there
are no solutions.
a 2(2x 3)2 2(2x 3) 2 = 0
b 3x2 + 6x + 4 = 0.
think

a 1 Write the equation. Notice the repeated appearance

of the linear expression (2x 3), suggesting a


substitution technique. Let a = 2x 3.

Write

a 2(2x 3)2 2(2x 3) 2 = 0

Let a = 2x 3
2a2 2a 2 = 0

Divide all terms (i.e. both sides) of the equation by


2, the coefficient of a2.

a2 a 1 = 0

Halve and square the coefficient of a and then add


and subtract it.

a2 a +

Solve for a by completing the square.

(a

( ) ( ) 1 = 0
1
2

1
2

a + 4 4 1 = 0

(a )

1 2
2

4=0

(a )

1 2
2

5
4

a 2 =
1

a= 2
5

Replace a with 2x 3, and solve for x.

2x 3 = 2

5
2

5
4

x = 32 + 4

Write the answer.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

5
4

The solution to
2(2x 3)2 2(2x 3) 2 = 0 is
x=

56

5
2

5
2

2x = 3 + 2

x = 47

5
4

7 5
.
4

b 1 Write the equation.


2

Divide all terms of the equation by 3, the coefficient


of x2.

Apply the process of completing the square.


Notice here that the next step, finding the square
root of both sides of the equation, is not possible as
negative does not exist. Note: You will soon learn
a way to predict when this will happen.

3x2 + 6x + 4 = 0

Write the answer.

x 2 + 2x + 4 = 0
3

x 2 + 2 x + ( 22 )2 ( 22 )2 + 43 = 0
x 2 + 2 x + 1 1 + 43 = 0
( x + 1)2 + 13 = 0

( x + 1)2 =

There are no solutions to


3x2 + 6x + 4 = 0.

Solving quadratic equations


completing the square
exercise 2F

diGital doCS
doc-9716
SkillSHEET 2.3
Solving equations
in the complete
square form
doc-9717
SkillSHEET 2.4
Simplifying surds

1 We12a
Solve, giving the solution in exact (surd) form.
a x2 + 8x + 1 = 0
b x2 + 12x + 3 = 0
2
c x + 4x 2 = 0
d x2 6x + 4 = 0
e x2 10x + 18 = 0
f x2 6x + 6 = 0
2 We12b
Solve, giving the solution in surd form.
a x2 + 3x 1 = 0
b x2 + 5x + 2 = 0
2
c x 7x + 5 = 0
d x2 9x 2 = 0
2
e x + 11x + 4 = 0
f x2 x 6 = 0

Rearrange and solve, giving the solution in exact form.


b x2 + 2 = 6x
d 4 x2 = 7x
f x2 3(5x 2) = 0
x 2 + 3x
g 14x x2 = 1
h
= 2
4
4 We12c
Solve.
2
a x 14 = 0
b 6 x2 = 0
c 3x2 = 36
d 2x2 + 18 = 0
3

a x2 = 4x + 1
c 9x 2 = x2
e 2(3x + 5) = x2

When completing the square to solve x2 + 16x + 1 = 0, the perfect square part of the
expression will be:
a 8
B 16
C 64
d (x + 8)
e (x + 8)2

5 mC

When completing the square to solve x2 20 x 4 = 0, the value to be simultaneously


added and subtracted is:
a 4
B 10
C 5
d 100
e 20

6 mC

7 mC

An equation that is being solved using completing the square is at the stage shown below.
(x 9)2 15 = 0

The solution is:


a (x 9)2 = 15

B x = 24

d x = 9 15

C x = 9 15

x = 3 15

8 We13 For each of the following, find exact solutions (if they exist) or prove there are no solutions.
a 5x2 2x + 3 = 0
b 3(2x 5)2 + 6(2x 5) 4 = 0
c 4x2 2x = 6
d 5(4x + 3) = (4x + 3)2 + 9
Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

57

2G

the quadratic formula

An alternative to the methods of factorising by inspection or completing the square is to use the
quadratic formula. The derivation of the formula follows, and is based on the method of completing the
square, but all you have to remember is the formula in the last step.
ax2 + bx + c = 0 (where a 0)
Consider the general quadratic equation.
b
c
Divide every term by a.
x2 + x + = 0
a
a
Use the completing-the-square method.
2
2
b
b2
b2 c
b
x2 + x + 2 2 + = 0
Halve and square to get b = b
a
4a
4a
a
a
2a
4a2
and add and subtract it to the equation.
b
b2
b2 c
x2 + x + 2 = 2
Rearrange.
a
4a
4a
a
The left side is now a perfect square. Get
2
2
x + b = b 4 ac
a common denominator on the right side.

2a
4a2
Take the square root of both sides. Remember
b
b 2 4 ac
x+
=
to take both positive and negative square roots.
2a
4a2
x+

Simplify the RHS denominator.

b b 2 4 ac
=
2a
2a

b
from both sides.
2a

x=

Write using the one denominator (2a).

x=

Subtract

2a

b 2 4 ac
2a

b b 2 4 ac
2a

The following examples show how the quadratic formula may be used.
Worked example 14

Use the quadratic formula to solve the following without a calculator.


a 3x2 8x 9 = 0
b x2 + 5x + 6 = 0
Give answers in exact (surd) form and comment on the usefulness of this formula for each example.
think

a 1 Write the equation and match up a, b and c.

58

Write

aa

b
c
3x2 8x 9 = 0

Write the quadratic formula.

x=

Substitute the matched values for a, b and c.

x=

Simplify.

x=

At this stage, it is tempting to cancel 2 out of


the 8 and 6, but both terms of the numerator
must possess this factor, and initially they
dont. However, in simplifying 172 into
4 43 , the factor of 2 emerges; then the
cancelling is possible in step 6.

x=

Cancel down a common factor of 2 from


the numerator and denominator.

x=

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

b 2 4 ac
2a

( 8)
+8

( 8)2 (4 3 9)
23

64 + 108
6

8 172
6
8 4 43
x=
6
8 2 43
x=
6
4 43
3

4 + 43
4 43
or x =
3
3

Write the two solutions separately.

x=

In the original equation, the coefficient of


x2 was 3; also, there are surds in the answer.
These facts suggest that neither completing the
square nor standard factorisation would have
been straightforward methods.

Using the quadratic formula was the most


appropriate method for solving this equation.

b 1 Write the equation and match up a, b and c.

ba

b c
1x2 + 5x + 6 = 0

Write the quadratic formula.

x=

Substitute the matched values for a, b and c.

x=

Simplify.

x=

b 2 4 ac
2a

52 (4 1 6)
2 1

x=
x=
x=
x =

5 25 24
2

2
51

2
5+1

or x =

51

4
6
or x =
2
2

x = 2 or x = 3
5

In the original equation, the coefficient of x2


was 1; also, there are no surds in the answer.
This suggests that an easier factorisation
method (i.e. inspection) would be more
suitable. Note: This applies only if the
question does not specify a particular method.

Using the quadratic formula is not the most


suitable method for solving this equation.
Factorisation of the left side in the format
(x + a)(x + b) would be more efficient.

Worked example 15

Use the quadratic formula to solve 2x2 2kx + 4k = 0, and use your solution to
solve 2x2 + 6x 12 = 0.
think

Write

Recognise a common factor of 2 (divide each


term by 2).

2x2 2kx + 4k = 0
x2 kx + 2k = 0

Identify a, b and c for the quadratic formula.

a = 1, b = k, c = 2k

Substitute the values for a, b and c into the


quadratic formula.

x=

k ( k )2 4 1 2 k
2 1

Simplify.

x=

k k 2 8k
2
Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

59

Compare 2x2 2kx + 4k = 0 to


2x2 + 6x 12 = 0.

Substitute k = 3 into the solution found in


step 4 and simplify.

2k

= 7 and 4k = 12, so k = 3.

( 3)2 8 3
2
3
9 + 24
x=
2
3
33
x=
2
x=

Worked example 16

Consider the set of quadratic equations in the form 4x2 + bx + 9 = 0, where b is 11, 12 or 13. Use
the quadratic formula to explain the solutions that occur with each b-value.
think

Write

Write the equation and match up a, b and c.

a
b
c
4x2 + bx + 9 = 0

Substitute the values for a, b and c into the


quadratic formula.

x=

Simplify.

x=

Substitute b = 11 and simplify.

x=
x=
x=

b2 4 4 9
24

b 2 144
8

11

112 144
8

11

121 144
8

11

23

Evaluate the result.

There is no solution, as we cannot evaluate

Substitute b = 12 and simplify.

x=

12

122 144
8

12

144 144
8
12
0
x=
8
3
x=
2
x=

Evaluate the result.

There is one solution, x =

Substitute b = 13 and simplify.

x=
x=
x=
x=

60

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

13

132 144
8

13

169 144
8

13

25
8

13 5

3
2

23

9
10

and x = 1.

There are two solutions, x =

The b2 values have had a clear impact on the


solutions; recall that 0 = 0 and 25 = 5.

The structure of the quadratic formula means the


changing value of the expression under the square
root sign, b2 144, is critical.
b = 11: There was no solution (as negative cannot
be resolved).
b = 12: There was one solution (as 0 = 0).
b = 13: There are 2 solutions (as 25 = 5).

exercise 2G
1

Evaluate the result.

the quadratic formula

Identify a, b and c (the coefficients of x2, x and the constant respectively) in each of the following
quadratic equations.
a x2 + 4x 3 = 0
b x2 7x + 9 = 0
2
c 9 4x + x = 0
d 7 3x 6x2 = 0
2
1
e 2 x 7x + 5 = 0
f (x + 1)2 = 0
g (2x 3)2 = 0
h 5 2(x2 + 2) = 0
6x 2 + 4
i 3x2 10x + 4 + 4x2 11x = 0
j
=0
2
Use the quadratic formula to solve the following (even though the equations may be
factorised by inspection).
a x2 + 9x + 20 = 0
b x2 10x + 16 = 0
c 2x2 13x 24 = 0
d 4x2 + 13x 3 = 0

2 We14

3 We15
Find exact (surd) solutions to each of the following.
a x2 + 5x + 3 = 0
b x2 + 8x + 5 = 0
2
c x + 3x + 1 = 0
d x2 + 10x + 12 = 0
e x2 6x + 2 = 0
f x2 7x + 6 = 0
g x2 4x 2 = 0
h x2 9x 8 = 0

2
i
2x + 3x + 1 = 0
j 4x2 + 12x 1 = 0

2
k 2kx + 4x + 6k = 0
l 2kx2 (k + 1)x + 4 = 0
4 a Use a CAS calculator and your answer for question 3k above to solve x2 + 4x 3 = 0, and write the

value of k you used to do this.

b Use a CAS calculator and your answer for question 3l above to solve 62x2 32x + 4 = 0, and write

the value of k you used to do this.


5 Use a CAS calculator to find approximate solutions (3 decimal places) to each of the following.
a x2 6x 2 = 0
b x2 + 3x 9 = 0
c 2x2 + 7x + 1 = 0
d 9x2 2x 2 = 0
e x2 8x + 1 = 0
f 3x2 + x + 9 = 0
6 Use a CAS calculator to find approximate solutions to the following.
a x2 + 6x = 11
b 2x2 = 7 4x

2
c 10x + 2 = 5x
d x2 = 8x 6
2
e 5 = 9x 2x
f x2 2 = 7x + 4
2
g 5x + 6x + 2 = 0
h x2 + 4x = 8
7 The population of a colony of rare African ants is given by the equation N=x2+2x+300, where N is

the number of ants, and x is the height of the anthill in centimetres. How high could the anthill be when
there are 850 ants in the colony?
8 The profit, $P, made when a particular make of car is manufactured in t hours is given by the equation

P = 40t2 7t 5000. In order to just break even, how long must the manufacturing process take?

9 The position of an item x metres from the start of an assembly line is given by x=4t2 + 20t + 5 where t

is the time in minutes elapsed since the item started on the line. When is the item at position
x = 0 metres on the assembly line?
Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

61

10 A golf ball is hit from the bottom of a bunker as shown

at right. The height, h metres, of the ball above the ground


is given by h = 5.2t 1.5t2 1, where t seconds is the
time the ball has been in flight.
a How deep is the bunker?
b When is the ball first level with the top of the bunker?
c At which times is the ball at a height of 3 metres?
11 Debbi plans to pave sections of her backyard, as shown
at right. She has a total of 12 square metres of pavers.
a Find the value of x if she wishes to use her entire
supply of 5 pavers.
She then finds that the value of x (found above) will
need to be rounded either up or down to a multiple of
0.5m. Calculate the effect this will have on her existing
supply of pavers if she rounds:
b up
c down.
12 The surface area (in m2) of cement transport
containers made by a certain company is given
by 4 r2 + 24 r, where r is the radius of the
container. If the surface area of a particular
container is 60 m2, determine its radius.
13 The Gateway Arch in St Louis, Missouri, was
designed by Eero Saarinen in 1948 but not
completed until 1964. The line of the arch can
be represented by the quadratic function
2 (x 95)2 + 190 where y is the height
y = 95
of the arch at a horizontal distance x along the
base (ground level) from one side of the arch.
Both x and y are in metres.
a Re-express this function in an expanded form.
b How wide is the arch at its base?
c This is the tallest arch in the world. How high
is the Gateway Arch?

2h

xm

4m

xm

Sloppo
Cement Co.

the discriminant

You may have found on occasions that no solutions (or roots) can be found for a quadratic equation.
If you were using the quadratic formula at the time, you would have found the trouble started when you
tried to evaluate the square root part of the formula. The expression under the square root sign is called
the discriminant.
The discriminant is used to determine how many roots of an equation exist and is denoted by the
upper case Greek letter delta ().

b b 2 4 ac
= b2 4ac
2a
The quadratic formula
The discriminant
If < 0 (that is, negative), then no real solutions exist, as we cannot yet evaluate the square root of
a negative value. The word real is used to describe numbers we can deal with at present. The set of
real numbers includes positives, negatives, fractions, decimals, surds, rationals (numbers that may be
expressed as a ratio for example 49 ) and irrationals.
(In further studies of maths, you will learn about a way of dealing with square roots of negative
numbers using what are known as imaginary numbers.)
If > 0, then the discriminant can be evaluated, and its square root can be added and subtracted in the
quadratic formula (see above) to produce two real solutions.
If = 0, then there is nothing to add or subtract in the quadratic formula, and so there is only one real
solution to evaluate.
x=

62

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Worked example 17

Find the value of the discriminant for the equation 3x2 5x + 2 = 0.


think

Write

Write the expression.


Note the value of a, b and c.

3x2 5x + 2 = 0
a = 3, b = 5, c = 2

Write the formula for .

= b2 4ac

Substitute for a, b and c.

= (5)2 4(3)(2)

Evaluate.

= 25 24
=1

Worked example 18

How many real solutions are there to the equation 7x2 + 3x 1 = 0?


think

Write

Write the expression.


Note the value of a, b and c.

7x2

Write the formula for .

= b2 4ac

Substitute for a, b and c.

= (3)2 4(7)(1)

Simplify.

= 9 28
= 19

Comment on the number of solutions.

Since < 0, there are no real solutions.

+ 3x 1 = 0
a = 7, b = 3, c = 1

Worked example 19

For what values of k does x2 + 2kx 9 = 0 have:


i two distinct solutions?
ii one solution?
iii no solutions?
think

tUtorial
eles-1409
Worked example 19

Write

Write the expression.


Note the value of a, b and c.

x2

Write the formula for .

= b2 4ac

Substitute for a, b and c.

= (2k)2 4(1)(9)

Simplify.

= 4k2 36

Consider case i, two distinct solutions.


Note: |k| means the size or absolute value
of k without regard to + or . Since k2 is
always positive, we require k>3 (values
such as 3.1, 4, 5 etc.) or k<3 (values such
as 3.1, 4, 5 etc.) if k2 is to be > 9.

iii Two distinct solutions, require > 0.

+ 2kx 9 = 0
a = 1, b = 2k, c = 9

So

4k2 36 > 0
4k2 > 36
k2 > 9
|k| > 3
k > 3 or k < 3

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

63

Consider case ii, one solution.


The size of k must be = 3.
(That is, 3 or 3 are our only choices.)

iii One solution, require = 0.

Consider case iii, no solutions.


The size of k must be < 3 (values such as
2.9, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 2.9 etc.).
An alternative method is shown in the next
example.

iii No solutions, require < 0.

4k2 36 = 0
4k2 = 36
k2 = 9
|k| = 3
k = 3 or k = 3
k = 3

So

4k2 36 < 0
4k2 < 36
k2 < 9
|k| < 3
3 < k < 3

So

Worked example 20

For which values of k does 2x2 + 2kx + (k + 4) = 0 have:


i two solutions?
ii one solution?
iii no solutions?
think

Write/draW

Write the expression.


Note the value of a, b and c.

2x2 + 2kx + (k + 4) = 0
a = 2, b = 2k, c = k + 4

Write the formula for .

= b2 4ac

Substitute for a, b and c.

= (2k)2 4(2)(k + 4)

Simplify and factorise.

= 4k2 8(k + 4)
= 4k2 8k 32
= 4(k2 2k 8)
= 4(k + 2)(k 4)

Since is a more complicated expression


than those in the previous example, a graph
of versus k ( on the vertical axis, k on the
horizontal axis) is useful. (Recall how you
sketched quadratic graphs in previous work, or
see the next section.)

>0

32
6

64

>0
=0

<0

For case i, we require > 0 (quadrants


1 and 2) From the graph, > 0 when k < 2 or
k > 4.

iii Two solutions, > 0.

For case ii, we require = 0 (k-intercepts)


From the graph, > 0 when k = 2 or k = 4.

iii One solution, = 0.

For case iii, we require < 0 (quadrants 3 and 4)


From the graph, < 0 when 2 < k < 4.
Note: This method involving sketching a
graph of may be used as an alternative
to the method shown in the previous example.

iii No solutions, < 0.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

So k < 2 or k > 4.

So k = 2 or k = 4.
So 2 < k < 4.

Worked example 21

Find an expression for the discriminant of the equation x2 + (2k +1)x + 4k = 0. Use this
result to:
a find exact and approximate values of k for which the equation has no solution
b explain the result obtained in part a through substitution of appropriate k-values into the
equation.
think

Write

Identify the coefficients required.

x2 + (2k + 1)x + 4k = 0
a = 1, b = 2k + 1, c = 4k

Write the formula for .

= b2 4ac

Substitute for a, b and c.

= (2k + 1)2 4 1 4k

Simplify.

= 4k2 + 4k + 1 16k
= 4k2 12k + 1

a 1 For the original equation to have no solution,

we require < 0.

a 4k2 12k + 1 < 0

12 ( 12)2 4 4 1
24
12 144 16
=
8
12 128
=
8

Solve the left-hand side using the quadratic


formula.

k=

Simplify.

k=

12 8 2
8

k = 32 2
4

Interpret the result for k.

If 32 2 < k < 32 + 2 , then < 0 and the


equation has no solutions.

Evaluate approximate values for k.

If 0.086 < k < 2.914, then < 0 and the


equation has no solutions.

b 1 A selection of values for k will produce < 0,

= 0 and > 0. Find a k-value that gives


> 0.

b = 4k2 12k + 1

Let k = 2
= 4(2)2 12 2 + 1
= 16 + 24 + 1
= 41
> 0, so there are two solutions.

Find a k-value that gives < 0. (Pick a value


in the range from step 4 of part a.)

Let k = 1
= 4(1)2 12 1 + 1
= 16 + 24 + 1
= 7
< 0, so there are no solutions.

From step 3 of part a, we know the k-values


for which = 0.

3
If k = 2 2 , = 0, so there is one solution.

Evaluate the result.

If 3 2 < k < 3 + 2 , there are no solutions


2
2
to the original equation.

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

65

exercise 2h

the discriminant

1 We17 Find the value of the discriminant in each case.


a x2 + 9x + 2 = 0
b x2 4x 1 = 0
2
d 2x 3x + 10 = 0
e 3x2 + x + 3 = 0
2
g x + 15x = 1
h 9 7x = 4x2

c 5x2 + 6x 7 = 0
f x2 2x 6 = 0
i 3x2 = 5

2 We18 How many real solutions are there to the following equations?

Do not actually work out any solutions.


diGital doC
doc-9718
Calculating the
discriminant

b x2 + 4x + 4 = 0
e 2x2 8x 8 = 0
h 6 6x = x2

a 5x2 + x + 2 = 0
d 3x2 + 6x + 3 = 0
g 5x2 = 2 x

c 3x2 3x + 1 = 0
f 9 x2 + x = 0
i 12x = 9x2 + 4

3 We19 Find an expression for the discriminant of each of the following.


a x2 + ax + 1 = 0
b ax2 + 2x + 3 = 0
c x2 + 6x + a = 0
d ax2 + bx + 1 = 0
e mx2 + 2mx + 1 = 0
f x2 + (m + 1)x + 3 = 0
2
2
g x mx (m + 4) = 0
h (k 1)x kx + 2 = 0
4 mC Which values of m below both result in the expression x2 mx + 5 = 0 having two

distinct solutions?
a 20 and 3

B 0 and 20

C 4 and 5

5 We19, 20 For what values of k does each equation have:


i two distinct solutions?
ii one solution?
a x2 + kx + 4 = 0
b x2 4x + k = 0
2
d kx 18x + 20 = 0
e x2 4x + (k + 1) = 0
2
g 4kx + 12kx + 9k = 0
h (k + 4)x2 + 10x + 5 = 0

d 6 and 5

iii
c
f
i

e 0 and 5

no solutions?
x2 + 4kx + 4 = 0
6x2 + 4kx + (k + 3) = 0
(k 1)x2 (k + 1)x + 2 = 0

6 We21 Assume k = 1 in each of questions 5 ai. Use substitution and your previous answers to
question 5 to complete the following table. (There is no need to actually solve the equations.)

Question

Equation after
substitution k=1

Number of solutions

Reasoning

a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i

Graphs of quadratic functions as


power functions (turning point form)
2i

Quadratic functions are also power functions. Power functions are functions of the form f (x) = xn, n R.
The value of the power, n, determines the type of function. When n = 1, f (x) = x, the function is linear.
When n = 2, f (x) = x2, the function is quadratic.
Other power functions will be discussed later.
Under a sequence of transformations of f (x) = xn, n R, the general form of a power function is
f (x) = a(x b)n + c (where a, b, c, and n R).
All linear and quadratic polynomials are also linear and quadratic power functions, because all linear
and quadratic functions are transformations of f (x) = x and f (x) = x2 respectively.
When a quadratic function is written in turning point form, it is written in power form. For example,
the quadratic function y = x2 + 4x + 6 can also be represented as the power function y = (x + 2)2 + 2.
66

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

In previous years work, you will have discovered the following connections between a quadratic
function in turning point (TP) form, and its graph.
Summary of the sequence of
transformations
y = a(x b)2 + c
a is the dilation factor from the x-axis.
If a > 1, the graph gets thinner or
narrower.
If 0 < a < 1, the graph gets wider.
If a < 0, the graph is turned upside down
(or, reflected in the x-axis).

x-coordinate of turning
point (horizontal shift)

y-coordinate of turning
point (vertical shift)
Minimum value of y
for shape graphs
Maximum value of y
for shape graphs

a positive, increasing

y
x
Turning point (b, c)
x

a negative, increasingly negative

Worked example 22

For the graph of y = 3(x + 2)2 1:


i state the turning point coordinates
ii describe the width of the graph as same, thinner or wider compared to the width of y = x2
iii state whether the graph is a minimum () or maximum () type, and state the maximum or
minimum value of y
iv find the y-intercept
v sketch the graph (x-intercepts are not required).
think

Write/draW

y = 3(x + 2)2 1

Write the equation. Compare


y = 3(x + 2)2 1 with y = a(x b)2 + c
a = 3, b = 2, c = 1.

TP x-coordinate: b = 2. TP y-coordinate: c = 1

i TP (2, 1)

y dilation factor = 3 (magnitude greater than


1 means it is thinner than y = x2)

ii Thinner

a is negative, so the graph is upside down or a


maximum shape.

iii The graph is a maximum () type.

Maximum y-value is c, which equals 1.

The y-intercept can be found by substituting


x = 0 into the original expression and
simplifying.

iv y-intercept: y = 3(0 + 2)2 1

Use the information above to sketch the graph.

The maximum value of y is 1.


= 3(2)2 1
= 13

y
x

(2, 1)

13

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

67

If a quadratic function is not in power form or turning point form, it must be manipulated in order to
answer questions like those posed in the previous example. To do this, we use the method of completing
the square as demonstrated in the following example.

Worked example 23

Convert the function y = x2 6x + 1 to power form. State the coordinates of the turning point and
the maximum or minimum value of y.
think

Write

Write the equation. Ensure the x2 coefficient is 1. It is.


(If not, divide the equation by whatever will change the
x2 coefficient to 1.)

y = x2 6x + 1

Halve the x-coefficient and square it. Add and subtract


this value after the x term.

y = x2 6x + 9 9 + 1

Group terms to make a perfect square.

y = (x2 6x + 9) 8

Factorise the perfect square part.

y = (x 3)2 8

Compare with y = a(x b)2 + c.

a = 1, b = 3, c = 8

The turning point is (b, c).

The turning point is (3, 8).

a is positive, so there is a minimum


value of y = 8 when x = 3.

The minimum value of y is 8.

Worked example 24

Identify the coordinates of the turning point of the graph of y = 2x2 + x 4 using
algebraic methods.
think

Write

y = 2x2 + x 4
1
= 2[ x 2 + 2 x 2]

Write the rule for the function. Begin the process


of completing the square by first taking out 2 as the
common factor.

Half of
shown.

Continue on with completing the square, within the


square [ ] brackets.

32
1
= 2[( x + 14 )2 16
16
]

Multiply the 2 through the square brackets, leaving it


as a factor of the curved brackets.

= 2( x + 14 )2 33
8

Read the coordinates of the turning point from this


form. Write your answer.

1
2

1 , so add and subtract this as


is 14 , and ( 14 )2 = 16

1
1
= 2[( x 2 + 12 x + 16
) 2 16
]

33
= 2[( x + 14 )2 16
]

The turning point has coordinates



( 14 , 33
8 ).

Graphs of quadratic functions as power


functions (turning point form)
exercise 2i

1 We22 State the turning point coordinates for each of the following.
a y = (x 5)2
b y = (x + 7)2 + 3
2
c y = (x 2) 7
d y = (x 1)2 + 8
e y = 2(x + 3)2 4
f y = 6(x 2)2 + 2
68

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

2 We22
For each of the following:
i state the turning point coordinates
ii describe the width of the graph as same width, thinner or wider than y = x2
iii state whether the graph is a minimum () or maximum () type, and state the maximum or

minimum value of y
iv find the y-intercept
v sketch the graph (x-intercepts are not required).
a y = (x 4)2 + 2
c y = (x + 5)2 8

b y = (x 2)2 3
d y = (x 1)2 1

e y = 2(x + 5)2 9

g y = 65 (x + 1)2 12

h y = 7(x 3)2 + 3

y = (x 8)2 9

y = 13 (x 4)2 + 4
y = (1 x)2 + 20

3 Sketch graphs having the following properties, but do not show intercepts.
a Turning point (2, 5), dilation factor of 3 from the x-axis
b Turning point (1, 3), dilation factor of 1 from the x-axis
c Turning point (0, 4), dilation factor of 2 from the x-axis
d Turning point (6, 0), dilation factor of 1 from the x-axis
e Turning point (7, 7), dilation factor of 4 from the x-axis
f Turning point (0, 2), dilation factor of 12 from the x-axis
4 Determine the function rules of the following graphs, given that they are all of the power function form

y = (x b)2 + c (that is, dilation factors all equal to 1).


a

(1, 5)

8
(2, 4)

(2, 5)
d
(3, 1)

y
7

x
8

(6, 6)
x

30

(3, 2)

Find the y-intercepts of graphs with the following properties.

a Turning point (1, 4), dilation factor of 2 from the x-axis


b Turning point (2, 3), dilation factor of 1 from the x-axis
6 We23 Convert each of the following to power form, and state the coordinates of the turning point and

the maximum or minimum value of y.


y = x2 4x + 9
y = x2 12x + 37
y = x2 4x 5
y = x2 + 18x + 0
y = 3x2 + 12x + 15

a
c
e
g
i

b
d
f
h

y = x2 6x + 17
y = x2 + 8x + 13
y = x2 + 7
y = 2x2 12x + 22

7 We24 For each of the following quadratic functions:


i use by-hand algebraic methods to find the exact coordinates of the turning point
ii use a CAS calculator to verify this algebra and find decimal equivalents for these coordinates.
a y = 3x2 2x + 1
b y = 2x2 5x 4
c y = 6x2 3x 4
Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

69

8 A section of perspex for a parabolic window is drawn on a

coordinate grid as shown at right. What equation should be


programmed into the automatic glass cutting machine, using
the grid system on the diagram?

8
6
4
2
0

What is the effect on the graph of increasing k in the equation y = k(x 2)2 + 1?
The graph is:
a raised
B lowered
C thinned
d widened
e translated left
F translated right
10 mC
What is the effect on the graph of increasing k in the equation y = (x + k)2?
The graph is:
a raised
B lowered
C thinned
d widened
e translated left
F translated right
11 mC What is the effect on the graph of increasing k in the equation y = (x + 1)2 k?
The graph is:
a raised
B lowered
C thinned
d widened
e translated left
F translated right
9 mC

diGital doC
doc-9719
WorkSHEET 2.2

12 For the graph y = M(x + h)2 + n, state:


a the x-coordinate of the turning point
b the y-coordinate of the turning point
c the dilation factor from the x-axis
d the coefficient of x2 in the expanded version
e the coefficient of x in the expanded version
f the constant term in the expanded version.

Graphs of quadratic functions


(intercepts method)
2J

In this section we will consider graphs of quadratic functions of the form y = ax2 + bx + c.
When we talk about sketching a graph, we mean drawing a diagram showing the main features not
a true scale graph showing every point plotted accurately using a computer package or other means.
To sketch a quadratic graph, the following features should generally be apparent or labelled.

1 the y-intercept

The y-intercept is found by substituting x = 0 into the rule and


solving the equation for the corresponding y-value. That is, it
is the c in the general form y = ax2 + bx + c.
All quadratics have a y-intercept.

y-intercept

c
x

2 any x-intercepts if they exist


Any x-intercepts are found by substituting y = 0 into the rule
and solving the equation for the corresponding x-value. Lets
say the rule factorises to y = (x d)(x e). Then substituting
y = 0 into the rule gives the equation 0 = (x d)(x e).
For this to be true, we must have x = d or x = e.

70

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

y
x-intercepts
c
d

3 the turning point coordinates


Consider the general quadratic function, and complete
the square as follows:
y = ax 2 + bx + c

Axis of symmetry
x-intercepts

y-intercept

b
c
= a x 2 + x +
a
a

b
b 2 b 2 c
= a x 2 + x + +
2a 2a
a
a

Turning point
b
b2

( 2a
, c 4a
)

b 2 b2 c
= a x + 2 +
a
2a
4a

b 2 b2
+c
= a x +

2a
4a
b 2
b2
= a x + + c

2a
4a
You may recognise this form as turning point form. In this case, the coordinates of the turning
point are
b2
b
2a , c 4 a
Using xt and yt for the coordinates of the turning point, we have

b
b2
and yt = c
2a
4a
If a quadratic function has two x-intercepts, the x-coordinate of the turning point may be found by
averaging them.
xt =

d+e

If there is only one x-intercept, then it is the x-coordinate of the turning point.
y

The y-coordinate of the turning point may be found using the general turning point form above, by
completing the square from scratch or by substituting the x-coordinate into the original equation.
Recall also the two main types of parabolas:
y

Minimum parabola
y = ax2 . . . (a > 0)

Maximum parabola
y = ax2 . . . (a < 0)
Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

71

Worked example 25

Sketch the graphs of the following, showing all intercepts and the turning point in each case.
a y = x2 4x 32
b y = x2 + 10x + 25
c y = 2x2 + 11x 15
think

a 1 Write the rule.

Write/draW

a y = x2 4x 32

Find the y-intercept (when x = 0).

If x = 0, y = 32

Factorise before finding x-intercepts.

y = (x + 4)(x 8)

Find the x-intercepts (when y = 0).

If y = 0, 0 = (x + 4)(x 8)
x = 4 or x = 8

Find the x-coordinate of the turning


point (TP).

TP

Substitute into the original rule to find the


y-coordinate of the TP. Alternatively, use
b2
yt = c .
4a
Write the turning point coordinates.

7
8

, b = 4, a = 1
2a
( 4)
= 2(1)
=2

xt =

yt = 22 4(2) 32
= 4 8 32
= 36
TP (2, 36)

Combine the above information and sketch


the graph.

(2, 36)
b 1 Write the rule.

b y = x2 + 10x + 25

Find the y-intercept (when x = 0).

If x = 0, y = 25

Factorise before finding x-intercepts.

y = (x + 5)(x + 5)
= (x + 5)2

Find the x-intercept (when y = 0).

If y = 0,

Find the x-coordinate of the turning point.


Alternatively, since there is only one
x-intercept (5), it must be the turning point
x-coordinate.

TP

Substitute into the original rule to find the


y-coordinate of the turning point.

Write the turning point coordinates.

Combine the information and sketch the


graph.

0 = (x + 5)2
x = 5
xt =

, b = 10, a = 1
2a

10
=
2(1)
= 5

yt = (5)2 + 10(5) + 25
= 25 50 + 25
=0
TP

(5, 0)
y
25

(5, 0)

72

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

c 1 Write the rule.

c y = 2x2 + 11x 15

Find the y-intercept (when x = 0).

If x = 0, y = 15

Factorise before finding x-intercepts.

y = (2x2 11x + 15)


= (2x 5)(x 3)

Find the x-intercepts (when y = 0).

If y =

Find the x-coordinate of the turning point.

TP xt =

0, 0 = (2x 5)(x 3)
2x 5 = 0 or x 3 = 0
2x = 5 or x = 3
5
x = 2 or x = 3
b

2a

, b = 11, a = 2
11

=
=
6

Substitute into the original rule to find the


y-coordinate of the turning point.

Write the turning point coordinates.

Sketch the graph, showing all important


features.

yt = 2

11
4

(or 2.75)

( ) + 11( ) 15
2

11
4

242
+
16
242
= 16 +
2
= 16
1
= 8 (or

11

TP

2( 2)

11
4

121
15
4
484
240
16
16

0.125)

( 4 , 8 )
y
5
2

, 1 )
(11
4 8

15

Dont be put off if asked to sketch a quadratic graph whose equation doesnt have 3 terms. Such cases
are easier to sketch, as the following example shows.
Worked example 26

Sketch the graphs of the following equations.


a y = x2 16
b y = 2x2 + 14x
think

a 1 Write the rule.

Write/draW

a y = x2 16

Find the y-intercept (when x = 0).

If x = 0, y = 02 16
= 16

Factorise before finding x-intercepts. In this


case, recognise a difference of squares.

y = (x + 4)(x 4)

Find the x-intercepts (when y = 0).

If y = 0,
So

0 = (x + 4)(x 4)
x = 4 or x = 4
Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

73

xt =

Find the x-coordinate of the turning point.

, b = 0, a = 1
2a
0
xt =
2(1)
=0

Substitute into the original rule to find the


y-coordinate of the turning point.

yt = 02 16
= 16

Write the turning point coordinates.

Sketch the graph, showing all important


features.

TP (0, 16)
y

(0, 16)
b 1 Write the rule.

b y = 2x2 + 14x

Find the y-intercept (when x = 0).

If x = 0, y = 2(0)2 + 14(0)
=0

Factorise before finding x-intercepts. In this


case, use a common factor of 2x.

y = 2x(x 7)

Find the x-intercepts (when y = 0).

If y =
So

Find the x-coordinate of the turning point.

xt =

=
Substitute into the original rule to find the
y-coordinate of the turning point.
b2
We could also use yt = c .
4a

Write the turning point coordinates.

Sketch the graph.

14
4
7
2

(or 3.5)

( ) + 14 ( )
2 ( ) + 49

yt = 2
=
=
=

b
, b = 14, a = 2
2a
14
xt =
2( 2)
=

0 = 2x(x 7)
x = 0 or x = 7

0,

7
2

49
4

49
2
49
2

TP

7
2

98
2

(or 24.5)

7 49
,
2 2

y
7 49
,
2 2

74

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Worked example 27

Sketch the graphs of the following equations.


a y = 3x2 + 6x 1
b y = 2x2 + x 7
think

a 1 Write the rule.

Write/draW

a y = 3x2 + 6x 1

Find the y-intercept (when x = 0).

If x = 0, y = 1

Factorising before finding x-intercepts (when


y = 0) is not easily done, so use the quadratic
formula.

If y = 0, 0 = 3x2 + 6x 1
b

b 2 4 ac
2a
a = 3, b = 6, c = 1
x=

x=
=
=
=
=

62 4(3)( 1)
2(3)

36 + 12
6

6 48
6

6 16 3
6

64 3
6

32 3
3
x = 0.155 or
=

x = 2.155

xt =

, b = 6, a = 3
2a

6
xt =
2(3)

Find the x-coordinate of the turning point.

= 1
5

Substitute into the original rule to find the


y-coordinate of the turning point.

Sketch the graph, showing all important


features.

yt = 3(1)2 + 6(1) 1
=361
= 4
TP (1, 4)
y
2.155

0.155 x
1

(1, 4)
b 1 Write the rule.
2

Find the y-intercept (when x = 0).

b y = 2x2 + x 7

If x = 0, y = 2(0) + (0) 7
= 7

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

75

Factorising before finding x-intercepts (when


y = 0) is not easily done, so try the quadratic
formula.

If y = 0, 0 = 2x2 + x 7
b 2 4 ac
2a
a = 2, b = 1, c = 7
1

x=

cannot be evaluated so there are no


x-intercepts.

No x-intercepts

Find the x-coordinate of the turning point.

xt =

b
2a

1
2( 2)

1
4

1
4

(or 0.25)

yt = 2 ( 14 ) + 14 7
2

1
= 2 ( 16
) + 14 7
1
8+
1
= 8 +
55
= 8

55

Substitute into the original rule to find the


y-coordinate of the turning point.

12 56
4

12 4( 2)( 7)
2( 2)

55

x=

Sketch the graph, showing all important


features.

1
4
2
8

7
56
8

(or 6.875)

y
)
( 14 , 55
8

Worked example 28

Consider the graph of y = x2 5x + 9. Use written algebra to:


a show that the parabola has no x-intercepts
b find how many units the parabola needs to be translated down, or lowered, so that
it has exactly one x-intercept
c find how many units the original parabola needs to be lowered so that its x-intercepts are
13 units apart.
think

a 1 Write the rule for the function. Any potential

x-intercepts depend on the solutions of the


equation 0 = x2 5x + 9.
76

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Write

a y = x2 5x + 9

Calculate the discriminant, given


a = 1, b=5 and c = 9.

a = 1, b = 5 and c = 9
= (5)2 4 1 9
= 25 36
= 11

The discriminant is negative. Interpret the


meaning of this.

The discriminant is negative, so there


are no solutions to the quadratic equation
0 = x2 5x + 9; that is, the parabola has no
x-intercepts.

b 1 Replace the original equation with a lowered

one. Change 9 to a variable, c.

b y = x2 5x + c

For this equation to have one x-intercept, the


discriminant, , must equal 0. Calculate .

a = 1, b = 5
= (5)2 4 1 c
= 25 4c

Set = 0 and solve for c.

25 4c = 0
c = 6.25

Write the new equation.

y = x2 5x + 6.25

Compare the new equation with the original


equation.

The graph is lowered by 9 6.25 = 2.75 units.

c 1 Calculate the axis of symmetry of

y = x2 5x + 9.

c Axis of symmetry =

b = 5, a = 1
Axis of symmetry =

2a
( 5)

2 1
5
=
2
= 2.5
The turning point is at x = 2.5.

The x-coordinate of the turning point


(here, 2.5) is always halfway between any
x-intercepts; the required distance between the
intercepts is 13 units.

13 2 = 6.5
2.5 + 6.5 = 9 and 2.5 6.5 = 4
The x-intercepts must be 9 and 4.

The x-intercepts of a function y=(xd)(xe)


are d and e given a dilation factor parallel to
the x-axis of 1.

The rule of the function is y = (x + 4)(x 9).

Expand to find the y-intercept.

y = (x + 4)(x 9)
y = x2 5x 36
The y-intercept is 36; the answer is correct
as the first two terms are identical to those in
the previous functions.

The amount of vertical translation will be


the difference between the original and final
y-intercepts.
Answer the question.

9 (36) = 45
The original parabola must be lowered by
45 units.

Using the discriminant


Since finding x-intercepts for a quadratic graph involves solving a quadratic equation, we can use the
discriminant to decide the number of x-intercepts such a graph has.
Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

77

y
x

x
x

>0
2 x-intercepts

=0
1 x-intercept

<0
No x-intercepts

Graphs of quadratic functions


(intercepts method)
exercise 2J

diGital doCS
doc-9720
Quadratic graphs
general form
doc-9721
Quadratic graphs
turning point form

Find the y-intercepts for each of the following.


b y = 3x2 + 6x 4
e y = 5x + 2 4x2

a y = x2 + 9x + 2
d y = 6 x2
a
d
g
j

State the x-intercepts for each of the following.


y = (x 1)(x 6)
b y = (x 3)(x + 2)
y = (x 4)(x 5)
e y = x(x 2)
y = (x + 5)(5 x)
h y = x(x + 8)

y = 3(2 x)(x + 10)

a
c
e
g

State the x-intercepts for each of the following.


y = (2x 5)(x + 1)
y = (x 9)(4x 9)
y = (2x + 3)(4x + 1)
y = (Ax + a)(Bx + b)

c y = 4x2 + 2x
f y = 1 x x2
c y = (x + 5)(x + 1)
f y = (3 x)(4 x)
i y = (x + 9)2

b y = (3x + 1)(x + 2)
d y = (x + 1)(6 5x)
f y = 3x(x + 4)

Use the quadratic formula to find exact values (if possible) for the x-intercepts of:
b y = x2 + 7x 7
d y = 10 3x + 3x2.

a y = 4x2 2x + 3
c y = 2x2 9x 1

5 We25a, b Sketch graphs of the following, showing all intercepts and the turning point in each case.

(Hint : Factorise first.)


y = x2 4x + 3
y = x2 + 6x + 8
y = x2 8x + 12
y = x2 + 3x + 2
y = x2 11x 12
y = x2 16x + 64

a
c
e
g
i
k

b
d
f
h
j
l

y = x2 + 2x + 1
y = x2 + 12x + 35
y = x2 + 2x 63
y = x2 5x + 6
y = x2 + 14x + 49
y = x2 + 8x 153

6 Sketch the following graphs, showing all intercepts and the turning point in each case.
a y = 3x2 + 2x 8
b y = 5x2 + 18x 8
c y = 3x2 4x 15
d y = 4x2 8x + 3
e y = 8x2 10x + 3
f y = 7x2 + 18x 9
2
2
g y = 15x + 48x + 9
h y = 9x 2x 7
i y = 2x2 + x 28
2
2
j y = 3x + 5x + 2
k y = 2x 3x 9
7 We25c Sketch the graphs of the following.
a y = x2 8x + 33
b y = x2 + 2x + 3

2
d y = x + 18x 81
e y = 4x2 + 12x 5

78

c y = x2 18x 45
f y = 8x2 6x + 5

8 We26 Sketch the graphs of the following.


a y = x2 25
b y = x2 121
2
d y=3x
e y = 2x2 18
2
g y = x + 5x
h y = x2 8x
j y = 4x2 24x
k y = 21x 3x2

c y = x2 + 1
f y = 3x2 + 12
i y = 5x2 10x

9 We27 Sketch the graphs of the following.


a y = x2 + 2x 7
b y = x2 + 4x + 1
d y = 4x2 + 2x + 3
e y = x2 18x 1
2
g y = x 7x 2
h y = 2x2 + 7x + 4

2
j y = 3x + 17
k y = 4x2 5x

c y = x2 + 8x + 3
f y = x2 3x + 1
i y = 3x2 9x 5

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

If a and b are positive numbers, which of the following graphs could be that of
y = (ax + 1)(x + b)?

10 mC
a

x
x
x
y

x
x

If k and p are positive numbers, which of the following could be the graph of
y = x2 2kx + p?

11 mC

12

y
x

Without sketching, determine how many x-intercepts each of the following graphs have.
b y = 3x2 4x + 8
d y = 4x2 + x + 9
f y = 4x2 + 72x + 324

a y = x2 + 37x + 208
c y = 9x2 + 78x 169
e y = x2 12x 35

13 Consider the value of the discriminant in deciding which graph matches which equation below.
a y = 5x2 + x + 1
b y = 6x2 2x 1
c y = 7x2 x + 2
d y = 4x2 + 8x 4
a

y
x

y
x

x
14 We28b Use a CAS calculator and written algebra to find how many units and in which direction the

graph of y = 2x2 3x 2 should be translated vertically so that it has exactly one x-intercept. Also, state
the function rule for this new parabola in both expanded and turning point forms.

15 We28c Use a CAS calculator and written algebra to find how many units and in which direction the

graph of y = 3 (x + 2)2 4 should be translated vertically so that its x-intercepts are exactly 4 units
apart. Also, state the function rule for this new parabola in both expanded and turning point forms.

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

79

Using technology to solve


quadratic equations
2k

Quadratic expressions, equations and functions are linked closely, as you have previously seen. Study
the following table carefully.
Classification

Characteristics

Examples

Quadratic expression

Degree 2 polynomial, no equals sign


Can be written in expanded and/or factorised form

4x2 3.4x + 2
(x 7)(x + 3)
x2 + 5x 6

Quadratic equation

One variable, one equals sign


0, 1 or 2 solutions exist

4x2 3.4x + 2 = 19
(x 7)(x + 3) = 0
x2 + 5x 6 = 4

Quadratic function

Two variables, one equals sign in the rule


Can be sketched, as it is a set of ordered pairs
Sketch is a parabola, with 0, 1 or 2 x-intercepts

y = 4x2 3.4x + 2
y = (x 7)(x + 3)
y = x2 + 5x 6

Note: The solutions (also known as the roots) of a quadratic equation (say, 3x2 4.3x 1.68 = 0) are
identical to the x-intercepts of its related parabola (here, the sketch of y = 3x2 4.3x 1.68). They are
also known as the zeros of the related expression (here, 3x2 4.3x 1.68).
Can you see why the solutions of x2 + 5x 6 = 4 become the x-intercepts of the parabola given by
y = x2 + 5x 2?
Worked example 29

Consider the expressions x2 8x + 12, x2 10x + 21, and x2 12x + 32. Use written algebra
and/or a CAS calculator to:
a find the zeros and factors of the expressions
b find the turning points of their related parabolas
c use the patterns seen in these answers to predict the next three and previous two quadratic
expressions, along with the features of their related parabolas.
Now consider a general quadratic function (variable x) whose graph is an upright parabola with a
dilation factor from the x-axis of 1. Its x-intercepts are j and k.
d Find the rule for this quadratic function.
e Find the function rule for a second parabola that has been translated 3 units to the left
of the original parabola.
f Verify your results for d and e (algebraically and graphically) by letting j = 5 and k=2.
think

a 1 Factorise x2 8x + 12.

a x2 8x + 12 = (x 2)(x 6)

Set the factorised expression equal to 0 and


solve.

(x 2)(x 6) = 0
x2=0
or
x=2
or

Factorise x2 10x + 21.

x2 10x + 21 = (x 3)(x 6)

Set the factorised expression equal to 0 and


solve.

(x 3)(x 7) = 0
x3=0
or
x=3
or

Factorise x2 12x + 32.

x2 12x + 32 = (x 4)(x 8)

Set the factorised expression equal to 0 and


solve.

(x 4)(x 8) = 0
x4=0
or
x=4
or

80

Write/draW

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

x6=0
x=6

x7=0
x=7

x8=0
x=8

b 1 The x-value of the turning point is halfway

between the roots (zeros) of the associated


parabola.

2+6
=4
2
For x2 10x + 21,
3+ 7
TP x-value =
=5
2
For x2 12x + 32,
4+8
TP x-value =
=6
2

TP x-value =

Find the y-values of each turning point


by substituting the x-values in the
corresponding functions.

For x2 8x + 12,
42 8 4 + 12 = 4
For x2 10x + 21,
52 10 5 + 21 = 4
For x2 12x + 32,
62 12 6 + 32 = 4

State the turning points of each parabola.

The turning points of these three parabolas are


(4, 4), (5, 4) and (6, 4).

c 1 Predict the next three expressions based


upon the patterns from parts a and b.
2

Predict the previous two expressions.

The intercepts and turning points are


moving to the right (horizontally) by 1 unit
for each step in the progression. This means
that only the x-coordinates change. Also,
the coefficient of the x term in the expanded
expression is the negative sum of the zeros,
and the constant term is the product of the
zeros.

d 1 Assign variables to the x-values of the zeros

c (x 5)(x 9)

(x 6)(x 10)
(x 7)(x 11)
(x 1)(x 5)
(x 0)(x 4)
Expression

Zeros

TP

Factors

x2 4x

0, 4

(2, 4)

(x)(x 4)

x2 6x + 5

1, 5

(3, 4)

(x 1)(x 5)

x 8x + 12

2, 6

(4,

4)

(x 2)(x 6)

x2 10x + 21

3, 7

(5, 4)

(x 3)(x 7)

x2 12x + 32

4, 8

(6, 4)

(x 4)(x 8)

x2 14x + 45

5, 9

(7, 4)

(x 5)(x 9)

x2 16x + 60

6, 10

(8, 4) (x 6)(x 10)

x2 18x + 77

7, 11

(9, 4) (x 7)(x 11)

d Let j and k be the x-values of the zeros

of each quadratic function.

(x-intercepts) of the quadratic function.

State the general function.

y = (x j)(x k)

Expand.

y = x2 ( j + k)x + jk

e 1 When the parabola moves 3 units to the left,

3 is subtracted from both zeros (j and k).

b For x2 8x + 12,

e The zeros are now j 3 and k 3.

State the new function.

y = (x ( j 3))(x (k 3))

Expand.

y = x2 ( j + k 6)x + ( j 3)(k 3)

Given j = 5 and k = 2, state the quadratic


function.

Translate this function 3 units to the left by


subtracting 3 from j and k.

f y = (x + 5)(x 2)

y = x2 + 3x 10

j 3 = 5 3 = 8
k 3 = 2 3 = 1
Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

81

State the new function.

Sketch the graphs of y=x2+3x10 and


y=x2+9x+8 on the same set of axes.

y = (x + 8)(x + 1)
y = x2 + 9x + 8
y

(TP)

Observe the features of the two parabolas.

y = x2 + 9x + 8
y = x2 + 3x 10

(TP)

The turning points and zeros have been translated


3 units to the left. The second parabola has
been translated 3 units to the left from the first
parabola. The answers are verified.

Using technology to solve


quadratic equations
exercise 2k

1 Use a CAS calculator to find all solutions of each of the following.


a x2 + 4x + 1 = 0
b x2 = 11x + 2

2
c x + 4x = 2
d x2 = 8x 8
2
e x + 12x + 9 = 0
f 3x2 + 5x 1 = 0

diGital doC
doc-9722
Simultaneous,
quadratic and linear
equations

2 Find all roots of the quadratics below using a CAS calculator.


a 2.3x2 + 0.7x 0.59 = 0
b 0.811x2 5.2x 3.1 = 0
c 3.97x2 + 17x + 8.05 = 0
d 5.18x2 = 2.66x + 9
e 0.006x2 + 0.923x + 0.361 = 0
f x2 + 500x = 47
3 The distance, d, of a comet from one of the moons of Jupiter is given by the equation

d=47.9t2 + 0.03t 908.7, where t is the number of hours since the comet was first discovered
on 28 June 2001. At what value of t will the comet reach this moon?

4 The number of marine organisms, N, in a marine research organisations testing tank is found to follow

the equation (or model) N = 0.0751h2 + 0.69h + 200, where h is the number of hours since the tank
was supplied with nutrient and stocked with 200 organisms. How long after being fed could the colony
survive without further food before none were left?

82

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

5 A diver follows a parabolic path from the diving board to the water, given by the function below. What

is the horizontal distance travelled by the diver from leaving the diving board to entering the water?
(h represents the height of the diver above the water for a distance, d, from the diving board in the
equation shown. Both h and d are in metres.)

h = 0.5d2 + 2d + 5

6 We29 As part of a Year 11 Maths extension activity, Harry and Christine were each asked by their

teacher to come up with a quadratic expression whose zeros had a sum of 10.25 (or as close to that
as possible). The coefficient of the linear term had to be 5. When they returned to class the next day,
Harry announced his expression was 0.48x2 5x 2.3, and Christine said hers was 0.49x2 5x + 1.9.
Who was closest, and by how much?
7 One of the solutions of the equation 10x2 + 11x = k (where k is a constant) is 1.6.
a Find the value of k.
b Find the other solution to the original quadratic equation.

Simultaneous quadratic and


linear equations
2l

In previous studies you have dealt with pairs of simultaneous linear equations and solved these using
algebra. The solution could also be represented graphically. The same is true when we have one linear
and one quadratic equation as a pair of simultaneous equations.
Consider the following pair of simultaneous equations:
y = x2 + x 2 and y = 3x + 1
If x = 3 is substituted into the first equation, y = 32 + 3 2 = 10 is obtained.
If x = 3 is substituted into the second equation, y = 3 3 + 1 = 10 is obtained. That is, the coordinate
pair (3, 10) fits both equations, so it is a solution.
If x = 1 is substituted into the first equation, y = (1)2 + (1) 2 = 2 is obtained.
If x = 1 is substituted into the second equation, y = 3(1) + 1 = 2 is obtained. That is, the coordinate
pair (1, 2) is also a solution.
To illustrate the situation graphically, the related linear and quadratic functions must be sketched on
the same set of axes. As shown below, there are three possible relationships:
no points in common (hence, no solutions)
one point in common (hence, one solution)
two points in common (hence, two solutions).

interaCtiVitY
int-0261
Simultaneous
quadratic and
linear equations

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

83

One
solution

No solution

x
x

Two
solutions

When a linear equation and a quadratic equation are solved simultaneously, a new quadratic equation
is formed, as you will see in the following examples.
The number of solutions relates to the discriminant (positive = 2 solutions; negative = no solutions;
zero = one solution) of the new quadratic.
Worked example 30

a Solve the system of equations y = x2 + x 2 and y = 3x + 1.


b Illustrate the solution using a sketch graph. The turning point of the quadratic graph is not

required.

think

a 1 Write the original equations and label them.

Write/draW

a y = x2 + x 2

[1]
[2]

y = 3x + 1

Equate [1] and [2]. Put RHS [1] = RHS [2].

Collect terms on the side that makes the


x2 term positive.

Combine like terms.

x2 2x 3 = 0

Factorise if possible.

(x 3)(x + 1) = 0

Solve for x.

Substitute x-values into the linear equation [2]


to find the corresponding y-values.

If x = 3, y = 3(3) + 1 = 10
If x = 1, y = 3(1) + 1 = 2

Write the solution coordinates.

Solutions: (3, 10) and (1, 2)

b 1 Find intercepts for a sketch of the linear graph.

Find intercepts for a sketch of the quadratic


graph. (The turning point is not required here.)

Sketch the linear and quadratic graphs on


the same axes, and include the points of
intersection found in part a.

x2 + x 2 = 3x + 1
x2 + x 2 3x 1 = 0

x = 3 or x = 1

b For y = 3x + 1,

if x = 0,
if y = 0,

y=1
0 = 3x + 1
1 = 3x
1
x= 3

For y = x2 + x 2,
if x = 0,
y = 2
if y = 0,
0 = x2 + x 2
so
0 = (x + 2)(x 1)
and
x = 2 or x = 1
y (3, 10)

13
2
(1, 2)

84

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

1
1
2

Worked example 31

Solve the equations y = 0.5x2 4x + 2 and 11x + 2y = 6.


think
1

Write the two equations and label them.

Solve [2] for y.

Write

y = 0.5x2 4x + 2
11x + 2y = 6

[1]
[2]

2y = 11x + 6
y = 5.5x + 3
0.5x2

[3]

4x + 2 = 5.5x + 3

Set [1] = [3].

Simplify.

Multiply by 2.

Factorise and state the solutions.

Find the corresponding y-values and substitute in [3].

When x = 2,
y = 5.5(2) + 3
= 8
When x = 1,
y = 5.5 + 3
= 2.5

Write the coordinates of the two points of intersection.

The solutions are (2, 8) and (1, 2.5).

0.5x2

+ 1.5x 1 = 0

x2 3x + 2 = 0
(x 2)(x 1) = 0
x = 2 or x = 1

Worked example 32

a Solve the system of equations y = x2 8x + 12 and y = 6x + 11.


b Illustrate the solution using a sketch graph. The turning point of the quadratic graph

is not required.

think

a 1 Write the original equations and label them.

Write/draW

a y = x2 8x + 12

[1]
[2]

y = 6x + 11

x2 8x + 12 = 6x + 11

Put RHS [1] = RHS [2].

Collect terms on the side that makes the


x2 term positive.

Combine like terms.

x2 2x + 1 = 0

Factorise if possible.

(x 1)(x 1) = 0

Solve for x.

Substitute x-values into the linear equation [2]


to find the corresponding y-value.

If x = 1,

Write the solution coordinates.

Solution: (1, 5) only

b 1 Find intercepts for a sketch of the linear graph.

x2 8x + 12 + 6x 11 = 0

x = 1 only
y = 6x + 11
y = 6(1) + 11
y = 6 + 11
y=5

b For y = 6x + 11,

if x = 0,
if y = 0,

y = 11
0 = 6x + 11
6x = 11
5
x = 11
6 or 1 6
Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

85

Find intercepts for a sketch of the quadratic


graph. (The turning point is not required here.)

Sketch the linear and quadratic graphs on


the same axes, and include the points of
intersection found in part a.

For y = x2 8x + 12,
if x = 0,
y = 12
if y = 0,
0 = x2 8x + 12
so
0 = (x 6)(x 2)
and
x = 6 or x = 2
y
12
11

Tangent
point
(1, 5)
11

Worked example 33

a Solve the system of equations y = x2 + 3x + 18 and y = 4x + 22.


b Illustrate the solution using a sketch graph. The turning point of the quadratic graph is not

required.

think

a 1 Write the original equations and label them.

Write/draW

a y = x2 + 3x + 18
x2

Put RHS [1] = RHS [2].

Collect terms on the side that makes the


x2 term positive.

Combine like terms.

Try to factorise. No solution using the Null


Factor Law is apparent. Check the value of the
discriminant of the quadratic in step 4.

(x )(x ) = 0?
= b2 4ac
= (1)2 4(1)(4)
= 1 16
= 15

Since < 0, there is no solution.

< 0, no solution; the graphs dont meet.

b 1 Find intercepts for a sketch of the linear graph.

+ 3x + 18 = 4x + 22
0 = x2 3x 18 + 4x + 22
x2 + x + 4 = 0

b For y = 4x + 22,

if x = 0,
if y = 0,

y = 22
0 = 4x + 22
22 = 4x
x=
x=

86

[1]
[2]

y = 4x + 22

Find intercepts for a sketch of the quadratic


graph. (The turning point is not required here.)

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

22
4
11
2

or 5 2

For y = x2 + 3x + 18,
if x = 0,
y = 18
if y = 0,
0 = x2 + 3x + 18
x2 3x 18 = 0
so
(x 6)(x + 3) = 0
and
x = 6 or x = 3

Sketch the linear and quadratic graphs on


the same axes. Note that the graphs do not
intersect, indicating no solution.

22
18

11
2

Worked example 34

The graphs with equations y = x2 + 4 x + 33 and y = mx + 24 intersect once only. Find the possible
values of m.
think

Write

Write and label the equations.

y = x2 + 4x + 33
y = mx + 24

Put equation [1] = equation [2] and form a


new quadratic equation [3].

x2 + 4x + 33 = mx + 24
+ 4x mx + 9 = 0
x2 + (4 m)x + 9 = 0
[3]

For one solution only, we require = 0.

= (4 m)2 4(1)(9)
= 16 8m + m2 36
= m2 8m 20
= 0 for one solution only.

Factorise and solve for m.

(m 10)(m + 2) = 0
m = 10 or m = 2

State the rules for the two straight lines.

The two lines are y = 10x + 24 and y = 2x + 24.

[1]
[2]

x2

Simultaneous quadratic and


linear equations
exercise 2l

1 We30, 31, 32, 33 For each of the following systems of equations:


i solve to find any solution coordinates
ii illustrate the solution (or lack of solution) using a sketch graph. The turning point of the quadratic

graph is not required.


You may use a CAS calculator to verify solutions.
a y = x2 + 6x + 5 and y = 11x 1
c y = x2 + 9x + 14 and y = 3x + 5
e y = x2 2x 3 and y = x 6
g y = x2 + 5x 36 and y = 15x 61
i y = x2 2x 24 and y = 4x + 3
k y = x2 + 4x + 21 and y = x + 11
m y = x2 + 4x + 12 and y = 9x + 16
o y = x2 4x + 5 and y = 4x + 9

b y = x2 + 5x 6 and y = 8x 8
d y = x2 7x + 10 and y = 11x + 6
f
h
j
l
n
p

y = x2 + 11x + 28 and y = 10x + 40


y = x2 6x 16 and y = 4x 17
y = x2 7x + 10 and y = 4x + 6
y = x2 + 14x 48 and y = 13x 54
y = x2 + 7x + 12 and y = 20
y = x2 4x + 4 and y = 8x 32

2 State how many points of intersection exist with each of the following pairs of simultaneous equations.
a y = x2 + x 6 and y = 9x 31
b y = x2 16 and y = 6x + 11
c y = x2 + 3x + 4 and y = 7x + 25
d y = x2 6x + 5 and y = 2x 12
Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

87

3 We34 The graphs of equations y = x2 14x + 49 and y = mx + 48 intersect once only, at x=1. Find

the value of m.
4 The system of equations y = x2 4x + c and y = 7x + 8 has two solutions, one at x=1 and another at
x = 4. Find the value of c.
5 The graphs of y = x2 + bx 14 and y = 9x + c intersect at (1, 8) and (3, 10). Find the values
of b and c.
6 Using a CAS calculator, find the points of intersection, in exact form, for each of the following systems
of equations.
a y = x2 + 5x 3 and y = 2x 2
b y = 2x2 + 7x 8 and y = 3x + 4
c y = 3x2 2x + 12 and y = 4x + 8
d y = 5x2 2x 5 and y = 43 x 5
y

7 An engineers plans for a proposed road through a

mountain are shown at right. At what heights above


sea level will the entrance and exit to the tunnel be,
given the equations of the mountain profile and road
path as shown on the plan?

y=

x2
+5
2

y = x4 +2
Proposed road

Entrance
of tunnel

8 A graphic designer draws a logo involving a parabola sitting in a

V shape on a set of axes as shown at right.


Find the equation of the parabola, given it is of the form y=kx2,
and find the points of intersection of the V with the parabola.
1
2
9 Use a CAS calculator to find the values of a in exact form such that the linear equation y =

and the quadratic equation y =

88

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

3
8

x 2 + 3 x 5 do not intersect.

Sea level

y = kx 2

ax
+a
2

10 Use a CAS calculator to help answer the following questions.

A pole 11 metres high is firmly secured to the ground. A parabolic arch is to be attached to the
pole 3 metres above the ground as shown in the diagram below. A metal rod will run directly from
the top of the pole straight to the ground so that it just touches the arch in one position only. Let
y be the height above the ground in metres and x be the distance along the ground from the foot of
the pole in metres.
y
(0, 11)

(0, 3)
0

Give all answers in exact form unless told otherwise.


1
a
a The arch is to be modelled by the quadratic equation y = 8 x 2 + 4 x + 3, where a is a non-zero
positive constant. Find where the arch meets the ground in terms of a, that is, find the x-intercept.
b If it is decided that the distance from the foot of the pole to the point A is 12 metres, find the value
of the constant a.
c If the equation of the metal rod is modelled by the linear function y = 11 + bx, find the value of b.
(Hint: Consider the discriminant.)
d Find the coordinates of the point where the arch touches the metal rod.
e Find the maximum height of the arch correct to 2 decimal places.
f Find the distance from point A to point B both in exact form and correct to 2 decimal places.

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

89

Summary
polynomials

1. A polynomial in x, sometimes denoted by P(x), is an expression containing only non-negative


whole powers of x.
2. The degree of the polynomial is given by the highest power of the variable x.
3. The general form of a degree n polynomial is:
P(x) = an x n + an 1xn 1 + . . . + a2 x 2 + a1x + a0
where n is a positive whole number and an, an 1, . . ., a2, a1 and a0 are coefficients.

expanding quadratic
expressions

To expand:
2
1. First term everything in the second brackets, then
1
2. Second term everything in the second brackets.
(4x + 9)(2x 3)
Perfect squares
(ax + b)2 = a2x2 + 2abx + b2
3 4
Difference of squares
(ax + b)(ax b) = a2x2 b2
Expand brackets first, then multiply if there is an external factor in expressions like
k(ax + b)(cx + d).

Factorising quadratic
expressions

Look for a common factor first.


General quadratics: Write down (_x )(_x ) and try factors of the constant term.
Perfect squares:
(ax + b)2 = a2x2 + 2abx + b2
Difference of squares:
( a x + b )( a x b ) = ax 2 b

Factorising by
completing the square

Use when whole number factors are not apparent.


Halve and square the x-coefficient, then add and subtract this new term.
Form a perfect square from three of the terms.
Continue to factorise using a difference of squares.

Solving quadratic
equations null Factor
law

Factorise.
Set each factor equal to zero.
Solve two mini-equations.

Solving quadratic
equations completing
the square

Halve and square the x-coefficient.


Add and subtract the new term.
Form a perfect square and solve for x.

the quadratic formula

If ax2 + bx + c = 0, then solutions may be found using x =

the discriminant

If ax2 + bx + c = 0, then the discriminant = b2 4ac.


If < 0, no real solutions exist.
If > 0, there are two real solutions.
If = 0, there is only one real solution.

Graphs of quadratic
functions as power
functions (turning point
form)

Turning point form: y = a(x b)2 + c.


The turning point is at (b, c) and the dilation factor is a.
If a > 0, the graph is a positive () shape.
If a < 0, the graph is a negative () shape.
To convert to turning point form, complete the square.

90

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

b 2 4 ac
.
2a

(b, c)
x

Graphs of quadratic
functions (intercepts
method)

To sketch a quadratic graph of the form y = ax2 + bx + c:


1. Find the y-intercept (when x = 0)
2. Factorise if possible, and find the x-intercepts (when y = 0)
It may be easier to use the quadratic
y
formula in some cases.
If < 0, there are no x-intercepts.
If = 0, one intercept only.
y-intercept
If >0, two intercepts.
3. Find the x-coordinate of the turning point
b
using xt =
or by completing the
2a
square.

Axis of symmetry
x-intercepts
x

Turning point
b
b2

( 2a
, c 4a
)

4. Find the y-coordinate of the turning point by substituting xt into the equation for y, or by
using
b2
or by completing the square.
yt = c
4a
5. Combine all the information and sketch it. Functions with a positive x2 coefficient are
shaped, and those with negative x2 coefficients are shaped. If the information you have
gathered doesnt seem to fit, check for calculation errors.
Simultaneous quadratic
and linear equations

If given equations of the form y = ax2 + bx + c and y = mx + k:


1. Set ax2 + bx + c = mx + k.
2. Rearrange to form a new quadratic equation Ax2 + Bx + C = 0.
3. Solve to find any x-coordinates of intersection.
4. Substitute any x-coordinates into the linear equation to find the corresponding y-coordinates.
5. State the solutions (or state that there are none).

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

91

Chapter review
S h ort
anS Wer

1 Expand:
a (7x + 8)(7x 8)
2 Factorise:
a 25x2 + 110x + 121

b (2x 9)2

c (5 x 3)(5 x + 3)

d (4x 9)(2x 13)

b 6x2 + 37x + 6

c 12x2 37x + 21

d 36x2 49

3 Factorise x2 6x 14.
4 Solve the following.
a (4x + 1)(3x 9) = 0

b 3x2 40x 75 = 0

5 Solve:
a 4x2 5 = 0

b x2 14x + 42 = 0

6 Solve x2 + 6x 2 = 0.
7 Use the quadratic formula to solve 5x2 7x + 1 = 0.
8 Evaluate the discriminant for 4x2 3x + 9 = 0.
9 Find the value(s) of k for which the equation 2x2 + 3kx + 6 = 0 has:
a no solution
b one solution
c two solutions.
10 Sketch the following, showing the turning point and y-intercept in each case (x-intercepts not required).
a y = 4(x + 1)2 + 2
b y = 6x2 1
11 Convert y = x2 + 8x + 3 to turning point form.
12 Sketch the following.
a y = (x 6)(x 14)

b y = x2 + 2x 80

c y = 3x2 26x + 48

d y = 2x2 5x 3

13 Find any points of intersection of the line y = 2x 6 and the parabola y = x2 + 7x + 12.
14 Solve 4kx2 5x + 3k = 0 for x.
m U lt ip l e
C h oiCe

1 Which of the following is the expansion of (3x 7)(x + 5)?


a 3x2 + 8x 35
d 4x2 2x 2

B 3x2 7x 35
e 4x 2

2 Which of the following is a perfect square quadratic expression?


a x2 + 10x + 16
d (x + 6)(x 6)

B x2 8x + 16
e (x2 + 7)2

3 The expression 9x2 64 is an example of:


a a perfect square
d a quadratic term

B a difference of squares
e a factorised expression

4 Which of the following is equivalent to 36x2 49?


a (6x + 7)2
d (36x + 1)(x 49)

B (6x 7)2
e (9x + 7)(4x 7)

5 The expression (x 2)2 + 8 can be factorised to:

C 3x2 2x 35

C x2 25

C a negative quadratic

C (6x + 7)(6x 7)

a (x + 6)2

B (x + 6)(x 10)

d ( x 2 + 2 2)( x 2 + 2 2)

e The expression cannot be factorised using real numbers.

C (x 2 + 4)(x 2 4)

6 Which of the following gives all solutions of the equation (2x 7)(x + 4) = 0?
a x = 7, 4
d x=

7
2

B x = 2, 1

,4

x=

C x = 2, 1

7
, 4
2

7 Which of the following represent the full solution to x2 6x + 9 = 0?


a x = 3
d x = 3, 6

B x = 3, +3
e No real solution

C x=3

B x = 5+

C x = 7+ 5

8 A solution to (x 5)2 7 = 0 is:


a x = 5
d x=

92

7+

7
5

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

x=

5+

7
7

9 If the equation 3x2 = 9 + x is to be solved using the quadratic formula, which set of values should be

substituted into the formula?


a a = 3, b = 1 and c = 0
1
d a = 1, b = 3 and c =
9

B a = 3, b = 1 and c = 9
e a = 9, b = 1 and c =

C a = 3, b = 9 and c = 1

10 The quadratic formula, which can be used to solve equations of the type ax2 + bx + c = 0, is given by:
a x=
d x=

b2

b 2 4 ac
2a

b 4 ac
2a

B x=

x=

b b 2 4 ac
2a
b

C x = b

b 2 4 ac
2a

b 4 ac
2a

11 The value of the discriminant in 2x2 + 3x + 4 = 0 is:


a 23
d 32

B 7
e 41

C 25

12 For a quadratic equation to have at least one real solution, the discriminant could be:
a negative
d either positive or negative

B zero
e a perfect square

13 The turning point of the graph of y = 5(x + 2)2 1 is at:


a (1, 2)
d (2, 1)

B (1, 2)
e (2, 1)

C positive

C (2, 1)

14 If y = 3(x 2)2 + 8, the maximum value of y is:


a 3
C 2
e 20

B 4
d 8

15 The graph shown could be for the rule:


a
B
C
d
e

y = + 5x 30
y = x2 11x + 30
y = x2 + 11x + 30
y = x2 + 11x + 30
y = x2 + 11x 30
x2

30
6

16 The turning point of y = x2 + bx + 40 is at x = 7. The value of b is:


a 14

B 7

7
2

d 7

e 14

17 Using a CAS calculator, the approximate solutions to y = x2 + x + 4 are:


a
B
C
d
e

x = 0.5 and y = 4.25


x = 0 and y = 4
x = 2.56 and x = 0
x = 1.56 and x = 2.56
x = 1.56 and x = 0

18 The system of 2 simultaneous equations represented by the graphs

at right has:
a no solutions for x
B one solution for x
C one positive and one negative solution for x
d two negative solutions for x
e insufficient information for us to find a solution

19 A solution to the system of equations y = 2x 1 and y = x2 + 8x + 8 is:


a (3, 7)
C (0, 8)
e (2, 28)

B (0, 1)
d (3, 5)

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

93

e x tended
r e Sp onS e

1 A 100 m length of steel cable is threaded through a series of posts in order to construct

a fence around a paddock with four straight sides as shown at right.


a Write an equation that links l and w.
b Rearrange the equation in part a to write an expression for l in terms of w.
l
c Write an expression for the area of the paddock in terms of w.
d Plot a graph of area against w. Plot area on the vertical axis and w on the
horizontal axis. On the graph, label all intercepts and the turning point.
e What is the maximum area of the paddock?
f What values of l and w give the maximum area of the paddock?
g Comment on the relationship between l and w, and state what type of shape the paddock is.
2 MacBurgers restaurants have employed a mathematician to
y
design a new logo based on an M made up of two parabolas
Parabola 1
Parabola 2
as shown in the sketch at right.
The parabolas both have the form y = 2x2 + bx + c.
h
a Give the coordinates of two points on each parabola.
b Find the equation of each parabola.
(2, 0)
(2, 0) x
c Find the height, h, of the sign.
d Which domain of x-values should each graph be restricted
to so that the parabolas form the logo shown above?
e Determine the equations of two parabolas that may be used to form the W shape below, given
they are both of the form y = x2 + bx + c.
y
9

(3, 0)

(3, 0)

3 Find the equation of a parabola that goes through the points listed in each case.

(Hint: Assume equations of the form y = ax2 + bx + c and form simultaneous equations by substituting
coordinate values.)
a (0, 1), (1, 0) and (2, 3)
b (0, 1), (1, 4) and (2, 15)
c (0, 5), (1, 11) and (1, 3)
d Find the equations of two parabolas that form a path similar to the one below depicting a proposed
water slide, given the x2 coefficient of each curve is 1 or 1.
y
(8, 8)
(4, 4)
x

4 a Using written algebra, sketch the graphs of the quadratic equations y = x2 6x + 8 and
diGital doC
doc-9723
Test Yourself
Chapter 2

94

y = 3x2 + 5x 28, showing intercepts and turning points.


b Why was one equation easier to sketch than the other?
c Determine another quadratic function whose graph has integer intercepts and turning point
coordinates. How can this be ensured?

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

ICT activities
Chapter opener
diGital doC
10 Quick Questions doc-9710: Warm up with ten quick questions on
quadratic functions(page 39)

2a

polynomials

diGital doC
History of mathematics doc-9711: Learn about the life of Galois, a
19th century mathematician(page 40)

2B

expanding quadratic expressions

diGital doCS
SkillSHEET 2.1 doc-9712: Practise expanding perfect squares (page 43)
SkillSHEET 2.2 doc-9713: Practise expanding differences of squares
(page 43)

2e

Solving quadratic equations null Factor law

tUtorial
We 10 eles-1407: Watch how to apply quadratic algebra skills to
determine the dimensions of a triangle(page 51)
diGital doCS
doc-9714: Apply the Null Factor Law to solve quadratic equations
(page 53)
WorkSHEET 2.1 doc-9715: Expanding brackets and factorising
quadratic expressions (page 54)

2F Solving quadratic equations completing


the square
tUtorial
We 12 eles-1408: Watch how to solve a quadratic equation giving
solutions in exact form (page 55)
diGital doCS
SkillSHEET 2.3 doc-9716: Practise solving equations in the complete
square form (page 57)
SkillSHEET 2.4 doc-9717: Practise simplifying surds (page 57)

2h

the discriminant

tUtorial
We 19 eles-1409: Watch how to find the possible values of an
unknown constant in a quadratic equation with zero, one and two
solutions (page 63)

diGital doC
doc-9718: Observe the discriminant and the number of solutions to a
quadratic equation (page 66)

2i Graphs of quadratic functions as power


functions (turning point form)
diGital doC
WorkSHEET 2.2 doc-9719: Solve quadratic equations,
understanding the discriminant and sketching parabolas
(page 70)

2J Graphs of quadratic functions (intercepts


method)
diGital doCS
doc-9720: Observe axial intercepts of the graph of a quadratic in
general form (page 78)
doc-9721: Observe the turning point of the graph of a quadratic in
turning point form (page 78)

2k Using technology to solve quadratic


equations
diGital doC
doc-9722: Calculate the solutions to linear and quadratic
simultaneous equations (page 82)

2l Simultaneous quadratic and linear


equations
interaCtiVitY
Simultaneous quadratic and linear equations int-0261: Consolidate
your understanding of how to solve simultaneous quadratic and
linear equations (page 83)

Chapter review
diGital doC
Test Yourself doc-9723: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your
progress (page 94)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

95

Answers CHAPTER 2
QUadratiC FUnCtionS
exercise 2a

1 a
d
2 a
d
3 a
b
c
4 a
d
5 a
c
e
6 a
b
c
7 a
b
c
d

polynomials
3
b1
c 2
6
e 5
x
bt
c x
x
e u
Polynomial 1b
Polynomial 1c
Polynomial 1a
5
N;
bP
c N; 3 x
x

N; k 2
e N; 2x
3
bx
3
d5
Coefficient of the quadratic term
1

19
2x2 + x + 2
6
t
0.9937; she is swimming 0.9937 m/s
at 0.2 s.
1.818 m/s

exercise 2B expanding quadratic


expressions
1 a 2x2 + 16x + 30
b 12x2 5x 3
2
c 25x 25x 14
d 48x2 26x + 3
e 7x2 + 19x 36
f x2 + 21x + 90
g 18x2 + 51x 26 h x2 11x + 30
i 9x2 82x + 9
j 4x2 + 9x 63
2 a 4x2 + 12x + 9
b 9x2 30x + 25
c 36x2 + 12x + 1
d 49x2 84x + 36
2
e x 16x + 64
f x2 + 26x + 169
g 4x2 36x + 81
h 4x2 + 36x + 81
2
i 16 24x + 9x
j 36 12x + x2
2
3 a 4x 36
b 9x2 25
c 36x2 1
d 4x2 81
2
e 121x 9
f x2 144
g x2 36
h 49 4x2
i 1 x2
j 25x2 1
2
4 a 6x + 46x + 60
b 6x2 3x 84
c 8x2 + 4x + 40
d 24x2 66x + 27
e 96x2 56x + 8
f 70x2 + 35x + 210
2
g 4x 44x + 112
h 35x2 90x + 40
i 2ax2 3ax 54a j 2bx2 32b
5 a 36x2 169
b 60x2 x 10
c 6x2 + 27x + 168 d 9x2 + 66x + 121
e 4x2 196
f 36x2 60x + 25
2
g x + 7x 144
h x2 + 16
i 100x2 + 120x 36

20x2 245

2x2 7x 34
12x2 + 25x 55
4x2 24x 62
g x2 3

6 a
c
e
i
7 a
b
c
d

96

4x2

+ 9x +

7
2

18x2 14x + 5
2x2 18x 159
23x2 114
h 12x2 + 2 x 2
5
j 15x2 24x
b
d
f

4a2 + 8a + 2ab + 4b
3x2 10y2 + xy
49c2 56c + 12
u2 + 8uv + 16v2

e
f
g
h

12r2 + 28rs 5s2


9u2 4t2
2h2 128k2
3m2 + 36mn 108n2

exercise 2C

Factorising quadratic

expressions
1 a 5xy2(xy + 4)
b 2ax(4x 7)
2
c 7(p q 3p + 1)
d 11r2s(2r2s2 + 1)
e 5(x2 + 2x + 15)
f 3(x2 + 6x 2)
2 a (x + 9)(x + 7)
b (x 11)(x 6)
c 2(x + 3)(x + 8)
d 3(x 2)(x + 4)
e (8 x)(x + 12)
f (3x + 5)(2x 7)
g (2x 9)(3x 5)
h 2(4x + 1)(5x 7)
3 a (2x + 3)(2x 3)
b (9x + 5)(9x 5)
c 2(x + 4)(x 4)
d 18(x + 3)(x 3)
e (x + 3)(x 1)
f 3(x 1)(3x 5)
g 2(x + 10)(4 x)
h 15(x 1)(5x 11)
4 a (x + 7)2
b (5x 1)2
c 2(x + 3)2
d 3(x 2)2
e 2(6x 1)2
f (x + 3)2
2
g (2x 5)
h (2x 3 2)2
5 a x(x + 6)
b (x + 1)(x 7)
c (2x + 1)(2x + 13) d (3x + 7)(3x 11)
e 2(x 1)(x + 3)
f 3x(8 x)
g 6(5x + 1)(15x + 17)
h (x 5)(x 7)
i 3(x + 2)(10 3x)
6 a (x + 11)(x + 12)
b (3x 4)(2x 5)
c 2(2x 1)(x + 3)
d (9x 31)(12x 53)
7 a 3(x 9)(x + 1)
b (5x + 1)2
c (x 14)2
d (x 14)2
e 3 x ( 2 x 2)
f 5(2x + 1)(6x + 1)
g 5x(12x 1)
h 9(1 xy)(1 + xy)
i 7x(5x 4)
j 2(6x + 7)(x 7)
8 a C
b E
c A
9 k = 5, m = 4
exercise 2d

Factorising by completing

9
65
9
65
x + 2 + 2 x + 2 2

11
145
11
145
x + 2 + 2 x + 2 2

No real factors

5
17
5
17
x+
h x+ +
2
2
2
2

1
13
1
13
x + 2 + 2 x + 2 2
3 E
4 E
5 B
6 C
7 a 3( x 3 + 10)( x 3 10)
j

b
c
d

1 a

2 a

6, 12

b 4,

5, 11

e 3, 3

2 2
,
5 5

h 0, 5

3 a

5, 9

( x + 1 + 2 2)( x + 1 2 2)

( x + 4 + 3)( x + 4 3)

( x 2 + 5)( x 2 5)

( x 6 + 17)( x 6 17)

( x 1 + 6)( x 1 6)

( x 4 + 6)( x 4 6)

( x 3 + 13)( x 3 13)

1
5
1
5
x 2 + 2 x 2 2

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

h 0, 1

1
b 1,

6
, 6
7

( x + 3 + 2)( x + 3 2)

7
41
7
41
x 2 + 2 x 2 2

6,

5
37
5
37
x + 2 + 2 x + 2 2

1)(x + 3) or 5(1 x)(x + 3)


x + 2)

4(3x2

12 2
,
7 9

( x + 5 + 5)( x + 5 5)

5(x

3
5
3
5
x + 2 + 2 x + 2 2

5
17
5
17
2 x + +
x+
2
2
2
2

exercise 2e Solving quadratic


equations null Factor law

the square
1 a ( x + 2 + 7)( x + 2 7)

2 a

13
173
13
173
x 2 + 2 x 2 2

1 1
, 6
6
9 9
4

,3

1
2

7 7
,
2 3

5, 1
3

h 0,

8
5

c 5, 2
f 7, 23

5
c 2,
4

c
f

1
4

1
4
3
2

i 2,

5
2

5 1
,
3 2

4 D
5 E
6 D
7 Length = 8 cm, width = 5 cm
8 a The area is doubled.
b

Length = 20 2 + 33 + 1 cm
Width = 20 2 + 33 1 cm

9 4 hours
10 a 30
11 a 42
b 16
12

9
2

b 13

or 4.5 kg

13 a 3.7 s
b 2 5
14 a x = 1.998 using fixed point iteration.

(The correct answer is x = 2.)

b x = 0.562
15 a 0.228
b 1.140
c 0.268
d 0.863
16 Answers will vary.
17 Answers will vary.
18 Answers will vary.

exercise 2F Solving quadratic equations


completing the square

1 a

c
e

5 7

2 a
c
e
3 a

b 6

15

13

7 29
2
11

d 3

f 3

9 89
2

f 2, 3

2
2 5

b 3

9 73
2

3 19

17

105

33

11

65

75 2

2
15 201
f
2
h No solutions

4 a

14

b 6

2 3

d 3

5
6
7
8

Solutions do not exist.

exercise 2G

the quadratic formula


1 a 1, 4, 3
b 1, 7, 9

c 1, 4, 9
d 6, 3, 7
1
e
, 7, 5
f 1, 2, 1
2

4, 12, 9
7, 21, 4
4, 5
8,

h
j
b

2,

0, 1
3, 0, 2
2, 8

b 4 11

d 5 13
f 6, 1

9
113

2
2

2 6

3
17

4
4

3
j
2
2

k
l
4 a

x=

3k 2

+1 +1

k
k + 1 k 2 30 k + 1
x=
4k
2

7; k =

1
2

8 2
b
; k = 31
31

2 a
d
g
3 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
4 D
5 a

1
4

d 3,

13

2
2
3
5
c

2 2
e 3 7

3 a

exercise 2h

Solutions do not exist.


21
b x =2
6
3
c
, 1

13

g
i
2 a

12

1 a

E
C
D

7
8
9
10

6.317, 0.317
b 1.854, 4.854
d No real solutions
3.637, 0.137
f No real solutions
0.123, 8.123
1.472, 7.472
b 1.121, 3.121

d 7.162, 0.838
0.225, 1.775
3.851, 0.649
f 7.772, 0.772
No real solutions h No real solutions
22.5 cm
11.3 hours
5.2 minutes
a 1 metre
b At t = 0.2 seconds
c At t = 1.2 and 2.3 seconds
a 1.2 m
b She will need to buy an extra 5.25 m2
of pavers.
c She will have 3 m2 of pavers left over.
0.711 m
2 2
a y=
x + 4x
95
b 190 m
c 190 m

5 a
c
e
6 a
c
e
g

the discriminant
73
b 20
71
e 37
229
h 193
0
b 2
1
e 1
2
h 2
a2 4
4 12a
36 4a
b2 4a
4m2 4m
m2 + 2m 11
m2 + 4m + 16
k2 8k + 8
i
iii
i
iii
i
iii

k > 4 or k < 4
4<k<4
k<4
k>4
k > 1 or k < 1
1 < k < 1

Question

c 176
f 20
i
c
f
i

k < 4.05
ii
k > 4.05
e
k<3
ii
k>3
f
k > 3 or
ii
k < 1.5
iii 1.5 < k < 3
ii
g i No values of k
iii No values of k
h i k<1
ii
iii k > 1
i
i k < 3 or k > 3
ii
iii No values of k
6 (See table bottom of page)
d

60
0
2
1

k = 4

ii

k=4

ii

k = 1

Equation after
substitution
k = 1

k = 4.05
k=3
k = 1.5 or k = 3
All values of k
k=1
k=3

exercise 2i Graphs of quadratic


functions as power functions (turning
point form)
1 a (5, 0)
b (7, 3)

d (1, 8)
c (2, 7)
f (2, 2)
e (3, 4)
2 a i (4, 2)
ii Same
iii Minimum y = 2
iv 18

ii

i
iii
i
iii
i

(0, 18)

(4, 2)
x

3)

i (2,
iii Minimum y = 3
v y

ii Same
iv 1

1
x

(2, 3)

Number of
solutions

Reasoning
= k2 16 = 15

x2

x+4=0

x2 4x 1 = 0

= 16 4k = 20

x2

4x + 4 = 0

= 16k2 16 = 0

18x + 20 = 0

= 324 80k = 404

x2 4x = 0

= 12 4k = 16

4x + 2 = 0

= 16k2 24k 72
= 32

d
e

x2

6x2

4x2

12x 9 = 0

= 144k2 144k2
=0

3x2 + 10x + 5 = 0

= 20 20k = 40

= k2 6k + 9 = 16

2x2

+2=0

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

97

i
ii
iii
iv
v

(5, 8)
Same
Minimum y = 8
17

i (3, 3)
iii Maximum y = 3
y
v

ii Thinner
iv 60

y = (x 2)2 + 4
y = (x + 1)2 + 5
y = (x 2)2 5
y = (x + 3)2 + 1
y = (x 6)2 + 6
y = (x + 3)2 2
5 a 6
b 7
6 a (2, 5) minimum y = 5
b (3, 8) minimum y = 8
c (6, 1) minimum y = 1
d (4, 3) minimum y = 3
e (2, 9) minimum y = 9
f (0, 7) minimum y = 7
g (9, 81) minimum y = 81
h (3, 4) minimum y = 4
i (2, 3) minimum y = 3
1 2
7 a i( , )
ii (0.33, 0.67)
3 3
4 a
b
c
d
e
f

(3, 3)

y
17
60

x
(5, 8)

i
ii
iii
iv
v

(1, 1)
Same
Minimum y = 1
0
y

73

(1, 1)

i
ii
iii
iv
v

ii Same
iv 73

(8, 9)

i (8, 9)
iii Maximum y = 9
y
v

(5, 9)
Thinner
Minimum y = 9
41

i
ii
iii
iv
v

8
9
10
11
12

(1, 20)
Same
Minimum y = 20
21
y

(1, 20)

3 a


i ( 5 , 7)
4
8

ii (1.25, 0.875)

i ( 1 , 35 )
4
8

ii (0.25, 4.375)

y = (x 5)2 + 9
C
E
B
b n
a h
d M
e 2Mh

3 a
d
x

(5, 9)

i (4, 4)

iv

(1, 3)

28
3

c
x

28

d
5 a

y
(6, 0)

(4, 4)

(1, 12)

iii Minimum y = 12
y
v

iv

54
5

1, 6
5
a b

7
2

9
4

98

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

73
4

No x-intercepts
y

(7, 7)

54

(1, 12)

1
3
3 1

21
2

1
3
(2, 1)

b , 2

(0, 4)

ii Thinner

5
, 1
2

,
A B
4 a No x-intercepts

(2, 5)

ii Wider

iii Minimum y = 4
v y

c M
f Mh2 + n

exercise 2J Graphs of quadratic


functions (intercepts method)
1 a 2
b 4
c 0
e 2
f 1
d 6
2 a 1, 6
b 3, 2
c 5, 1
d 4, 5
e 0, 2
f 3, 4
g 5, 5
h 0, 8
i 9
j 2, 10

21

41

(0, 2)
x

(1, 0)

c 9,

9
4

f 0, 4

3
1

12

12
4
2
(3, 1)

1
2

x
, 169
)
(11
2

3
2

(1, 1)

y
3

35

49

1
2

(7, 0)

3
4

( 5 , 1 )
8

7 5
(6, 1)

y
3
7

x
3

64

y
x

(8, 0)
12

)
( 9 , 144

17
2

(4, 4)
9

153

(4, 169)

6 a

1
5

)
( 8 , 147
5

(1, 64)

63

y
6

)
( 1 , 64
9

)
( 9 , 121
5

4
3

7
2

15
3
( 5 , 1 )

2
5

( 3 , 1 )
2

2
2

4
3

)
( 1 , 25
3
3

28

x
)
( 2 , 49
3
3

)
( 1 , 225
4

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

99

( 3 , 4)

12

2
1
2

5
2

2
3

1 )
( 5 ,
6
12

)
( 3 , 49
8

g
5

)
( 5 , 25
2
4

8 a

5 x

5
9

1
2

3 x

)
( 3 , 81
8

7 a

(4, 49)

y
(4, 16)

25
33

b
11
11

11 x
0

(1, 5)
y

(1, 4)

121

(3, 36)

1
6

1 x

(9, 36)
15

)
( 7 , 147
2

45
3 x

(9, 0)
x

81

100

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

9 a
3

18

3.828

1.828

7
(1, 8)

0.479

0.268
3.732

exercise 2l Simultaneous quadratic


and linear equations

3.479 x

1 a

(3, 32)

(2, 21)
)
( 3 , 47

(2, 3)

j
0.395

11

3 2

(0, 17)

3
7.606

(2, 8)
2.380 x

2.380

(4, 13)

)
( 1 , 13
4 4

5
4

0.651

1.151 x
y

(9, 80)

17.944

0.056

1 x

10 D
12 a 2
b 2
c 1
d 0
e 2
f 1
13 a C
b A
c D
d B
14

25
8

)
( 5 , 25
8

(1, 0)

16

11 B

14
5

(3, 4)

(2, 28)

units; up; y = 2x2 3x + 9 ; y = 2( x 4 )2


8

15 16 units; up; y = 3x2 12x;

y = 3(x + 2)2 + 12

10
6

exercise 2k

1
0.382

2.618
( 3 , 5 )
2

7.275 x

0.275
2
)
( 7 , 57
2

2.781

0.719

)
( 7 , 17
4
8

Using technology to solve


quadratic equations
1 a 3.732, 0.268
b 0.179, 11.179
c 3.414, 0.586
d 8.899, 0.899
e 11.196, 0.804
f 0.232, 1.434
2 a 0.377, 0.681
b 5.747, 0.665
c 4.712, 0.430
d 1.086, 1.600
e 153.441, 0.392
f 0.094, 500.094
3 4.355 h
4 56.4 h
5 5.7 m
6 Christine; her sum was 0.046 less than
10.25, whereas Harrys was 0.167 more
than 10.25.
7 a k=8
b x = 0.5

11

1
6

(3, 70)

40
28
(4, 0)
7

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

101

16

16
9

6.13 metres
|AB| = 2.67 metres (approx)
= 2 2 m (exact)

49x2 64
b
25x2 3
d
(5x + 11)2
b
(3x 7)(4x 3) d
3 (x 3 + 23)(x 3

8 x

(1, 21)

4 a 3,

4 3

16

5 a

7
y
9
4

(9, 39)
5

b 15,

4
5
2

b 7

4 3
3

<k<

b k=

c k>

(6, 16)

4 3
3

10 a

or k <

(1, 2)

4 3
3

3
4
5

6
3
2

11

(5, 16)

7 x

54

13

6 8
(3, 15)

48

54

(2, 80)

102

d 0

3 13

, 5 13 and

3 + 13

, 5 + 13

c 2

4
b = 5, c = 17

6 a

21
(2, 9)

b2

12

2
4
(2, 0)

2 a

4 3
3

10

4 3
3

24

7
29
10
10
135

9 a

3
6

4x2 36x + 81
8x2 70x + 117
(x + 6)(6x + 1)
(6x + 7)(6x 7)
23)

6 3 11

34

d (8, 5)

1 a
c
2 a
c

12

4
(3, 9)

b=

Short anSWer
(1, 20)

Chapter reVieW

b a=5

(8, 20)

17

x = a + a 2 + 24

(4, 20)

61

17
4

10 a

36

3 3 < a <3 3 + 9

(1, 7)

(5, 14)

(0, 1)

11 y = (x + 4)2 13
y
12 a

( 1 7, 1 3 7) and

84

( 1 + 7, 1 + 3 7)
c

1 13 4(5 + 13)
3 ,
and
3
1 + 13 4(5 13)
3 ,

11

20

6
14
(10, 16)

433

and (0, 5)

80

8 x

10

7 1.322 km and 2.553 km


8 y=

x2
, (2, 2) and (2, 2)
2

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

80
(1, 81)

7
10
13
16
19

48
8
3
( 13
,
3

)
25
3

32

8
11
14
17

B
A
D
D

9
12
15
18

B
C
C
D

extended reSponSe

1 a
b
c
d

( 5 , 1 )
4 8

C
A
E
E
A

100 = 2l + 2w
l = 50 w
A = w2 + 50w
Area

d
e
3 a
b
c
d
4 a

13

14 x =

0) and
5

2
4
(3, 1)

6)

8k
2B
5E

3 B
6 E

(50, 0)

Area = 625 m2
l = 25 m, w = 25 m
l = w: the paddock is a square.
Parabola 1: (2, 0) and (0, 0),
parabola 2: (2, 0) and (0, 0)
b y = 2x2 4x, y = 2x2 + 4x
c h = 2 units

e
f
g
2 a

25 48 k 2

mUltiple ChoiCe

1A
4C

(0, 0)

(6,

x 0, 0 x 2
y = x2 + 6x + 9, y = x2 6x + 9
y = 2x2 3x + 1
y = 3x2 + 2x 1
y = x2 7x + 5
y = x2 + 5x, y = x2 11x + 32

(25, 625)

(3,

The turning point of the first graph has


whole number (integer) coordinates.
c The x-coordinate of the turning point

b
, so is a whole number if b is a
is
2a
multiple of 2a.
b

Chapter 2 Quadratic functions

103

ChapTer 3

Cubic and quartic functions


diGiTal doC
doc-9724
10 Quick Questions

ChapTer ConTenTS
3a Expanding
3B Long division of polynomials
3C Polynomial values
3d The remainder and factor theorems
3e Factorising polynomials
3F Sum and difference of two cubes
3G Solving polynomial equations
3h Cubic graphs intercepts method
3i Quartic graphs intercepts method
3J Graphs of cubic functions in power function form
3k Domain, range, maximums and minimums
3l Modelling using technology
3m Finite differences

polynomials of degree 3 and 4


This chapter will deal mainly with polynomials of degree 3 (cubics). The general equation of a cubic
polynomial is P(x) = a3x3 + a2x2 + a1x + a0, more commonly written as y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d.
Degree 4 polynomials (quartics) will also be considered. The general equation of a quartic polynomial
is P(x) = a4 x4 + a3 x3 + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0, more commonly written as y = ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e.

3a

expanding

If we expand three linear factors, for example, (x + 1)(x + 2)(x 7), we get a cubic polynomial
(a polynomial of degree 3) as the following worked example shows.
Worked example 1

Expand:
a x(x + 2)(x 3)

b (x 1)(x + 5)(x + 2).

Think

a 1 Write the expression.


2

Expand two linear factors and simplify.

Multiply by the remaining factor.

b 1 Write the expression.


2

Expand two linear factors and simplify.

Multiply by the remaining factor and simplify.

WriTe

a x(x + 2)(x 3)

= x(x2 3x + 2x 6)
= x(x2 x 6)
= x3 x2 6x

b (x 1)(x + 5)(x + 2)

= (x 1)(x2 + 2x + 5x + 10)
= (x 1)(x2 + 7x + 10)
= x3 + 7x2 + 10x x2 7x 10
= x3 + 6x2 + 3x 10

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

105

Note: Just as there is a shortcut for expanding perfect squares, there is also a shortcut for expanding
cubes. We can find the shortcut by expanding (a + b)3 as usual.
(a + b)3 = (a + b)(a + b)(a + b) = (a + b)(a2 + 2ab + b2)
= a3 + 2a2b + ab2 + a2b + 2ab2 + b3
(a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3
= a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3
(a b)3 = a3 3a2b + 3ab2 b3
Similarly, (a b)3 = a3 3a2b + 3ab2 b3.
Worked example 2

Expand the perfect cube (x 4)3 using the appropriate rule.


Think

WriTe

Use the rule (a b)3 = a3 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3.


In this case a is x and b is 4.

(x 4)3
= x3 3 x2 4 + 3 x 42 43

Simplify.

(x 4)3
= x3 12x2 + 48x 64

Worked example 3

Expand 2x(x + 5)(x 12).


Think

WriTe
2x(x

+ 5)(x 12)

Write the expression.

Expand the two linear factors and simplify.

= 2x(x2 12x + 5x 60)


= 2x(x2 7x 60)

Multiply the remaining factor. No


simplification is needed.

= 2x3 + 14x2 + 120

exercise 3a

expanding

1 We1a
Expand each of the following.
a x(x + 6)(x + 1)
b x(x 9)(x + 2)
e 3x(x 4)(x + 4)
f 5x(x + 8)(x + 2)
i (5x)(6x)(x + 9)
j 7x(x + 4)2

c x(x 3)(x + 11)


g x2(x + 4)

2 We1b
Expand each of the following.
a (x + 7)(x + 2)(x + 3)
b (x 2)(x + 4)(x 5)
d (x 1)(x 2)(x 3)
e (x + 6)(x 1)(x + 1)
g (x + 11)(x + 5)(x 12)
h (x + 5)(x 1)2
j (x + 1)(x 1)(x + 1)
3

d 2x(x + 2)(x + 3)
h 2x2(7 x)

c (x 1)(x 4)(x + 8)
f (x 7)(x + 7)(x + 5)
i (x + 2)(x 7)2

Expand each of the following.


a (x 2)(x + 7)(x + 8)
d (5x + 3)(2x 3)(x 4)
g 9x(1 2x)(3x + 8)
j 2(7 + 2x)(x + 3)(x + 4)

b (x + 5)(3x 1)(x + 4)
e (1 6x)(x + 7)(x + 5)
h (6x + 5)(2x 7)2

c (4x 1)(x + 3)(x 3)


f 3x(7x 4)(x 4)
i (3 4x)(2 x)(5x + 9)

4 We2
Expand the following using the appropriate rule for expanding cubes.
a (x + 2)3
b (x + 5)3
c (x 1)3
3
3
d (x 3)
e (2x 6)
f (3x + 4)3
5 We3 Expand each of the following.
a (x + 5)(x 11)(x + 2)
b 3x(x + 6)(x 1)
d
106

(x

+ 5)(x

12)2

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

x(x

10)2

c
f

6(x 5)(x + 15)(x + 8)


+ 13)3

(x

3B

long division of polynomials

The reverse of expanding is factorising (expressing a polynomial as a product of its linear factors).
Before learning how to factorise cubics, you must be familiar with long division of polynomials. You
may remember in earlier levels doing long division questions.
Consider 745 3, or 3 745
The process used is as follows.
3 into 7 goes 2 times. Write 2 at the top.
2 3 = 6. Write down the 6.
Subtract to get 1.

2
3 745
6
14

Bring down the 4 to form 14.


3 into 14 goes 4 times. Write 4 at the top.
4 3 = 12. Write down the 12.
Subtract to get 2.

Divisor

Bring down the 5 to form 25.


3 into 25 goes 8 times. Write 8 at the top.
8 3 = 24. Write down the 24.
Subtract to get 1.
Answer: 745 3 = 248 remainder 1

248
3 745

Quotient
Dividend

6
14
12
25
24
1

Remainder

The same process can be used to divide polynomials by polynomial factors.


Consider (x3 + 2x2 13x + 10) (x 3)

or x 3 x3 + 2x2 13x + 10

x into x3 goes x2 times


(consider only the leading terms).
Write x2 at the top.
x2 (x 3) = x3 3x2
Write down the x3 3x2.

x3

x3

x2
+ 2x2 13x + 10

(x3 3x2)
5x2 13x

Subtract.
(x3 x3 = 0, 2x2 3x2 = 5x2)
Bring down the 13x.
x into 5x2 goes 5x times. Write + 5x at the top.
5x (x 3) =

5x2

15x

Divisor

x2 + 5x + 2
+ 2x2 13x + 10

Quotient
Dividend

(x3 3x2)
5x2 13x
(5x2 15x)
2x + 10
(2x 6)
16

Remainder

x3

Write down the 5x2 15x.


Subtract.
Note: 5x2 5x2 = 0, 13x 15x = +2x
Bring down the 10.

x3

x into 2x goes 2 times. Write + 2 at the top.


2 (x 3) = 2x 6
Write down the 2x 6.
Subtract to get 16.
Answer: (x3 + 2x2 13x + 10) (x 3) = x2 + 5x + 2 remainder 16

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

107

Worked example 4

Perform the following long divisions and state the quotient and remainder.
a (2x3 + 6x2 3x + 2) (x 6)
b (x3 7x + 1) (x + 5)
Think

WriTe

a 1 Write the question in long division format. a


2

Perform the long division process.

Write down the quotient and remainder.

b 1 Write the question in long division

x2

Perform the long division process.

Write down the quotient and remainder.

2 2 + 18xx + 105 Q
2x
x 6
+ 6x2 3x + 2
3
(2
(2x 12x
12 2)
18x2 3x
(18x2 108x)
105x + 2
(105x 630)
632 R
The quotient is 2x2 + 18x + 105; the remainder is 632.
2 3
2x

format. Note that there is no term in


this equation. Include 0x2 as a place
holder.
2

TUTorial
eles-1412
Worked example 4

x2 5x + 18 Q
x + 5 + 0x2 7x + 1
(x3 + 5x2)
5x2 7x

( 5x2 25x)
18x + 1
(18x + 90)
89
R
The quotient is x2 5x + 18; the remainder is 89.
x3

Worked example 5

Find the quotient and remainder when x4 3x3 + 2x2 8 is divided by x + 2.


Think
1

Write the question in long division format. Include


0x as a place holder.

Divide x into x4 and write the result above.

Multiply x3 by x + 2 and write the result underneath.

Subtract and then bring down the next term.

Continue to perform the long division process


(as you did for cubic polynomials).

Write down the quotient and remainder.

WriTe

x3 5x2 + 12x 24
x + 2 3x3 + 2x2 + 0x 8
(x4 + 2x3)
5x3 + 2x2

( 5x3 10x2)
12x2 + 0x
(12x2 + 24x)
24x 8
(24x 48)
40
x4

The quotient is x3 5x2 + 12x 24.


The remainder is 40.

Worked example 6

Calculate the quotient and remainder when x3 4x2 7x 5 is divided by x 1.


Think

108

Write the question in long division format.

Perform the long division process.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

WriTe

x2 3x 10
x 1 4x2 7x 5
(x3 x2)
3x2 7x
(3x2 + 3x)
10x 5
(10x + 10)
15
x3

The quotient is x2 3x 10.


The remainder is 15.

Write the quotient and the remainder.

exercise 3B

long division of polynomials

1 We4a
Perform the following long divisions, and state the quotient and remainder.
3
2
a (x + 6x + 3x + 1) (x + 3)
b (x3 + 4x2 + 3x + 4) (x + 2)
c (x3 + x2 + x + 3) (x + 1)
3
2
3
2
d (x + x + 4x + 1) (x + 2)
e (x + 2x 5x 9) (x 2)
f (x3 + x2 9x 5) (x 2)
3
2
3
2
g (x 5x + 3x 8) (x 3)
h (x 9x + 2x 1) (x 5)
i 3x3 x2 + 6x + 5, x + 2
3
2
3
2
j 4x 4x + 10x 4, x + 1
k 2x 7x + 9x + 1, x 2
l 2x3 + 8x2 9x 1, x + 4
2

Divide the first polynomial by the second, and state the quotient and remainder.
b 6x3 + 23x2 + 2x 31, 3x + 4
c 8x3 + 6x2 39x 13, 2x + 5
3
2
e 3x + 5x 16x 23, 3x + 2
f 9x3 6x2 5x + 9, 3x 4

a 6x3 7x2 + 4x + 4, 2x 1
d 2x3 15x2 + 34x 13, 2x 7

State the quotient and remainder for each of the following.

3
a
c

x3

6 x 2 7 x 16
x +1

2x3

+ 9 x 2 + 17 x + 15
2x + 1

3x 3

+ 7 x 2 + 10 x 15
x3

4 x 3 20 x 2 + 23 x 2
2
x+3

4 We4b
State the quotient and remainder for each of the following.
a (x3 3x + 1) (x + 1)
b (x3 + 2x2 7) (x + 2)

3
d ( x 7x + 8) (x 1)
e (5x2 + 13x + 1) (x + 3)

3
g ( 2x x + 2) (x 2)
h (4x3 + 6x2 + 2x) (2x + 1)

c (x3 5x2 + 2x) (x 4)


f (2x3 + 8x2 4) (x + 5)

5 We5
Find the quotient and remainder for each of the following.
a (x4 + x3 + 3x2 7x) (x 1)
b (x4 13x2 + 36) (x 2)
c (6x4 x3 + 2x2 4x) (x 3)
6 We6 Calculate the quotient and remainder for each of the following.
a (x3 + 9x2 + 11x + 25) (x + 15)
b (2x3 18x2 + 5x 9) (x 31)
3
c (12x + 32x 9) (3x + 4)
d (18x4 + 3x3 + 45) (2x + 7)

3C

polynomial values

Consider the polynomial P(x) = x3 5x2 + x + 1.


The value of the polynomial when x = 3 is denoted by P(3) and is found by substituting x = 3 into the
equation in place of x. That is,
P(3) = (3)3 5(3)2 + (3) + 1
= 27 5(9) + 3 + 1
= 27 45 + 4
= 14.

Worked example 7

If P(x) = 2x3 + x2 3x 4, determine:


a P(1)
b P(2)
Think

a 1 Write the expression.


2

Replace x with 1.

Simplify.

c P(a)

d P(x + 1).

WriTe

a P(x) = 2x3 + x2 3x 4

P(1) = 2(1)3 + (1)2 3(1) 4


=2+134
= 4
ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

109

b 1 Write the expression.


2

Replace x with 2.

Simplify.

P(x) = 2x3 + x2 3x 4
P(2) = 2(2)3 + (2)2 3(2) 4
= 2(8) + (4) + 6 4
= 16 + 4 + 6 4
= 10

c 1 Write the expression.


2

c P(x) = 2x3 + x2 3x 4

P(a) = 2a3 + a2 3a 4

Replace x with a.
No further simplification is possible.

d 1 Write the expression.


2

Replace x with (x + 1).

Expand the right-hand side and


collect like terms. Use the rules for
expanding cubics and quadratics.

P(x) = 2x3 + x2 3x 4
P(x + 1) = 2(x + 1)3 + (x + 1)2 3(x + 1) 4
= 2(x3 + 3x2 + 3x + 1) + x2 + 2x + 1 3x 3 4
= 2x3 + 6x2 + 6x + 2 + x2 x 6
= 2x3 + 7x2 + 5x 4

Worked example 8

Determine the following, considering P(x) = 16x4 + 3x3 22x + 17.


a P(14)
b P(y + 7)
Think

WriTe

a 1 Write the expression.

P(x) = 16x4 + 3x3 22x + 17

Replace x with 14.

P(14) = 16(14)4 + 3(14)3 22(14) + 17

Simplify.

P(14) = 614 656 8232 + 308 + 17


= 606 749

b 1 Write the expression.

P(x) = 16x4 + 3x3 22x + 17

Replace x with y + 7.

Expand each term.

16(y + 7)4 = 16y4 + 448y3 + 4704y2 + 21 952y + 38 416


3(y + 7)3 =
3y3 + 63y2 + 441y + 1029
22(y + 7) =
22y
154
17 =
17

Collect like terms.

P(y + 7) = 16y4 + 451y3 + 4767y2 + 22 371y + 3 9 308

exercise 3C

P(y + 7) = 16(y + 7)4 + 3(y + 7)3 22(y + 7) + 17

polynomial values

1 We7
If P(x) = 2x3 3x2 + 2x + 10, determine the following.
a P(0)
b P(1)
d P(3)
e P(1)

h P(a)
g P( 3)
j P(x + 2)
k P(x 3)

c
f
i
l

2 We8 Determine the following considering P(x) = 16x4 + 3x3 22x + 17.
b P(102)
a P(11)
c P(2x + 9)
d P(x3 + 2)
110

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

P(2)
P(2)
P(2b)
P(4y)

Copy the following table.


Column Column Column Column Column Column Column Column Column
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

P(x)

P(1)

P(2)

P(1)

P(2)

Rem.
Rem.
Rem.
Rem.
when
when
when
when
divided divided divided divided
by
by
by
by
(x 1) (x 2) (x + 1) (x + 2)

a
b
c
d

Complete columns 2 to 5 of the table for each of the following polynomials.


a P(x) = x3 + x2 + x + 1
b P(x) = x3 + 2x2 + 5x + 2
3
2
c P(x) = x x + 4x 1
d P(x) = x3 4x2 7x + 3
4 Find the remainder when each polynomial in question 2 is divided by (x 1) and complete column 6 of
the table.
5 Find the remainder when each polynomial in question 2 is divided by (x 2) and complete column 7 of

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Cubic valuer

the table.
6 Find the remainder when each polynomial in question 2 is divided by (x + 1) and complete column 8 of

the table.
7 Find the remainder when each polynomial in question 2 is divided by (x + 2) and complete column 9 of

the table.
8

Copy and complete the following sentences, using your answers to questions 3 to 7 to find the
pattern.
a A quick way of finding the remainder when P(x) is divided by (x + 8) is to calculate
b A quick way of finding the remainder when P(x) is divided by (x 7) is to calculate
c A quick way of finding the remainder when P(x) is divided by (x a) is to calculate

3d The remainder
The remainder theorem

.
.
.

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WorkSHEET 3.1

and factor theorems

In the previous exercise, you may have noticed that:


The remainder when P(x) is divided by (x a) is equal to P(a).
That is, R = P(a).
This is called the remainder theorem.
We could have derived this result as follows.
If 13 is divided by 4, the quotient is 3, and the remainder is 1. That is,
13 4 = 3 + 1
4

and

13 = 4 3 + 1.
Similarly, if P(x) =
is 15. That is,

x3

x2

+ x + 1 is divided by (x 2), the quotient is x2 + 3x + 7 and the remainder

15
and
x2
(x3 + x2 + x + 1) = (x2 + 3x + 7)(x 2) + 15.

(x3 + x2 + x + 1) (x 2) = x2 + 3x + 7 +

In general, if P(x) is divided by (x a), the quotient is Q(x), and the remainder is R, we can write
R
P(x) (x a) = Q(x) +
and
( x a)
P(x) = (x a)Q(x) + R.
ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

111

Substituting x = a into this last expression yields


P(a) = (a a)Q(x) + R
= 0 Q(x) + R
=R
as before.
Worked example 9

Without actually dividing, find the remainder when x3 7x2 2x + 4 is divided by:
a x3
b x + 6.
Think

WriTe

a Let P(x) = x3 7x2 2x + 4

Name the polynomial.

The remainder when P(x) is divided by


(x 3) is equal to P(3).

b The remainder when P(x) is divided by

(x+ 6) is equal to P(6).

R = P(3)
= 33 7(3)2 2(3) + 4
= 27 7(9) 6 + 4
= 27 63 6 + 4
= 38
b R = P(6)

= (6)3 7(6)2 2(6) + 4


= 216 7(36) + 12 + 4
= 216 252 + 12 + 4
= 452

Worked example 10

The remainder when x3 + kx2 + x 2 is divided by (x 2) is equal to 20. Find the value of k.
Think

WriTe

Name the polynomial.

The remainder when P(x) is divided by


(x 2) is equal to P(2).

We are given R = 20.


Put 8 + 4k = 20.

Solve for k.

Let P(x) = x3 + kx2 + x 2.


R = P(2)
= 23 + k(2)2 + 2 2
= 8 + 4k
Since R = 20.
8 + 4k = 20
4k = 12
k=3

The factor theorem


The remainder when 12 is divided by 4 is zero, since 4 is a factor of 12.
Similarly, if the remainder (R) when P(x) is divided by (x a) is zero, then (x a) must be a factor
of P(x).
Since R = P(a), all we need to do is to find a value of a that makes P(a) = 0, and we can say that
(x a) is a factor.
If P(a) = 0, then (x a) is a factor of P(x).
This is called the factor theorem.
Imagine P(x) could be factorised as follows:
P(x) = (x a)Q(x), where Q(x) is the other factor of P(x).
Then we have
P(a) = (a a)Q(a)
= 0 Q(a)
= 0.
So if P(a) = 0, (x a) is a factor.
112

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Worked example 11

Apply the factor theorem to determine which of the following is a factor of x4 4x3 43x2 + 58x + 240.
a (x + 2)
b (x 1)
Think

WriTe

a 1 Name the polynomial.

a Let P(x) = x4 4x3 43x2 + 58x + 240

To find the remainder when P(x) is


divided by (x a), find P(a).

P(2) = (2)4 4(2)3 43(2)2 + 58(2) + 240


= 16 4(8) 43(4) 116 + 240
= 16 + 32 172 116 + 240
=0

State the answer.

As P(2) = 0, the remainder when P(x) is divided by


(x + 2) is zero; therefore, (x + 2) is a factor.

b 1 To find the remainder when P(x) is

divided by (x a), find P(a).

State the answer.

exercise 3d

b P(1) = (1)4 4(1)3 43(1)2 + 58(1) + 240

= 1 4 43 + 58 + 240
= 252

As P(1) = 252, the remainder when P(x) is divided by


(x 1) is 252; therefore, (x 1) is not a factor.

The remainder and factor theorems

1 We9
Without actually dividing, find the remainder when x3 + 3x2 10x 24 is divided by:
a x1
b x+2
c x3
d x+5
e x0
f xk
g x+n
h x + 3c.

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Cubic valuer

2 Find the remainder when the first polynomial is divided by the second without performing

long division.
a x3 + 2x2 + 3x + 4, x 3
c x3 + 3x2 3x + 1, x + 2
e 2x3 + 3x2 + 6x + 3, x + 5
g x3 + x2 + 8, x 5
i x3 + 8, x + 3

b
d
f
h
j

x3 4x2 + 2x 1, x + 1
x3 x2 4x 5, x 1
3x3 2x2 + x + 6, x + 1
x3 3x2 2, x 2
x3 + 2x2, x 7

The remainder when x3 + kx + 1 is divided by (x + 2) is 19. Find the value of k.


The remainder when x3 + 2x2 + mx + 5 is divided by (x 2) is 27. Find the value of m.
The remainder when x3 3x2 + 2x + n is divided by (x 1) is 1. Find the value of n.
The remainder when ax3 + 4x2 2x + 1 is divided by (x 3) is 23. Find the value of a.
The remainder when x3 bx2 2x + 1 is divided by (x + 1) is 0. Find the value of b.
The remainder when 4x2 + 2x + 7 is divided by (x c) is 5. Find a possible whole number
value of c.
g The remainder when x2 3x + 1 is divided by (x + d) is 11. Find the possible values of d.
h The remainder when x3 + ax2 + bx + 1 is divided by (x 5) is 14. When the cubic polynomial is
divided by (x + 1), the remainder is 2. Find a and b.

3a
b
c
d
e
f

We10

4 We11 Apply the factor theorem to determine which of the following are factors of x3 + 2x2 11x 12.
a (x 1)
b (x 3)
c (x + 1)
d (x + 2)
5

Prove that each of the following are linear factors of x3 + 4x2 11x 30 by substituting values
into the cubic function: (x + 2), (x 3), (x + 5).

6 Use the factor theorem to show that the first polynomial is exactly divisible by the second (that is, the

second polynomial is a factor of the first).


a x3 + 5x2 + 2x 8, x 1
c x3 7x2 + 4x + 12, x 2
e x3 + 3x2 9x 27, x + 3
g 2x3 + 9x2 x 12, x 4

b x3 7x2 x + 7, x 7
d x3 + 2x2 9x 18, x + 2
f x3 + x2 + 9x 9, x 1
h 3x3 + 22x2 + 37x + 10, x + 5
ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

113

7 mC a When x3 + 2x2 5x 5 is divided by (x + 2), the remainder is:


a 5

B 2

C 0

d 2

e 5

a (x 1)

B (x 2)

C (x + 3)

d (x 5)

e (x + 4)

a 3

B 2

C 1

d 0

e 1

d (x + 5)

e (x + 7)

b Which of the following is a factor of 2x3 + 15x2 + 22x 15?

c When x3 13x2 + 48x 36 is divided by (x 1), the remainder is:


d Which of the following is a factor of
a (x 2)

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SkillSHEET 3.1
reviewing the
discriminant

B (x + 2)

x3

5x2 22x + 56?


C (x 5)

8 Find one factor of each of the following cubic polynomials.


a x3 3x2 + 3x 1
b x3 7x2 + 16x 12
3
2
c x + x 8x 12
d x3 + 3x2 34x 120
9 Consider the polynomial P(x) = 6x3 + 7x2 x 2.
a Determine:

i P(1)

ii P

( 12 )

iii P

( )
2
3

i Factorise P(x) as the product of (x + 1) and a quadratic factor.


ii Further factorise so P(x) is written as the product of three linear factors.
c Explain how the other two linear factors relate to what you found in parts b and c.
d Copy and complete the following: In general if (ax + b) is a factor, then P() = 0.
b

3e Factorising
Using long division

polynomials

Once one factor of a polynomial has been found (using the factor theorem as in the previous section),
long division may be used to find other factors.
Worked example 12

Use long division to factorise x3 19 x + 30.


Think

WriTe

Name the polynomial.


Note: There is no x2 term, so include 0x2.

P(x) = x3 19x + 30
P(x) = x3 + 0x2 19x + 30

Look at the last term in P(x), which is 30. This


suggests it is worth trying P(5) or P(5). Try
P(5). P(5) = 0, so (x + 5) is a factor.

P(5) = (5)3 19 (5) + 30


= 125 + 95 + 30
=0
Therefore (x + 5) is a factor.

Divide (x + 5) into P(x) using long division to


find a quadratic factor.

x2 5x + 6
x +5
+ 0x2 19x + 30
3
(x + 5x2)
5x2 19x
(5x2 25x)
6x + 30
(6x + 30)
0

Write P(x) as a product of the two factors


found so far.

P(x) = (x + 5)(x2 5x + 6)

Factorise the second bracket if possible.

P(x) = (x + 5)(x 2)(x 3)

TUTorial
eles-1413
Worked example 12

x3

Note: In this example, P(x) may have been factorised without long division by finding all three values of
x that make P(x) = 0, and hence three factors, then checking that the three factors multiply to give P(x).

Using short division


The process of long division can take a lot of time (and space). One short division method is shown here;
it may take a little longer to understand, but it is quicker than long division once mastered.
114

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Consider P(x) = x3 + 2x2 13x + 10. Using the factor theorem, we can find that (x 1) is a factor of P(x).
So, P(x) = (x 1)(ax2 + bx + c).
Actually, we know more than this: as P(x) begins with x3 and ends with +10, we could write:
P(x) = (x 1)(x2 + bx 10)
Imagine expanding this version of P(x). Our x2 terms give 1x2 + bx2.
Since P(x) = x3 + 2x2 13x + 10, we need +2x2. That is, we need 1x2 + 3x2. To get this, the bx must
be 3x, as when x in the first bracket is multiplied by 3x in the second bracket, +3x2 results. That is, we
have deduced
P(x) = (x 1)(x2+ 3x 10).
Factorising the second bracket gives
P(x) = (x 1)(x + 5)(x 2)
Worked example 13

Factorise the following, using short division where possible.


a x3 5x2 2 x + 24
b x4 + x3 13 x2 25 x 12
Think

a 1 Name the polynomial.


2

Look for a value of x such that P(x) = 0.


Try P(2).
P(2) does equal 0, so (x + 2) is a factor.

WriTe

a Let P(x) = x3 5x2 2x + 24

P(2) = (2)3 5 (2)2 2 (2) + 24


= 8 20 + 4 + 24
= 28 + 28
=0
So (x + 2) is a factor.

Write the original polynomial as the found


factor multiplied by ax2 + bx + c.
The first term in the brackets must be x2,
and the last term must be 12.

P(x) = x3 5x2 2x + 24
P(x) = (x + 2)(ax2 + bx + c)
= (x + 2)(x2 + bx + 12)

Imagine the expansion of the expression in


step 3. We have 2x2, and require 5x2. We
need an extra 7x2. So b = 7.

2x2 + bx2 = 5x2


b = 7
P(x) = (x + 2)(x2 7x + 12)

Factorise the second bracket if possible.

P(x) = (x + 2)(x 3)(x 4)

b 1 Name the polynomial.

b Let P(x) = x4 + x3 13x2 25x 12

Look for a value of x such that P(x) = 0.


Try P(1).

P(1) = 0
So (x + 1) is a factor.

It is difficult to factorise a quartic using


short division, so we will use long division
here.

x3 + 0x2 13x 12
x + 1 + x3 13x2 25x 12
(x4 + x3)
0 13x2 25x
(13x2 13x)
12x 12

( 12x 12)
0

Name the cubic factor and try to find


another factor using the factor theorem.

Let Q(x) = x3 13x 12.


Q(3) = 0
So (x + 3) is a factor.

Factorise the cubic using short division.

Q(x) = x3 13x 12
= (x + 3)(x2 3x 4)

x4

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

115

Factorise the quadratic if possible.

Q(x) = (x + 3)(x 4)(x + 1)

Write the original polynomial in factorised


form.

P(x) = x4 + x3 13x2 25x 12


= (x + 1)(x + 3)(x 4)(x + 1)
= (x + 1)2(x + 3)(x 4)

Worked example 14

Factorise the expression 2 x3 9 x2 2 x + 24.


Think

WriTe

Name the polynomial.

Look for values of x such that P(x) = 0.

x = 1: P(1) = 2 9 2 + 24 0
x = 2: P(2) = 16 36 8 + 24 = 0
So x 2 is a factor.

Write P(x) as the product of x 2 and an


unknown quadratic.

P(x) = (x 2)(ax2 + bx + c)

Consider the x3 term (2x3). This must


equal ax3.

(x)ax2 = ax3
= 2x3
Therefore a = 2.

Consider the constant term (24). This must


equal 2c.

(2)c = 2c
= 2c
Therefore c = 12.

Rewrite P(x).

P(x) = (x 2)(2x2 + bx 12)

Consider the x2 term from step 6. This must


equal 9x2 from the original cubic.

+ bx2 = 9x2
bx2 = 5x2
Therefore b = 5.

Consider the x term from step 6. This must


equal 2x from the original cubic. This
confirms step 7.

2bx

Write P(x).

P(x) = (x 2)(2x2 5x 12)

Factorise the quadratic term.

P(x) = (x 2)(2x + 3)(x 4)

10

exercise 3e
1 We12

4x2

12x = 22
2bx = 10x
b = 5

Factorising polynomials

Use long division to factorise each dividend.

a x + 1 x3 + 10x2 + 27x + 18

b x + 2 x3 + 8x2 + 17x + 10

c x + 9 x3 + 12x2 + 29x + 18

d x + 1 x3 + 8x2 + 19x + 12

e x + 3 x3 + 14x2 + 61x + 84

x + 7 x3 + 12x2 + 41x + 42

g x + 2 x3 + 4x2 + 5x + 2

h x + 3 x3 + 7x2 + 16x + 12

x + 5 x3 + 14x2 + 65x + 100

k x x3 + 7x2 + 12x

x + 5 x3 + 10x2 + 25x

x x3 + 13x2 + 40x

m x + 1 x3 + 6x2 + 5x

116

P(x) = 2x3 9x2 2x + 24

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

n x + 6 x3 + 6x2

2 We12,13
Factorise the following as fully as possible.
a x3 + x2 x 1
b x3 2x2 x + 2
3
2
d x + x 8x 12
e x3 + 9x2 + 24x + 16
3
2
g x + 2x x 2
h x3 7x 6
3
2
j x +x +x+6
k x3 + 8x2 + 17x + 10
3
2
m x x 8x + 12
n x3 + 9x2 12x 160
4
3
2
p x + 3x 6x 28x 24
q x4 + 6x3 + 8x2 6x 9

c
f
i
l
o
r

x3 + 7x2 + 11x + 5
x3 5x2 4x + 20
x3 + 3x2 4
x3 + x2 9x 9
x4 + 4x3 + 3x2 4x 4
x4 5x3 17x2 + 21x

diGiTal doC
doc-9728
polynomials zero
search

3 We14 Use a CAS calculator to factorise the following as fully as possible.


a 3x3 x2 10x
b 4x3 + 2x2 2x
c 3x3 6x2 24x

3
2
3
2
d 2x 12x 18x
e 6x 6x
f x3 7x2 12x

3
2

3
2
g x 3x + x + 3
h 2x + 10x 12x
i 6x3 5x2 + 12x 4

3
2

5
4
3
2
j
5x + 24x 36x + 16 k x x + 21x + 49x 8x 60
l 24x4 53x3 71x2 + 152x + 20
4
a
d
g
j

Factorise the following as fully as possible.


2x3 + 5x2 x 6
b 3x3 + 14x2 + 7x 4
3
2
4x + 35x + 84x + 45
e 5x3 + 9x2 + 3x 1
3
2
4x + 16x + 21x + 9
h 6x3 23x2 + 26x 8
3
2
7x + 12x 60x + 16
k 2x4 x3 11x2 11x 3

3F

c
f
i
l

3x3 + 2x2 12x 8


x3 + x2 + 4
10x3 + 19x2 94x 40
6x4 + 11x3 22x2 x + 6

Sum and difference of two cubes

Two special cases of cubic polynomials, called sum of cubesand difference of cubes, are discussed in
this section. There are shortcuts for factorising such cubic expressions. Examples of each are shown in
the table below.
Sum of cubes
x +
3

23

Difference of cubes
x3 27

125 + 64b3

x3
81y3
1000

x3y3 + 1

w6 1

(2x + 1)3 + 8

216 (uv)3

Consider the following expansions.


(a + b)(a2 ab + b2)
and
(a b)(a2 + ab + b2)
3
2
2
2
2
3
= a a b + ab + ba ab + b
= a3 + a2b + ab2 ba2 ab2 b3
3
2
2
2
2
3
= a a b + ab + a b ab + b
= a3 + a2b + ab2 a2b ab2 b3
3
3
=a +b
= a3 b3
These expansions show that:
a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 ab + b2)
and
a3 b3 = (a b)(a2 + ab + b2).
That is, we have two formulas that may be used to factorise sums and differences of cubes.
Worked example 15

Factorise the following using the sum or difference of cubes formula.


a x3 1000y3
b 2(x + 6)3 + 16
Think

a 1 Write the expression.

TUTorial
eles-1414
Worked example 15

WriTe

a x3 1000y3

= x3 (10y)3

Recognise a difference of cubes.

Identify a and b for use with the formula


a3 b3 = (a b)(a2 + ab + b2).

Use the formula to factorise.

= (x 10y)[x2 + x(10y) + (10y)2]

Simplify.

= (x 10y)(x2 + 10xy + 100y2)

a = x, b = 10y

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

117

b 2(x + 6)3 + 16

b 1 Write the expression.

= 2[(x + 6)3 + 8]
= 2[(x + 6)3 + 23]

Take out a common factor of 2 to produce a sum


of cubes.

Identify a and b for use with the formula


a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 ab + b2).

Apply the sum of cubes formula.

= 2[(x + 6) + 2][(x + 6)2 (x + 6)(2) + 22]

Simplify.

= 2(x + 8)(x2 + 12x + 36 2x 12 + 4)


= 2(x + 8)(x2 + 10x + 28)

exercise 3F

a = (x + 6), b = 2

Sum and difference of two cubes

1 Identify a and b (as used in the above sum and difference of cubes expressions) in each of the following

(do not factorise).


a x3 + 63

b 8y3 + z3

d 1 64h3

2 We15a
a x3 125

g
j

+ 8p3

729
s3t3

e3g3

t3

u3
216

Factorise the following using the sum or difference of cubes formula.


b j3 + k3
c y3 8

d 27x3 + y3

x3

1 3
8c

c (x + 5)3 + 27

64t3 216u3

h 27r3 1

x3 1

(3k)3 1
8

g6

Factorise the following.


a (a
+ a3
b (x + 2)3 8
c (2x + 3)3 + 1
3
3
3
3
d (w 5) w
e (2m + p) + (3m p)
f 27x3 (x + 3)3
3
3
3
3
g (2y + 7) + (y 2)
h (3x + y) + (x 4y)
i (2 4p)3 (p + 1)3
3
3
6
9
j (5x 9) (7 x)
k x +y
l 2x3 54
3
2
3
m 3a + 3
n 6(x + 1) + 162
4 When mx3 ny3 is fully factorised it gives (3x y)(9x2 + 3xy + y2). What are the values of m and n?
5 a Write 3x3 + my3 in the form a3 + b3.
b Identify the values of a and b.
c Factorise using the rule for sum of cubes.
3 We15b

1)3

3G Solving polynomial equations


making x the subject of the equation
Cubic equations of the form a(x b)3 + c = 0 may be solved by isolating x as follows.
a(x b)3 = c
c
(x b)3 =
a

c
a

x=b+

xb=

c
a

Unlike a square root, a cube root can be only positive or negative, not both; for example,
3
8

118

+= 2, 3 8 = 2.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Worked example 16

Solve 3(x + 2)3 + 192 = 0 by making x the subject.


Think

WriTe

3(x + 2)3 + 192 = 0

Write the equation.

Subtract 192 from both sides.

Divide both sides by 3.

Take the cube root of both sides.

Subtract 2 from both sides and simplify.

3(x + 2)3 = 192


(x + 2)3 = 64
x + 2 = 4
x = 4 2
= 6

Factorising to solve polynomial equations


The Null Factor Law applies to cubic and quartic equations just as it does for quadratics.
If P(x) = (x a)(x b)(x c) = 0, then the solutions are x = a, x = b and x = c.
If P(x) = k(lx a)(mx b)(nx c) = 0, solutions are found by solving the following equations:
lx a = 0, mx b = 0 and nx c = 0
Worked example 17

Solve each of the following equations.


a x4 = 16x2
b 2x3 11x2 + 18x 9 = 0
Think

a 1 Write the equation.

WriTe

x4 = 16x2
x4 16x2 = 0

Rearrange so that all terms are on the left.

Take out a common factor of x.

Factorise the brackets using a difference of squares.

x2(x + 4)(x 4) = 0

Use the Null Factor Law to solve.

x = 0, x + 4 = 0 or x 4 = 0
so x = 0, x = 4 or x = 4

b 1 Name the polynomial.

x2(x2 16) = 0

b Let P(x) = 2x3 11x2 + 18x 9.

Use the factor theorem to find a factor (search for a


value a such that P(a) = 0). Consider factors of the
constant term (that is, factors of 9 such as 1, 3). The
simplest value to try is 1.

P(1) = 2 11 + 18 9
=0
So (x 1) is a factor.

Use long or short division to find the other factors


of P(x).

2 2 9x + 9
2x
x 1 2x
2 3 11x2 18x 9
22x3 2x
2 2
9x2 + 18x
9x2 + 9x
9x 9
9x 9
0

Factorise the brackets.

P(x) = (x 1)(2x2 9x + 9)
P(x) = (x 1)(2x 3)(x 3)

Consider the factorised equation to solve.

For (x 1)(2x 3)(x 3) = 0

Use the Null Factor Law to solve.

x 1 = 0, 2x 3 = 0 or x 3 = 0
3

so x = 1, x = 2 or x = 3

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

119

Polynomial equations can also be solved using a CAS calculator, which is useful when the solutions
are not rational. The solutions can be found by using the solve function on a calculator page, or by
constructing a graph.
Worked example 18

Use a CAS calculator to solve x3 + 3 x2 8 x 5 = 0.


Think

WriTe

Use the CAS calculator to solve the equation.

Enter
solve (x3 + 3x2 8x 5 = 0, x)
into the CAS calculator.

Read the results supplied by the calculator.

x = 4.524 04 or
x = 0.536 396 or
x = 2.060 43

Write the answer.

The solutions of x3 + 3x2 8x 5 = 0 are


x = 4.52, 0.54 and 2.06, rounded to 2 decimal
places.

exercise 3G
1 We16

Solving polynomial equations

Solve the following equations by making x the subject.

a 2(x
250 = 0
c (x 4)3 1000 = 0
e 2(x 5)3 2 = 0
g (2x + 3)3 27 = 0

b 3(x + 2)3 + 81 = 0
d (x + 7)3 8 = 0
f (x + 3)3 + 1 = 0
h 4(3x 1)3 + 500 = 0

1)3

2
3

(x + 1)3 + 18 = 0

k (x 5)3 = 343

1
2

(5 x)3 32 = 0

l 4

4
5

(x + 8)3 = 104

Find all solutions of the following equations.

2
a
c
e
g
i
k
m

(x 1)(x 2)(x 5) = 0
(x 5)(x + 2)(x 9) (x 1) = 0
(3x + 12)(x 4)(x + 4) = 0
(x + 5)(x 8)2 = 0
x2(x + 1)(x 1) = 0
(6 x)2 (2 + x) = 0
x(5x 6)(2x + 3) (6 7x) = 0

3 We17a
a
d
g
j
m

b
d
f
h
j
l
n

(x + 3)(x + 4)(x + 7) = 0
(2x 4)(x + 1)(x 3) (x + 2) = 0
(2 x)(x + 2)(1 x)(1 + x) = 0
(x 1)3 = 0
3x(x 9)3 = 0
x2(2x + 7) = 0
(3 4x)2(5x 1) = 0

Solve the following equations.

x3 4x = 0
3x4 + 81 = 0
4x3 + 8x = 0
x4 5x3 + 6x2 = 0
9x2 = 20x + x3

b
e
h
k
n

x3 16x = 0
x3 + 5x2 = 0
12x3 + 3x2 = 0
x3 8x2 + 16x = 0
x3 + 6x = 4x2

c
f
i
l

2x4 50x2 = 0
x3 2x2 = 0
4x3 20x4 = 0
x3 + 6x2 = 7x

4 We17b Use the Null Factor Law to solve the following equations.
a x3 x2 16x + 16 = 0
b x3 6x2 x + 30 = 0
3
2
c x x 25x + 25 = 0
d x3 + 4x2 4x 16 = 0
3
2
e x 4x + x + 6 = 0
f x3 4x2 7x + 10 = 0
4
3
2

g x 3x 7x + 15x = 18
h x4 + 2x3 13x2 + 10x
3
2
i 2x + 15x + 19x + 6 = 0
j 4x3 + 16x2 9x 9 = 0

3
2
k 2x 9x 7x + 6 = 0
l 2x3 + 4x2 2x 4 = 0
5 We18 Use a CAS calculator to find all solutions to the following equations.
a x3 17x2 56x + 1153 = 0
b x3 + 12x2 49x 588 = 0

3
2
c x + 17x + 65x 1521 = 0
d x3 48x2 + 768x 4096 = 0
120

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

e x3 + 6x2 6x + 2 = 0
g 3x2 + 2x + 1 = x3
i x4 + 4x3 5x2 + 15 = 0

f x3 14x2 4x + 13 = 0
h 2x3 3x2 + 2x + 0.5 = 0
j 2x4 + 25x3 + 17x = 9

6 mC Which of the following is a solution to x3 7x2 + 2x + 40?


a 5
d 1

B 4
e 2

C 2

7 mC A solution of x3 9x2 + 15x + 25 = 0 is x = 5. How many other (distinct) solutions are there?
a 0
d 3

3h

B 1
e 4

C 2

diGiTal doC
doc-9729
WorkSHEET 3.2

Cubic graphs intercepts method

A good sketch graph of a function shows:


1. x- and y-intercepts
2. the behaviour of the function at extreme values of x, that is, as x approaches infinity (x +) and as
x approaches negative infinity (x )
3. the general location of turning points.
The graphs below show the two main types of cubic graph.
y

y
Turning
points

A positive cubic

A negative cubic

For positive cubic graphs, as positive values of x become larger and larger, y-values also become
larger.
For negative cubic graphs, as positive values of x become larger and
y Point of inflection
larger, y-values become smaller.
Sometimes, instead of two turning points, there is a point of inflection,
where the graph changes from a decreasing gradient to zero to an
increasing gradient (or vice versa). When this occurs, there is only one
x-intercept.
Consider the general factorised cubic f (x) = (x a)(x b)(x c).
x
The Null Factor Law tells us that f (x) = 0 when x = a or x = b or x = c.
The y-intercept occurs when x = 0; that is, the y-intercept is
f (0) = (0 a)(0 b)(0 c)
= abc
y

Cubic with a point of inflection

abc

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

121

Worked example 19

Sketch graphs of the following, showing all intercepts.


a y = (x 2)(x 3)(x + 5)
b y = (x 6)2 (4 x)
c y = (x 2)3
Think

WriTe/draW

a 1 Note that the function is already

factorised and that the graph is


a positive cubic.

a y = (x 2)(x 3)(x + 5)

The y-intercept occurs where x = 0.


Substitute x = 0 into the equation.

y-intercept: if x = 0,
y = (2)(3)(5)
= 30
Point: (0, 30)

Use the Null Factor Law to find the x-intercepts.


(Make each bracket equal to 0 and solve a
mini-equation.)

x-intercepts: if y = 0,
x 2 = 0, x 3 = 0 or x + 5 = 0
x = 2, x = 3 or x = 5
Points: (2, 0), (3, 0), (5, 0)

Combine information from the above


steps to sketch the graph.

30
5
b 1 The graph is a negative cubic
x

(the in the last factor produces


a negative x3 coefficient if the
RHS is expanded).

b y = (x 6)2(4 x)

Substitute x = 0 to find the y-intercept.

y-intercept: if x = 0,
y = (6)2(4)
= 144
Point: (0, 144)

Use the Null Factor Law to find the


x-intercepts. (Make each bracket equal to 0 and
solve a mini-equation.)

x-intercepts: if y = 0,
x 6 = 0 or 4 x = 0
x = 6 or
x=4
Points: (6, 0), (4, 0)

Combine all information and sketch the graph.


Note the skimming of the x-axis indicative of a
repeated factor, in this case the (x 6)2 part of the
expression.

y
144

4
c 1 Positive cubic.

122

Substitute x = 0 to find the y-intercept.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

c y = (x 2)3

y-intercept: if x = 0,
y = (2)3
= 8

Use the Null Factor Law to find the


x-intercept. (Make each bracket equal to 0 and
solve a mini-equation.)

Combine all information and sketch the graph. The


cubed factor, (x 2), indicates a point of inflection
and only one x-intercept.

x-intercept: if y = 0,
x2=0
x=2
y

2
8

If a cubic function is not in the form f (x) = (x a)(x b)(x c), we may try to factorise to find the
x-intercepts. We can use the factor theorem and division of polynomials to achieve this.
Worked example 20

Sketch the graph of y = 2x3 11x2 + 7x + 20, showing all intercepts.


Think
1

Write the equation and name the


polynomial P(x).

Note the graph is a positive cubic.

Let x = 0 to find the y-intercept.


Note: All terms involving x are equal
to zero.

Factorise P(x) to find x-intercepts.


(x 1) is not a factor.

TUTorial
eles-1415
Worked example 20

WriTe/draW

y = P(x) = 2x3 11x2


+ 7x + 20

y-intercept: if x = 0,
y = 20
Point: (0, 20)
P(1) = 2 13 11 12 + 7 1 + 20
= 2 11 + 7 + 20
= 18
0
P(1) = 2 (1)3 11 (1)2 + 7 (1) + 20
= 2 11 7 + 20
=0
So (x + 1) is a factor.

Use long or short division to factorise P(x). Here,


short division has been used.

P(x) = (x + 1)(2x2 13x + 20)


= (x + 1)(2x 5)(x 4)

Write down the x-intercepts (determined by


making each bracket equal to 0 and solving for x).

x-intercepts: if y = 0,
x = 1, 52 , 4

Points: (1, 0), ( 52 , 0), (4, 0)


7

Use all available information to sketch the graph.

y
20

5
2

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

123

Worked example 21

Sketch the graph of y = 3x3 + x2 2x + 5 using a CAS calculator. Find all intercepts and
stationary points.
Think

WriTe/draW

Enter the rule for the function into the


CAS calculator.

f1(x) = 3x3 + x2 2x + 5

Determine the y-intercept (when x=0).

f1(0) = 3(0)3 + (0)2 2(0) + 5


=5
The y-intercept is (0, 5).

Use the CAS calculator to help sketch the


graph.

(0, 5) B

(1.51, 0)

Analyse the function with the CAS calculator


to find zeros (x-intercepts). In this case there
is only one x-intercept.

The x-intercept is (1.51, 0).

Analyse the function with the CAS calculator


to find the local maximum, point A.

The local maximum (A) is (0.62, 5.9).

Analyse the function with the CAS calculator


to find the local minimum, point B.

The local minimum (B) is (0.36, 4.6).

exercise 3h

Cubic graphs intercepts method

1 We19
Sketch the following, showing all intercepts.
a y = (x 1)(x 2)(x 3)
c y = (x + 8)(x 11)(x + 1)
e y = (4x 3)(2x + 1)(x 4)
2

Sketch the following.

a y = (2 x)(x + 5)(x + 3)
c y = x(x + 1)(x 2)
e y = 4x2(x + 8)

b y = (x + 8)(x 8)(2x + 3)
d y = 3(x + 1)(x + 10)(x + 5)
f y = (6x 1)2(x + 7)

Sketch each of the following as fully as possible.

3 We20
a
c
e
g

b y = (x + 6)(x + 1)(x 7)
d y = (2x 5)(x + 4)(x 3)
f y = (x 3)2(x 6)

y = + 2x2 x 2
y = x3 + 7x2 + 14x + 8
y = x3 3x2 25x 21
y = 6x3 17x2 + 6x + 8
x3

b
d
f
h

y = x3 + 6x2 + 11x + 6
y = x3 x2 14x + 24
y = 3x3 + 17x2 + 28x + 12
y = 2x3 18x2

4 We21 Sketch the following using a CAS calculator. Find the intercepts and the coordinates

of all turning points, correct to 2 decimal places.


y = x3 8x2 5x + 14
y = x3 + 8x2 + 13x 140
y = 3x3 3x2 15x 9
y = 7x3 + 29x2 + 32x + 4

a
b
c
d
124

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

5 mC Which of the following is a reasonable sketch of y = (x + 2)(x 3)(2x + 1)?


y

1
2

2 x

y
3

1
2

3 x

3 x

6 mC The graph shown on the right could be that of:


a y=
+ 2)
C y = (x 2)(x + 2)2
e y = (x 2)3

x2(x

1
2

3 x

1
2

diGiTal doC
doc-9730
Cubic graphs
general form

B y = (x +
d y = (x 2)2(x + 2)

2)3

8
7 mC The graph below has the equation:
y

6
a y = (x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3)
d y = (x + 1)(x + 2)(x 3)

B y = (x + 1)(x 2)(x + 3)
e y = (x 1)(x 2)(x 3)

C y = (x 1)(x + 2)(x + 3)

8 mC If a, b and c are positive numbers, the equation of the graph shown below is:
a y = (x a)(x b)(x c)
d y = (x + a)(x + b)(x + c)

B y = (x + a)(x b)(x + c)
e y = (x a)(x + b)(x c)

C y = (x + a)(x + b)(x c)

9 mC Which of the following has only two distinct x-intercepts when graphed?
a y = x(x + 1)(x + 2)
d y = (x + 1)(x + 2)2

10 a
b
c
d

B y = (x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 3)
e y = x(x + 1)(x 1)

C y = x3

Sketch the graph of y = x3 x2 + 3x + 5 showing all intercepts.


Factorise y = x3 x2 + 3x + 5 expressing your answer in the form of y = (x + a)(x2 + bx + c).
Hence, show that y = x3 x2 + 3x + 5 has only one real solution. (Hint: Consider the discriminant.)
If y = (x + a)(x2 + kbx + c) where k is a constant, find the values of k such that the cubic has:
i two real solutions
ii three real solutions.
Note: a, b and c are the same values from part b.
ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

125

3i

Quartic graphs intercepts method

Quartic functions are polynomial functions of degree 4.


The graphs shown below are the main types of quartic graphs.
y
y = x4

y = (x a)(x b)(x c)(x d)


y

y = (x a)3(x b)
y

(2, 16)
0

a
repeated factor
(x a)3

x
a

d x

Negative quartics are reflected across the x-axis.


Consider the general factorised quartic, f (x) = (x a)(x b)(x c)(x d).
As for the cubic functions, the Null Factor Law tells us that f (x) = 0 (that is,
an x-intercept occurs) when x = a, x = b, x = c or x = d.
The y-intercept occurs when x = 0, therefore the y-intercept is
f (0) = (0 a)(0 b)(0 c)(0 d)
= abcd

y
abcd

d x

Worked example 22

Sketch the following graphs, showing all intercepts.


a y = (x 2)(x 1)(x + 1)(x + 3)
b y = (x 3)2(x + 1)(x + 5)
c y = (2x 1)(x + 1)3
Think

a 1 The y-intercept occurs when x = 0.

WriTe/draW

a y = (x 2)(x 1)(x + 1)(x + 3)

y = (2)(1)(1)(3)
=6
Point: (0, 6)

Use the Null Factor Law to find the x-intercepts.


(Make each bracket equal to 0 and solve a
mini-equation.)

x-intercepts: if y = 0,
x 2 = 0, x 1 = 0, x + 1 = 0 or x + 3 = 0
x = 2, x = 1, x = 1 or x = 3
Points: (2, 0), (1, 0), (1, 0), (3, 0)

The graph has a positive x4 coefficient, so large positive


values for x result in large positive values for y.

Shape:

Combine information from steps 1 to 3 to sketch


the graph.

6
3

b 1 The y-intercept occurs when x = 0.

126

Use the Null Factor Law to find the


x-intercepts. (Make each bracket equal
to 0 and solve a mini-equation.)

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

1 0

b y = (x 3)2(x + 1)(x + 5)

y = (3)2(1)(5)
= 45
Point: (0, 45)

x-intercepts: if y = 0,
x 3 = 0, x + 1 = 0 or x + 5 = 0
x = 3, x = 1 or x = 5
Points: (3, 0), (1, 0), (5, 0)

The graph has a positive x4 coefficient. (Large


positive values for x result in large positive values
for y.)

Combine all the information above to sketch the


graph. Note that it touches the x-axis where there
are repeated squared factors, (x 3)2.

Shape:

y
45
1 0

c 1 The y-intercept occurs when x = 0.

Use the Null Factor Law to find the x-intercepts.


(Make each bracket equal to 0 and solve a
mini-equation.)

c y = (2x 1)(x + 1)3

y = (1)(1)3
= 1
Point: (0, 1)

x-intercepts: if y = 0,
2x 1 = 0 or x + 1 = 0
x = 12 or x = 1
Points: (1, 0) and (1, 0)
2

x4

The graph has a positive coefficient. (Large


positive values for x result in large positive values
for y.)

Combine all the information from above to sketch


the graph. Note that the graph has a point of
inflection where it crosses the x-axis with repeated
cubic factors (x + 1)3.

Shape:

1
2

Follow the instructions in worked example 21 to draw quartic graphs using a CAS calculator.

exercise 3i

Quartic graphs intercepts method

1 We22
Sketch the following graphs, showing all intercepts.
a y = (x 3)(x 2)(x + 1)(x + 2)
b y = (x 2)2(x + 1)(x + 2)
3
c y = (x + 5)(x 1)
d y = (x 1)4

e y = x(2x 1)(x 3)(x + 3)


f y = (x 2)2(x + 1)2
4
g y = (1 3x)
h y = (x + 5)3(1 x)
2 Compare your answers to question 1 to those found using a CAS calculator.
3 If the graph of y = (x + a)(x + 3)(x + 1)(x 3) has four distinct x-intercepts and has a y-intercept at

(0, 45), find the value of a.


4 A quartic graph has only two x-intercepts, at x = a and x = b, and a y-intercept at the point (0, 81).

If a = b:
a find a possible equation for the quartic graph
b sketch the graph, labelling all intercepts.

5 mC Which of the following has two distinct x-intercepts when graphed?


a
B
C
d
e

y = x(x + 7)(x 7)(x + 2)


y = x2(x + 3)(x 3)
y = x3(x + 27)
y = x(x + 7)2(x 7)
y = x4

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

127

6 mC If a, b and c are positive numbers, the equation of the graph

shown is:
a y = (x + a)2(x + b)(x + c)
C y = (x + a)2(x b)(x + c)
e y = (x a)2(x + b)(x c)

B y = (x a)2(x b)(x c)
d y = (x a)(x + b)(x c)

abc

7 mC For the graph of the quadratic equation y = (x 2)(x + 1)(x + 3)2,

the y-intercept occurs at:


a 6
B 6
C 12
d 18
e 18
8 Use a CAS calculator to help you sketch the following quartics, showing all intercepts and turning
points correct to 2 decimal places.
a y = 2x4 + x3 5x2 + 7x + 2
b y = 3x4 9x3 8x2 + 12x + 9
c y = x4 2x3 + 5x2 + 4x
d y = x4 5x3 45x2 + 8x + 120
e y = 3x4 10x2 3
f y = 8x4 10x3 + 120x2 + 15x + 358

Graphs of cubic functions in


power function form
3J

Remember the power form or turning point form for quadratic graphs y = a(x b)2 + c, which was related
to transformations of the basic parabola? The same understanding of transformations can be used to sketch
cubic functions.
Cubic functions can be power functions. Power functions are functions of the form f (x) = xn, n R.
The value of the power, n, determines the type of function. When n = 1, f (x) = x, and the function is
linear. When n = 2, f (x) = x2, and the function is quadratic. When n = 3, f (x) = x3, and the function is
cubic. When n = 4, f (x) = x4, and the function is quartic.
Other power functions will be discussed later.
Under a sequence of transformations of f (x) = xn, n R, the general form of a power function is
f (x) = a(x b)n + c (where a, b, c and n R).
Although all linear and quadratic polynomials are also linear and quadratic power functions, this is not
the case for cubic functions (or quartic functions). For example, a cubic power function in the form of
f (x) = a(x b)n + c has exactly one x-intercept and one stationary point of inflection. A cubic polynomial
in the form f (x) = ax3 bx2 + cx + d can have one, two or three x-intercepts and is therefore not always a
power function.
For example, the cubic function y = 2(x 3)3 + 1 is a polynomial and a power function. It is the graph
of y = x3 under a sequence of transformations.
A cubic power function has a stationary point of inflection at (b, c). A stationary point of inflection is
where a graph levels off to have a zero gradient at one point with the same sign gradient either side.
y

y = x3

y = x3 y

Stationary point
of inflection

Summary of transformations
y = a(x b)3 + c

y
(b, c)

Dilation factor
from the x-axis
(y-stretch)
128

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

x-translation

y-translation

Stationary point
of inflection
x

The effect of a is illustrated below.


y

y = 2x3
y = x3
y = 12 x3

y = 2x3
y
y = x3
y = 12 x3

Positive a

Negative a

intercepts
Intercepts may be found by substituting x = 0 (to find the y-intercepts) and y = 0 (to find the x-intercepts)
into the equation.
Worked example 23

Sketch the graph of each of the following, showing the stationary point of inflection and intercepts.
a y = 3(x 2)3 + 3
b y = 2x3 + 54
c y = 2(1 2x)3 16
Think

a 1 Compare the equation with y = a(x b)3 + c, which

WriTe/draW

a y = 3(x 2)3 + 3

has a stationary point of inflection (b, c).


2

Note the values that match, namely a= 3, b = 2 and c = 3.


State the stationary point of inflection (b, c).

Stationary point of inflection (2, 3)

Find the y-intercept.

If x = 0,

Find the x-intercept.


(Note that the cube root of 1 is 1.)

If y = 0,

Note that the equation is for a positive cubic.

Shape:

Sketch, showing the stationary point of inflection and


intercepts.

y = 3(0 2)3 + 3
y = 3(8) + 3
y = 21
0 = 3(x 2)3 + 3
2)3 = 3
(x 2)3 = 1
x 2 = 1
x=1

3(x

(2, 3)

21
b 1 Manipulate into y = a(x b)3 + c form.
2

Note the graph is a negative cubic with stationary


point of inflection (0, 54).

b y = 2x3 + 54

y = 2(x 0)3 + 54

Stationary point of inflection (0, 54)

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

129

Find the y-intercept.

If x = 0,

Find the x-intercept.

If y = 0,

Sketch, showing the stationary point of inflection and


intercepts.

y = 2(0) + 54
y = 54
0 = 2x3 + 54
2x3 = 54
x3 = 27
x=3

y
(0, 54)

c 1 Manipulate into y = a(x b)3 + c form.

c y = 2(1 2x)3 16

= 2[2(x 1)]3 16
2

= 2[8(x 12)3] 16
= 16(x 12)3 16
2

Note the graph is a positive cubic with stationary point


1
of inflection ( 2 , 16).

Stationary point of inflection ( 12 , 16)

Find the y-intercept.

If x = 0,

y = 16( 2 )3 16
= 2 16
= 18

Find the x-intercept. Use the result from step 1.

0 = 16( x 2 )3 16

If y = 0,

16 = 16( x 2 )3
1

1 = ( x 2 )3
1=x
3
2

Sketch, showing stationary point of inflection and


intercepts.

=x

3
2

18

( 12, 16)

Graphs of cubic functions in power


function form
exercise 3J
1

130

Without sketching graphs for each of the following, state:


i the dilation factor
ii the coordinates of the stationary point of inflection.
a y = 2(x 1)3 + 3
b y = 3(x + 5)3 2

3
c y = 2(x 6) 8
d y = 7(x + 4)3 + 1
3
e y = (x 9) + 4
f y = x3 7

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

1
2

g y = (x + 1)3 1

y=
k y=
i

1
4 (x
1 3
x
3

h y = 2 (x + 2)3

3)3 + 2

j
l

y = 4x3
y = 2x3 2

Sketch the graph of each of the following, showing the stationary point of inflection and
intercepts.
a y = 2(x 2)3 + 2
b y = 3(x + 3)3 + 81
3
c y = 4(x 4) 32
d y = 5(x 1)3 + 5

3
e y= x 8
f y = x3 1
1
3
g y = (x + 2) + 27
h y = (x + 5)3 32
2

2 We23

y=

k y=
m y=

1
3
3 (x 3) 9
1
(x + 2)3 + 25
5
5x3

1
4

y=

(x + 1)3 + 2

y = 2x3

n y = 3x3 3

3 Sketch the following, showing the stationary point of inflection. Intercepts are not required. Use a

CAS calculator to verify answers.


a y = (4 x)3 + 1
c y = 2(4x 1)3

b y = 3(5 x)3 3
d y = 5(3 2x)3 + 1

y = 17 (3 4x)3 2
h y = (9 5x)3 7
j y = 2(5 2x)3 1

e y = 5 (1 x)3

g y = (4 x)3 + 3
i

diGiTal doC
doc-9731
Cubic graphs basic
form

y = 83 (6 x)3 + 4

4 mC The basic cubic graph y = x3 undergoes a dilation factor of 6 from the x-axis and is translated

right 4 units and down 3 units. The equation for this graph is:

a y = 6(x 4)3 3
C y = 6(x 3)3 4
e y = 4(x + 3)3 + 6

B y = 3(x 4)3 6
d y = 4(x + 6)3 + 3

5 mC The graph of y = 5(2 x)3 + 9 has a stationary point of inflection at:


a (5, 2)
d (2, 9)

B (5, 9)
e (2, 9)

C (2, 9)

6 Suggest a possible equation for each of the following, given that each is a cubic with a dilation factor of

1 or 1 from the x-axis.

b
(1, 5)

(2, 2)
x

x
y

(3, 4)

(3, 0)

7 Write an equation for a cubic with:


a a dilation factor of 4 from the x-axis and a stationary point of inflection at (2, 3)
b a dilation factor of 2 from the x-axis and a stationary point of inflection at (5, 1)
c a dilation factor of 1 from the x-axis and a stationary point of inflection at (1, 2)
d a dilation factor of

4
1
2

from the x-axis and a stationary point of inflection at (0, 4).

diGiTal doC
doc-9732
Investigation
Graphs of the form
y = a (x b )n + c

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

131

domain, range, maximums


and minimums
3k

Range = [8, 10]

The domain of a function is the set of x-coordinates of points on its graph. The range is the set of
y-coordinates of points on the graph. Normally, the domain and range of a cubic function are the set of
all real numbers, or R for short, as such graphs extend indefinitely in both positive and negative axis
directions. The domain and range of a restricted cubic function may be a smaller set of numbers.
Actual maximum
(within given domain)
y
Local maximum
10

8
Domain = [5, 3]

Range = [8, 10]

The restricted graph has a domain of x-values between 5 and 3, denoted [5, 3]. y
The range is [8, 10].
10
Square brackets are used to indicate that an end value is included.
We show this with a small coloured-in circle on the graph. If an end
value is not included, a curved bracket is used. We show such points
on a graph using a hollow circle.
5

8
Domain = [5, 3]

Function notation

When we wish to convey information about the domain of a function, the following notation may be used:
f : [4, 1] R, where f (x) = (x 1)(x + 2)(x + 4)

}
The name of
the function

The domain
The co-domain. The
range is within this set.

The rule for


the function

Note: The range is not necessarily equal to R; the range is within R.


Worked example 24

For the function f: [4, 1] R where f (x) = (x 1)(x + 2)(x + 4), sketch the graph of f (x), showing
intercepts and the coordinates of any local maximum or local minimum, and state the range.
Think

132

WriTe/draW

Determine the y-intercept by setting x=0.

f (x) = (x 1)(x + 2)(x + 4)


f (0) = (0 1)(0 + 2)(0 + 4)
= 8
The y-intercept is (0, 8).

Determine the x-intercept by setting y=0. Use the


Null Factor Law.

0 = (x 1)(x + 2)(x + 4)
x 1 = 0 or x + 2 = 0 or x + 4 = 0
x=1
x = 2
x = 4

The x-intercepts are (1, 0), ( 2, 0) and (4, 0).

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Enter the rule into a CAS calculator (including the


restricted domain).

Sketch the graph over the restricted domain.

f (x) = (x 1)(x + 2)(x + 4) | 4 x 1


y
A
(2, 0)

(1, 0)
x

(4, 0)

B
5

Use the CAS calculator to determine the maximum


at point A.

The maximum (A) is (3.12, 4.06).

Use the CAS calculator to determine the minimum


at point B.

The minimum (B) is (0.21, 8.21).

Use the graph and the local maximum and


minimum to determine the range.

The range is [8.21, 4.06].

The maximum and minimum of a graph within a certain


domain are not necessarily the values of the local
maximum or minimum. Sometimes an extreme value is
simply the y-coordinate of an end point of a graph.

Absolute maximum

Local maximum

Local minimum
x
Absolute minimum
Worked example 25

Sketch f: [0, 7) R where f (x) = x(x 5)2, showing intercepts, end points, and the local maximum
and minimum, and state the range.
Think
1

Determine the y-intercept by setting x= 0.

Determine the x-intercept by setting y= 0. Use the


Null Factor Law.

Calculate the value of the end points of the


restricted domain.

Use a CAS calculator to sketch the graph over the


restricted domain. Note the right end point
(7, 28) should be shown as a hollow circle.

WriTe/draW

f (x) = x(x 5)2


f (0) = 0(0 5)2
=0
The y-intercept is (0, 0).
0 = x(x 5)2
x = 0 or (x 5)2 = 0 x = 5
The x-intercepts are (0, 0) and (5, 0).
f (0) = 0
f (7) = 7(7 5)2
= 7 22
= 28
y
(7, 28)
A

(0, 0)

(0, 5)

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

133

Use the CAS calculator to determine the local


maximum at point A.

The local maximum is (1.67, 18.52).

Use the graph to determine the range. Note the use


of a curved bracket to indicate that the end value is
not included in the range.

The range is [0, 28).

Domain and range will be discussed in more detail in chapter 4.


A method of finding maximums and minimums without a calculator will be covered in the study of
calculus later in this book.

domain, range, maximums and


minimums
exercise 3k

A graphics calculator is required for this exercise.


State the domain and range of the sections of graph shown in each case.

a
diGiTal doC
doc-9733
SkillSHEET 3.2
interval notation

(2, 5)

(1, 7)

(5, 2)

(2, 3)

(4, 0)
x

(2, 2)
c

(4, 2)
d

(6, 10)

(4, 2)
x

(4, 1)
x

(2, 3)

(2, 2)

(3, 5)
y

(5, 5)

(2, 0)

(1, 2)

(3, 0)

(3, 0)

(3, 8)

(4, 5)

(1, 9)
2 We24,25 For each of the following, sketch the graph (showing local maximums and minimums, and

intercepts) and state the range.


a f: [1, 4] R where f (x) = (x 3)(x 4)(x + 1)
b f: [5, 1] R where f (x) = (x + 2)(x + 5)(x 1)
c f: [1, 3) R where f (x) = (x 2)2(x 1)
d f: (3, 0] R where f (x) = (x + 3)(x + 1)2
e f: [8, 2) R where f (x) = (2x 3)(x + 1)(x + 7)
f f: [0, 4] R where f (x) = x3 6x2 + 9x 4
g f: [4, 1.442] R where f (x) = x3 + 6x2 + 11x + 6
h f: (2, 2.1) R where f (x) = x3 + 2x2 5x 6
i f: [3, 5.1] R where f (x) = x3 + x2 + 17x + 15
1
j f: (3, 2 ) R where f (x) = 3x3 + 5x2 19x 21
3
134

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

3 mC The range of the function shown at right is:


a

[4.061,

18]

y
(0.786, 8.209)

B [4.061, 8.209]

(4, 18)

C (0, 18]
d (2, 3]
e (2, 4]

x
1
3
(2.120, 4.061)

2
y

4 mC Point A on the curve is:


a
B
C
d
e

an intercept
a local minimum
an absolute minimum
a local maximum
an absolute maximum

A
x
y

5 A roller-coaster ride is modelled by the function

f (x) = 0.001(x 10)(x + 20)(x 40).


a What is the height above ground level of the
track at x = 50?
b How far apart vertically are points A and B?

20

20
A

Ground level
40

6 The course of a river as marked on a map follows the curve defined by the function

f (x)=1.5x3 2.7x2 + x 1. Find the coordinates of the southernmost point on the river
between x = 0 and x = 2.

5
1.5

1.5
5

x
diGiTal doC
doc-9734
Investigation
modelling the path of
a roller-coaster

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

135

3l
inTeraCTiViTY
int-0262
modelling data using
polynomials

modelling using technology

Scientists, economists, doctors and biologists often wish to find an equation that closely matches, or
models, a set of data. For example, the wombat population of a particular island may vary as recorded
in the following table.
Year of study (x)
Wombat
population (W)

10

59

62

69

83

81

76

70

66

52

49

41

Wombat population

The graph below shows these data, with a possible


model for the wombat population superimposed.
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20 y = 0.0888x3 2.4598x2 + 14.196x + 55.063
10
0

4 6
Year

8 10

We will examine polynomial models up to degree 3, that is, models of the form:
y
y = a3x3 + a2x2 + a1x + a0
35
where a0, a1, a2 and a3 are constants.
30
Several technological options are available to assist in
25
Sum of squares of these
obtaining models for data, including a CAS calculator,
20
lengths is minimised.
spreadsheets and computer algebra systems such as
15
Mathcad. Many of these applications use a method
10
y = 2.6636x + 7.3182
5
involving minimising the sum of the squares of the vertical
distances of the data points from the graph of the
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 x
function this is known as the least squares method.

modelling using a calculator


A CAS calculator can be used to find a model or regression for a set of data. The following example
employs cubic regression, but the general approach is the same for all types of regression.
Worked example 26

Fit a cubic model to the following data using a CAS calculator.


Write the equation and draw a rough sketch of the graph.
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
x
627 545 580 528 436 318 238 229 134 169 139
y
Think
1
2
3

WriTe/draW

Use the CAS calculator to perform a cubic


Enter the x- and y-values into two columns in
regression. This fits a best-fit cubic to the given data. a spreadsheet on the CAS calculator.
Write the equation.
y = 1.37x3 + 19.14x2 + 8.55x + 607.48
Use the CAS calculator to sketch the graph over
the even domain.

y
600

136

TUTorial
eles-1416
Worked example 26

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

10

modelling using technology

exercise 3l

Use a CAS calculator or other technology to answer the questions in this exercise.
1 We26 Find a linear model for each of the following sets of data, and draw a rough sketch of the graph.
a

10

30

28

29

50

68

73

77

84

10

15

12

26

27

12

20

39

46

50

40

67

x
y

0
11

1
8

2
9

3
14

4
19

5
18

6
29

7
29

8
28

9
32

10
39

x
y

0
53

1
44

2
39

3
42

4
35

5
32

6
30

7
29

8
23

9
27

10
19

diGiTal doC
doc-9735
modelling

2 Find a quadratic model for each of the following sets of data, and draw a rough sketch of the graph.
a

x
y

0
19

1
4

2
48

3
60

4
36

5
88

6
126

7
116

8
159

9
168

10
122

x
y

0
65

1
33

2
80

3
12

4
50

5
248

6
228

7
252

8
496

9
439

10
694

x
y

0
14

1
16

2
32

3
36

4
37

5
51

6
57

7
56

8
55

9
54

10
56

10

70

27

148

327

447

639

733

910

1204

x
y

92

3 Find the cubic model for each of the following sets of data, and draw a rough sketch of the graph.
a

x
y

0
627

1
545

2
580

3
528

4
436

5
318

6
238

7
229

8
134

9
169

10
139

x
y

0
21

1
28

2
91

3
182

4
81

5
203

6
345

7
397

8
730

9
873

10
1205

10

35

182

400

631

7
755

8
800

9
868

10
854

55

84

64

29

10

17

x
y

0
45

1
26

2
109

3
201

4
399

5
466

6
621

4 For the following data set, find and sketch:


a a linear model
b a quadratic model

x
y

0
537

1
681

2
536

3
624

4
632

5
763

c a cubic model.

6
686

7
885

8
1090

9
1230

10
1451

5 Which of the models in question 4 fits best?


6 Use the model from question 1a to predict the value of y when x = 20.
7 Use the model from question 2a to predict the value of y to the nearest unit when x = 5.5.
8 Use the model from question 3a to predict the value of y to the nearest unit when x = 12.
ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

137

9 The value of shares in the company Mathsco is plotted by a sharemarket analyst over a

12-month period as shown.


0
J

Month
Share
price

1
J

2
A

3
S

4
O

5
N

6
D

7
J

8
F

9
M

10
A

11
M

0.50 0.58 0.53 0.76 1.00 1.50 1.55 2.20 3.06 3.83 4.79 4.40

a Find and sketch a quadratic model for the data.


b Use your model to predict the share price 2 months later.
c Give reasons why such a prediction may not be accurate.
10 The population of a colony of yellow-bellied sap-suckers on an isolated island is studied

over a number of years. The population at the start of each year is shown in the table below.
Year
Population

10

250

270

310

375

410

395

335

290

290

320

325

Find and sketch a cubic model for the population, and use it to estimate the population at the start of
year 11.

3m

Finite differences

If pairs of data values in a set obey a polynomial equation, that equation or model may be found using
the method of finite differences.
Consider a difference table for a general polynomial of the form
y = a3x3 + a2x2 + a1x + a0.
We begin the difference table by evaluating the polynomial for x values of 0, 1, 2 etc.
The differences between successive y-values (see table) are called the first differences.
The differences between successive first differences are called second differences.
The differences between successive second differences called the third differences.
We will call the first shaded cell (nearest the top of the table) stepped cell 1, the second shaded cell
stepped cell 2 and so on.
x

y
(= a3 x3 + a2 x2 + a1x + a0)

a0

First
differences

Second
differences

Third
differences

a3 + a2 + a1
1

a3 + a2 + a1 + a0

6a3 + 2a2
7a3 + 3a2 + a1

8a3 + 4a2 + 2a1 + a0

6a3
12a3 + 2a2

19a3 + 5a2 + a1
3

27a3 + 9a2 + 3a1 + a0

6a3
18a3 + 2a2

37a3 + 7a2 + a1
4

64a3 + 16a2 + 4a1 + a0

6a3
24a3 + 2a2

61a3 + 9a2 + a1
5

125a3 + 25a2 + 5a1 + a0

If a3 0, the above polynomial equation represents a cubic model, and the third differences are
identical (all equal to 6a3).
If a3 = 0, a2 0 and the polynomial reduces to y = a2x2 + a1x + a0, that is, a quadratic model, and the
second differences become identical (all equal to 2a2).
138

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

If a3 = 0 and a2 = 0, the polynomial becomes y = a1x + a0, that is, a linear model, and the first
differences are identical (all equal to a1).
1. Stepped cell 1 = a0
2. Stepped cell 2 = a1 + a2 + a3
3. Stepped cell 3 = 2a2 + 6a3
4. Stepped cell 4 = 6a3
Worked example 27

Complete a finite difference table based on the data below, and use it to determine the equation
for y in terms of x.
x

20

39

64

Think
1

WriTe

Place the data in columns as shown, allowing


space for 3 difference columns.
Calculate the first differences and place them in the
next column. The first differences are not constant,
so we need to find the second differences.

Differences
1st

2nd

3rd

1
1

Calculate these and place them in the next column.


The second differences are constant, so our table
is complete. Showing the third differences is
optional. The curve is a quadratic.

6
7

6
13

20

6
19

39

64

0
6

25

Recall the stepped cell equations, and equate them


to the shaded cells as shown:
Stepped cell 1 = a0
Stepped cell 2 = a1 + a2 + a3
Stepped cell 3 = 2a2 + 6a3
Stepped cell 4 = 6a3
Here, * is used to denote solved values.

a0 = 1*
a1 + a2 + a3 = 1
2a2 + 6a3 = 6
6a3 = 0

[1] gives a0 = 1 and [4] gives a3 = 0.


Substitute this information into [2] and [3].

So

Substitute a2 = 0 into [5] to find a1.

Substitute your values for a0, a1, a2 and a3 into the


equation y = a3x3 + a2x2 + a1x + a0.

[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

a3 = 0*
Sub a3 = 0 into [2]:
a1 + a2 + 0 = 1
a1 + a2 = 1
Sub a3 = 0 into [3]:
2a2 + 6 0 = 6
2a2 = 6
a2 = 3*
Sub a2 = 3 into [5]:

[5]

a1 + 3 = 1
a1 = 2*
y = a3x3 + a2x2 + a1x + a0 becomes
y = (0)x3 + (3)x2 + (2)x + (1)
y = 3x2 2x 1

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

139

The stepped equations work only if the finite differences table begins with x = 0 and x increases in
steps of 1. It may be necessary on occasions to adjust the table to achieve this, as the following example
shows.
Worked example 28

Complete a finite difference table based on these


data and use it to determine the equation for y in
terms of x.
Think
1

x
y

2
5

3
13

4
21

5
29

WriTe

Construct a difference table, leaving room


for the x = 0 row.
Calculate and fill in the first differences
where possible.
Note the first differences are constant, so
the last two columns are optional. The
relationship is linear.

11

Differences
1st

2nd

3rd

8
1

0
8

Working backwards, the first stepped


cell must be 11 in order for the difference
between it and the next cell to be 8.

0
8

13

0
8

21

0
8

5
5

Recall the stepped cell equations, and equate


them to the shaded cells as shown:
Stepped cell 1 = a0
Stepped cell 2 = a1 + a2 + a3
Stepped cell 3 = 2a2 + 6a3
Stepped cell 4 = 6a3
Here, an asterisk (*) is used to denote
solved values.

[1] gives a0 = 11, [4] yields a3 = 0, and


hence [3] yields a2 = 0. Substitute this
information into [2].

Use the asterisked values to build the equation


y = a3x3 + a2x2 + a1x + a0.

29

a0 = 11*
a1 + a2 + a3 = 8
2a2 + 6a3 = 0
6a3 = 0

[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

a3 = 0* and a2 = 0*
Sub a2 = 0 and a3 = 0 into [2]:
a1 + 0 + 0 = 8
a1 = 8*
y = a3x3 + a2x2 + a1x + a0 becomes
y = (0)x3 + (0)x2 + (8)x + (11)
y = 8x 11

So

Using simultaneous equations to find


a polynomial model
The method of fitting a polynomial to a set of data using finite differences requires the data to be
sequential. Often this is not the case. Simultaneous equations can be used to find a polynomial model
when the data are not sequential.
140

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

The number of simultaneous equations required to find the rule of a degree n polynomial is n + 1.
For example, to find a quadratic model, 2 + 1 = 3 points are required as a quadratic is a degree 2
polynomial. Each of the points are substituted into the general equation of the quadratic polynomial,
y = ax2 + bx + c, to generate 3 simultaneous equations. These can be solved using elimination or by
using a CAS calculator.
Worked example 29

Using simultaneous equations, find a quadratic model for the points (2, 9), (3, 1) and (1, 9).
Think
1

Write down the general rule of a quadratic.

Substitute each point into the general equation to


get three simultaneous equations.

WriTe

y = ax2 + bx + c
a(2)2 + b(2) + c = 9
4a 2b + c = 9
a(3)2 + b(3) + c = 1
9a + 3b + c = 1
a(1)2 + b(1) + c = 9
a+b+c=9

Solve equations [1], [2] and [3] using elimination.


Equation [1] [2] to eliminate c.
Equation [2] [3] to eliminate c.
Equation [4] 8
Equation [5] 5
Add equations [6] and [7] to eliminate a and solve
for b.
Substitute b = 4 into equation [4] to find a.

5a

5b = 10
8a + 2b = 8
40a 40b = 80
40a + 10b = 40
30b = 120
b=4
5a 5(4) = 10
5a = 10
a = 2
2 + 4 + c = 9
c=7

Substitute a = 2 and b = 4 into equation [3]


to find c.
4

Write the rule.

[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]

y = 2x2 + 4x + 7

Worked example 30

Using simultaneous equations, find a cubic model for the points (2, 10), (1, 2), (3, 20) and (6, 22).
Use a CAS calculator to solve the simultaneous equations.
Think

WriTe

Write the general rule for a cubic.

y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d

Substitute each point into the general equation to


get 4 simultaneous equations.

a(2)3 + b(2)2 + c(2) + d = 10


8a + 4b 2c + d = 10
3
a(1) + b(1)2 + c(1) + d = 2
a+b+c+d=2
a(3)3 + b(3)2 + c(3) + d = 20
27a + 9b + 3c + d = 20
3
a(6) + b(6)2 + c(6) + d = 22
216a + 36b + 6c + d = 22

[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

Use the CAS calculators solve feature to


determine a, b, c and d.

The values are a = 1, b = 5, c = 4 and d = 10.

Write the rule.

y = x3 5x2 4x + 10

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

141

exercise 3m

Finite differences

For each of the following, complete a finite difference table based on the data below and
use it to determine the equation of y in terms of x.

1 We27,28
a

17

28

39

50

61

100

74

48

22

30

32

71

124

191

x
y

13

11

10

26

77

158

16

17

20

31

56

101

23

11

25

49

77

28

27

32

31

12

27

18

18

x
y

15

66

58

99

94

19

43

35

27

19

11

Triangular numbers may be illustrated as shown at right.


If x is the number of dots on the base of each diagram, and y is the total
number of dots:
a complete the table below
b find an equation linking x and y
x (base dots)

y (total dots)
c find the total number of cans in the supermarket display shown at right using
the equation found in b, and check your answer by counting the cans.

142

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

x=1

x=2

x=3

x=4

The diagonals in polygons of various types are shown at right in red. Find the
relationship between the number of dots (x) and the number of diagonals (n).
(Hint: Continue patterns in a difference table so that it is completed back to
x = 0.)

If n is the number of different squares that can be found within a square grid of edge length x, find
an equation for n in terms of x and use this equation to find the number of different squares on a
chessboard.

x=1 x=2
n=1 n=5
5 Find a linear model for the following sets of points.
a (2, 1) (1, 23)

x=3
n=?

b (4, 6) (8, 3)

6 We29
Using simultaneous equations, find a quadratic model for the following sets of points.
a (2, 13) (6, 37) (4, 57)
b (1, 4) (1, 2) (4, 19)

c (4, 8) (0, 8) ( 4, 24)


d (5, 360) (2, 96) (6, 272)
7 We30 Using simultaneous equations, find a cubic model for the following sets of points. Use a CAS

calculator to solve the simultaneous equations.

a (6, 3) (3, 27) (3, 33) (2, 3)


c (4, 10) (6, 90) (8, 302) (2, 2)

b (2, 39) (1, 6) (4, 141) (3, 118)


d (1, 4) (1, 8) (4, 314) (0, 6)

8 Using simultaneous equations, find a quartic model for the following sets of points. Use a

CAS calculator to solve the simultaneous equations.


a (1, 2) (3, 354) (4, 1313) (2, 79) (1, 2)
b (4, 73) (0, 1) (2, 11) (2, 13) (6, 707)

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

143

Summary
expanding

When expanding three linear factors:


1. expand two factors first, then multiply the result by the remaining linear factor
2. collect like terms at each stage
3. (x + 2)3 may be written as (x + 2)(x + 2)(x + 2)
4. (a + b)3 = a3 + 3a2b + 3ab2 + b3
(a b)3 = a3 3a2b + 3ab2 b3

long division of
polynomials

Long division of polynomials is similar to long division with numbers.


The highest power term is the main one considered at each stage.
The key steps are:
1. How many?
2. Multiply and write the result underneath.
3. Subtract.
4. Bring down the next term.
5. Repeat until no variables remain to be divided.
6. State the quotient and the remainder.

polynomial values

P(a) means the value of P(x) when x is replaced by a and the polynomial is evaluated.

The remainder and


factor theorems

The remainder R = P(a) when P(x) is divided by x a.


If P(a) = 0, then (x a) is a factor of P(x).

Factorising
polynomials

To factorise a polynomial:
1. let P(x) = the given polynomial
2. use the factor theorem to find a linear factor
3. use long or short division to find another factor
4. repeat steps 2 and 3, or factorise by inspection if possible.
Alternatively, use the factor function on a calculator.

Sum and difference of


two cubes

a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 ab + b2)
a3 b3 = (a b)(a2 + ab + b2)

Solving polynomial
equations

To solve a polynomial equation:


1. rewrite the equation so it equals zero
2. factorise the polynomial as much as possible
3. let each linear factor equal zero and solve for x in each case.

Cubic graphs
intercepts method

y
To sketch a cubic function of the form f (x) = Ax3 + Bx2 + Cx + D:
1. determine if the expression is a positive or negative cubic (that is,
20
if A is positive or negative)
2. find the y-intercept (let x = 0)
3. factorise if necessary or possible; for example, obtain an
expression in the form f (x) = (x a)(x b)(x c)
4. find the x-intercepts (let factors of f (x) equal 0)
1
5. use all available information to sketch the graph.

Quartic graphs
intercepts method

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

To sketch a quartic function in the form


f (x) = (x a)(x b)(x c) (x d):
1. find the y-intercept (f (0) = abcd)
2. find the x-intercepts (let factors of f (x) = 0)
3. use all available information to sketch the graph.

840

144

5
2

Graphs of cubic
functions in power
function form

A cubic function in the form y = a(x b)3 + c has a y-dilation of a and a stationary point of
inflection at (b, c).
y

a>0

a<0

(b, c)

(b, c)
x

Positive a

Negative a

domain, range,
maximums and
minimums

The absolute maximum or minimum is either the y-value at a local maximum or minimum, or the
y-value at an end of the domain.

modelling using
technology

An equation to model data may be obtained using a calculator.


1. Enter data as lists.
2. Find the regression equation (linear, quadratic etc.).

Finite differences

To use the method of finite differences:


1. Set up a table as shown and find differences by subtracting successive values (value previous
value). Circle or shade the stepped cells.
x

Stepped cell 1

First
differences

Second
differences

Third
differences

Stepped cell 2
1

Stepped cell 3
Stepped cell 4

Etc.
Etc.

Previous value
Value
previous value

Value

2. Use the following equations to determine the polynomial models coefficients.


1. Stepped cell 1 = a0
2. Stepped cell 2 = a1 + a2 + a3
The equation of the polynomial model is
3. Stepped cell 3 = 2a2 + 6a3
y = a3x3 + a2x2+ a1x + a0.
4. Stepped cell 4 = 6a3

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

145

Chapter review
S h orT
anS Wer

1 Expand:
a (x 2)2(x + 10)
c (x 7)3

b (x + 6)(x 1)(x + 5)
d (5 2x)(1 + x)(x + 2).

2 Find the quotient and remainder when the first polynomial is divided by the second in each case.
a x3 + 2x2 16x 3, x + 2
b x3 + 3x2 13x 7, x 3
c x3 + x2 + 4x 7, x + 1
3 If P(x) = 3x3 + 2x2 + x 4, find:
a P(1)

b P(4)

+
29x 42.

4 Without dividing, find the remainder when


5 Show that x + 3 is a factor of

x3

2x2

c P(2a).

x3

3x2

16x + 5 is divided by x 1.

6 Factorise x3 + 4x2 100x 400.


7 Factorise:
a 1 125x3

b (x 2)3 + (x + 3)3.

8 Solve:
a 5(x + 5)3 + 5 = 0

b (2x + 1)2 (x 3)2 = 0

c x3 9x2 + 26x 24 = 0.

9 Sketch:
a y = x(x 2)(x + 11)

b y = x3 + 6x2 15x + 8

c y = 2x3 + x2.

b y = (2x 1)(x + 1)(x + 4)2

c y = x(x + 5)3.

10 Sketch:
a y = x(x 7)(x 2)(x + 4)
11 Sketch y =

1
8

(x + 1)3 + 8.

12 Find the range of f : [6, 3] R, where f (x) = (x + 1)(2 x)(x + 5).


13 Complete a finite difference table, and use it to determine the equation for y in terms of x for the

following data set.


x

17

40

83

14 The following series of diagrams show the maximum number of regions

produced by drawing chords in a circle.


x=0 x=1 x=2 x=3
Find a relationship between the number of chords (x) and the maximum r = 1 r = 2 r = 4 r = 7
number of regions (r).
15 Using simultaneous equations, find a cubic model for the points (1, 10), (2, 4), (3, 104) and (0, 2).
mUlTip l e
Ch oiCe

1 The expansion of (x + 5)(x + 1)(x 6) is:

a x3 30

B x3 6x2 + 5x 6

d x3 31x 30

e x3 + 5x2 36x 30

x3

5x2

+ 3x 9 is the expansion of:

a (x + 3)3

C x3 + 12x2 31x + 30

B x(x + 3)(x 3)

C (x 1)(x + 3)2

d (x 1)(x + 1)(x + 3)

e (x + 1)(x + 2)(x 3)
Questions 3 and 4 refer to the following long division.

x2 + x + 2
x + 4)x3 + 5x2 + 6x 1
x3 + 4x2
x2 + 6x
x2 + 4x
2 1
2x
2 +8
2x
9
3 The quotient is:
a 9

146

B 4

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

C x+4

d x2 + x + 2

e x3 + 5x2 + 6x 1

4 The remainder is:


a 9

B 2

C 4

d 2x 1

e 2x + 8

d 7

e 35

d 7

e 8

d (x + 3)

e (2x 1)

5 If P(x) = x3 3x2 + 7x + 1, then P(2) equals:


a 34

B 33

C 9

7x is divided by x 1 is:
C 6
3
7 Which of the following is a factor of x 3x2 18x + 40?
a (x 4)
B (x 2)
C (x + 1)
6 The remainder when
a 6

x3

x3

B 1

6x2

15x + 8 factorises to:

a (x 1)2(x + 8)

B (x + 1)2(x + 8)

d (x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 4)

e (x 1)(x + 2)(x + 4)

64x3

y3

C (x + 2)3

factorises to:

a (4x y)(16x2 + 4xy + y2)

B (4x y)(16x2 4xy + y2)

d (4x + y)(16x2 8xy + y2)

e (4x + y)(16x2 4xy + y2)

C (4x y)(16x2 + 8xy + y2)

10 Which of the following is the solution to (x 4)3 2 = 6?


a 6

B 2

C 2

d 4

e 6

11 Which of the following is a solution to (x 11)(3x + 5)(7 3x)(2x + 5) = 0?


a 11

d 3

12 The equation for this graph could be:


a
B
C
d
e

C 7

e 3

y = (x 5)(x + 1)(x + 3)
y = (x 3)(x 1)(x + 5)
y = (x 3)(x + 1)(x + 5)
y = (3x 1)(x + 1)(x 5)
y = (5 x)(1 + x)(3 + x)

13 The equation for the graph shown below could be:


a
B
C
d
e

y = (x 3)2(x + 3)2
y = (x 3)(x + 3)3
y = (x 3)3(x + 3)
y = (x 3)4
y = (x + 3)4

81

14 Which of the following shows the graph of y = 2(x + 5)3 12?


y
y
a
B
x

y
x

(5, 12)

(5, 12)

(5, 12)
x

(5, 12)
x

(5, 12)

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

147

Questions 15 and 16 refer to the following graph (below).


y
(7, 252)
(4.813, 60.370)
5

7 x

(2.147, 108.222)

15 The domain of the graph is:


a [108.222, 252)

B (2.147, 4.183]

d (7, 7]

e (6, 7]

16 The range of the graph is:


a [108.222, 252)

B [2.147, 4.183]

d [7, 252)

e [0, 252)

C (108.222, 60.370]

C [108.222, 60.370]

17 The data below obey which type of relationship?

16

66

208

520

a Linear

B Quadratic

C Cubic

d Quartic

e None of the above

18 Which of the following points lies on the curve of the quadratic model that fits the points (1, 0), (0, 7)

and (2, 11)?


a (3, 4)

e x T ended
r e SponS e

C (2, 7)

B (0, 7)

d (1, 10)

e (1, 14)

1 For P(x) = 5x3 3x2 6x 22, find P(3) and P(x).


2 Find the value of m if x + 3 is a factor of 2x3 15x2 + mx 21.
3 Factorise x3 2x2 9x + 18. Sketch the graph of f (x) = x3 2x2 9x +18.
4 Factorise (3x 2)3 + (x + 5)3.
5 Determine the x- and y-intercepts of the cubic graph y = (2 3x)(4x + 1)(2x 7). Hence, sketch the

graph.
6 The graph y = x3 has been moved parallel to the x-axis 5 units to the left and moved upwards 2 units

from the x-axis.


What is the equation of the translated graph and what are the coordinates of the point of inflection?
Sketch the translated graph.
7 Sketch the graph of y = (x + 2)2(x 3)(x 4), showing all intercepts.
8 The polynomial P(x) = x3 + ax2 + bx + 54 is exactly divisible by x 9 and also exactly divisible by x 6.
a Find the values of a and b.
b Find the third factor.
c Hence, sketch the graph of the polynomial y = x3 + ax2 + bx + 54.
9 Factorise x3 2x2 3x + 6 over the real number field. Sketch the graph of y = x3 2x2 3x + 6.
10 Find the points of intersection between y = x3 x2 19x 13 and 3x + y 7 = 0.
11 Use the method of finite differences to fit a polynomial model to the following data.

x
y

148

0
4

1
16

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

2
25

3
30

4
30

12 A diagram of a proposed waterslide based on a cubic function appears below.

Find:
a the height, h1, of the top of the slide
b the coordinates of point A (where the slide enters the water)
c the length, L, of the ladder
d the height, h2, of the mini-hump to the nearest centimetre.
y

y = 0.008(x3 30x2 + 285x 900)

h1
h2

(5, 0)

(8, 0.22)

13 An innovative local council decides to put a map of the district on a website. Part of the map involves

two key features the Cubic River and the Linear Highway. A mathematically able website designer
has found the following equations for these features:
Cubic River:
y = x3 + x2 4x 4
Linear Highway: y = 5x + 5.
a Sketch the river and highway, showing x- and y-axis intercepts.
b Find the coordinates of the points of intersection of the highway and the river.
c A fun-run organiser wishes to arrange checkpoints at the closest points of intersection. Find the
distance between the proposed checkpoints.
14 A cubic function in the form f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d has the following values.
x
y

0
42

1
36

2
20

18

28

Use finite differences to find the values of a, b, c and d.


State one factor of f (x), giving your reasoning.
Using long or short division, factorise f (x).
Sketch the graph of f (x), labelling all intercepts.
15 The height (in centimetres) of a wave above a 1-metre pole is measured over an interval of 8 seconds.
The waves height above the 1-metre pole has been found to approximate the function H1 = t3 13t2 + 48t.
a Find the initial height of the wave above the 1-metre pole.
b Using a CAS calculator, sketch the function and find the local maximum and minimum height of
the wave.
c The height of a later wave above the 1-metre pole is found to approximate the function
H2 = t3 14t2 + 53t 40.
Show at what times the height of this wave is exactly the same height as the pole.
a
b
c
d

diGiTal doC
doc-9737
Test Yourself
Chapter 3

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

149

ICT activities
Chapter opener
DIGITAL DOC
10 Quick Questions doc-9724: Warm up with ten quick questions on
cubic and quartic functions (page 105)

3B

Long division of polynomials

TUTORIAL
WE4 eles-1412: Watch how to perform long division of
polynomials (page 108)

3C

Polynomial values

DIGITAL DOCS
doc-9725: Investigate solutions to cubic equations
(page 111)
WorkSHEET 3.1 doc-9726: Review the discriminant
(page 111)

3D

The remainder and factor theorems

DIGITAL DOCS
doc-9725: Investigate solutions to cubic equations (page 113)
SkillSHEET 3.1 doc-9727: Practise calculating and using the
discriminant (page 114)

3E

Factorising polynomials

DIGITAL DOC
doc-9728: Investigate zeros of cubics (page 117)
TUTORIAL
WE12 eles-1413: Use long division to factorise a cubic
(page 114)

3F

Sum and difference of two cubes

TUTORIAL
WE15 eles-1414: Watch how to factorise expressions using the
sum or difference of two cubes formulae (page 117)

3G

Solving polynomial equations

DIGITAL DOC
WorkSHEET 3.2 doc-9729: Factorising cubics and quartics using long
division, applying the Null Factor Law to determine x-intercepts and
sketching cubics and quartics (page 121)

150

3H

Cubic graphs intercepts method

TUTORIAL
WE20 eles-1415: Sketch the graph of a cubic showing axial
intercepts (page 123)
DIGITAL DOC
doc-9730: Investigate the effect of changing coefficients of cubics in
general form on its graph (page 125)

3J Graphs of cubic functions in power


function form
DIGITAL DOCS
doc-9731: Investigate the graphs of cubic functions in power form
(page 131)
Investigation doc-9732: Graphs of the form y = a(x b)n + c
(page 131)

3K

Domain, range, maximums and minimums

DIGITAL DOCS
SkillSHEET 3.2 doc-9733: Practise expressing intervals using varying
notation (page 134)
Investigation doc-9734: Modelling the path of a roller-coaster
(page 135)

3L

Modelling using technology

INTERACTIVITY
Modelling data using polynomials int-0262: Use the interactivity to
consolidate your understanding of how to fit a polynomial model to
data (page 136)
TUTORIAL
WE26 eles-1416: Watch how to fit a cubic model to a set of data
using a CAS calculator (page 136)
DIGITAL DOCS
doc-9735: Investigate the best model for a set of data (page 137)

Chapter review
DIGITAL DOC
Test Yourself doc-9737: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your
progress (page 149)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

5_61_10586_MQ11_MMCAS_3E_03.indd 150

8/05/13 2:47 PM

Answers CHAPTER 3
CUBiC and QUarTiC
FUnCTionS
exercise 3a

1 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
2 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
3 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
4 a
b
c
d
e
f
5 a
b
c
d
e
f

expanding
x3 + 7x2 + 6x
x3 7x2 18x
x3 + 8x2 33x
2x3 + 10x2 + 12x
48x 3x3
5x3 + 50x2 + 80x
x3 + 4x2
2x3 14x2

30x3 270x2
7x3 56x2 112x
x3 + 12x2 + 41x + 42
x3 3x2 18x + 40
x3 + 3x2 36x + 32
x3 6x2 + 11x 6
x3 + 6x2 x 6
x3 + 5x2 49x 245
x3 + 4x2 137x 660
x3 + 3x2 9x + 5
x3 12x2 + 21x + 98
x3 + x2 x 1
x3 + 13x2 + 26x 112
3x3 + 26x2 + 51x 20
4x3 x2 36x + 9
10x3 49x2 + 27x + 36
6x3 71x2 198x + 35
21x3 96x2 + 48x
54x3 + 117x2 72x
24x3 148x2 + 154x + 245
20x3 19x2 69x + 54
4x3 + 42x2 + 146x + 168
x3 + 6x2 + 12x + 8
x3 + 15x2 + 75x + 125
x3 3x2 + 3x 1
x3 9x2 + 27x 27
8x3 72x2 + 216x 216
27x3 + 108x2 + 144x + 64
x3 4x2 67x 110
3x3 + 15x2 18x
6x3 + 72x2 + 510x 3600
3
x + 29x2 264x + 720
x3 20x2 100x
x3 39x2 507x 2197

exercise 3B

1 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
l
2 a
b

long division of polynomials


2
x + 3x 6, 19
x2 + 2x 1, 6
x2 + 1, 2
x2 x + 6, 11
x2 + 4x + 3, 3
x2 + 3x 3, 11
x2 2x 3, 17
x2 4x 18, 91
3x2 7x + 20, 35
4x2 8x + 18, 22
2x2 3x + 3, 7
2x2 9, 35
3x2 2x + 1, 5
2x2 + 5x 6, 7

4x2 7x 2, 3
x2 4x + 3, 8
x2 + x 6, 11
3x2 + 2x + 1, 13
x2 5x 2, 14
2
3x 2x + 4, 3
x2 + 5x + 6, 9
2x2 + 7x 1, 1
x2 x 2, 3
x2, 7
x2 x 2, 8
x2 x 8, 0
5x 2, 7
2x2 2x + 10, 54
2x2 4x 9, 16
2x2 + 4x 1, 1
x3 + 2x2 + 5x 2, 2
x3 + 2x2 9x 18, 0
6x3 + 17x2 + 53x + 155, 465
The quotient is x2 6x + 101; the
remainder is 1490.
b The quotient is 2x2 + 44x + 1369; the
remainder is 42 430.
16 x
160
c The quotient is 4x2
+
;
721 3
9
the remainder is 9 .

exercise 3d The remainder and factor


theorems
b 0
c 0
1 a 30
d 24
e 24
f k3 + 3k2 10k 24
g n3 + 3n2 + 10n 24
h 27c3 + 27c2 + 30c 24
2 a 58
c 11
b 8
f 6
d 9
e 202
g 158
i 35
h 6
j 441
3 a 6
b 3
c 1
e 2
f 2
d 2
g 5, 2
h a = 5, b = 3
4 a Not a factor
b Is a factor
c Is a factor
d Not a factor
5 Show P(2) = 0, P(3) = 0 and P(5) = 0.
6 For example, for a show P (1) = 0.
7 a E
b C
c D
d A
8 a (x 1)
b (x 3) or (x 2)
c (x 3) or (x + 2)
d (x 6) or (x + 4) or (x + 5)
9 a i 0 ii 0 iii 0
b i (x + 1)(6x2 + x 2)
ii (x + 1)(2x 1)(3x + 2)

c
d
e
f
a
b
c
d
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
a
b
c
a

d The quotient is
the remainder is
exercise 3C

1 a 10
d 43
g
h
i
j
k
l
2 a
b
c

77

9x3

30x2

+ 105x

5235
2 .

c P 1 = 0 and (2x 1) is a factor.


2

735
2 ;

2x 1 = 0 gives x = 2 .
2
P( 3 )

= 0 and (3x + 2) is a factor.

3x + 2 = 0 givesx =

polynomial values
b 11
c 18
e 3
f 22

3.

d In general if (ax + b) is a factor, then

b
= 0.
P
a

2a3 3a2 + 2a + 10
16b3 12b2 + 4b + 10
2x3 + 9x2 + 14x + 18
2x3 21x2 + 74x 77
128y3 48y2 8y + 10
P(11) = 230 522
P(102) = 1 735 072 853
P(2x + 9) = 256x4 + 4632x3 + 31 428x2
+ 94 726x + 106 982
d P(x3 + 2) = 16x12 + 131x9 + 402x6
+ 526x3 + 253

exercise 3e

1 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j

37

Factorising polynomials
(x + 1)(x + 3)(x + 6)
(x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 5)
(x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 9)
(x + 1)(x + 3)(x + 4)
(x + 3)(x + 4)(x + 7)
(x + 2)(x + 3)(x + 7)
(x + 1)2(x + 2)
(x + 2)2(x + 3)
(x + 4)(x + 5)2
x(x + 5)(x + 8)

Column Column Column Column Column Column Column Column Column


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

P (x)

P (1)

P (2)

P (1)

P (2)

Rem
when
divided
by
(x 1)

15

15

10

28

10

28

11

21

11

21

19

19

8 a

P (8)

b P (7)

Rem
when
divided
by
(x 2)

Rem
when
divided
by
(x + 1)

Rem
when
divided
by
(x + 2)

c P (a)

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

151

k x(x + 3)(x + 4)
l x(x + 5)2
m x(x + 1)(x + 5)
n x2(x + 6)
2 a (x 1)(x + 1)2
b (x 2)(x 1)(x + 1)
c (x + 1)2(x + 5)
d (x 3)(x + 2)2
e (x + 1)(x + 4)2
f (x 5)(x 2)(x + 2)
g (x 1)(x + 1)(x + 2)
h (x 3)(x + 1)(x + 2)
i (x 1)(x + 2)2
j (x + 2)(x2 x + 3)
k (x + 1)(x + 2)(x + 5)
l (x 3)(x + 1)(x + 3)
m (x 2)2(x + 3)
n (x 4)(x + 5)(x + 8)
o (x 1)(x + 1)(x + 2)2
p (x 3)(x + 2)3
q (x 1)(x + 1) (x + 3)2
r x(x 1)(x 7)(x + 3)
3 a x(x 2)(3x + 5)
b 2x(x + 1)(2x 1)
c 3x(x 4)(x + 2)
d 2x(x + 3)2
e 6x2(x 1)
f x(x + 4)(x + 3)
g (x 1)(x + 1)(x + 3)
h 2x(x 3)(x 2)
i (x + 2)(2x 1)(3x 2)
j (x 2)2(5x 4)
k (x 1)(x + 3)(x 5)(x + 2)2
l (x 2)2(3x + 5)(8x + 1)
4 a (2x + 3)(x 1)(x + 2)
b (3x 1)(x + 1)(x + 4)
c (3x + 2)(x 2)(x + 2)
d (4x + 3)(x + 3)(x + 5)
e (5x 1)(x + 1)2
f (x + 2)(x2 x + 2)
g (x + 1)(2x + 3)2
h (x 2)(2x 1)(3x 4)
i (x + 4)(2x 5)(5x + 2)
j (7x 2)(x 2)(x + 4)
k (x 3)(x + 1)2(2x + 1)
l (x 1)(x + 3)(2x + 1) (3x 2)
exercise 3F

Sum and difference of

two cubes
1 a a = x, b = 6
b a = 2y, b = z
c a = x + 5, b = 3
d a = 1, b = 4h
c
u
e a=
f a = t, b =
, b = eg
2
6
2 a (x 5)(x2 + 5x + 25)
b ( j + k)( j2 jk + k2)
c (y 2)( y2 + 2y + 4)
d (3x + y)(9x2 3xy + y2)
e 8(2t 3u)(4t2 + 6tu + 9u2)
f (x 1)(x2 + x + 1)
2
x
x 2 xp + 4 p2
g + 2 p

9
81
9

3 a (2a 1)(a2 a + 1)
b x(x2 + 6x + 12)
c 2(x + 2)(4x2 + 10x + 7)
d 5(3w2 15w + 25)
e 5m(7m2 3mp + 3p2)
f (2x 3)(13x2 + 15x + 9)
g (3y + 5)(3y2 + 21y + 67)
h (4x 3y)(7x2 + 9xy + 21y2)
i (1 5p)(13p2 16p + 7)
j 2(3x 8)(21x2 60x + 67)
k (x2 + y3)(x4 x2y3 + y6)
l 2(x 3)(x2 + 3x + 9)
m 3(a + 1)(a2 a + 1)
n 6(x2 + 4)(x4 x2 + 7)
4 m = 27, n = 1

exercise 3G

152

6
y

b
6

7 x

1
42

b
d
f

g 0

i 4

c
e
g

2,

4,

2, 6

l
6 6

3 a 2, 0, 2
3,

5
2
4

60

2, 0, 2

m 0, 4, 5
4 a 4, 1, 4
4, 2,

g 2, 1, 3
1
2

3
2,

5
2

2, 1,

2,

y
12
1

3
3
4

n 5, 4
b 4, 0, 4
e

j 0, 2, 3

1 3

m 2 , 0, 7 , 5

11

3, 4, 7
2, 3
2, 1, 1, 2
1
j 0, 9

b
d
f
h

1, 5, 9
4
5, 8
i 1, 0, 1

1
88

l 13

2 a 1, 2, 5

j 1

k 12

Solving polynomial

equations
1 a 6
c 14
e 4

6 C
7 B

3k

1 2 3

c (3 3x + 3 m y) ((3 3 x) 2 3 3mxy + ( 3 my)2 )

j (st + g2)(s2t 2 stg2 + g4)

1 a

b a = 3 3x , b = 3 m y

2
+
i 3k 9 k +
2
2 4

Cubic graphs intercepts

5 a 3x3 + my3 = ( 3 3 x )3 + ( 3 m y)3

5 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j

h (3r 1)(9r2 + 3r + 1)

exercise 3h

method

5,

c 5, 0, 5

f 0, 2

,0
4

i 0, 5

k 0, 4

l 7, 0, 1

n 0
b 2, 3, 5

c 5, 1, 5

1,

2, 3

h 5, 0, 1, 2
k 3, 2,

1
2

2,

6 x

f 2, 1, 5
i 6,

54
1

y
30

2 a

l 2, 1, 1

8.002, 9.008, 15.994


12, 7, 7

9, 13
16

6.91
14.22, 1.071, 0.854
3.627
0.646, 1.948, 0.199
4.894, 1.325
12.556, 0.418

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

b
8

3
2

192

c
1

3 1
21

5D
8 E

6 C
9 D

10 a

7 B

5
y

12

150

10

3 2

4
3

factor,
= (2)2 4 1 5 = 4 20 = 16.
As < 0, the quadratic factor has no
real solutions, so y = x3 x2 + 3x + 5 has
only one real solution at x = 1.
d Find the discriminant of the quadratic
factor,
= (2k)2 4 1 5 = 4k2 20.
i For 2 real solutions, the quadratic
factor must have 1 solution. = 0.
Solve 4k2 20 = 0.
If k = 5 , the cubic will have
2 real solutions.
ii For 3 real solutions, the quadratic
factor must have 2 solutions. > 0.
Solve 4k2 20 > 0.

y
8

b y = (x + 1)(x2 2x + 5)
c Find the discriminant for the quadratic

2
3

7
7

1
6

4 a

y (0.33, 14.81)
14

3a

exercise 3i

1 a

12
(5, 36)

b
y

Quartic graphs intercepts

method

If k < 5 or k > 5 , the cubic will


have 3 real solutions.

0
2 1

y (6.04, 10.02)
4
5 7
x

2 3

8
2 1 0

140
(0.71, 144.84)

(3, 16)
x

1
y

1
7

(2, 0)

2 3

(1.67, 28.44)

4
24

0 1
5

y
5

d
2

(1, 0)

(0.76, 6.64)

1
2

3 x

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

153

6 E
7 D
8 a

i i
y

2.23 0.24 2

1
3

2 a

ii (0, 2)
y
(2, 2)

(0.46, 12.09)
14
9

125

1.30

3.36
x

(0.83, 0.10)

(3, 81)
(2.61, 34.98)

3 a = 5
4 a There are many possible quartic

equations, including y = (x + 3)(x 3)3


or y = x4 + 81 or y = (x 3)(x + 3)3.
b y = (x + 3)(x 3)3

y
c
(2.38, 13.68)

x
(1.22, 6.47)

3.18
0.68 0

81

1.86

y
(0.09, 120.35)
9.51

288

10

(1, 5)

2
y

1.90
(0, 3) 3

81

1.90

3)(x +

(3.22, 1027.74)y

4.75

358

3)3

(0.06, 357.53)
(2.35, 682.19)

(1.29, 11.33) (1.29, 11.33)

(6.95, 1343.39)

y = x4 + 81

6
(4, 32)

(3.28, 98.19)

120
1.62
4.33 1.79
3

0 1 x

y=

ii (0, 0)

(1.55, 13.04)

(x

ii (0, 0)

l i 2

ii (3, 2)

j i 4
k i

3.74

1
81

5 C

154

exercise 3J Graphs of cubic functions in


power function form
1 a i 2
ii (1, 3)
b i 3
ii (5, 2)
c i 2
ii (6, 8)
d i 7
ii (4, 1)
e i 1
ii (9, 4)
f i 1
ii (0, 7)
g i 1
ii (1, 1)
1
h i
ii (2, 0)
2

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

(2, 27)

35

30 2
x

( 5 , 1)
2

(5, 3)

(5, 32)
y

c
x

( 1 , 0)
4

(3, 9)
y

j
(1, 2)

c y = 4 (x 1)3 2

1 34
1

d y=

( 3 , 1)
2
x

k
(2, 25)

26 35

(1, 0)
x
x

4 A
5 E
6 a y = (x 1)3 + 5
b y = (x + 2)3 + 2
c y = (x + 3)3 + 4
d y = (x + 3)3
7 a y = 4(x 2)3 + 3
b y = 2(x + 5)3 + 1

3
2x

+4

exercise 3k domain, range, maximums


and minimums
1 a Domain [5, 4], range [2, 5]
b Domain [2, 4], range [2, 7]
c Domain [4, 2], range [5, 2]
d Domain [2, 6), range [2, 10)
e Domain (3, 5), range [0, 5)
f Domain (3, 4], range [9, 0]

2 a

y
12

(0.472, 13.129)

4
(3.528, 1.128)

( 3 , 2)
4

(1, 2)

Range [1.128, 13.129]


y

b (3.732, 10.392)
(1, 5)

(4, 3)

5
x

1 x

(0.268, 10.392)

10

Range [10.392, 10.392]


y

h
x

(95 , 7)

(1.333, 0.148)
1

3 a

(4, 1)
5

Range [0, 2)

(3, 2)

y
3

Range [0, 3]

(2.333, 1.185)

(6, 4)
x
x

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

155

e (4.689, 105.526)

b
3 (2, 27)
2

x
21 (0.355, 22.822)

y
0
10
20
30
40
50
60

600
500
400
300
200
100
0

2 4 6 8 10

y = 4.6273x 9.0455

40
30
20
10
0

(3, 4)

g (2.577, 0.385) y
x
2
(1.422, 0.385)

2 a
(4, 6)

Range [6, 0.385]


h (2, 4) y
(2.1, 1.581)
1
6

b
x

(0.786, 8.209)

Range [8.209, 4)
y

(2.737, 48.517)

3 1
(2.070, 7.035)

5
(5.1, 4.94)

0 2 4 6 8 10

21

Range [32, 13.169]

3 A
5 a 28 m
6 (0.971, 1.201)
exercise 3l

1 a

156

4 B
b 20.785 m

modelling using technology

y y = 11.436x 23.091
100
80
60
40
20
0
20 2 4 6 8 10 x

2 4 6 8 10

y y = 12.953x2 47.679x + 613.66

0 2 4 6 8 10

y y = 1.5056x3 6.6906x2 + 35.465x + 20.615


1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 x

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

5 The cubic model


6 205.629
7 99
8 330
9 a
y

y y = 1.3747x3 19.138x2 + 8.5536x + 607.48


600
500
400
300
200
100
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 x

0 2 4 6 8 10

y y = 10.006x3 2.1369x2 + 9.8652x + 577.45


1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

y = 11.124x2 15.655x + 79.329

0 2 4 6 8 10

1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200

6
5
4
3
2
1
0

y
200
400
600
800
1000
1200

3 a

y y = 1.1014x2 + 16.75x 5.5664

(1, 32)

y y = 81.855x + 419.36
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0

y y = 8.2459x2 21.777x + 56.371


800
600
400
200
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 x

2 4 6 8 10

0 2 4 6 8 10

4a

y y = 0.5291x2 + 20.8x + 0.5175


250
200
150
100
50
0
0 2 4 6 8 10 x

2.333
x

0 2 4 6 8 10

50
40
30
20
10
0
10

y
1

Range [7.035, 48.517]


j (2.111, 13.169)

300

y y = 2.8818x + 48.318
50
40
30
20
10
0

Range [4, 0]

600

Share price ($)

900

y y = 3.0273x + 6.3182

2 4 6 8 10 12
Time (months)

b $6.78
c Anything can happen with prices in the

sharemarket. The last data point may be


the beginning of a share price crash!

10

y y = 1.048x3 19.309x2 + 98.296x + 220.7


Population

2 4 6 8 10

d y y = 2.2988x3 + 32.575x2 14.094x + 30.154

(8, 133)

Range [133, 105.526]

y y = 2.5307x3 23.29x2 + 38.808x + 59.448

400
300
200
100
0

0 2 4 6 8 10
Year

Year 11 estimate: 360 birds


exercise 3m

1 a
b
c
d
e

Finite differences
y = 11x + 6
y = 26x + 100
y = 7x2 + 4x 4
y = 3x2 19x + 17
y = x3 + 3x2 7x 7

f y = x3 2x2 + 2x + 16
g y = 2x + 10x 23

exTended reSponSe

9a

1 P(3) = 68

P(x) = 5x3 3x2 + 6x 22

h y = 2x3 + 15x2 32x + 47

2 m = 70
3 Factors: (x 3)(x + 3)(x 2)

i y = 9x 27

j y = 2x2 + 10x 15

k y = 4x3 + 13x2 + 52x 66


l y=
2 a

8x

11

+ 43

x (base dots)

y (total dots)

6 10 15

b y=

1
2

18

x (dots)

n (diagonals) 0
1

1 1

1 2 1
, ,3
4 3 2
y-intercepts: y = 14

5 x-intercepts: x =

0 2 5 9

a chessboard

b y = 4x + 3

c y=
d y=

d y=

1 0 2 3 1
4
3 2

14
y

1 2
x 2x + 8
2
10x2 + 18x

3 3
1
x + 2 x 2 12 x
4
5x3 + 3x 6

5
2
2 x + 7x + 11
2x2 3x 1

6 Equation: y = (x + 5)3 + 2

20
7 a y = x3 5x2 + 8x + 15
b y = 3x3 4x2 + 2x + 5
c y=

10 a

b y=

1
2

+ 2 x 2 + 6 x, 204 squares on

5 a y = 8x 15
6 a y=

1 3
x
3

2 3

4 (4x + 3)(7x2 15x + 39)

n = 2 x2 2 x
4 n=

1 2 3 4 5 6

x2 + 2 x

c 28
3

Point of inflection: (5, 2)

1 x
2

1 0

16

18

(5, 2)
y

8 a y = 5x4 + x3 2x2 + x 3

b y = 4 x4 2x3 + x2 + 2x + 1

ChapTer reVieW
ShorT anSWer

1 a x3 + 6x2 36x + 40
b x3 + 10x2 + 19x 30
c x3 21x2 + 147x 343
d 2x3 x2 + 11x + 10
2 a x2 16, 29
b x2 + 6x + 5, 8
c x2 + 2x + 2, 9
3 a 4
b 216
c 24a3 + 8a2 + 2a 4
4 7
5 Show P (3) = 0.
6 (x 10)(x + 4)(x + 10)
7 a (1 5x)(1 + 5x + 25x2)
b (2x + 1)(x2 + x + 19)
8 a 6
b

2,

c 2, 3, 4

7
y

11

(1, 8)

48

7 8

2 0

12 [32, 40]
13 y = x3 2x2 + 8
1

8 a a = 14, b = 39
b The third factor is x + 1.
y
c

14 r = 2 x 2 + 2 x + 1
15 y = 2x3 5x2 + x 2
mUlTiple ChoiCe

1D
4A
7B
10 C
13 B
16 A

2C
5B
8A
11 E
14 A
17 D

54

3D
6A
9A
12 E
15 D
18 D

10

6 9

ChapTer 3 Cubic and quartic functions

157

9 y = ( x 2)( x

3)( x + 3)

c 8.766 m
d 58 cm
13 a

(3, 20)

14 a a = 1, b = 8, c = 1, d = 42
b (x 3), f (3) = 0
c (x 7)(x 3)(x + 2)
d
y
42

0 3

10 Points of intersection are (2, 13) and (5, 8).

158

(3, 10)

79
x
x2 + x + 4
6
6
12 a 7.2 m
b (15, 0)
11 y =

Linear Highway:
5
y = 5x + 5
0
4

Cubic River:
y = x3 + x2 4x 4

b (3, 10), (1, 0), (3, 20)


c 10.198 km

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

15 a Initial height = 0 cm
b y 54.5185 (2 23 , 54.5185)
(8, 64)

64

(6, 36)

36
0

223

c 1 s, 5 s and 8 s

8 x

Exam practice 1 CHAPTERS 13


1 Determine the exact values for x for which x2 5 = 3x.

[3,

3 marks

2 Let f :
1] R, where f (x) =
+
4x 3.
a Show that (x 1) is a linear factor.
b When factorised, f (x) = (x 1)(x + 3)(ax + b). Determine the values of a and b.
c Hence, sketch the graph of f (x).

2x3

5x2

2 marks

S ho rT
a n S W er
25 minutes

3 marks
3 marks

3 The line y = ax + b passes through the point (2, 1) and is parallel to the line y 4x + 3 = 0. Determine

the values of a and b.


[1,

2 marks

4 Let f :
3] R, f (x) =
4x 3.
a Express f in the form f (x) = a(x b)2 + c. Hence, state the coordinates of the turning point.
b State the range for f.
c Determine the exact values of the x-intercepts.
d Sketch f on a set of axes. Label all key features.

2x2

3 marks
2 marks
3 marks
3 marks

1 A straight line passes through the points (2, 4) and (1, 5). Its equation would be:
a y=6x

B y=x+2

C 3y = x + 10

e y = 3x + 10

d y = 3x 2

B (3x + 4)(x 2)

13
13
or
10
10

or

12 minutes

each question is worth


one mark.

2 The exact values of x for which 3(2x 1)2 + 2(2x 1) 8 = 0 are:


a (2x + 1)(6x 7)

m U lTip l e
C ho iC e

or 2

7
6

3 If (x a) is a linear factor of the function f (x) = x3 + 2x2 11x 12, then the possible value for a is:
a 3

B 1

C 0

d 1

e 4

4 A cubic function has the following axis intercepts: x-intercepts 1, 3 and 4, and y-intercept24. The

equation that would best describe this function would be:


B (x + 1)(x + 3)(x 4) + 24
e 2(x + 1)(x + 3)(x 4)

a 24(x + 1)(x + 3)(x 4)


d 2(x 1)(x 3)(x + 4)

C (x 1)(x 3)(x + 4) + 24

5 Three linear functions are defined as:

L1: 4y 3x 8 = 0
L2: 3y + 4x + 1 = 0
L3: 3y 4x 2 = 0
Which one of the following statements is correct?
a L1 and L2 are parallel.
B L1 and L3 are parallel.
d L1 and L3 are perpendicular.
e L1, L2 and L3 are parallel.

C L1 and L2 are perpendicular.

Which one of the following rules best describes the graph above?
a y = (x + a)2(b x)
B y = (x a)2(x b)
d y = (x b)2(x + a)
e y = (x a)2(x b)

C y = (x + a)(x b)

7 A polynomial of degree 3 passes through the origin and has x-intercepts at 2 and 3. The equation for

this polynomial would best be described by which one of the following?


a y = (x 2)(x + 3)
B y = (x + 2)(x 3)
C y = x(x 2)(x + 3)
d y = x(x + 2)(x 3)
e y = (x 1)(x 2)(x + 3)
8 A linear function L(x) = ax + 1 intersects the quadratic function Q(x) = 2x2 x 1 at the point (0.5, 0).

The coordinates of the second point of intersection would be closest to:


a (1, 1)
B (1, 2)
C (1, 4)
d (2, 3)
e (2, 5)
Exam practice 1

159

e xT ended
r e S p onS e
40 minutes

1 Points A (2, 1), B (1, 5) and C (5, 2) are vertices on a triangle.


a Show that the triangle is an isosceles triangle.
b Determine the equation of the perpendicular bisector of the line AC.
c Show that the perpendicular bisector found in part b passes through vertex B.

3 marks
4 marks
2 marks

2 Seng and Victor are training for a 1000-metre race. The distance in metres they each ran was recorded

in 1-minute intervals. Victor was delayed for 1 minute because he was tying up his shoelaces when he
was 110 m from the starting line. The individual distances are recorded in the table below.
Time (minutes)
Sengs distance (m)
Victors distance (m)

0
0
110

1
200
0

2
380
200

3
680
560

4
880
875

5
1040
1050

a The relationship between distance and time for Victor can be modelled using a quartic function.

diGiTal doC
doc-10161
Solutions
exam practice 1

Determine this quartic function, Qv. Write your function in terms of Qv (distance in metres) and
t(minutes). Express coefficients correct to 2 decimal places.
2 marks
b Sengs distance and time relationship can be modelled using a cubic function. Determine this
cubic function, Cs. Write your function in terms of Cs (distance in metres) and t (minutes).
Express coefficients correct to 2 decimal places.
2 marks
c i State the domain of Qv.
1 mark
ii State the domain of Cs.
1 mark
iii Sketch both Qv and Cs on the same set of axes.
3 marks
d Using your functions Qv and Cs, determine the time first Victor passes Seng. Write your answer in
minutes and seconds.
2 marks
3 A childrens playground in the shape of a rectangle is to be constructed at a local park. The longer side
is 5 metres longer than the shorter side.
a If x is the shorter side, write down an expression for the longer side in terms of x.
1 mark
b Write down an equation for the area, A(x), of the playground in terms of x.
2 marks
c If the maximum area of the playground is 150 m2, determine the
y
dimensions of the playground.
3 marks
A miniature bike path will be built within the playground. It will travel
from the gate to the seesaws, slides and swings. The bike path can
be modelled by the cubic function B(x) = x3 6x2 +10x, where x is
the horizontal distance, in metres, and B(x) is the vertical distance, in
metres, from the gate.
d Assuming that the slides are on the path, determine the vertical
distance the slides are from the gate if their measurement is 3 metres
horizontally from the gate.
2 marks
e If the seesaws are on the bike path, show that the seesaws are located
1 metre horizontally and 5 metres vertically from the gate.
2 marks
f Determine the shortest distance, in metres, between the seesaws and
the slides. Write your answer in exact form.
2 marks
0

160

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Chapter 4

Relations, functions and


transformations
Chapter ContentS
4a
4b
4C
4d
4e
4F
4G
4h
4i
4J

Set notation
Relations and graphs
Domain and range
Types of relations (including functions)
Power functions (hyperbola, truncus and square root function)
Function notation
Special types of function (including hybrid functions)
Inverse relations and functions
Circles
Functions and modelling

4a

diGital doC
doc-9738
10 Quick Questions

Set notation

Set notation is used in mathematics in the same way as symbols that are used to represent language statements.

definitions
1. A set is a collection of things.
2. The symbol {. . .} refers to a set.
3. Anything contained in a set, that is, a member of a set, is referred to as an element of the set.
(a) Thes ymbol means is an element of, for example, 6 {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}.
(b) Thes ymbol means is not an element of, for example, 1 {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}.
Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

161

4. A capital letter is often used to refer to a particular set of things.


5. The symbol means is a subset of, so, if B A, then all of the elements of set B are contained in
set A. For example, {2, 4} {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}.
6. The symbol means is not a subset (or is not contained in), for example {2, 3} {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}.
7. The symbol means intersection, so, A B is the set of elements common to sets A and B. For
example, {1, 2, 3} {2, 4, 6} is {2}.
8. The symbol means union, so, A B is the set of all elements belonging to either set A or B or
both. For example, {1, 2, 3} {2, 4, 6} is {1, 2, 3, 4, 6}.
9. The symbol A \ B denotes all of the elements of A that are not elements of B.
10. The symbol means the null set. It implies that there is nothing in the set, or that the set is empty.
Worked exaMple 1

If A = {1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32}, B = {1, 2} and C = {1, 2, 3, 4}, find:


a AB
b AC
c A\B
d {3, 4} B
e whether or not: i 8 A ii B A iii C A.
think

Write

a The elements that A and B have in common are 1 and 2.

a {1, 2}

b The elements that belong to either A or C are 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 16 and 32.

b {1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 16, 32}

c The elements of A that are not elements of B are 4, 8, 16 and 32.

c {4, 8, 16, 32}

d {3, 4} and B have no common elements.

d {}

e iii 8 is an element of A.
ii All elements of B belong to A.
iii 3 is an element of C but not A.

e i Yes. 8 A
ii Yes. B A
iii No. C A

Sets of numbers
Certain letters are reserved for important sets that arise frequently in the study of mathematics.
1. R is the set of real numbers, that is, any number you can think of.
2. N is the set of natural numbers, that is, {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, . . .}.
3. Z is the set of integers, that is, {. . ., 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, . . .}.
a
4. Q is the set of rational numbers (that is, numbers that can be expressed as fractions in the form
b
where a and b are integers and b 0).
5. Q is the set of numbers that are not rational (that is, cannot be expressed as a ratio of two whole
numbers). These numbers are called irrational, for example, , 3, etc.
Note that N Z Q R, that is,
R

Q'

Q
1
2 3
4 2
3

Z
N
0
1
2 3 ...

exercise 4a

3
...

1 2 3
4 ...

7
5
33
...
51

Set notation

1 We1 If A = {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14}, B = {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13}, C = {4, 5, 6, 7} and D={6,7,8}, find:
a AB
b AC
c ACD
d AB
f A\C
g C \ D.
e CD
162

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

2 If A = {3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3}, B = {0, 1, 2, 3} and C = {3, 2, 3, 4}, find:


b A\B
a ABC
c A \ (B C)
d A \ (B C)
e A C.
3 If F = {a, e, i, o, u}, G = {a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i} and H = {b, c, d, f, g, h}, find:
c G\H
a FGH
b GH
d H\F
e (F H) \ G.
4 MC Given that A B, then A B is equivalent to:
b
e A

a B
d AB

C {1, 2}

5 MC Given that C B A, then it follows that:


a A B C is equivalent to:
a B

b C

C A

d AB

e BC

a B

C C

d AB

e B\C

b (A \ B) C is equivalent to:

6 Answer true (T) or false (F) to each of the following statements relating to the number sets N, Z, Q

and R.
7 R
a
d 5Q
g {5, 10, 15, 20} N
j QN

4b

b 4 N
e 1.5 Z

c 6.4217 Q
f {5, 10, 15, 20} Z

h Z \ N = {. . ., 3, 2, 1}
k QZ=

i
l

ZN=N
(Z Q) R

relations and graphs

A relation is a set of ordered pairs of values or variables.


Consider the following relation. The cost of hiring a trailer depends on the number of hours for which
it is hired. The table below outlines this relation.
Number of hours of hire
Cost ($)

3
50

4
60

5
70

6
80

7
90

8
100

Cost of trailer hire ($)

Since the cost depends upon the number of hours, the cost is said to be the dependent variable, and the
number of hours is called the independent variable. The information in the table can be represented by a
graph, which usually gives a better indication of how two variables are related. When graphing a relation, the
independent variable is displayed on the horizontal (or x) axis and the dependent variable is displayed on the
vertical (or y) axis. So we can plot the set of points {(3, 50), (4, 60), (5, 70), (6, 80), (7, 90), (8, 100)}. The
points are called (x, y) ordered pairs, where x is the first element and y is the second element.
y
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x
Number of hours

This graph clearly shows that the cost increases as the number of hours of hire increases. The relation
appears to be linear. That is, a straight line could be drawn that passes through every point. However,
the dots are not joined as the relation involves integer-valued numbers of hours and not minutes or
seconds. The number of hours can be referred to as a discrete dependent variable.
Discrete variables include names and numbers of things; that is, things that can be counted (values are
natural numbers or integers).
Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

163

Some variables are referred to as continuous variables. Continuous variables include height, weight
and volume; that is, things that can be measured (values are real numbers). If a relationship exists
between the variables, we may try to find a rule and then write this rule in mathematical terms. In our
example, the relationship appears to be that for each extra hour of hire the cost increases by $10 after an
initial cost of $20.
Cost = 10 number of hours + 20
Using x and y terms, this is written as
y = 10x + 20
Worked exaMple 2

Sketch the graph by plotting selected x-values for the following relations and state whether each is
discrete or continuous.
a y = x2, where x {1, 2, 3, 4}
b y = 2x + 1, where x R
think

a 1 Use the rule to calculate y and state the

ordered pairs by letting x = 1, 2, 3 and 4.

Plot the points (1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9) and (4, 16)
on a set of axes.

Write/draW

a When x = 1, y = 12

=1
x = 2, y = 22
=4
x = 3, y = 32
=9
x = 4, y = 42
= 16

(1, 1)
(2, 4)
(3, 9)
(4, 16)

y
16
12
8
4
0

Do not join the points as x is a discrete


variable (whole numbers only).

b 1 Use the rule to calculate y. Select values of x,

say x = 0, 1 and 2 (or find the intercepts). State


the ordered pairs.

Plot the points (0, 1), (1, 3) and (2, 5) on a set


of axes.

164

Join the points with a straight line, continuing


in both directions as x is a continuous variable
(any real number).

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

4 x

It is a discrete relation as x can be only whole


number values.
b When x = 0, y = 2(0) + 1

=1
x = 1, y = 2(1) + 1
=3
x = 2, y = 2(2) + 1
=5

(0, 1)
(1, 3)
(2, 5)

y y = 2x + 1
5
4
3
2
1
2 1 10
2
3

It is a continuous relation as x can be any real


number.

Worked exaMple 3

The pulse rate of an athlete, R beats per minute, t minutes after the
athlete finishes a workout, is shown in the table below.
0
180

t
R

2
150

4
100

6
80

8
70

a Plot the points on a graph.


b Estimate the athletes pulse rate after 3 minutes.

think

Write/draW

a 1 Draw a set of axes with t on the horizontal axis

a&b

and R on the vertical axis because heart rate is


dependent on the time.

R (beats/min)

180
160
140
120
100
80
60
40
20

Plot the points given in the table.

b 1 Join the points with a smooth curve as t (time)

is a continuous variable.
2

Construct a vertical line up from t = 3 until it


touches the curve.

From this point draw a horizontal line back to


the vertical axis.

Estimate the value of R where this line touches


the axis.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
t (min)

When t = 3, the pulse rate is approximately


125 beats per minute.

Note: In any defined domain, for example, 3 x 3, the variable (x) is assumed continuous in that
domain unless otherwise stated.

exercise 4b

relations and graphs

Questions 1, 2, and 3 refer to the following information. A particular relation is described by the following
ordered pairs:
{(0, 4), (1, 3), (2, 2), (3, 1)}.
1 MC The graph of this relation is represented by:
a y
b y
4
4

y
4

0
d y
4

4 x

0
e y
4

4 x

4 x

4 x

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

165

2 MC The elements of the dependent variable are:


a {1, 2, 3, 4}
d {0, 1, 2, 3}

b {1, 2, 3}
e {1, 2}

C {0, 1, 2, 3, 4}

3 MC The rule for the relation is correctly described by:


a y = 4 x, x R
C y = 4 x, x N
e y = 4 x, x {0, 1, 2, 3}

b y = x 4, x N
d y = x 4, x Z

4 MC During one week, the number of people travelling on a particular train, at a certain time,

Number of people

M T W T F

M T W T F

M T W T F

Number of people

0
e

M T W T F

Number of people

0
C

Number of people

Number of people

progressively increases from Monday through to Friday. Which graph below best represents this
information?

M T W T F

5 State whether each of the following relations has discrete (D) or continuous (C) variables.
a {(4, 4), (3, 2), (2, 0), (1, 2), (0, 0), (1, 2), (2, 4)}
b The relation that shows the air pressure at any time of the day
y
y
c
d

e The relation that shows the number of student absences per day during term 3 at your school
f The relation describing the weight of a child from age 3 months to one year
6 We2 Sketch the graph representing each of the following relations, and state whether each is discrete

or continuous.
a

Day
Cost of petrol (c/L)

b
c
d
e
f
166

Mon

Tues

Wed

Thur

Fri

Sat

Sun

68

67.1

66.5

64.9

67

68.5

70

{(0, 0), (1, 1), (2, 4), (3, 9)}


y = x2, where x {2, 1, 0, 1, 2}
y = x 2, where x R
y = 2x + 3, where x Z
y = x2 + 2, where 2 x 2

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

7 We3 The table at right shows the temperature of a cup

t (min)
0
2
4
6
8
of coffee, T C, t minutes after it is poured.
80 64 54 48 44
T (C)
a Plot the points on a graph.
b Join the points with a smooth curve.
c Explain why this can be done.
d Use the graph to determine how long it takes the coffee to reach half of its initial temperature.

8 A salesperson in a computer store is paid a base salary of $300 per week plus $40 commission for each

computer she sells. If n is the number of computers she sells per week and P dollars is the total amount
she earns per week, then:
a copy and complete the table below.
n

P
b plot the information on a graph.
c explain why the points cannot be joined together.
9 The speed of an aircraft, V km/h, t seconds after it starts to accelerate down the runway, is shown in the

following table.
t

30

80

150

240

350

a Plot a graph that represents the information shown in the table.


b Use the graph to estimate the speed after: i 2.5 s ii 4.8 s.
10 The cost, C dollars, of taking n students on an excursion to the zoo is $50 plus $6 per student.
a Complete a table using 15 n 25.
b Plot these points on a graph.
c Explain why the dots can or cannot be joined.

4C domain and
domain and range

range

A relation can be described by:


1. a listed set of ordered pairs
2. a graph
3. a rule.
The set of all first elements of a set of ordered pairs is known as the domain, and the set of all
second elements of a set of ordered pairs is known as the range. Alternatively, the domain is the set of
independent values, and the range is the set of dependent values.
If a relation is described by a rule, it should also specify the domain. For example:
1. the relation {(x, y): y = 2x, x {1, 2, 3}} describes the set of ordered pairs {(1, 2), (2, 4), (3, 6)}
2. the domain is the set X = {1, 2, 3}, which is given
3. the range is the set Y = {2, 4, 6}, and can be found by applying the rule y = 2x to the domain values.
If the domain of a relation is not specifically stated, it is assumed to consist of all real numbers for
which the rule has meaning. This is referred to as the implied domain of a relation. For example:
{(x, y): y = x3} has the implied domain R.
{(x, y): y = x } has the implied domain x 0.

interval notation
If a and b are real numbers and a < b, then the following intervals are defined with an accompanying
number line.
(a, b) implies a < x < b or
(a, b] implies a < x b or
a

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

167

(a, ) implies x > a or

[a, ) implies x a or
x

(, b) implies x < b or

(, b] implies x b or
x

[a, b) implies a x < b or


a

[a, b] implies a x b or
x

A closed circle indicates that the number is included and an open circle indicates that the number is
not included.
Worked exaMple 4

Describe each of the following subsets of the real numbers using interval notation.
a

b
4

c
3

5 x

think

0 1

Write

a The interval is x < 2 (2 is not included).

a (, 2)

b The interval is 3 x < 5 (3 is included).

b [3, 5)

c The interval is both 1 x < 3 and x 5 (1 is included,

c [1, 3) [5, )

3 is not).
Worked exaMple 5

Illustrate the following number intervals on a number line.


a (2, 10]
b [1, )
think

Write/draW

a The interval is 2 < x 10 (2 is not included, 10 is).

a
2

b The interval is x 1 (1 is included).

10 x

b
0

Worked exaMple 6

State the domain and range of each of the following relations.


a {(1, 2), (2, 5), (3, 8), (4, 11)}
b

Weight (kg)
Cost per kg ($)

10
3.5

15
3.2

20
3.0

25
2.8

30
2.7

y
4

4
0

168

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

x
4

think

Write

a Domain = {1, 2, 3, 4}

a 1 The domain is the set of first elements of the

ordered pairs.
2

Range = {2, 5, 8, 11}

The range is the set of second elements of the


ordered pairs.

b 1 The domain is the set of independent values in the

table, that is, the weight values.


2

Range = {2.7, 2.8, 3.0, 3.2, 3.5}

The range is the set of dependent values in the


table, that is, the cost values.

c Domain = R

c 1 The domain is the set of values that the graph

covers horizontally.
2

Range = [0, )

The range is the set of values that the graph covers


vertically.

d Domain = [4, 4]

d 1 The domain is the set of values that the graph

covers horizontally.
2

b Domain = {10, 15, 20, 25, 30}

Range = [4, 4]

The range is the set of values that the graph covers


vertically.

Worked exaMple 7

For each relation given, sketch its graph and state the domain and range
using interval notation.
a {(x, y): y = x 1}
b {(x, y): y = x2 4, x [0, 4]}
think

a 1 The rule has meaning for x 1 because

tUtorial
eles-1461
Worked example 7

Write/draW

if x < 1, y = negative number.


2

Calculate the value of y when x = 1, 2, 3, 4


and 5, and state the coordinate points.

Plot the points on a set of axes.

When x = 1, y = 0
=0
x = 2, y = 1
=1
x = 3, y = 2
x = 4, y = 3
x = 5, y = 4
=2
y

(2, 1)
(3, 2)
(4, 3)
(5, 2)

y= x1

Join the points with a smooth curve starting


from x = 1, extending it beyond the last point.
Since no domain is given we can assume
x R (continuous).

Place a closed circle on the point (1, 0) and put


an arrow on the other end of the curve.

The domain is the set of values covered


horizontally by the graph, or implied by the
rule.

Domain = [1, )

The range is the set of values covered


vertically by the graph.

Range = [0, )

(1, 0).

1
0

4 5

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

169

b 1 Calculate the value of y when x = 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4,

b When x = 0, y = 02 4

= 4
x = 1, y = 12 4
= 3
x = 2, y = 22 4
=0
x = 3, y = 32 4
=5
x = 4, y = 42 4
= 12

say, as the domain is [0, 4]. State the coordinate


points.

Plot these points on a set of axes.

Join the dots with a smooth curve from x = 0 to


x = 4.

Place a closed circle on the points (0, 4) and


(4, 12).

(0, 4)
(1, 3)
(2, 0)
(3, 5)
(4, 12)

y
y = x2 4, x [0, 4]
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
2
4

1 2

3 4

The domain is the set of values covered by the


graph horizontally.

Domain = [0, 4]

The range is the set of values covered by the


graph vertically.

Range = [4, 12]

Verify that the graphs are correct using a graphics calculator or other technology.

domain and range

exercise 4C

1 We4 Describe each of the following subsets of the real numbers using interval notation.
b
a
2

d
3

f
1

h
5

0 1 2

2 We5 Illustrate each of the following number intervals on a number line.


a [6, 2)
b (9, 3)

c ( , 2]
d [5, )
e (1, 10]
f (2, 7)
g (, 2) [1, 3)
h [8, 0) (2, 6]
i R \ [1, 4]
j R \ (1, 5)
k R \ (0, 2]
l R \ [2, 1)
3 Describe each of the following sets using interval notation.
a {x: 4 x < 2}
b {x: 3 < x 1}
1
c {y: 1 < y < 3}
d {y:
<y 1}
e
g
i
k
170

{x: x > 3}
R
R \ {1}
R \ {x: 2 x 3}

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

f
h
j
l

{x: x 3}
R+ {0}
R \ {2}
R \ {x: 2 < x < 0}

4 MC Consider the set described by R \ {x: 1 x < 2}.


a It is represented on a number line as:
a

0 1 2

0 1 2
C

0 1 2

0 1 2

0 1 2
b It is written in interval notation as:
a
b
C
d
e

(, 1) (2, )
(, 1) [2, )
(, 1) (2, ]
(, 1] (2, )
(, 1) [2, )

y
4

5 MC The domain of the relation graphed at right is:


a
b
C
d
e

[4, 4]
(4, 7)
[1, 7]
(4, 4)
(1, 7)

1 0

diGital doC
doc-9739
SkillSHEET 4.1
domain and range

7 x

4
6 MC The range of the relation {(x, y): y = 2x + 5, x [1, 4]} is:
a [7, 13]
C [3, )
e R \ (7, 13)

b [3, 13]
d R

7 We6a, b State i the domain and ii the range of each of the following relations.
a {(3, 8), (4, 10), (5, 12), (6, 14), (7, 16)}
b {(1.1, 2), (1.3, 1.8), (1.5, 1.6), (1.7, 1.4)}
c

Time (min)

Distance (m)
d

Day
Cost ($)

110

130

150

170

Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

25

35

30

35

30

e y = 5x 2, where x is an integer greater than 2 and less than 6


f y = x2 1, x R
8 We6c, d State the domain and range of each of the following relations. Use a CAS calculator to view

more of each graph if required.


a

y
2
3

0 1

y= x1

0
e

y
y = 2ex 2

y
4

y
2

y = 4ex

2
f

2x

y
0

3
0

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

171

y=
0

diGital doC
doc-9740
WorkSHEET 4.1

1
x

0
2

9 We7 For each relation given, sketch its graph and state the domain and range using interval notation.
a {(x, y): y = 2 x2}
b {(x, y): y = x3 + 1, x [2, 2]}
c {(x, y): y = x2 + 3x + 2}
d {(x, y): y = x2 4, x [2, 1]}
e {(x, y): y = 2x 5, x [1, 4)}
f {(x, y): y = 2x2 x 6}

Verify that the graphs are correct with a CAS calculator.

diGital doC
doc-9741
Investigation
interesting
relations

10 State the implied domain for each relation defined by the following rules.
a y = 10 x
b y=3 x

16 x 2
c y=
2
d y=x +3
1
x
f y = 10 7x2
e y=

types of relations (including


functions)
4d

one-to-one relations

A one-to-one relation exists if, for any x-value, there is only one corresponding
y-value and vice versa.
For example:

{(1, 1), (2, 2), (3, 3), (4, 4)}

one-to-many relations
y

A one-to-many relation exists if there is more than one y-value for any x-value
but for any y-value there is only one x-value.
For example:

{(1, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 4)}

Many-to-one relations
A many-to-one relation exists if there is more than one x-value for any y-value
but for any x-value there is only one y-value.
For example:

{(1, 1), (0, 1), (1, 2)}


0

Many-to-many relations
A many-to-many relation exists if there is more than one
x-value for any y-value and vice versa.
For example:
{(0, 1), (0, 1), (1, 0), (1, 0)}

172

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Worked exaMple 8

What type of relation does each graph represent?


a

think

tUtorial
eles-1462
Worked example 8

Write

a 1 For some x-values there is more than one

a One-to-many relation.

y-value. A line through some x-values shows


that two y-values are available:
y
x = 1

For any y-value there is only one x-value. A


line through any y-value shows that only one
x-value is available:
y
y=1
x

b 1 For any x-value there is only one y-value.


2

For any y-value there is only one x-value.

c 1 For any x-value there is only one y-value.


2

b One-to-one relation.

c Many-to-one relation.

For some y-values there is more than one


x-value.

Functions
Relations that are one-to-one or many-to-one are called functions. That is, a function is a relation where
for any x-value there is at most one y-value. For example:
y

Vertical line test


A function is determined from a graph if a vertical line drawn anywhere on the graph cannot intersect
with the curve more than once.
Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

173

Worked exaMple 9

State whether or not each of the following relations are functions.


a {(2, 1), (1, 0), (0, 1), (1, 2)}
b

0
think

Write

a For each x-value there is only one y-value. (Or, a plot of

a Function

the points would pass the vertical line test.)


b It is possible for a vertical line to intersect with the curve

b Not a function

more than once.


c It is not possible for any vertical line to intersect with

c Function

the curve more than once.

exercise 4d

types of relations (including functions)

1 We8 What type of relation does each graph represent?


y
y
a
b

2 We9 Use the vertical line test to determine which of the relations in question 1 are functions.
174

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

3 MC Which of the following relations is not a function?


a {(5, 8), (6, 9), (7, 9), (8, 10), (9, 12)}
y
C y2 = x
b

d y = 8x 3

4 MC Consider the relation y x + 1.


a The graph that represents this relation is:
a
y

y
1

1 0

1 0

y
1

1
0
e

Note: The shaded side


indicates the region not
required.

1
1 0

b This relation is:

a one-to-one
C many-to-one
e a function

b one-to-many
d many-to-many

c The domain and range are respectively:

R and R+
R and R
R and R
R+ and R
R and R
5 Which of the following relations are functions? State the domain and range for each function.
a {(0, 2), (0, 3), (1, 3), (2, 4), (3, 5)}
b {(3, 2), (1, 1), (0, 1), (1, 3), (2, 2)}

d {(1, 2), (1, 0), (2, 1), (3, 2), (4, 3)}
c {(3, 1), (4, 1), (5, 1), (6, 1)}
e {(x, y): y = 2, x R}
f {(x, y): x = 3, y Z}
g y = 1 2x
h y>x+2
2
2
i x + y = 25
j y = x + 1, x 1
3
k y=x +x
l x = y2 + 1
a
b
C
d
e

power functions (hyperbola, truncus


and square root function)
4e

Power functions are functions of the form f (x) = xn, n R. The value of the power, n, determines the
type of function. We saw earlier that when n = 1, f (x) = x, and the function is linear. When n = 2,
f (x) = x2, and the function is quadratic. When n = 3, f (x) = x3, and the function is cubic. When n = 4,
f (x) = x4, and the function is quartic.

interaCtiVitY
int-0263
domain and
range

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

175

Other power functions are:

when n = 1, f (x) = x 1, and the power function produces the graph of a hyperbola

when n = 2, f (x) = x 2, and the power function produces the graph of a truncus
1
when n = 2 , f ( x ) = x , and the function is the square root function.
Under a sequence of transformations of f (x) = xn, n R, the general form of a power function is
f (x) = a(x b)n + c (where a, b, c and n R).
1
2

the hyperbola

The graph shown is called a hyperbola, and is given by the equation y = x .

This can also be represented as the power function y = x 1.


y

y=0
0

x=0

The graph exhibits asymptotic behaviour.


That is, as x becomes very large, the graph approaches the x-axis but never touches it. As x becomes
very small (approaches 0), the graph approaches the y-axis, but never touches it.
So the line x = 0 (the y-axis) is a vertical asymptote, and the line y = 0 (the x-axis) is the horizontal
asymptote.
Both the domain and the range of the function are all real numbers, except 0; that is, R \ {0}.
1
The graph of y = can be subject to a number of transformations.
x
a

Consider y =
+ c or y = a( x b) 1 + c.
xb
y

dilation

3
2
1

The value a is a dilation factor. It dilates the graph from the x-axis.
3
For example, the graph of y = compared to the basic graph of
x
1
y = is shown at right.
x

0
3 2 1
1

y=
(1, 3)

(1, 1)

1 2 3

3
x

y=

1
x

x y=0

2
3

x=0

reflection

If a is negative, the graph of the basic hyperbola is reflected in the x-axis.


If x is replaced with x, the graph of the basic hyperbola is reflected in the y-axis.
1
1
and y =
are reflections of each other across the y-axis.
For example, the graphs of y =
x +1
x+1
y
2
1
0
2 1
1
2

y
y = x 1+ 1

1 2

3
2
1
x

0
2 1
1 1

y = x1+ 1
x = 1

176

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

x=1

translation
horizontal translation

The value b translates the graph b units horizontally, that is, parallel to the x-axis. If b > 0, the graph is
translated to the right, and if b < 0, the graph is translated to the left.
1
is a basic hyperbola translated one unit to the left, since
For example, the graph with equation y =
x +1
b = 1. This graph has a vertical asymptote of x = 1 and domain R \ {1}, and a horizontal asymptote
of y = 0.
1
, with a vertical asymptote
If a basic hyperbola is translated one unit to the right, it becomes y =
x
1
of x = 1 and domain R \ {1}.
Hence, the equation of the vertical asymptote is x = b and the domain is R \ {b}. The horizontal
asymptote and the range remain the same, that is, x = 0 and R \ {0} respectively.
Vertical translation

The value c translates the graph c units vertically, that is, parallel to the y-axis. If c > 0, the graph is
translated upward, and if c < 0, the graph is translated c units downward.
1
The graph with equation y = 1 is a basic hyperbola translated one unit down. This graph has a
x
horizontal asymptote of y = 1, a range of R \ {1} and a vertical asymptote of x = 0.
1
If a basic hyperbola is translated two units up, it becomes y = + 2, with a horizontal asymptote of
x
y = 2 and a range of R \ {2}. Hence, the equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = c, with a vertical
asymptote of x = 0, and the range is R \ {c}.
y
y=c

y=

a
xb

+c

c
0

x=b

+ c or y = a(x b) 1 + c shows the combination of these transformations.


The graph of y =
xb
Worked exaMple 10

3
Sketch the graph of y =
+ 2, clearly showing the intercepts with the axes and the position of
+1
x
the asymptotes.
think

Write/draW

a
Compare the given equation with y =
+ c,
xb
and state the values of a, b and c.

a = 3, b = 1, c = 2

Write a short statement about the effects of


1
a, b and c on the graph of y = .
x

The graph of y =

Write the equations of the asymptotes. The


horizontal asymptote is at y = c. The vertical
asymptote is at x = b.

Asymptotes: x = 1; y = 2

Find the value of the y-intercept by letting


x = 0.

y-intercept: x = 0

1
is dilated by the factor of 3
x
from the x-axis (a = 3), translated 1 unit to the left
(b = 1) and 2 units up (c = 2).

3
+2
0 +1
=3+2
=5

y=

Point (0, 5)

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

177

Find the value of the x-intercept by making


y = 0.

x-intercept: y = 0

3
+2
x +1
3

2=
x +1

2(x + 1) = 3
2x 2 = 3
2x = 5
0=

x=
Point
6

To sketch the graph:


(a) draw the set of axes and label them
(b) use dotted lines to draw the asymptotes
The asymptotes are x = 1 and y = 2.
(c) mark the intercepts with the axes
5
The intercepts are y = 5 and x = 2 .
(d) treat the asymptotes as your new set of
axes, sketch the graph of the hyperbola.
(As a is positive, the graph is not
reflected in the x-axis.)

,0

5
2

)
y

y=
6 (0, 5)
4
2
0
3 2 1
2
( 5 ,
2

0)

3
x+1

+2

y=2
x

1 2 3

4
6

x = 1

the truncus
The graph shown is known as a truncus. The equation of the graph is given by:
1
y= 2
x

This can also be represented as the power function y = x 2.


The function is undefined for x = 0. Hence, the equation of the vertical
asymptote is x = 0 and the domain of the function is R \{0}.
We can also observe that the graph approaches the x-axis very closely
but never touches it. So y = 0 is the horizontal asymptote.
Since the whole graph of the truncus is above the x-axis, its range is R+
(that is, all positive real numbers).
Similarly to the graphs of the functions, discussed in the previous
1
sections, the graph of y = 2 can undergo various transformations.
x
a
+ c or y = a(a b)2 + c.
Consider the general formula y =
( x b) 2

dilation
The value a is the dilation factor. It dilates the graph from the
x-axis. The dilation factor does not affect the domain, range or
asymptotes.
4
Consider the graph of y = 2 .
x

y
y=
y=0

1
x2

0
x=0

y
6
4
2
3 2 1 0

y=
1 2 3

4
x2

x y=0

x=0

reflection
If a is negative, the graph of a basic truncus is reflected in the x-axis. The range becomes R (that is,
all negative real numbers).
If x is replaced with x, the graph of the basic truncus is reflected in the y-axis. The effect of this
reflection cannot be seen in the basic graph, but it becomes more obvious if the graph has been
translated horizontally first.
178

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

1
1
and y =
are reflections across the y-axis.
2
(
x
2)2
( x 2)

The vertical asymptote changes from x = 2 to x = 2, and the domain changes from R \{2} to R \{2}.

For example, the graphs of y =

y
3
2
1
0
2 1
1

y=

1
(x 2)2

y=

1
(x 2)2

3 2 1 0

x = 2
x=2

translation
horizontal translation

The value b translates the graph b units horizontally. If b > 0, the graph is translated to the right, and if
b < 0, the graph is translated left.
1
For example, the graph of the equation y =
results from translating a basic truncus 3 units to
( x 3)2
the right. The vertical asymptote is x = 3 and the domain is R \ {3}.
1 , where the vertical asymptote
If a basic truncus is translated 2 units to the left, it becomes y =
(
2)2
x
+
is x = 2 and the domain is R \ {2}.
Hence, the equation of the vertical asymptote is x = b, and the domain is R \ {b}. The range is still R+,
and the equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = 0.
Vertical translation

The value c translates the graph c units vertically. If c > 0, the graph is translated upward, and if c < 0,
the graph is translated c units downward.
1
For example, the graph with equation y = 2 + 1 results when a basic truncus is translated 1 unit
x
upward. The horizontal asymptote is y = 1, and the range is (1, ).
1
If a basic truncus is translated 1 unit down, it becomes y = 2 1, with y = 1 as the horizontal
x
asymptote and (1, ) as the range.
Hence, the equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = c, and the range is (c, ).
Note: If a is positive (see graph below), the whole graph of the truncus is above the line y = c
(the horizontal asymptote), and hence its range is y > c, or (c, ).
y
If a is negative, the whole graph is below its horizontal asymptote,
y=

and therefore the range is y < c, or ( , c).


a
+ c or y = a(x b)2 + c shows the
The graph of y =
( x b) 2
c
combination of these transformations.
0

a
(x b)2

+c

y=c
x

x=b

Worked exaMple 11

1
+ 3, clearly showing the position of the asymptotes and the
( x 2) 2
intercepts with the axes.
Sketch the graph of y =
think

Write

a
+c
( x b) 2

Write the general formula for the truncus.

y=

Identify the values of a, b and c.

a = 1, b = 2, c = 3

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

179

1
The graph of y = 2 is translated 2 units to the right
and 3 units up. x

Write a short statement about the


1
transformations the graph of y = 2 should
undergo in order to be changed x
into the one in question.

Write the equations of the asymptotes


(y = c and x = b).

Asymptotes: x = 2 and y = 3

Find the x-intercept. As you cannot get the


square root of a negative number, there is no
solution and therefore no x-intercepts.
An inspection of the equation of the graph
would also have revealed this.

x-intercept: y = 0
1
0=
+3
( x 2)2
1
= 3
( x 2)2
( x 2)2 =

1
3
1

( x 2) =

y-intercept: x = 0
1
y=
+3
(0 2)2
1
= +3
4
13
=
4

Find the y-intercept.

To sketch the graph:


(a) draw the set of axes and label them
(b) use dotted lines to draw asymptotes
(c) mark the x- and y-intercepts
(d) treating the asymptotes as the new set of
axes, draw the basic truncus curve
(e) make sure it intersects the axes in the
right places.

y
(0,

13 )
4

6
4
2

2 1 0

y=3
1 2 3 4x
x=2

the square root function






The square root function is given by y = x .


This can be written as the power function y = x .
The function is defined for x 0; that is, the domain is R+ {0}, or [0, ).
As can be seen from the graph, the range of the square root function is also R+ {0}, or [0, ).
Throughout this section we will refer to the graph of y = x as the basic square root curve.
1
2

y
y= x
x

Let us now investigate the effects of various transformations on the basic square root curve.
Consider the function y = a x b + c or y = a( x b) + c.
1
2

dilation
The value a is a dilation factor; it dilates the graph from the x-axis. The domain is still [0, ).
180

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

reflection
If a is negative, the graph of a basic square root curve is reflected in the x-axis. The range becomes
(, 0]. The domain is still [0, ).
If x is replaced with x, the graph is reflected in the y-axis. For example, the graphs with equations
y = x and y = x are reflected across the y-axis.
The domain becomes (, 0] and the range is [0, ).
y

y
y= x

1 2

y = x
x

2 1 0

1 2

translation
horizontal translation

The value h translates the graph horizontally. If b > 0, the graph is translated to the right, and if b < 0,
the graph is translated to the left.
The graph with the equation y = x 1 results when the basic curve is translated 1 unit to the right.
This translated graph has domain [1, ) and range [0, ).
If the basic curve is translated 3 units to the left, it becomes y = x + 3 and has domain [3, ) and
range [0, ).
y
y= x+3
2
1

3 2 1 0

1 2 3

The domain of a square root function after a translation is given by [b, ).


Vertical translation

The value c translates the graph vertically. If c > 0, the graph is translated vertically up, and if c < 0,
the graph is translated vertically down.
If y = x is translated 3 units vertically up, the graph obtained is y = x + 3, with domain [0, ) and
range [3, ).
y
5
4
3
2
1

y= x+3

0
2 1
1

1 2 3 4x

If the basic curve is translated 2 units down, it becomes y = x 2, with domain [0,) and range
[2, ).
The range of the square root function is [c, ) for a > 0.
The graph of y = a x b + c or y = a( x b) + c shows the combination of these transformations.
1
2

y
y=a bx+c

(b, c)

y=a x+b+c

(b, c)
x

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

181

Worked exaMple 12

Sketch the graph of y = 3 x 1 + 2, clearly marking intercepts and the end points.
think

Write/draW

Write the equation.

y = 3 x 1 + 2,

Write the coordinates of the end point.

End point: (1, 2)

State the shape of the graph.

Shape:

Inspection of the equation reveals that there is no


y-intercept.

There is no x-intercept.

Inspection of the equation reveals that there is no


y-intercept.

There is no y-intercept.

To help sketch the graph, determine the coordinates of


a second point.
Let x = 3.

x = 3: y = 3 31 + 2

=3 2+2
Point: (3, 3 2 + 2)

Sketch the graph by plotting the end point, showing the


second point, and drawing the curve so that it starts at
the end point and passes through the second point.

y
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
2 1
1

y=3 x1+2
(3, 3 2 + 2)

(1, 2)
1 2 3 4x

power functions (hyperbola, truncus


and square root function)
exercise 4e

1 State the dilation factor and the vertical and horizontal translations or reflections for each of the

following. Write a short statement about the effects each has on the basic graph of that function.
3
+1
a y=
x5
2
b y = 2 +1
x
1
2
c y=
4x
d y= 2 x+4
e y=
f

1
(3 x )2

y = 4 x 5

2 We10, 11, 12 Sketch a graph for each of the following functions, clearly showing x- and y-intercepts

and any asymptotes.


3
a f (x) = 2 + 1
x
2
c f (x) =
+5
x 1
182

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

b f (x) =

3 x 1

d f (x) = 2

2
( x 1)2

3 Assuming the dilation factor is 1, write the equation of the graph.


y
9
8
7
6
5
4
y=3
3
5
2
2
1
1 2 3 4x

1 0
5
3

x=2

4F

Function notation

Consider the relation y = 2x, which is a function.


The y-values are determined from the x-values, so we say y is a function of x, which is abbreviated
to y = f (x).
So, the rule y = 2x can also be written as f (x) = 2x.
If x = 1, then y = f (1)
If x = 2, then y = f (2)
=21
=22
=2
= 4, and so on.

evaluating functions
For a given function y = f (x), the value of y when x = 1 is written as f (1), the value of y when x = 5 is
written as f (5) and so on.
Worked exaMple 13

If f (x) = x2 3, find:
a f (1)
b f (2)

c f (a)

d f (2a).

think

a 1 Write the rule.


2

Substitute x = 1 into the rule.

Simplify.

b 1 Write the rule.


2

Substitute x = 2 into the rule.

Simplify.

c 1 Write the rule.


2

Substitute x = a into the rule.

d 1 Write the rule.


2

Substitute x = 2a into the rule.

Simplify the expression if possible.

Write

a f (x) = x2 3

f (1) = 12 3
=13
= 2
b f (x) = x2 3

f (2) = (2)2 3
=43
=1
c

f (x) = x2 3
f ( a) = a2 3

d f (x) = x2 3

f (2a) = (2a)2 3
= 22a2 3
= 4a2 3

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

183

Fully defining functions


To fully define a function:
1. define the domain
2. state the rule.
That is, if a function f (x) has domain X, the function may be defined as follows:
f : X Y, f (x) = . . . . . .
Domain

Co-domain

Rule

Y is not necessarily the range but is a set that contains the range, called the co-domain. The co-domain
gives the set of possible values that contains y. It is usually R (the set of real numbers). The actual values
that y can be the range is determined by the rule. When using function notation the domain can be
abbreviated as dom f and the range as ran f.
For example, the function defined by {(x, y): y = 2x, x [0, 3]} can be expressed in function notation
as f : [0, 3] R, f (x) = 2x.
For this function we can write dom f = [0, 3]. The co-domain = R. Also, ran f = [0, 6] (x = 0 gives
y = 0 and x = 3 gives y=6, which are the minimum and maximum values of y).
R

R
5.1

78

1
3

0.6

[0, 3]

11
3

f : domain

etc.
2 2
1.2 3 46
2 3 etc.
0
Range

1
2
3

10

etc.
Domain

[0, 6]

Co-domain
co-domain , f(x) = rule

The graph of this function is shown below.


y
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

f(x)

3x

The maximal domain of a function is the largest possible set of values of x for which the rule is
defined. The letters f, g and h are usually used to name a function, that is, f (x), g(x) and h(x).
Note: If a function is referred to by its rule only, then the domain is assumed to be the maximal domain.
Worked exaMple 14

Express the following functions in function notation with maximal domain.


1
a {(x, y): y = x2 4}
b y = 3x 4, 2 x 5
c y= x
think

Write

a The rule has meaning for all values of x (it is a

quadratic), so the domain of the function is R.


b The rule has meaning for all values of x in the

given domain

[2,

5].

c The rule has meaning for all values of x except 0.

184

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

a f : R R, f (x) = x2 4
b f : [2, 5] R, f (x) = 3x 4

c f : R \ {0} R, f (x) =

1
x

Worked exaMple 15

State i the domain, ii the co-domain and iii the range for each of the following functions.
1
a f : R R, f (x) = 5 x
b g : R+ R, g(x) =
x
think

Write/draW

a 1 The domain is given as R.


2

The co-domain is given as R.

Use a CAS calculator to obtain the graph of


the function, or sketch it.

a i dom f = R
ii The co-domain is R.
y
5

From the graph the range is observed to be R.

b 1 The domain is given as R+.


2

The co-domain is given as R.

Use a CAS calculator to obtain the graph of


the function, or sketch it.

iii ran f = R
b i dom g = R+
ii The co-domain is R.
y

1
0
4

The range is observed from the graph to be R+.

x
f(x)

g(x)
x

iii ran g = R+

Worked exaMple 16

State i the maximal domain and ii the range for the function defined by the rule:
1
.
a y = x+1 b y =
x+2
think

Write/draW

a 1 The rule has meaning for all x if x + 1 0

(that is, contents of

tUtorial
eles-1463
Worked example 16

a Require x + 1 0

are positive).

Solve this inequation.

So x 1

State the maximal domain.

i Maximal domain = [1, )

To confirm the maximal domain and see


the range, use a CAS calculator or other
technology to obtain the graph of the function,
or sketch it by plotting selected points.

y
y= x+1
1
(1, 0)
0

The range is observed from the graph


to be [0, ).

ii Range = [0, )

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

185

b 1 The rule exists for all x, except when x + 2 = 0.


2

Therefore x 2.

x 2

State the maximal domain.

i Maximal domain = R \ {2}

Use a CAS calculator to obtain the graph of


the function, or sketch it by plotting selected
points to confirm the maximal domain and see
the range.

y
1
y =
x+2

1
2 1 0

ii Range = R \ {0}

The range is observed from the graph to be


R \ {0}.

exercise 4F

Function notation

1 We13
a If f (x) = 3x + 1, find:
diGital doCS
doc-9742
SkillSHEET 4.2
Substitution
doc-9743
SkillSHEET 4.3
transposition of
equations

bx+20

b If g(x) =

x + 4 , find:
1
c If g(x) = 4 , find:
x
d If f (x) = (x + 3)2, find:
24
e If h (x) =
, find:
x

i f (0),

ii f (2),

iii f (2) and

iv f (5).

i g(0),

ii g(3),

iii g(5) and

iv g(4),

i g(1),

ii g 1 ,

iii g

i f (0),

ii f (2),

iii f (1) a nd

iv f (a).

i h (2),

ii h (4),

iii h (6) and

iv h (12).

1
,
2

1
,
5

and

iv g

2 Find the value (or values) of x for which each function has the value given.
a f (x) = 3x 4, f (x) = 5
b g(x) = x2 2, g(x) = 7

1
, f (x) = 3
x
e g(x) = x2 + 3x, g(x) = 4
c f (x) =

10
3 Given that f ( x ) =
x , find:
x
a f (2)
d f (x2)

d h (x) = x2 5x + 6, h (x) = 0
f

f (x) =

b f (5)
e f (x + 3)

8 x , f (x) = 3
c f (2x)
f f (x 1)

4 We14 Express the following functions in function notation with maximal domain.
b y=

x6
2
d y=
x +1
f y = x2 + 3x, where x 2
h y = x2 + x

a {(x, y): y = 4x + 1}

1
x 1
e y = (x + 2)2, where x R+
g y = 8 x, where x 0
c y=

5 We15 For each of the following functions, state:


i the doma
in
ii the co-domain
iii the range.
diGital doC
doc-9744
Square root graphs

a f : {0, 1, 2, 3} Z, f (x) = 3x 7
c f : {2, 4, 6, 8, 10} N, f (x) =

x
2

e g: R+ R, g(x) = x2 2

d f : ( , 0) R, f (x) =
f

6 We16 State i the maximal domain and

186

b g: (0, 10] R, g(x) =

3
x
1
x

h: [3, 3] R, h(x) = 9 x 2

ii the range for the function defined by the rule:

a f (x) = 3 x

b f (x) = 5 x

c y = x3 + 2

d y = 5 3x2

e y=

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

x4

y=

1
x3

Special types of function (including


hybrid functions)
4G

one-to-one functions

As we have already seen, one-to-one relations and many-to-one relations are functions. A one-to-one
function has, at most, one y-value for any x-value and vice versa. The graph of a relation is a function if
any vertical line crosses the curve at most once. Similarly, a one-to-one function exists if any horizontal
line crosses the curve at most once. For example:
y

A function that is not one-to-one; this passes the


vertical line test but not the horizontal line test.

eleSSon
eles-0077
hybrid functions

A one-to-one function; this passes the


vertical line test and the horizontal line test.

Worked exaMple 17

Which of the following functions are one-to-one?


a {(0, 1), (1, 2), (2, 3), (3, 1)}
b {(2, 3), (3, 5), (4, 7)}
c f (x) = 3x
think
1

Write/draW

a When x = 0 and x = 3, y = 1.

Check whether each function has, at most, one


y-value for any x-vaue and vice versa.

It is not a one-to-one function.


b There is only one x-value for each y-value.

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 3x. Check whether


both a vertical line and a horizontal line crosses
only once.

f(x)

3
0

It is a one-to-one function.
3

Write a statement to answer the question.

The functions are one-to-one for b and c.

Worked exaMple 18

Which of the following graphs show a one-to-one function?


a

think

If a function is one-to-one, any vertical or horizontal


line crosses the graph only once.

Write

Only b is a one-to-one function.

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

187

restriction of functions
Restrictions can be placed on a function through its domain. If we have one relation, for example
f (x) = x2, we can create several different functions by defining different domains. For example:
y

f : R R, f (x) = x2

f(x)

h(x)

g(x)
1 0

1x

g: [1, 1] R, g(x) = x2

h: R+ R, h(x) = x2

The restriction imposed on the function f to produce the function h has created a one-to-one function.

Worked exaMple 19

For each function graphed below state two restricted, maximal (largest possible) domains that
make the function one-to-one.
y

y = (x 2)2

y
1
y=
2

think

a 1 One-to-one functions will be formed if the

Write/draW

curve is split into two through the vertical line


x = 2.

0
2

State the required domains.

b 1 One-to-one functions will be formed if the

curve is split into two through the line x = 0.

State the required domains.

For the function to be one-to-one, the domain


is (, 2] or [2, ).
b

For the function to be one-to-one, the domain


is (, 0) or (0, ).

hybrid functions
A hybrid, mixed, or piecewise defined function is a function that has different rules
for different subsets of the domain. For example:
x + 1, for x 0
f (x) = 2
is a hybrid function that obeys the rules y = x + 1 if
x , for x > 0
x (, 0] and y = x2 if x (0, ). The graph of f (x) is shown at right. Note
that the domains do not overlap.
188

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

f(x)

1
1 0

Worked exaMple 20

x,

a Sketch the graph of f ( x ) = x + 1,


5 x,

b State the range of f.

x<0
0x<2

tUtorial
eles-1464
Worked example 20

x2

think

Write/draW

a If x = 1, y = x

a Calculate and plot points as shown.

= 1

Sketch the graph of y = x for the


domain (, 0).

If x = 0, y = x
=0

On the same axes sketch the graph of


y = x + 1 for the domain [0, 2).

If x = 0, y = x + 1
=1
If x = 2, y = x + 1
=3

On the same axes sketch the graph of y = 5 x


for the domain [2, ).

If x = 2, y = 5 x
=3
If x = 5, y = 5 x
=0
y
3
y=x+1
2
1

f(x)
y=5x

0 1 2 3 4 5 x
y = x11

b ran f = (, 3]

b The range is made up of (or is the union of) two

sections, (, 0) with (, 3].

Special types of function (including


hybrid functions)
exercise 4G

1 We17 Which of the following functions are one-to-one? Use a CAS calculator or other technology to

obtain the graph of the function where appropriate.

a {(1, 1), (2, 1), (3, 3), (4, 5)}


c {(x, y): y = x2 + 1, x [0, )}
e {(x, y): y = 3 2x2}

b {(2, 1), (1, 0), (0, 2), (1, 1)}


d {(x, y): y = 3 4x}
f f (x) = x3 1

g y = x2, x 0

h g(x) = 1 x 2

2 We18 Consider the relations below and state:


i which of them are functions
ii which of them are one-to-one functions.
a
b
y
y

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

189

0
x

We19 For each function below, state two restricted, maximal domains that make the function
one-to-one.

1 0
d

g f (x) = 1 x2

3 x

3
e

y
3 0

(3, 4)

y
0

(1, 4)

(2, 2)

0 (1, 0)

4 x 2 , x [2, 2]
j f (x) = (x + 3)2
h g(x) =

1
, x R \ {0}
x2
4 MC Use the graph of the relation y2 = x 1, shown below, to answer the following questions.
a A one-to-one function can be formed by:
y
a restricting the domain to R+
b restricting the domain to [1, )
C restricting the domain to (1, )
x
0 1
d restricting the range to [0, )
e restricting the range to R \ {0}
i

g(x) =

b A rule that describes a one-to-one function derived from the relation y2 = x 1 is:
a y2 = x 1
b y=

x 1

x 1

C y=
d y=
e

190

x 1

y = x 1

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

5 MC Consider the following hybrid function.

x, x < 1
f (x) =
x , x 1

a The graph that correctly represents this function is:


a
b
y
y

1
1

0 1

0
1

0
1

1
0
1

0
1

b The range of this hybrid function is:

b R \ {1}
e R+

a R

d [0, )

C (1, )

6 We20
a Sketch the graph of the following function.

1
x<0
,
f (x) = x
x + 1, x 0
b State the range of f.
2
x + 1,

7 a Sketch the graph of the function g( x ) =


2 x ,
b State the range of g.
c Find:
i g(1)
ii g(0)
iii g(1).

x0
x<0

x 2, x < 2

8 a Sketch the graph of the function f ( x ) = x 2 4, 2 x 2 .


x + 2, x > 2
b State the range of z.

c Find:
i f (3)

ii f (2)

iii f (1)

iv f (2)

v f (5).

y
3
2
1

9 Specify the rule for the function represented by the graph at right.

2 1 0
1
2
10 The graph of the relation {(x, y): x2 + y2 = 1, x 0} is shown at right.

From this relation, form two one-to-one functions and state the range of each.

f(x)

y
1
0

1
11 a Sketch the graph of the function f : R z, f (x) = (x 3)2.
b By restricting the domain of f, form two one-to-one functions that have the same rule as f (use the

largest possible domains).


12 a Sketch the graph of the function g : R R, g(x) = x2 + 2x + 1.
b By restricting the domain of g, form two one-to-one functions that have the same rule as g

(use maximal domains).

diGital doC
doc-9745
WorkSHEET 4.2

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

191

4h

inverse relations and functions

A relation is a set of ordered pairs that can be graphed or described by a rule. The inverse of a
set of ordered pairs is obtained simply by interchanging the x and y elements. So, the inverse of
{(1, 5), (2, 6), (3, 7)} is {(5, 1), (6, 2), (7, 3)}. If these points are plotted on a set of axes, it can
be seen that when each original point is reflected across the line y = x, the inverse points are
obtained.
Similarly, if the graph of a function is given, then its inverse function can be sketched by reflecting the
original function across the line y = x.
Only functions that are one-to-one have inverses.

Worked exaMple 21

Sketch the graph of the following and then sketch the inverse.
a {(3, 6), (4, 4), (5, 2), (6, 0)}
b y

c y = x2 for x 0

x
think

a 1 Plot the points on a set of axes.


2

Interchange the x- and y-values and plot them.


Alternatively, reflect the original points across
the line y = x.
So, (3, 6) (6, 3)
(4, 4) (4, 4)
(5, 2) (2, 5)
(6, 0) (0, 6)

b 1 Re-draw the given graph.


2

On the same set of axes, plot the line y = x.

Sketch a reflection of the original graph across


the line y = x.

Write/draW

y
y=x
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
654321
1 1 2 3 4 5 6 x
2
3
4
5
6

b y

y=x

x
c Sketch the original function. The graph is a

c y

parabola with turning point (0, 0). The domain is


restricted.

y = x2

y=x

1
0

192

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

inverse relations and functions

exercise 4h

1 We21a Sketch the graph of the following and then sketch the inverse.
a (1, 7), (2, 5), (3, 3)}
b (1, 3), (2, 6), (3, 9)}
c (2, 11), (0, 6), (2, 1)}
2 We21b Sketch the graph of the following and then sketch the inverse. (Assume each set of axes has

the same scale for x and y.)


a

x
c

x
x
y

x
x
3 We21c Sketch the graph of the following and then sketch the inverse.
a y = 4x

4i

b y = x2 + 3, x 0

c y = 2x + 1

d y = x3 + 4

Circles

y
r

A circle is a many-to-many relation.


The rule that defines a circle with its centre at (0, 0) and of radius r is
r

x2 + y2 = r 2
The graph of this circle is shown at right.
The vertical-line test clearly verifies that the circle graph is not a function.
Solving the equation for y we have y2 = r 2 x2, so y = r 2 x 2 or y = r 2 x 2 .
These two relations represent two semicircles that together make a complete circle:
y = r 2 x 2 is the upper semicircle (above the x-axis).

r x
r

diGital doC
doc-9746
Investigation
a special relation

y = r 2 x 2 is the lower semicircle (below the x-axis).


y
r
r

y
y = r 2 x2

r x
r y = r 2 x 2

Both these relations are many-to-one functions.


Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

193

Worked exaMple 22

Sketch the graphs of the following relations.


a x2 + y2 = 16
b x2 + y2 = 9, 0 x 3

c y=

8 x2

think

draW

a 1 This relation is a circle of centre (0,0) and radius = 16 = 4.


2

On a set of axes mark x- and y-intercepts of 4 and 4.

Draw the circle.

4
4

4 x

0
4

b 1 This relation is part of a circle of centre (0, 0) and radius =


2

Since the domain is [0, 3], on a set of axes mark y-intercepts 3


and 3 and x-intercept 3.

Draw a semicircle on the right-hand side of the y-axis.

Draw a semicircle above the x-axis.

and radius = 8.

On a set of axes mark the x-intercepts of


y-intercepts of 8 .

3 x

c 1 This relation is an upper semicircle (as y > 0) of centre (0, 0)

y
3

9 = 3.

8 and 8 and
8

General equation of a circle

The general equation of a circle with centre (h, k) and radius r


is (x h)2 + (y k)2 = r 2.
The domain is [h r, h + r].
The range is [k r, k + r].

k+r
Range

8x

(x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2

(h, k)

kr
0 hr

h
Domain

Worked exaMple 23

Sketch the graphs of the following circles. State the domain and range of each.
a x2 + (y 3)2 = 1
b (x + 3)2 + (y + 2)2 = 9
think

a 1 This circle has centre (0, 3) and radius 1.


2

194

On a set of axes mark the centre and four


points; 1 unit (the radius) left and right of the
centre, and 1 unit (the radius) above and below
the centre.

Write/draW

y
4

x 2 + (y 3)2 = 1

3
2
1 0

Draw a circle that passes through these


four points.

State the domain.

The domain is [1, 1].

State the range.

The range is [2, 4].

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

h+r x

b 1 This circle has centre (3, 2) and radius 3.


2

y
1

(3, 1)

On a set of axes mark the centre and four


points; 3 units left and right of the centre, and
3 units above and below the centre.

6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1
(6, 2)

Draw a circle that passes through these


four points.

(0, 2)

(3, 2)

1 x

3
4
5

(3, 5)
4

State the domain.

The domain is [6, 0].

State the range.

The range is [5, 1].

Note: When using a CAS calculator to plot circle graphs, ensure that the upper and lower values are
entered as separate equations on the Graphs & Geometry page; for example,
f1(x) = 16 x 2 and f2(x) = 16 x 2 .

exercise 4i

Circles

1 State the equation of each of the circles graphed below.


y
y
a
b
3
1
3

1 0
1

3x

0
3

y
10
10

5
5

10 x

10

2 2
2 2

6 x

5 x

0
5

diGital doC
doc-9747
Circle graphs

2 2x

2 2

6
h

3
3

y
4

3x

4 x

2 State the domain and range of each circle in question 1.


3 We22 Sketch the graphs of the following relations.
a x2 + y2 = 4
b x2 + y2 = 16
d x2 + y2 = 7

c x2 + y2 = 49

e x2 + y2 = 12

x2 + y2 =

1
4

4 Sketch the graph of each of the following relations and state whether it is a function or not.
a y = 81 x 2

b y=

4 x2

c y = 1 x2

d y=

1
9

e y=

1
4

x2

g y = 10 x 2

x2

y = 5 x2

h x2 + y2 = 3,

3x0

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

195

5 MC Consider the circle below.

y
2
0

4 x

2
a The equation of the circle is:
a x2 + (y 2)2 = 4
C (x + 2)2 + y2 = 16
e (x + 2)2 + y2 = 4

b The range of the relation is:


a R
d [2, 4]

b (x 2)2 + y2 = 16
d (x 2)2 + y2 = 4

b [2, 2]
e [2, 1]

6 MC Consider the equation (x + 3)2 + (y 1)2 = 1.


a The graph that represents this relation is:
y
y
b
a
4
2
1
1
0
2 3 4
0 x
3
6
2
d

y
1
2

C [0, 4]

2
1
x

4 3 2
y
2

x
1
0

3.532.5
b The domain of the relation is:
a [3.5, 2.5]
d [2, 4]

b (4, 2)
e [4, 2]

C R

7 We23 Sketch the graph of the following circles. State the domain and range of each.
a x2 + (y + 2)2 = 1
b x2 + (y 2)2 = 4
c (x 4)2 + y2 = 9
d (x 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 16
e (x + 3)2 + (y + 2)2 = 25
f (x 3)2 + (y 2)2 = 9
2
2
9
3
1
g (x + 5) + (y 4) = 36
h (x )2 + (y + )2 =
2

8 Express the relation x2 + y2 = 36 as two

functions, and state the largest domain


and range of each.
9 Express the relation x2 + (y 2)2 = 9 as

two functions, and state the largest


domain and range of each.
10 Circular ripples are formed when a

water drop hits the surface of a pond.


If one ripple is represented by the
equation x2 + y2 = 4 and then 3 seconds
later by x2 + y2 = 190, where the length
of measurements are in centimetres:
a find the radius (in cm) of the ripple
in each case
b calculate how fast the ripple is
moving outwards.
(State your answers to 1 decimal
place.)
196

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

4J

Functions and modelling

When using functions to model rules in real-life situations the domain usually has practical restrictions
imposed on it. For example, the area of a circle is determined by the function A(r) = 2.
For a circle to be drawn the radius needs to be a positive number. Hence the domain is (0, ) or R+.

Worked exaMple 24

The table describes hire rates for a removal van.


a Express the cost as a hybrid function.
b Sketch the graph of the function.
Hours of hire (h)

Cost ($C)

Up to 3

200

Over 3 up to 5

300

Over 5 up to 8

450

think

Write/draW

a 1 The cost is $200 if 0 < h 3.


2

The cost is $300 if 3 < h 5.

The cost is $450 if 5 < h 8.

tUtorial
eles-1465
Worked example 24

200,

C (h) = 300,
450,

State the cost function C(h).

b Sketch a graph with 3 horizontal lines over the

appropriate section of the domain.

0 <h 3
3 <h 5
5 <h 8

b C ($)
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 h (hours)

exercise 4J

Functions and modelling

1 We24 The cost of hiring a paper recycling removalist is described in the following table:

Hours of hire

Cost

Up to 1

$40

Over 1 up to 2

$70

Over 2 up to 4

$110

Over 4 up to 6

$160

a State the cost function, $C, in terms of the time, t hours, for hiring up to 6 hours.
b Sketch the graph of the function.
Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

197

2 The charge for making a 10-minute STD call on the weekend is listed below.

Distance d (km)
Cost $C

Up to
50 km
0.40

50 to
100 km
0.60

100 to
200 km
0.80

200 to
700 km
1.70

Over
700 km
2.00

a State the cost function in terms of the distance.


b Sketch the graph of the function.
1
2

3 A car travels at a constant speed of 60 km/h for 1 hours, stops for half an hour, then travels for another

2 hours at a constant speed of 80 km/h until it reaches its destination.


a Construct a function that describes the distance travelled by the car, d (km), at time, t hours.
b State the domain and range of this function.
c Calculate the distance travelled after:
i 1 hour
ii 3 hours.
4 At a fun park, a motorised toy boat operates for 5 minutes for every dollar coin placed in a meter. The
meter will accept a maximum of 120 one-dollar coins.
a Write a rule that gives the time of boat operation, B hours, in terms of the number of dollar coins, n.
b Sketch the graph of the function and state the domain and range.
c How much is in the meter when the boat has operated for 450 minutes?
5 The tax for Australian residents who earn a taxable income between $37 000 and $80 000 is $4650 plus
30 cents for every dollar earned over $37 000.
a Write a rule for the tax payable, $T, for a taxable income, $x, where 37 001 x 80 000.
b Sketch a graph of this function.
c Calculate the tax paid on an income of $42 000.
6 The maximum side length of the rectangle shown is 10 metres.
(x + 4) m
(x 1) m
a Write a function that gives the perimeter, P metres, of the rectangle.
b State the domain and range of this function.
7 A rectangular swimming pool is to have a length 4 metres greater than its width.
a Write a rule for the area of the pool, A m2, as a function of the width, x metres.
b State the domain and range if the maximum side length is 12 metres.
8 Timber increases in value (appreciates) by 2% each year. If a consignment of timber is currently

worth $100 000:


a express the value of the timber, P dollars, as a function of time, t, where t is the number of years
from now.
b what will be the value of the timber in 10 years?

198

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

9 The number of koalas remaining in a parkland tweeks after a virus strikes is given by the function

96
koalas per hectare.
t+3
How many koalas per hectare were there before the virus struck?
How many koalas per hectare are there 13 weeks after the virus struck?
How long after the virus strikes are there 23 koalas per hectare?
Will the virus kill off all the koalas? Explain why.

N (t ) = 15 +
a
b
c
d

10 A school concert usually attracts 600 people at a cost of $10 per person. On average, for every $1 rise

in admission price, 50 less people attend the concert. If T is the total amount of takings and n is the
number of $1 increases:
a write the rule for the function that gives T in terms of n
b sketch the graph of T versus n
c find the admission price that will give the maximum takings.

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

199

Summary
Set notation

{. . .} refers to a set.
means is an element of.
means is not an element of.
means is a subset of.
means is not a subset (or is not contained in).
means intersection with.
means union with.
\ means excluding.
refers to the null, or empty set.
{(a, b), (c, d), . . .} is a set of ordered pairs.
A relation is a set of ordered pairs.
N refers to the set of natural numbers.
Z refers to the set of integers.
Q refers to the set of rational numbers.
R refers to the set of real numbers.

relations and graphs

The independent variable (domain) is shown on the horizontal axis of a graph.


The dependent variable (domain) is shown on the vertical axis of a graph.
Discrete variables are things that can be counted.
Continuous variables are things that can be measured.

domain and range

The domain of a relation is the set of first elements of a set of ordered pairs.
The range of a relation is the set of second elements of a set of ordered pairs.
The implied domain of a relation is the set of first element values for which a rule has meaning.
In interval notation a square bracket means that the end point is included in a set of values, whereas
a curved bracket means that the end point is not included.
(a, b]
a

types of relations
(including functions)

A function is a relation that does not repeat the first element in any of its ordered pairs. That is, for
any x-value there is only one y-value.
The graph of a function cannot be crossed more than once by any vertical line.
y

0
x

Function
power functions
(hyperbola, truncus
and square root
function)

200

Not a function

1. The graph of y = x is called a hyperbola.


a
+ c is the graph of the basic hyperbola, dilated by the factor of a in the
The graph of y =
xb
y-direction, translated b units horizontally (to the right if b > 0 or to the left if b < 0) and c units
vertically (up if c > 0 or down if c < 0). If a < 0, the graph is reflected in the x-axis. The
equations of the asymptotes are: x = b and y = c. The domain of the function is R \ {b} and its
range is R \ {c}.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

2. The graph of y = 12 is called a truncus.


x
a
The graph of y =
+ c is the basic truncus curve, dilated by a factor of a in the y-direction
( x b) 2
and translated b units along the x-axis (to the right if b > 0 or to the left if b < 0) and c units
along the y-axis (up if c > 0 or down if c < 0). If a is negative, the graph is reflected in the
x-axis. The vertical asymptote is x = b. The horizontal asymptote is y = c. The domain is R \ {b}.
The range is y > c if a > 0, or y < c if a < 0.
3. The graph of the function y = a x b + c is the graph of y = x , dilated by the factor of a in the
y-direction and translated b units along the x-axis and c units along the y-axis.
If a < 0, the basic graph is reflected in the x-axis.
The end point of the graph is (b, c).
The domain is x b.
The range is y c for a > 0, or y c for a < 0.
If y = a b x + c, the domain is x b; the graph of y = a x is reflected in the y-axis.
Function notation

f (x) = . . . is used to describe a function of x. To evaluate the function, for example, when x = 2,
find f (2) by replacing each occurrence of x on the RHS with 2.
Functions are completely described if the domain and the rule are given.
Functions are commonly expressed using the notation
f : X Y, f (x) = . . . . . .
Domain

Co-domain

Rule

dom f is an abbreviation for the domain of f ( x).


ran f is an abbreviation for the range of f ( x).
The maximal domain of a function is the largest domain for which the function will remain
defined.
Special types of
function (including
hybrid functions)

A function is one-to-one if for each x-value there is at most one y-value and vice versa.
A one-to-many function may be converted to a one-to-one function by restricting the domain.
A hybrid function obeys different rules for different subsets of the domain.

inverse relations and


functions

An inverse relation is obtained by interchanging the x- and y-values of the original relation.
The graph of a function and its inverse are reflections of each other across the line y = x.
Only one-to-one functions have inverses.

Circles

The general equation of a circle with centre (h, k) and radius r is


(x h)2 + (y k)2 = r2
An upper semicircle with centre (0, 0) and radius r is y = r 2 x 2 .
A lower semicircle with centre (0, 0) and radius r is y = r 2 x 2 .

Functions and
modelling

When using functions to model situations:


1. form an equation involving one variable and sketch a graph
2. use the graph to determine domain and range.

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

201

Chapter review
S h ort
anS Wer

1 The total number of cars that have entered a car park during the first 5 hours after opening is shown in

the table below.


Time, t (hours)
No. of cars, n

30

75

180

330

500

a Plot these points on a graph.


b Explain why the dots cannot be joined.
1
c Estimate the number of cars in the park 2 hours after the car park opens.
2

2 a Sketch the graph of the relation {(x, y): y = 1 x2, x [3, 3]}.
b State the domain and range of this relation.
3 State the implied domains of the following functions.
b y=

a y= x

5
x

c y = 12 x

4 If g( x ) = x + 2, where x 0, then find:


a g ( x2)
b the domain and range of g ( x).
5 Determine which of the following relations are functions.
a y = 2x2 1
b 3x + y = 2
d x2 + y2 = 10
e y3 = x

c x = y2 + 1
f y2 x2 = 1

6 Express the following rules in full function notation.

1
b y = (2 x )
x
7 Sketch the graph of the function described below.
x 1
2 x ,

f ( x ) = 3,
1< x < 3
2 x 5,
x
3

8 Sketch the graph of each of the following, stating the domain and range.
a y=

a y=

1 x2

b (x 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 9

9 a Sketch the graph of the relation x2 + y2 = 100.


b From this relation form two one-to-one functions (with maximal domains) and state the domain

and range of each.


10 A chicken farmer delivers chicken manure according to the following fee schedule:

Less than half a truckload: $50


Half to a full truckload: $75
More than 1 but less than 2 truckloads: $100
Sketch a graph showing this informations.
2
11 Sketch a graph for the equation y =
+ 1.
x+3
12 State the dilation factor, reflections and translations that have occurred to each of the following
equations.
3
5
+7
a f (x) = 2 x 4
b f (x) =
c f (x) =
+
2
x2
x2
M U lt ip l e
C h oiCe

1 If A = {2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3} and B = {2, 0, 2, 4, 6}, then A B is:


a {2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6}
C {1, 1, 3, 4, 6}
e

b {2, 0, 2}
d {1, 1, 3}

2 Which of the following statements is false?


a ZQ
d {0, 1, 2, 3} N

202

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

b 3.142 Q
e (N Z) = Z

C R

y
8

3 The rule describing the relation shown is:


a y = 2x
b y = 2x, x {1, 2, 3, 4}
C y = 2x, x N

x
2
e y = 2x, x R+

d y=

2
0

4 Which one of the following graphed relations is continuous?


y
a y
b

0
y

0
5 The interval shown below is:
5

1 0 1

a [5, 1] [0, 4]
d (5, 1) (1, 4)

4 x
b [5, 1) [0, 4]
e [5, 1) (1, 4]

C (5, 1) (1, 4]

6 The set R+ \ {2} is correctly represented on which number line below?


a

7 The domain of the relation shown below is:


a
b
C
d
e

R \ {0, 1}
R \ {1}
R
Z \ {1}
R+ R

y
4
2
0 1

8 A relation has the rule y = x + 3, where x R+. The range of this relation is:
a R+
d R

b R+ \ {3}
e (3, )

9 The implied domain of the relation described by the rule y =


a (5, )
d (0, 5)

b R+
e R

10 The range of the function f ( x ) = 2 4 x is:


a R
d [0, )

b R+
e (2, )

C [3, )

1
is:
x5

C [5, )

C R

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

203

11 The relation shown is:

one-to-one
one-to-many
many-to-many
many-to-one
none of the above
12 Which of the following is not a relation?
a y = x2
b x2 + y2 = 3
e {1, 3, 5, 7, 9}
d y=5x
a
b
C
d
e

C {(1, 1), (2, 1), (3, 2), (4, 3)}

13 Which one of the following graphed relations is not a function?


y
y
a
b
x

0
d

14 Which of the following rules does not describe a function?

x
b y = 2 7x
C x=5
d y = 10x2 + 3
5
15 Which of the functions listed below is not one-to-one?
a {(10, 10), (11, 12), (12, 13)}
b {(5, 8), (6, 10), (7, 8), (8, 9)}
d {(x, y): y = 5 2x}
e f (x) = 2 x3
16 Which of the graphs below represents a one-to-one function?
a y=

e y = 8
C {(x, y): y = 4x}

x
0

17 The function with the domain 5 x 5, range 8 y 17 and rule y = x2 8 can be written in

function notation as:

a f : R R where y = x2 8
C f : [5, 5] R where f (x) = x2 8
e f : [8, 17] R where f (x) = x2 8

b f : R R where f (x) = x2 8
d f : R [8, 17] where f (x) = x2 8

18 The function f : {x: x = 0, 1, 2} R, where f (x) = x 4, may be expressed as:


a {(0, 4), (1, 3), (2, 2)}
d {(1, 5), (1, 3), (2, 2)}

b {0, 1, 2}
e {4, 3, 2}

19 If g (x) = 6 x + x2, then g (2) is equal to:


a 6
d 12

204

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

b 8
e 5

C {(0, 4), (1, 3), (2, 2)}

C 0

20 If f (x) = 3x 5, then f (2x + 1) is equal to:


a 6x 8

b 6x 5

C 3x 5

d 3x 4

e 6x 2

21 The graph at right is to be restricted to a one-to-one function. A possible restricted

domain could be:


a [3, 1)
b (1, 3)
C (0, )
d (3, )
e (3, )

3 1 0

x + 1, x < 0

0 x 2 is represented by which of
22 The hybrid function f ( x ) = x 2 ,
2 x , x > 2
the following graphs?

y
4
1

10 1 2
d

y
4

x
e

y
4
1

10

y
4

y
4
1

1 0

1 0

23 The inverse of the graph shown below is:


y

x
d

x
e

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

205

24 The graph of the circle relation (x 2)2 + (y + 1)2 = 4 is:


y
a
b

1
1 0
1

1 0
1

5 x

4 x

2
3

2
3
4
y

4
3
2
1
x
0
321
1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
2
3
4
5

y
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
x
7 654321
1 1 2 3
2
3
4

y
4

3
2
1
5 4 3 2 1 0
1

1 x

2
25 The equation of the circle shown is:
y
2
0 1
2

a (x + 3)2 + y2 = 4
C (x + 3)2 + y2 = 2
e x2 + (y 3)2 = 4

5 x

b (x 3)2 + y2 = 2
d (x 3)2 + y2 = 4

The circle with equation (x + 1)2 + (y 4)2 = 9 applies to questions 26 and 27.
26 The domain is:
a [10, 8]
C (2, 4)
e [4, 2]

27 The range is
a [7, 1]
C [1, 7]
e [1, 7]

206

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

b [2, 4]
d [3, 3]

b [5, 13]
d [3, 3]

28 A circle has its centre at (4, 2) and a radius of 5. The equation of the circle is:
a
b
C
d
e

(x 4)2 + (y + 2)2 = 25
(x 4)2 + (y + 2)2 = 5
(x + 4)2 + (y 2)2 = 5
(x + 4)2 + (y 2)2 = 25
4x2 2y2 = 5

29 The graph that best represents the function f : [2, 2] R where f (x) = 4 x 2 is:
a
b
C
y
y
y
2
2
2

2 x

2 x

0
2

y
4

2
d

2 x

4 x

4 x

0
4

30 The table of maths tutoring fees charged by a Year 11 student is as follows:

Hours (h)

Charge (C$)

0<h2

50

2<h4

80

4<h6

100

Which of the following graphs best shows the information in the preceding table?
a

c
100

50
0
d

50
2

6 h

c
100
50

6 h

6 h

6 h

c
e
100

c
100

50

50
0

c
100

6 h

1 Consider the diagram shown at right.


a Find an expression for the area, A, in terms of x and y.
b Find an expression for the perimeter, P.
c If the perimeter is 72 cm, express A as a function of x.
d What is the domain of A(x)?
e Sketch the graph of this function.
f Hence find the maximum area.

ex ten d ed
r eS p o n S e

10 m
xm
ym

xm

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

207

2 For the graph at right:


a state the domain
b state the range
c find the rule for x (, 2)
d find the rule for x (2, 0]
e find the rule for x [0, 3], given it is of the form y = ax2
f determine the rule when x 3
g describe the relation using hybrid function notation
2

of the form f ( x ) = .
.
.

3 A function f is defined as follows: f : [2, a] R, where f (x) = (x 1)2 4.


a Find f (2), f (1), f (0), f (1), f (3).
b If f (a) = 12, find the value of a.
c Sketch the function f, labelling the graph appropriately.
d From the graph or otherwise, state the:
i domain of f (x)
ii range of f (x).
4 A new rectangular penguin enclosure is
to have a maximum side length of 8 m.
The width is to be twice the length (x).
a Draw a diagram of the enclosure and
label the sides.
b Define a rule that gives the perimeter,
P, of the new enclosure.
c What is the largest value that x can be?
d State the domain and range.
e Write in function notation the rule for
the perimeter.
f Define the function for the area of the
enclosure, A(x).
g If the maximum area allowed is 18 m2,
find the dimensions of the enclosure.

y
18

(3, 18)

4
0

4 x

5 Thomas is looking to connect to a mobile phone service. He has to decide on one of two plans from

Busytone Communications. The details are as follows.

diGital doC
doc-9748
Test Yourself
Chapter 4

208

Plan

Flag fall

Cost perminute (cents)

20

30

50

20

a Write a function A for the cost of making a call from plan A.


b Write a function B for the cost of making a call from plan B.
c What is the cost of a 2-minute call from:
i plan A?
ii plan B?
d What is the length of one call costing $5 from:
i plan A?
ii plan B?
e How long would a call be for the call costs to be the same for both plans?
f If Thomas frequently makes calls lasting more than 4 minutes, which plan should he connect with?

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

ICT activities
Chapter opener
diGital doC
10 Quick Questions doc-9738: Warm up with ten quick questions on
relations, functions and transformations (page 161)

4C

domain and range

tUtorial
We 7 eles-1461: Watch how to sketch relations and state their
domain and range using interval notation (page 169)
diGital doCS
SkillSHEET 4.1 doc-9739: Practise stating the domain and range of
relations (page 171)
WorkSHEET 4.1 doc-9740: Use set notation and interval notation,
recognise appropriate specific number fields, recognise whether
graphs are discrete or continuous and state the domain and range
of relations (page 172)
Investigation doc-9741: Investigate some interesting relations using
a graphing program to sketch them (page 172)

4d

types of relations (including functions)

tUtorial
We 8 eles-1462: Watch a tutorial on identifying the type of relation
given a graph (page 173)

4e power functions (hyperbola, truncus and


square root function)
interaCtiVitY
Domain and range int-0263: Consolidate your understanding of
domain and range for relations and functions (page 175)

4F

Function notation

diGital doCS
SkillSHEET 4.2 doc-9742: Practise substituting values into functions
(page 186)
SkillSHEET 4.3 doc-9743: Practise transposing equations (page 186)
doc-9744: Investigate the graph of a square root function (page 186)

tUtorial
We 16 eles-1463: Watch a tutorial on stating maximal domain
and range for functions with defined rules (page 185)

4G Special types of function (including


hybrid functions)
eleSSon
Hybrid functions eles-0077: Watch an eLesson to learn more about
hybrid functions (page 187)
tUtorial
We 20 eles-1464: Watch a tutorial on sketching the graph of a
hybrid function and stating its range (page 189)
diGital doC
WorkSHEET 4.2 doc-9745: Recognise types of relations and functions,
determine maximal domain and range, identify co-domains and
sketch graphs of relations (page 191)

4i

Circles

diGital doCS
Investigation doc-9746: Investigate the graph of x2 + y2 = 25 by
constructing a table of values and plotting the graph (page 193)
doc-9747: Investigate graphs of circle relations (page 195)

4J

Functions and modelling

tUtorial
We 24 eles-1465: Watch a tutorial on expressing the hire costs of
a removal van as a hybrid function and sketching the graph of the
function (page 197)

Chapter review
diGital doC
Test Yourself doc-9748: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your
progress (page 208)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

209

Answers CHAPTER 4
relationS, FUnCtionS and
tranSForMationS

y
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1 0
2

exercise 4a

1 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
2 a
b
c
d
e
3 a
b
c
d
e
4 E
5 a
6 a
e
i

Set notation

{4, 6}
{6]
{1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14}
{4, 5, 6, 7, 8}
{2, 8, 10, 12, 14}
{4, 5}
{2, 3}
{3, 2, 1}
{2, 1}
{3, 2, 1, 0, 1}
{3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4}

{b, c, d, f, g, h}
{a, e, i}
{b, c, d, f, g, h}
{o, u}

C
T
F
T

b
b
f
j

exercise 4b

1
2
3
4
5

cT
gT
kF

bC
f C

cC

2
2 1 0

x
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
130

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

d F
h T
l T

0 2 4 6 8

t (minutes)

Cost ()

M TWT F S S
Day

exercise 4C

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

y
9

1 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
2 a

2 1 0
1

y=x2
2

0 2

b
9

c
0 2
0

e
01

10

f
0 2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 n

g
2 0 1 3

h
8

0 2

i
01

j
1 0
1 2 3 4 5 t (s)

b i Approx. 110 km/h


ii Approx. 320 km/h

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

)
(, 5)
(3, 4]
(8, 9)
(, 1]
(1, )
(5, 2] [3, )
(3, 1) (2, 4]

350
300
250
200
150
100
50

c The variables are discrete.


9 a V (km/h)

b P ($)

domain and range

[2,

P($) 300 340 380 420 460 500 540


550
500
450
400
350
300
250
200

0 5 10 15 20 25 n

c The variables are discrete.

b T (C)

d D

C($)
140
146
152
158
164
170
176
182
188
194
200

b C ($)

7 a T (C)

8 a

1
0

210

c Because the variables are continuous.


d Approx. 11 minutes

0 2 4 6 8 10 t (minutes)

60

70

6 a

n
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

y
6

relations and graphs

B
A
E
C
a D
e D

B
F
T
F

10 a

k
0 2

l
2 0 1

3 a [4, 2)

b (3, 1]

c ( 1, 3)

1 1
,
2 2

( , 3]
[0, )
(, 2) (2, )
(, 2] [0, )
E
B

e (3, )
f
g (, )
h
i (, 1) (1, )
j
k (, 2) (3, )
l
4 a D
b
5C
6
7 a i {3, 4, 5, 6, 7}
ii {8, 10, 12, 14, 16}
b i {1.1, 1.3, 1.5, 1.7}
ii {1.4, 1.6, 1.8, 2}
c i {3, 4, 5, 6}
ii {110, 130, 150, 170}
d i {M, T, W, Th, F}
ii {25, 30, 35}
e i {3, 4, 5}
ii {13, 18, 23}
f i R
ii [1, )
8 a R, R
b R, (0, )
c [2, 2], [0, 2]
d [1, ), R
e R, (0, 4]
f R, (, 3]
g R\{0}, R\{0}
h R, (, 1]
i R, R
y

9 a

2
0

y = x3 + 1
x [2, 2]

1
0

Domain = [2, 2], range = [7, 9]


c

y
y = x2 + 3x + 2

2 1 0

Domain = (, ), range = [ 14 , )
y

2 1 0
3

2 1 0

y=

x2

1 0

1 2 3 4

y=5

c [4, 4]
fR

b [0, )
e R\{0}

10 a R
d R

exercise 4d types of relations


(including functions)
1 a One-to-many
b Many-to-one
c Many-to-one
d One-to-one
e One-to-one
f Many-to-one
g Many-to-many
h Many-to-one
i One-to-one
j Many-to-one
k Many-to-many
l Many-to-one
2 b, c, d, e, f, h, i, j, l
3C
4 a B
b D
c B
5 b {3, 1, 0, 1, 2}, {2, 1, 1, 3}
c {3, 4, 5, 6}, {1}
e R, {2}
g R, R

j [1, ), [0, )
k R, R
a, d, f, h, i and l are not functions.

power functions (hyperbola,


truncus and square root function)
1 a Dilation factor of 3 away from the
x-axis, horizontal translation of 5 units
in the positive direction of the x-axis and
a vertical translation of 1 unit up.
b Dilation factor of 2 away from the x-axis
and a vertical translation of 1 unit up.
c Reflection in the y-axis, horizontal
translation of 4 units in the positive
direction of the x-axis and a vertical
translation of 2 units down.
d Dilation factor of 2 away from the x-axis
and a horizontal translation of 4 units in
the negative direction of the x-axis.
e Horizontal translation of 3 units in the
positive direction of the x-axis.
f Reflection in the x-axis, dilation factor
of 4 away from the x-axis and a vertical
translation of 5 units down.
2 a

y=1
x

1 2
Asymptote
x =0

x=1

exercise 4F

1 a
b
c
d
e
2 a
c

2 1
1

1 2 3
(3, 1)

i
i
i
i
i

1
2
3
9
12

Function notation
ii 7
iv
iii 5
ii 1
iii 3
iv
ii 2
iii 6
iv
ii 1
iii 16
iv
ii 6
iv
iii 4

16
0
9
a2 + 6a + 9
2
b 3 or 3
d 2 or 3

3
1
3

e 4 or 1
3 a 3
c
e
4 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
5 a

31

1
3 y=
+3
( x 2)

y=2

1 2

3
5

x=1

2 1

Domain = [1, 4), Range = [7, 3)

(1, 4)

(1, 4)

5
7

Domain = (, ), Range = [6 81, )

4, x [2, 1]

y = 2x 5, x [1, 4)

4
y
3

Domain = [2, 1], range = [4, 0]


e

y = 2x2 x 6

exercise 4e

Domain = (, ), range = (, 2]
y
9

6 a
b
c

f 1
b 3

10
5
d 2 x2
2x
x
x
10
10
x +1
f
x3
x 1
x+3
f : R R, f ( x) = 4x + 1
f : [ 6, ) R, f ( x) = x 6
1
f : R\{1} R, f ( x) =
x 1
2
f : ( 1, ) R, f ( x) =
x +1
f : ( 0, ) R, f ( x) = (x + 2)2
f : [ 2, ) R, f ( x) = x2 + 3x
f : ( , 0] R, f ( x) = 8 x
f : [ 0, ) R, f ( x) = x2 + x
i {0, 1, 2, 3}
ii Z
iii {7, 4, 1, 2}
i (0, 10]
ii R
3

iii [ 10 , )
i {2, 4, 6, 8, 10}
iii {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
i (, 0)
iii (0, )
i R+
iii (2, )
i [3, 3]
iii [0, 3]
i R
i [0, )
i R

ii N
ii R
ii R
ii R
ii R
ii [0, )
ii R

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

211

d i R
e i [4, )
f i (3, )

(, 5]
[0, )
(0, )

ii
ii
ii

exercise 4G Special types of function


(including hybrid functions)
1 a, c, d, f, g
2 i a, b, c, d, f, h, i, j, k, l
ii c, h, i, k
3 a (, 1], [1, )
b (, 2), (2, )
c [3, 0], [0, 3]
d (, 3], [3, )
e [4, 2), (2, 0]
f (, 1], [1, 1] or [1, )
g (, 0], [0, )
h [2, 0], [0, 2]
i (, 0), (0, )
j (, 3], [3, )
4 a D
b E
5 a B
b C

6 a

y
2
1

f(x)

b (, 0) [1, )
7 a
y
3
2
1

1
1 0

b g : ( , 1] R, g ( x) = x2+ 2x + 1 or

g : [ 1, ) R, g ( x) = x2+ 2x + 1

exercise 4h inverse relations and


functions
1 a {(7, 1), (5, 2), (3, 3)}
y

d y

y=x

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

x
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 x

y=x

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

g(x)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 x

2 1 0

b [1, )
c i 3
ii 1
y
8 a

iii 2

y=x

10
8
6
4
2

1 2 3 x

3 2 1 0

c {(11, 2), (6, 0), (1, 2)}

5
4
3
2
1

4
5

4 6 8 10

3 a

(,

b
0] (4, )
c i 5
ii 0
iii 3

2 a y
iv 0

x + 2, x 0
9 f (x) =
2 x + 1, x > 0
10 f : [0, 1] R, f ( x) = 1 x 2
with range [0, 1] or
f : [0 , 1] R, f ( x) = 1 x 2
with range [1, 0].
11 a

c
g(x)

b {(3, 1), (6, 2), (9, 3)}


x

01 2

2 1

12 a

y=x

v 7
x

b y

f(x)

y = 4x

y = x2 + 3

y=x

b f : (, 3] R, f ( x) = (x 3)2 or

f : [3, ) R, f ( x) = (x 3)2

212

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

c y

y = 1_2 x + 1

12

0
12

1
2

1
2

Not a function

4 a

y
9

y = x3 + 4
9

exercise 4i

b
d
f

g y = 9 x2
2 a Both [3, 3]
c Both [5, 5]

h
b
d
f

x2 + y2 = 1
x2 + y2 = 100
x2 + y2 = 8

6, 6]

1
3

[1, 7] and [3, 3]


d

Function

12

1
2

6 x

[2, 6] and [5, 3]


e

Function
f

y
3
2 1 0

12
0

7 x

3
0

13

y
7

0 1

1
3

y
4

[2, 2] and [0, 4]


Function

y
4

Function
c

[1, 1] and [3, 1]

y = 16 x 2
Both [1, 1]
Both [10, 10]
Both [ 2 2, 2 2]
h [4, 4], [4, 0]

g [3, 3], [0, 3]


3 a
y

1 1 0 1

Circles

1 a x2 + y2 = 9
c x2 + y2 = 25
e x2 + y2 = 6

Not a function
0

e Both [

D
B
C
E

7 a

9
4

5 a
b
6 a
b

y
3

y
8

2 x

0
2

7
7

10

2 3

[8, 2] and [7, 3]


f

2 3 x

0
10

Not a function

y
5

10

2 3
0

2 3

Function

7 x

10 x

2
1 0

[0, 6] and [1, 5]

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

213

y
10

4 a B=

n
12
c $90

b B (hours)
10

4
5
11

[11,

1] and

0 1 x
2

[2,

10]

0 1

60

120

b f : ( , 2] R, f ( x) =

17 550

2 1 0

32

8 a

4650.30

[1, 2] and [3, 0]


8 y=

36
domain
6] and range
[0, 6] or y = 36 x 2 ; domain [6, 6]
and range [6, 0]
9 y = 2 + 9 x 2 ; domain [3, 3] and range
[2, 5] or y = 2 9 x 2 ; domain [3, 3]
and range [1, 2]
10 a 2 cm, 13.8 cm
b 3.9 cm/s
exercise 4J

Functions and modelling

40,

70,
1 a C (t ) =
110,
160,

0 < t 1
1< t 2

c
6 a
b
7 a
b
8 a
b
9 a
c
d

2<t 4
4<t 6

10 a
b

b C ($)
110
70
40
1 2 3 4 5 6 t (hours)

Cost ($)

Distance (km)

60t ,

0 t 1.5
1.5 t 2
80t 70, 2 t 4

700

300

9 a

x2 + y2 = 100

10

10 x

(100 x 2 )
with dom f = [10, 10], ran f = [0, 10]
and f 2 : [ 10, 10] R, f ( x) = (100 x 2 )
with dom f = [10, 10], ran f = [10, 0]

10

200

100
75
50
25
0

100
1 2 3 4 5 t (hours)

1
321 0 1 2 3

11

1
2
Number of truck loads
y

2
1
5 4321
1

5
3

1 2 3

3 a d (t ) = 90,

b Domain [0, 4]; range [0, 250]


c i 60 km
ii 170 km

Domain = [1, 5]; range = [4, 2]

Cost ($)

400

b The number of cars is a discrete variable.


c 120
y
2 a
100 200

Graph is not
continuous
as n N

0.80
0.60
0.40

0
(2, 1)

b f 1 : [ 10, 10] R, f ( x) =

500

2.00
1.70

y
2

1 a

100 < d 200


200 < d 700
d > 700

10

Short anSWer

50 < d 100

Domain = [1, 1]; range = [1, 0]

10

Chapter reVieW

0 < d 50

No. of cars (n)

0.40,

0.60,

2 a C (d ) = 0.80,
1.70,

2.00,

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112 n

214

6000
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000

160

Domain [ 37 001, 80 000];


range [4650.3, 17 550]
$6150
P = 4x + 6
Domain (1, 6]; range (10, 30]
A = x2 + 4x
Domain (0, 8]; range (0, 96]
P = 100 000(1.02)t
$121 899
47
b 21
9 weeks
96
No, as t increases
approaches zero,
t+3
so N approaches 15.
T = 6000 + 100n 50n2
c $11
T

1 2 3 4 5
y

80 000 x ($)

37 001

[6,

x2 ;

2 x

y
5
4
3
2
1

5 a T = 0.3x 6450
b
T ($)

3 a Domain = [0, )
b Domain = R\{0}
c Domain = ( , 12]
4 a x + 2, x 0
b Domain = [0, ); range = [2, )
5 a, b, e
1
6 a f : R \{0} R, f ( x) =

12 a Dilation factor of 2 away from the


8

y = 1 x2

b Domain = [3, 3]; range = [8, 1]

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

x-axis, reflection in the y-axis and


vertical translation of 4 units in the
positive direction of the x-axis.

b Dilation factor of 5 away from the

x-axis and a horizontal translation of


2 units up.
c Dilation factor of 3 away from the
x-axis, reflection in the y-axis, vertical
translation of 2 units in the positive
direction of the x-axis and a horizontal
translation of 7 units up.

1
4
7
10
13
16
19
22
25
28

A
C
B
D
B
C
D
A
D
B

2
5
8
11
14
17
20
23
26
29

D
E
E
D
C
C
E
E
E
C

extended reSponSe

1 a A = xy + 10y x2
b P = 2x + 2y + 20 or

P = 2(x + y + 10)

c A = 260 + 16x 2x2

3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30

B
C
A
E
B
A
D
A
C
E

(5, 12)

292
260

(2, 5)

130

(1, 0)
2

0
MUltiple ChoiCe

f (x)
12

d (0, 13)
e A (m2)

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 x (m)

2 a x ( , 4)\{ 2}

ii Range = [4, 12]

2x

c y=4
d y = 2x

e y = 2x2
f y = 18x + 72

3 a 5, 0, 3, 4, 0
b a=5

(1, 4)

d i Domain = [2, 5]
4 a

b [0, 18]

4,

2 x ,
g f (x) =
2
2x ,
18 x + 72

5 x

(0, 3)
4

f 292 m2

x ( , 2)
x ( 2, 0]
x [0, 3]
x [3, 4]

b
d
e
f
g
5 a
c
d
e

P(x) = 6x
c 0<x4
Domain = (0, 4]; Range = (0, 24]
P: (0, 4] R where P(x) = 6x
A: (0, 4] R where A(x) = 2x2
Length = 3, Width = 6
A(x) = 0.2 + 0.3x b B(x) = 0.5 + 0.2x
i 80 cents
ii 90 cents
i 16 min
ii 22.5 min
3 min
f Plan B

Chapter 4 Relations, functions and transformations

215

ChaPTeR 5

Exponential and
logarithmic functions
DiGiTal DoC
doc-9749
10 Quick Questions

ChaPTeR ConTenTS
5a
5B
5C
5D
5e
5F
5G
5h

Index laws
Negative and rational powers
Indicial equations
Graphs of exponential functions
Logarithms
Solving logarithmic equations
Logarithmic graphs
Applications of exponential and logarithmic functions

introduction
Functions in which the independent variable is an index number are called indicial or exponential
functions. For example:
f (x) = ax where a > 0 and a 1
is an exponential function.
It can be shown that quantities that increase
or decrease by a constant percentage in
a particular time can be modelled by an
exponential function.
Exponential functions have applications
in science and medicine (for example, decay
of radioactive material, or growth of bacteria
like those shown at right), and finance (for
example, compound interest and reducing
balance loans).

5a

index laws

Recall that a number, a, that is multiplied by itself n times can be represented in index notation:
a
a a

a=
an
n lots of a

Index (or power or exponent)


Base

where a is the base number and n is the index (or power or exponent).
The expression an is read as a to the power of n or a to the n.

multiplication
When multiplying two numbers in index form with the same base, add
the indic
es.
For example, 23 24 = 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 = 27

am an = am + n

ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

217

Division
When dividing two numbers in index form with the same base, subtract
the indices.
222222
= 24
For example, 26 22 =
22

am an = am n

Raising to a power
(am)n = am n = amn

To raise an indicial expression to a power, multiply the indices.


For example, (24)3 = 24 24 24 = 24 + 4 + 4 = 24 3 = 212

Raising to the power of zero


Any number raised to the power of zero is equal to one.
For example
23 23 = 23 3 = 20
or
23 23 = (2 2 2) (2 2 2)
=88
=1
So
23 23 = 1
Using [1] and [2] we have 20 = 1.

a0 = 1, a 0
[1]

[2]

Products and quotients


(ab)n = anbn

Note the following.


For example,
(2 3)4 = (2 3) (2 3) (2 3) (2 3)
=23 23 23 23
=2222 3333
= 24 34

n
n
a = a
b
bn

WoRkeD examPle 1

Simplify.
a 2x3y2 4x2y

b (2x2y3)2 xy4

c (3a)5b6 9a4b3

Think

218

Collect plain numbers (2 and 4) and terms with


the same base.

Simplify by multiplying plain numbers and adding


powers with the same base. (Note: y = y1.)

Remove the bracket by multiplying the powers.


(The power of the 2 inside the bracket is 1.)

6 2
3 5
d 8 p m (3 p) m

6 p4 m

WRiTe

a 2x3y2 4x2y

= 2 4 x3 x2 y2 y

= 8x5y3
b (2x2y3)2 xy4

= 22 x4 y6 xy4

Convert 22 to a plain number (4) first and collect


terms with the same base.

= 4 x4 x y6 y4

Simplify by adding powers with the same base.

= 4x5y10

Write the quotient as a fraction.

c (3a)5 b 6 9a 4 b 3 =

(3a)5 b6
9a 4 b 3

Remove the bracket by multiplying the powers.

243a5 b6
9a 4 b 3

Simplify by first cancelling plain numbers.

27a5 b6
a 4 b3

Complete simplification by subtracting powers


with the same base. (Note: a1 = a.)

= 27ab3

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

d 1 Expand the brackets by raising each term to

the power of 3.

6 2
3 5
6 2
3 3 5
d 8 p m (3 p) m = 8 p m 3 p m
4
4

6p m

6p m

8 27 p6 p3 m 2 m 5
6 p4 m

Convert 33 to 27 and collect like variables.

Simplify by first reducing the plain numbers,


and then reducing the variables by adding
the indices for multiplication and subtracting
the indices for division.

= 36p6 + 3 4m2 + 5 1

Simplify the indices of each base.

= 36p5m6

WoRkeD examPle 2
3

Simplify

6 a 4 b3 3 a 2 b

.
16 a7 b6 2 a3 b2

Think

WRiTe

6a 4 b3 3a 2 b

16a 7 b6 2a3 b 2

Write the expression.

Change the division sign to multiplication and


replace the second term with its reciprocal (turn
the second term upside down).

6a 4 b 3 2a 3 b 2

16a 7 b6 3a 2 b

Remove the brackets by multiplying the powers.

6 a 4 b 3 23 a 9 b 6

16a 7 b6 33 a6 b3

Collect plain numbers and terms with the


same base.

6 8a 4 + 9 7 6 b 3 + 6 6 3
16 27

Cancel plain numbers and apply index laws.

a0 b0
9

Simplify.

1
9

WoRkeD examPle 3

Write the following in simplest index notation and evaluate.


95 34
a 23 162
b
27 3
Think

WRiTe

a 1 Rewrite the bases in terms of their prime factors.

a 23 162 = 23 (2 2 2 2)2

Simplify the brackets using index notation.

= 23 (24)2

Remove the brackets by multiplying the powers.

= 23 28

Simplify by adding the powers.

= 211

Evaluate as a basic number.

= 2048
ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

219

b 1 Rewrite the bases in terms of their prime factors.

95 34 (3 3)5 34
=
273
(3 3 3)3

Simplify the brackets using index notation.

(32 )5 34
(33 )3

Remove the brackets by multiplying the powers.

310 34
39

Write in simplest index form.

= 35

Evaluate as a basic number.

= 243

Complex expressions involving terms with different bases have to be simplified by replacing each
base with its prime factors.

WoRkeD examPle 4

Simplify

3 4 n 18 n + 1
.
63 n 2

Think

WRiTe

34 n 18n + 1 34 n (3 3 2)n + 1
=
63 n 2
(2 3)3n 2

Rewrite the bases in terms of their prime factors.

Simplify the brackets using index notation.

34 n (32 21 )n + 1
(2 3)3n 2

Remove the brackets by multiplying powers.

34 n 32 n + 2 2 n + 1
23n 2 33n 2

Collect terms with the same base by adding the


powers in the products and subtracting the powers in
the quotients.

= 34n + 2n + 2 (3n 2) 2n + 1 (3n 2)

Simplify.

= 36n + 2 3n + 2 2n + 1 3n + 2

= 33n + 4 2 2n + 3
= 33n + 4 23 2n

index laws

exercise 5a

Simplify each of the following.

1 We1a, b
a

x2

2 We1c
a

a7b8

x5

b 52 57 (53)3

x3

c (xy)3 x4y5

d 3m2p5 (mp2)3 2m4p6

c (3x5)y11 6x2y2

d p13q10 ( pq4)2

Simplify each of the following.


a2b5

b 2a12b9 (2a)3b4

Simplify each of the following.


6 p8 m 4 2 p7 m 6
(3 x )2 y 2 5 x 6 y3
a
b
9 p5 m 2
10 x 7 y

3 We1d

14u11v 9 (3u 2 )3 v
21u6 v 5

5k 12 d
6 kd 4

3 2
(2 k )
25( k 2 d 3 )3

4 We2 Simplify each of the following.

15a8 b3 2a3 b

a
9a 4 b5 3ab 2
220

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

(5e3 )2 f 4 8e 4 f 3
20e f 5

3 p3 m 4
can be simplified to:
p1m 2

5 mC a

a 3p2m2

6 5

B 3p4m6

C 3p3m8

D 3p3m2

C x30y16

C 3a6b

6x y
x

can be simplified to:


x 5 y3 (2 y)2
a 2x5y4

B 3x5y4
2

3ab3 a 2 b

c
is equal to:
ab a5
a a18

B 3a6

3 x 9 y10
2

x n + 1 y5 z 4 n
x
y4 n z 3 n
n2

42

c 53 152 32

34 272
f
64 35
Write the following in simplest index notation and evaluate.

45
27
(625)4
e
(53 )5
We4

b 94 35 27

(25)4
(125)3

8 52
23 10

(162 )3
(25 )4

272
(32 )3

411 82
163

272 81
93 35

4 n 7n 3 493n + 1
14 n + 2

Simplify the following.

92 n + 1
12 x 2 4 x
b
6n 2
6x 2
n 5n + 1
5n 4
3
n
5
3
16 9
d
e*
5n + 1 + 5n
4 n + 1 181 n 63 2 n
*Hint: Factorise the numerator and denominator first.
362 n 6n + 3
10 mC In simplest index notation,
is equal to:
216n 2
a 216n + 5
B 65n + 1
C 62n + 5
a

e 3a6

b6

( x n y m + 3 )2
x2 y

x n + 2 y3 m x n 5 y5 3m

b 37 92 273 81

d 205 84 125
8

3x 5
2

Write the following in simplest index notation.

7 We3

24

3a15

6 Simplify each of the following.


a

e 3

2n

5B negative and
negative powers

D 69

e 62n + 9

rational powers

Wherever possible, negative index numbers should be expressed as positive index numbers using the
simple rule:
When an index number is moved from the numerator to denominator
or vice versa, the sign of the power changes.
1
a n = n , a 0
a
This is easily verified as follows:
1 a0
=
since a0 = 1
an an
= a0 n using the division rule for indices
=a n
simplifying the inde x.
a n
1
1
an
= n and n = .
In other words,
1
a
a
1
A simple way to remember this rule is change the level, change the sign.

ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

221

WoRkeD examPle 5

Express each of the following with positive index numbers.


5
a
8
4
b x y

( x 4 y)

x 3 y3

TUToRial
eles-1417
Worked example 5

Think

WRiTe

a 1 Remove the brackets by raising the denominator

and numerator to the power of 4.

a 5

5
8

84
54

Interchange the numerator and denominator,


changing the signs of the powers.

Simplify by expressing as a fraction to the


power of 4.

8
=
5
4
b x y

b 1 Remove the brackets by multiplying powers.

( x 2 y)
x 3 y3

Collect terms with the same base by adding the


powers on the numerator and subtracting the
powers on the denominator.

x4 y

=x

Rewrite the answer with positive powers.

x 6y 7
x 3 y3
6 ( 3)

= x 3y
3

x 10 y
x 3 y3

73

10

1
x 3 y10

Rational powers
Until now, the indices have all been integers. In theory, an index can be any number. We will confine
ourselves to the case of indices that are rational numbers (fractions).
1

a n , where n is a positive integer, is defined as the nth root of a:


1

an = n a
For example, we know that a a = a
1

a2 a2 = a2
= a1
=a

but

1
2

a = a2

Therefore,
1

Similarly, 3 a = a 3 , 4 a = a 4 etc.
1

a n is defined for all a 0 and n 0.


In general,
m
an

222

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

1
= an

( n a )m = n a m

WoRkeD examPle 6

Evaluate each of the following without a calculator.


a

3
16 2

9
b
25

Think

WRiTe
3

a 16 2 = (24 ) 2

a 1 Rewrite the base number in terms of its

prime factors.
2

Remove the brackets by multiplying the


powers.

= 26

Evaluate as a basic number.

= 64

b 1 Rewrite the base numbers of the fraction in

terms of their prime factors.

b 9
25

32
= 2
5

Remove the brackets by multiplying the


powers.

3
5

Rewrite with positive powers by


interchanging the numerator and
denominator.

53
33

Evaluate the numerator and denominator as


basic numbers.

125
27

WoRkeD examPle 7

Simplify the following, expressing your answer with positive indices.


a

128 4 64

x 2 y6 x 3 y 5

Think

a 1 Write the expression.

WRiTe

128 4 64
1

Write using fractional indices.

= 128 7 64 4

Write 128 and 64 in index form.

= (27 ) 7 (26 ) 4

Multiply the powers.

= 21 2 4

Simplify the powers.

= 21 2 2

= 22
b 1 Write the expression.

x 2 y6 x 3 y5
1

Express the roots in index notation.

= ( x 2 y6 ) 3 ( x 3 y5 ) 2

Remove the brackets by multiplying the


powers.

= x 3 y2 x 2 y 2

ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

223

Collect terms with the same base by


subtracting the powers.

= x3

Simplify the powers.

=x

Rewrite with positive powers.

3
5
2
2y 2

1
6y 2

negative and rational powers

exercise 5B
DiGiTal DoC
doc-9750
SkillSHEET 5.1
negative and
rational powers

Express each of the following with positive index numbers.

1 We5a
a 6

(3 2 )2 (2 5 ) 1
e
(24 ) 2 (34 ) 3

x 3 y 2 ( xy 2 ) 3
(2 x 3 )2 ( y 3 )2

Evaluate the following without a calculator.

3 We6
1
92
1
16 4

81
3

4 mC
a

34
c 3
2

Simplify each of the following, expressing your answer with positive index numbers.
( x 2 )3 ( y 4 ) 2
( m)2 m 3
2 4
b
c
x 5 ( y 2 )3
(p 2) 1 p 4
2 3

( 22))3

x5 (x 4 )

d
x 3 (x 2 )

3

5

2 We5b
a

1
5 1
x6 y2

b 27 3

c 83

d 814

3
25 2

16

3
81 4

2
8 3
27

25 125 simplifies to:

5
25 6

11

13

B 56

C 52

D 56

e 56

5 We7 Simplify each of the following, expressing your answer with positive indices.

d
g

9 3 81

5
24

(64 m 6 ) 3
e
4m 2

( x + 1)2
x +1

5C

(xy3 ) ( x 2 y)

x3 x6

1
x

h ( y 4) y 4

indicial equations
1

We can solve equations of the form x 3 = 2 as follows:


1

( x 3 ) 3 = 23
The left-hand side becomes x, so
x = 8.
However, when the unknown (or variable) is not a base number but is an index number, a different
approach is required.
Take the cube of both sides:

method 1: exact solutions without a calculator


To attempt to solve index equations exactly, express both sides of the equation to the same base and
equate the powers.
If am = an, then m = n.
224

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

WoRkeD examPle 8

Find the value of x in each of the following equations.


a 3x = 81
b 4x 1 = 256
c 63x 1 = 362 x 3
Think

a 1 Write the equation.


2

Express both sides to the same base.

Equate the powers.

b 1 Write the equation.


2

Express both sides to the same base.

Equate the powers.

Solve the linear equation for x by adding one to


both sides.

c 1 Write the equation.

WRiTe

3x = 81
3x = 34
x=4

4x 1 = 256
4x 1 = 44
x1=4
x=5

63x 1 = 362x 3

Express both sides to the same base.

63x 1 = (62)2x 3

Remove the brackets by multiplying the powers.

63x 1 = (6)4x 6

Equate the powers.

Subtract 3x from both sides to make x the subject.

Add 6 to both sides to solve the equation.

3x 1 = 4x 6
1

=x6

x=5

More complicated equations can be solved using the same technique.


WoRkeD examPle 9

Solve for n in the following equation.


23n 16n + 1 = 32
Think
1

Write the equation.

Express both sides using the same base, 2.

Remove the brackets by multiplying the powers.

Multiply the terms on the left-hand side by adding


the powers.

Equate the powers.

Solve the linear equation for n.

WRiTe

23n 16n + 1 = 32
23n (24)n + 1 = 25
23n 24n + 4 = 25
27n + 4 = 25
7n + 4 = 5
7n = 1
n=

1
7

In some cases indicial equations can be expressed in a quadratic form and solved using the Null
Factor Law. Look for numbers in index form similar to a2x and ax appearing in different terms.
ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

225

WoRkeD examPle 10

Solve for x if 52x 4(5x) 5 = 0.


Think

WRiTe

5
2x

4(5x)

5=0

Write the equation.

Rewrite the equation in quadratic form.


Note that 52x = (5x)2.

(5x)2 4(5x) 5 = 0

Substitute y for 5x.

Let y = 5x

Rewrite the equation in terms of y.

y2 4y 5 = 0.

Factorise the left-hand side.

(y 5)(y + 1) = 0

Solve for y using the Null Factor Law.

y = 5 or y = 1

Substitute 5x for y.

5x = 5 or 5x = 1

Equate the powers.

5x = 51 and 5x = 1

State the solution(s).

x=

TUToRial
eles-1418
Worked example 10

(5x = 1 has no solution.)

Note that in step 9, the possible solution 5x = 1 was rejected because there is no value of x for which
it will be satisfied. Recall that exponential functions such as 5x are always positive.

method 2: Using a CaS calculator


If answers are not exact, the CAS calculator can be used to solve indicial equations.
WoRkeD examPle 11

Solve for x given 3

2x+1

1
. Write your answer correct to 2 decimal places.
45

Think
1

WRiTe

Use the solve feature of the CAS calculator:


1

solve 3 2 x + 1 = 5 , x

The result is x = 3.654 65.

Write the answer.

Solving 3

exercise 5C

1
for x gives x = 3.65,
45
correct to 2 decimal places.

2x +1

indicial equations

1 We8a
Find the value of x in each of the following equations.
a 2x = 32
b 5x = 625
c 3x = 243
d 10

1
= 100

e 4

= 16

6x =

1
216

2 We8b
Find the value of n in each of the following equations.
3n
+
1
a 2
= 64
b 52n + 3 = 25
c 32 n = 27
d 16n + 3 = 23
3 We8c

364n 3 = 216

b 274 x = 92x + 1

c 163x + 1 = 128x 2

3x + 5
=
d 9

c 34x 27x + 3 = 81

1
243

Solve for x in each of the following equations.

a 2x 83x 1 = 64

226

1
7

Find x in each of the following.

a 42x = 8x 1
4 We9

5 3n
=
e 49

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

b 52x 1253 x = 25

812 x
= 92 x
27 x + 3

5 We10
Solve for x in each of the following.
a 32x 4(3x) + 3 = 0
b 22x 6(2x) + 8 = 0
2x
x
c 3(4 ) = 15(4 ) 12
d 25x 30(5x) + 125 = 0
6 mC Consider the indicial equation 32x 12(3x) + 27 = 0. The equation can be solved by making the

substitution:
a y = 3x
D y = 2x

B y = 2x
e y = 3x

C y = 32x

7 mC The quadratic equation formed by the appropriate substitution in question 6 is:


a y2 3y + 27 = 0
D y2 12y + 27 = 0

B y2 11y + 27 = 0
e y2 9y + 3 = 0

C y2 + 12y + 27 = 0

8 mC The solutions to the equation in question 7 are x equals:


a 2 or 3
D 0 or 1

B 1 or 2
e 0 or 2

C 1 or 3

9 We11 Solve for x. Write your answer correct to 2 decimal places.


a 2x = 3
b 3x = 8
c 10x = 45
d 4x = 10
10 mC The nearest solution to the equation 3x = 10 is:
a x = 2.5
D x=2

5D

B x = 2.3
e x = 2.1

C x = 1.9

Graphs of exponential functions

Functions of the form f (x) = ax, where a is a positive real number other than 1 and x is a real number, are
called exponential functions.
In general, there are two basic shapes for exponential graphs:
y = ax, a > 1
or
y = ax, 0 < a < 1
y

y = ax, a > 1

y = ax, 0 < a < 1

1
Asymptote
y=0

Asymptote
y=0
Decreasing exponential
x

Increasing exponential

However, in both cases:


the y-intercept is (0, 1)
the domain is R
the asymptote is y = 0 (x-axis)
the range is R+.
x
x
Verify the shapes of these graphs by graphing, say y = 2x, y = 3x, y = 1 and y = 1 on a graphics
2
3
calculator. What is the effect of changing a on the steepness of the graph?

Reflections of exponential functions


The graph of y = a x is obtained by
reflecting y = ax in the y-axis.

The graph of y = ax is obtained by


reflecting y = ax in the x-axis.
y

y=

ax,

a>1

y = ax, a > 1
1

y=

1
0

ax,

a>1
Asymptote
x
y=0

x
y = ax, a > 1

Asymptote
y=0

ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

227

horizontal translations of exponential


functions
The graph of y = a x + b is obtained by translating y = ax:
1. b units to the right if b < 0
2. b units to the left if b > 0.
For example, the graph of y = 2x 3 is obtained by translating
y = 2x to the right 3 units.
Check this graph using a graphics calculator. Note also that

y
y = 2x

3 units

2
1

()

2 x 3 = (2 x )(2 3 ) = 1 2 x , so the effect is identical to that of


8
multiplying by a constant.

y = 2x 3

Vertical translations of exponential


functions

Asymptote
y=0

1 0 1 2 3 4

y = 10 x

10

The graph of y = ax + c is obtained by translating y = ax:


1. up by c units if c > 0
2. down by c units if c < 0.
Furthermore the equation of the asymptote becomes y = c.
For example, the graph of y = 10x 5 is obtained by translating y = 10x
down by 5 units.
5 units
The equation of the asymptote is y = 5.
4.
The y-intercept is
Check this graph using a graphics calculator.

5
y = 10 x 5
1
1
4
5

Asymptote
y = 5

Dilation from the x-axis


The graph of y = Aax (for positive, real values of A) has a dilation factor of A. The graph is stretched along
the y-axis, away from the x-axis (as each y-value is being multiplied by the constant A). Consider the graphs
below. The y-intercept in each case is equal to A. Also, as A increases, the graph becomes steeper; as A
decreases, the graph becomes less steep. The domain, range and asymptotes are the same as for f (x) = ax.
y f(x) = 4 2x
f(x) = 3 2x
f(x) = 2x
4
3 (0, 3)
2
1
(0, 1)
Asymptote
x
0
y=0
3 2 1
1 2 3

(0, 4)

Dilation from the y-axis

2
(0, 1)
(0, 12)
1

(1, 2)

f(x) = 2x
f(x) =

1
2

f(x) =

2x
1
4

2x

(1, 1)
1

(0, 14) (1, 2 ) Asymptote


x
0
y=0
1

The graph of y = akx (for k > 0) has a dilation factor of k from the y-axis. The graph is said to be stretched
along the x-axis. Consider the graphs at below. The y-intercept is (0, 1) in each case. As k increases, the
graph becomes steeper and closer to the y-axis. The domain, range and asymptotes are the same as for
f (x) = ax.
y
4

f(x) = 22x
f(x) = 2x
x
f(x) = 22

2
(0, 1)
3 2 1

228

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

01 2 3

Asymptote
y=0

WoRkeD examPle 12

Find the equation of the asymptote and the y-intercept for each of the following functions. Hence,
sketch the graph of each function and state its domain and range.
a f : R R, f (x) = 2x + 3 5
x

b f : R R, f ( x ) = 3 2 2
Think

a 1 Write the rule.

WRiTe/DRaW

a f (x) = 2x + 3 5

The graph is the same as y = 2x translated


3 units left and 5 units down.

State the asymptote.

The asymptote is y = 5.

Evaluate y when x = 0 to find the y-intercept.

When x = 0, y = 23 5
=3
Therefore, the y-intercept is (0, 3).

Locate the y-intercept and asymptote on a set


of axes.

Sketch the graph of the exponential function using


the y-intercept and asymptote as a guide.

y f(x) = 2x +3 5
3
x

Asymptote
y = 5

5
7

Use the graph to state the domain and range.

The domain is R and the range is (5, ).


x

b 1 Write the rule.

b f (x) = 3 2 2
0

Find the y-intercept by letting x = 0, or recall that


the y-intercept is equal to A in f (x) = Aa x.

f (0) = 3 2 2
= 3 20
= 31
=3
The y-intercept is 3.

Locate the horizontal asymptote.

The horizontal asymptote is the x-axis.

Locate another point on the graph. This is necessary


to be able to see the effect of the dilation. Locate
the second point by substituting a value for
x into the equation and evaluating a corresponding
y-value.

f (2) = 3 2 2
= 3 21
= 3 2
=6
Another point is (2, 6).

Sketch the graph.


Note: The asymptote remains at y = 0 as there is no
vertical translation.

f(x) = 3 22
6

(2, 6)

(0, 3)
0
6

State the domain and the range.

Asymptote
x y=0

The domain is R and the range is R+.

ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

229

WoRkeD examPle 13

Use a CAS calculator to solve 2x = 15 (correct to 2 decimal places) by finding the intersection of
two graphs.
Think

WRiTe

Enter the left-hand side as a function into the


CAS calculator.

f1(x) = 2x

Enter the right-hand side as a function into the


CAS calculator.

f2(x) = 15

Graph the two functions and use the


intersection points feature of the CAS
calculator. Write the answer.

The graphs intersect at (3.91, 15).

exercise 5D

Graphs of exponential functions

1 Sketch the graph of each of the following on separate axes. (Use a table of values or copy a
DiGiTal DoC
doc-9751
SkillSHEET 5.2
Substitution in
exponential functions

CAS calculator screen).


a y = 3x
c y = 10x
e y=4 x
g y = 3 x

b y = 5x
x
d y=2

x
f y= 3
h y = 0.5x

2 Sketch the following graphs, using a table of values or by copying a CAS calculator screen. State the

equation of the asymptote and the y-intercept for each.


a y = 2(3x)
c

b y = 0.5(4x)

y = 4 (2 x )

y = 4 1

Find the equation of the asymptote and the y-intercept for each of the following. Hence,
sketch the graph of each and state its domain and range.
a f : R R, f (x) = 2x 1
b f : R R, f (x) = 3x + 2
c f : R R, f (x) = 51 x
d f : R R, f (x) = 2x + 3
e f : R R, f (x) = 3x 3
f f : R R, f (x) = 2x + 3 1
x
h f : R R, f (x) = 102 x + 5
6
g f : R R, f (x) =
+3

3 We12a

4 mC a The rule for the graph at right is:


a
B
C
D
e

y = 3x 2
y = 3x
y = 2x 3
y = 3x + 2
y = 3x 1

3
2
1

b The rule for the graph at right is:


a
B
C
D
e

Asymptote
0 1 2 3 x y=0
y

y = 2x 3
y = 3x 2
y = 2x + 1 3
y = 2x 1 + 3
y = 2x 1 3

0
2
3
4

(1, 2)

y = 3

5 We12b Sketch the graph of each of the following, stating the domain and range.
a f : R R, f (x) = 22x
b f : R R, f (x) = 23x
x
c f : R R, f (x) = 3 2
d f : R R, f (x) = 5 32x
x

e f : R R, f ( x ) = 2 5 2
230

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

f : R R, f ( x ) = 2 2 3

6 Sketch a graph of f (x) = 4 23x + 3, stating the domain and range. Compare your answer to that found

using a CAS calculator.


7 We13 Use a CAS calculator to solve the following indicial equations using the intersection of two

graphs. Give answers rounded to 2 decimal places.


a 2x = 10
b 10x = 20
c 3x = 12

5e

d 2x = x + 3

e 3x = x + 4

DiGiTal DoC
doc-9752
WorkSHEET 5.1

logarithms

The index, power or exponent (x) in the indicial equation y = ax is


also known as a logarithm.
This means that y = ax can be written in an alternative form:
loga (y) = x, which is read as the logarithm of y to the base a is
equal to x.
For example, 32 = 9 can be written as log3 (9) = 2.
105 = 100 000 can be written as log10 (100 000) = 5.

Logarithm
y = ax
Base numeral
Base

ax = y is equivalent to x = loga (y).

In general, for a > 0 and a 1:

Using the indicial equivalent, it is possible to find the exact value of some logarithms.
WoRkeD examPle 14

Evaluate the following without a calculator.


1
a log6 (216)
b log 2 ( 8 )
Think

WRiTe

a Let x = log6 (216)

a 1 Let x equal the quantity we wish to find.


2

Express the logarithmic equation as an indicial equation.

6x = 216

Express both sides of the equation to the same base.

6x = 63

Equate the powers.

x=3

b 1 Write the logarithm as a logarithmic equation.


2

Express the logarithmic equation as an indicial equation.

1
b Let x = log2

2x =

1
8

= 1

= (2 1 )3
x
2 =2 3

Express both sides of the equation to the same base.

Equate the powers.

x = 3

logarithm laws
The index laws can be used to establish corresponding rules for calculations involving logarithms. These
rules are summarised in the following table.
Name
Logarithm of a product

Rule

Restrictions

loga (mn) = loga (m) + loga (n)

m, n > 0
a > 0, a 1

loga m = loga (m) loga (n)

m, n > 0
a > 0 and a 1

Logarithm of a power

loga (m)n = n loga (m)

m>0
a > 0 and a 1

Logarithm of the base

loga (a) = 1

a > 0 and a 1

Logarithm of one

loga (1) = 0

a > 0 and a 1

Logarithm of a quotient

ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

231

It is important to remember that each rule works only if the base, a, is the same for each term.
The logarithm of a product and logarithm of a quotient rules formed the basis for the pre-1970s
calculation device for multiplication and division the slide rule.
WoRkeD examPle 15

Simplify, and evaluate where possible, each of the following without a calculator.
a log10 (5) + log10 (4)
b log2 (12) + log2 (8) log2 (3)
Think

WRiTe

a 1 Apply the logarithm of a product rule. a log10 (5) + log10 (4) = log10 (5 4)
2

b 1

= log10 (20)

Simplify.

b log2 (12) + log2 (8) log2 (3) = log2 (12 8) log2 (3)

Multiply the base numerals of the


logs being added since their bases
are the same.

= log2 (96) log2 (3)

Apply the logarithm of a quotient


law.

= log2 (96 3)

Simplify, noting that 32 is a power


of 2.

= log2 (32)
= log2 (2)5

Evaluate using the logarithm of a


power and logarithm of the base
laws.

= 5 log2 (2)
=5

WoRkeD examPle 16

Simplify 3 log2 (5) 2 log2 (10).


Think

WRiTe

3 log2 (5) 2 log2 (10) = log2 (5)3 log2 (10)2

Express both terms as logarithms of


index numbers.

Simplify each logarithm.

= log2 (125) log2 (100)

Apply the logarithm of a quotient


law.

= log2 (125 100)

Simplify.

= log2

WoRkeD examPle 17

Simplify each of the following.


log 8 (49)
a
b 2 log10 (x) + 1
log 8 (343)

c 5 log10 (x) 2

Think

a 1 Express each base numeral as powers

to the same base, 7.

232

WRiTe

log8 (49) log8 (7)2


=
log8 (343) log8 (7)3

Apply the logarithm of a power law.

2 log8 (7)
3 log8 (7)

Simplify by cancelling out the common


factor of log8 (7).

2
3

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

5

4

or log2 (1.25)

b 1 Express 2 log10 (x) as log10 (x)2 and

1 as a logarithm to base 10 also.

b 2 log10 (x) + 1 = log10 (x)2 + log10 (10)

= log10 (10x2)

Simplify using the logarithm of a


product law.

c 1 Express 5 log10 (x) as log10 (x)5 and

2 as 2 log10 (10).

c 5 log10 (x) 2

= log10 (x)5 2 log10 (10)

Express 2 log10 (10) as log10 (10)2.

= log10 (x)5 log10 (10)2

Simplify using the logarithm of a


quotient law.

x5
= log10 2
10
x5
= log10
100

WoRkeD examPle 18

Evaluate each of the following expressions, correct to 3 decimal places.


a log2 (5)
b log7 (8)
Think

WRiTe

a & b 1 On a Calculator page, complete the

entry lines as:


log2 (5)
log7 (8)
2

Write the answer.

a log2 (5) = 2.332


b log7 (8) = 1.069, correct to 3 decimal places.

logarithms

exercise 5e
1

Express the following indicial equations in logarithmic form.


b 35 = 243
c 50 = 1
2

1
d 0.01 = 10
e bn = a
f 2 4=
16
a 23 = 8

Express the following logarithmic equations in indicial form.

= 1

b log10 (1000 000) = 6

log2

d log3 (27) = 3

e log5 (625) = 4

log2 (128) = 7

log3 1
9

= 2

h logb (a) = x

3 mC The value of log5 (25) is:


a 2

B 5

C 1

D 2

= 512 is:
B log3 (512) = 8
e log8 (3) = 512

4 mC When expressed in logarithmic form,


a log3 (8) = 512
D log512 (3) = 8

1

2

a log4 (16) = 2

83

C log8 (512) = 3

When expressed in indicial form, log10 (10 000) = 4 is:


a
= 10 000
B 10 0004 = 10
C 10 00010 = 4
10
000
10
D 10
=4
e 4 = 10 000
mC

104

6 We14

Evaluate each of the following.

a log2 (16)

b log3 (81)

e log10 (1000)

log10 (0.000 01)

log2 1
64

log2 (32)

1

4
1
log3
243
logn (n5)

c log5 (125)

d log2

g log2 (0.25)

k log3

(3)

ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

233

7 We15

Simplify the following, and evaluate where possible.

a log2 (8) + log2 (10)


d log6 (8) + log6 (7)
g log2

1

3

+ log2 (9)

b log3 (7) + log3 (15)


e log2 (20) log2 (5)

c log10 (20) + log10 (5)


f log3 (36) log3 (12)

h log4 (25) + log4

1

5

log3 (8) log3 (2) + log3 (5)

8 We16
Simplify each of the following.
a 3 log10 (5) + log10 (2)
b 2 log2 (8) + 3 log2 (3)
c log5 (12) 2 log5 (2)
d 4 log10 (2) 2 log10 (8)
e
g

1
3
1
2

log2 (27) 2 log2 (36)

log2 (x 4) + 3 log2 (x)

log3 (16) + 2 log3 (4)

h 2 log10 (x + 3) log10 (x 2)

9 We17a Simplify the following.


a

log3 (25)
log3 (125)

log2 (81)
log2 (9)

2 log10 (8)
log10 (16)

3log5 (27)
2 log5 (9)

log3 ( x 6 )
log3 ( x 2 )

log10 ( x 3 )
log10 ( x )

2 log2 ( x + 1)3
log2 ( x + 1)
C

log10 ( x )
log10 ( y)

10 mC The expression log10 (xy) is equal to:


a log10 (x) log10 (y)
D y log10 (x)

B log10 (x) log10 (y)


e log10 (x) + log10 (y)

11 mC The expression log5 (xy) is equal to:


a x log5 (y)

B y log5 (x)

C 5 logx (y)

D log5 (x) + log5 (y)

e 5y

12 mC The expression 3 log2 (64) + log2 (5) can be simplified to:


a log2 (40)

B 1

13 mC The expression
a log4 (x3)

log2

64

15

320

D log2 (20)

e log2
3

D log4 (x5 x2)

e log4 (x7)

log4 ( x 5 )
can be simplified to:
log4 ( x 2 )
5

log4 ( x 2 )

5
2

14 We17b Express each of the following in simplest form.


a log3 (27) + 1
b log4 (16) + 3
d 2 + 3 log10 (x)

c 3 log5 (2) 2

e 4 log3 (2) 2 log3 (6) + 2

1
2

+ 3 log10 ( x 2 )

15 We18 Evaluate the following, correct to 3 decimal places where appropriate.


a log2 (16)
b log3 (81)
c log10 (0.001)
d log2 (9)
e log3 (4) + log2 (7)

5F Solving logarithmic
logarithms to the base 10

equations

Logarithms to the base 10 are called common logarithms and can be evaluated using the log function on
a calculator.
Note: The logarithm of a negative number or zero is not defined. Therefore:
loga (x) is defined for x > 0, if a > 0.
This can be seen more clearly using index notation as follows:
Let n = loga (x.)
Therefore, an = x (indicial equivalent of logarithmic expression).
However, an > 0 for all values of n if a > 0 (positive based exponentials are always positive).
Therefore, x > 0.
234

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

WoRkeD examPle 19

Find x if log3 (9) = x 2.


Think
1

Write the equation.

Simplify the logarithm using the logarithm of a


power law and the fact that log3 (3) = 1.

Solve for x by adding 2 to both sides.

WRiTe

log3 (9) = x 2
log3 (32) = x 2
2 log3 (3) = x 2
2=x2
x=4

WoRkeD examPle 20

Solve for x if log6 (x) = 2.


Think
1

Write the equation.

Express in index form.

Evaluate the index number.

WRiTe

log6 (x) = 2
Therefore, x = 6 2.

x=
=

1
62
1
36

WoRkeD examPle 21

Solve for x given that 2 log x (25) = 4, x > 0.


Think

WRiTe

2 logx (25) = 4

Write the equation.

Divide both sides by 2.

Write as an index equation.

Express both sides of the equation to the same base, 5.

x2 = 52

Equate the bases.


Note that x = 5 is rejected as a solution, because x > 0.

x=5

logx (25) = 2
Therefore, x2 = 25.

WoRkeD examPle 22

Solve for x correct to 3 decimal places, if 2x = 7.


Think
1

Write the equation.

Take log10 of both sides.

Use the logarithm of a power law to bring the


power, x, to the front of the logarithmic equation.

Divide both sides by log10 (2) to get x by itself.

Evaluate the logarithms correct to 4 decimal places,


at least one more than the answer requires.

Solve for x.

WRiTe

2x = 7
log10 (2x) = log10 (7)
x log10 (2) = log10 (7)
Therefore x =

logg10 ((7)
logg10 ((2)

0.8451
0.3010
x = 2.808
x=

ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

235

Therefore, we can state the following rule:


If ax = b, then x =

logg a ( b)
logg a ( a)

= logg a ( b)
This rule applies to any base a, but 10 is the most commonly used base for this solution technique.

Exercise 5F
1 WE19

Solving logarithmic equations

Find x in each of the following.


b log9 (1) = x

e 2 log2 (8) = x

log3 (81) = 2x

b
e
h
k

log3 (x) = 2
c log5 (x) = 4

log8 (x) = 1
f log3 (x) = 3
log2 (3x + 1) = 4
i log10 (2x) = 1
log3 (5) log3 (4) = log3 (x) log3 (8)

Solve for x.
log2 (x) = 3
log10 (x) = 1
log3 (x 3) = 3
2 log6 (3x) = 1

c log10

1

10

a log2 (4) = x

=x

d log3

1

9

=x

g log10 (1000) = 2x 1

2 WE20
a
d
g
j

3 WE21

Solve for x given that:

a logx (36) = 2
d

2 log 1
x 100

b logx (125) = 3

=4

g logx + 1 (27) = 3

1
log x
2

c 3 logx (16) = 6

(64) = 3

log3 x 1

1
32

5 logx (625) = 10

= 5.

4 MC a The solution to the equation log7 (343) = x is:


A x=2

B x=3

C x=1

D x=0

E x = 2

A 4096

B 512

C 64

D 2

D 1

E 9

b If log8 (x) = 4, then x is equal to:


1

1
2

c Given that log x (3) = 2 , x must be equal to:


A 3

B 6

C 81

d The solution to the equation log3 (x) 2 = log3 (x 8) is:


A x=8

B x=6

D x = 4

C x=9

E x=2

5 WE22 Solve the following equations for x, correct to 3 decimal places.


a 2x = 11
b 2x = 0.6
c 3x = 1.7
x
x

1
e 0.7 = 3
f 10
= 18
g 22x + 1 = 5
i 82 x = 0.75

d 5x = 8

h 10 2x = 7

6 MC The nearest solution to the equation 4x = 5 is:


A x = 0.86
DIGITAL DOC
doc-9753
WorkSHEET 5.2

C x = 1.25

7 MC The nearest solution to the equation


A x = 0.18

5G
INTERACTIVITY
int-0264
Logarithmic graphs

B x = 1.2
B x = 0.13

0.62x 1

C x=

= 2 is:

0.18

D x=1

E x = 0.5

D x = 0.71

E x = 0.13

Logarithmic graphs

The graphs of y = loga (x) and y = ax are reflections of each other across the line y = x. Functions such as
these that are reflections of each other in the line y = x are called inverses of each other.
Consider the logarithm loga (ax). This logarithm can be simplified using the log laws.

loga (ax) = x loga (a)


=x1
=x
Notice how the logarithm with base a and the exponential with base a have a cancelling effect on one
another, demonstrating that they are inverse operations. This is similar to the way that multiplication and
division have a cancelling effect. Multiplication and division are also inverse operations of each other.

236

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

5_61_10586_MQ11_MMCAS_3E_05.indd 236

8/05/13 2:37 PM

Consider now the exponential aloga (x). As the logarithm with base a is the inverse operation to the
exponential with base a, the expression aloga (x) simplifies to give x. That is, aloga (x) = x.
The inverse properties of logarithms and exponentials can be used to plot the graphs of logarithmic
functions. Alternatively, a table of values can be used. For example:
y = log10 (x)
1

x
y

undefined undefined

0.301

0.477

0.602

y Asymptote
x=0
f(x) = log10 (x)

The graph of y = loga (x) does not exist for values of x 0. It is


an increasing function. There is a vertical asymptote along the
y-axis, and so there are no y-intercepts. The x-intercept for all
values of a is always (1, 0). Thats because loga (1) = 0. Another
point on the graph is (a, 1). Thats because loga (a) = 1. The
domain of the function is R+ and the range is R.

WoRkeD examPle 23

Sketch the graph of f (x) = log2 (x).


Think
1

WRiTe/DRaW

Realise that f (x) = log2 (x) is the inverse of f (x) = 2x,


so these two graphs are reflections of each other
across the line y = x.
Alternatively, recall the basic shape of the logarithmic
graph. Sketch the basic shape on a set of axes.

Mark the x-intercept (1, 0).

Mark a second point on the graph (a, 1), which in


this case is (2, 1).

f(x) = 2x

y=x

f(x) = log2 (x)

(2, 1)
0 (1, 0)

WoRkeD examPle 24

Find the equation of the inverse of f (x) = 2x.


Think

WRiTe

Write the function using (x, y) notation.

y = 2x

Interchange x and y.

x = 2y

Take the logarithm to base 2 of both sides.

log2 (x) = log2 (2y)

Simplify using loga (mn)=n loga (m).

log2 (x) = y log2 (2)

Simplify using loga (a) = 1.

log2 (x) = y

State the inverse of f.

exercise 5G

f 1(x) = log2 (x)

logarithmic graphs

1 Simplify the following expressions.


log (b)
a log2 (2x)
b 10 10

c 3 log5 (5y)

2 We23 Sketch the graphs of each of the following.


a f (x) = log2 (x)
b f (x) = log5 (x)
d f (x) = log10 (x)
e f (x) = log12 (x)

d 5 20 log20 (x)
c f (x) = log8 (x)
f f (x) = log15 (x)
ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

237

3 Compare the steepness of each of the graphs in question 2, and hence explain how changing the base, a,

affects the steepness of a logarithmic graph of the type f (x) = loga (x).

4 We24 Find the equation of the inverse of the following.


a f (x) = 3x
b f (x) = 4x
c f (x) = log5 (x)

Further work on logarithmic graphs is available on your eBookPLUS.

DiGiTal DoCS
doc-9754
logarithmic graphs
doc-9755
Extension
logarithmic graphs

applications of exponential and


logarithmic functions
5h

Exponential and logarithmic functions can be used to model many practical situations in science,
medicine, engineering and economics.
WoRkeD examPle 25

A square sheet of paper that is 0.1 mm thick is repeatedly folded in half.


a Find a rule that gives the thickness, T mm, as a function of the number of folds, n.
b What is the thickness after 10 folds?
c How many folds are required for the thickness to reach 6 cm?
Think

238

T = 0.1 when n = 0 and doubles with each fold. This


doubling implies that the base should be 2.

Complete a table of values showing the thickness, T,


for values of n from 0 to 5.

Determine the rule for T(n). There is a doubling


term (2n) and a multiplying constant for the
starting thickness (0.1).

Compare the rule for T(n) against the table of


values in step 2.

Substitute n = 10 into the formula for T.

WRiTe

a When n = 0, T = 0.1, and as n increases

by 1, T doubles.
n
T

0
0.1

1
0.2

2
0.4

T(n) = 0.1(2n)

b When n = 10,

T(10) = 0.1(210)
T = 102.4 mm

Calculate T.

Change 6 cm to millimetres.

Substitute T = 60 into the formula.

Divide both sides by 0.1.

Take log10 of both sides.

log10 (600) = log10 (2n)

Use the logarithm of a power law to bring the


power n to the front of the logarithm.

log10 (600) = n log10 (2)

Divide both sides by log10 (2).

n=

Evaluate.

n 9.23

Round the answer up to the nearest whole


number, as the number of folds are positive
integers and if you round down the thickness will
not have reached 60 mm.

Therefore, n = 10 folds.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

c 6 cm = 60 mm

When T = 60,
60 = 0.1 (2n)
600 = 2n

log10 (600)
log10 (2)

3
0.8

4
1.6

5
3.2

WoRkeD examPle 26

The price of gold since 1980, P (dollars per


ounce), can be modelled by the function
P = 400 + 50 log10 (5t + 1), where t is the
number of years since 1980.
a Find the price of gold per ounce in 1980.
b Find the price of gold in 2006.
c In what year will the price pass $550
per ounce?

TUToRial
eles-1419
Worked example 26

Think

a 1 State the modelling function.

WRiTe

a P = 400 + 50 log10 (5t + 1)

In 1980, when t = 0,

Determine the value of t represented by the year 1980.

Substitute t into the modelling function.

P = 400 + 50 log10 [5(0) + 1]


= 400 + 50 log10 (1)

Evaluate P.

P = 400

b 1 Repeat part a by determining the value of

t represented by the year 2006.


2

b t = 2006 1980

= 26

When t = 26,
P = 400 + 50 log10 [5(26) + 1]
= 400 + 50 log10 (131)
= 400 + 105.864
= $505.86

Substitute the value of t into the modelling function


and evaluate P.

c 1 Since P = 550, substitute into the modelling

function and solve for t.

550 = 400 + 50 log10 (5t + 1)

Simplify by isolating the logarithm part of the


equation.

150 = 50 log10 (5t + 1)


3 = log10 (5t + 1)

Express this equation in its equivalent indicial form.

103 = 5t + 1

Solve this equation for t.

Convert the result into years.

1000 = 5t + 1
999 = 5t
199.8 = t
The price of gold will reach $550 in
1980 + 199.8 = 2180 (approximately).

applications of exponential and


logarithmic functions
exercise 5h

1 We25 Before a mice plague that lasts 6 months, the population of mice in a country region is

estimated to be 10 000. The mice population doubles every month during the plague. If P represents the
mice population and t is the number of months after the plague starts:
a express P as a function of t
b find the population after:
i 3 months
ii 6 months
c calculate how long it takes the population to reach 100 000 during the plague.
ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

239

2 We26 The population of a town, N, is modelled by the function N = 15 000(20.01t), where t is the

number of years since 1980.


Find the population in 1980.
Find the population in: i 1985
ii 1990.
What is the predicted population in 2015?
In what year will the population reach 20 000?

a
b
c
d

3 The weight of a baby, W kg, t weeks after birth can be modelled by W = 3 log10 (8t + 10).
a Find the initial weight.
b Find the weight after: i 1 week
ii 5 weeks
iii 10 weeks.
c Sketch the graph.
d When will the baby reach a weight of 7 kg?
4 If $A is the amount an investment of $P grows to after n years at 5% p.a. using compound interest:
a write A as a function of P
b use the function from a to find the value of $10 000 after 10 years
c calculate how many years it will be until an investment of $10 000 reaches $26 500.
5 The value of a car, $V, decreases according to the function V = 25 000 2 0.1t, where t is the number of

years since the car was purchased.


a Find the value of the car when new.
b Find the value of the car after 6 years.
c In how many years will the car be worth $10 000?

6 The temperature, T (C), of a cooling cup of coffee in a room of

temperature 20 C can be modelled by T = 90(3 0.05t ) , where


t is the number of minutes after it is poured.
a Find the initial temperature.
b Find the temperature:
i 3 minutes after pouring
ii 6 minutes after pouring.
c How long is it until the temperature reaches half its initial
value?

7 A number of deer, N, are introduced to a reserve. The deer population can be predicted by the model

N = 120(1.1t ), where t is the number of years since introduction.


a Find the initial number of deer in the reserve.
b Find the number of deer after:
i 2 years
ii 4 years
iii 6 years.
c How long does it take the population to treble?
d Sketch the graph of N versus t.
e Explain why the model is not reliable for an indefinite time period.
8 After a recycling program is introduced, the weight of rubbish disposed of by a household each week
is given by W = 80(2 0.015t ), where W is the weight in kg and t is the number of weeks since recycling
was introduced.
a Find the weight of rubbish disposed of before recycling starts.
b Find the weight of rubbish disposed of after recycling has been
introduced for:
i 10 weeks
ii 40 weeks.
c How long is it after recycling starts until the weight of rubbish
disposed of is half its initial value?
d i Will the model be realistic in 10 years time?
ii Explain.
9 The number of hectares (N) of forest land destroyed by a fire t hours
after it started is given by N = 40 log10 (500t + 1).
a Find the amount of land destroyed after:
i 1 hour
ii 2 hours
iii 10 hours.
b How long does the fire take to burn out 155 hectares?

240

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

10 A discus thrower competes at several competitions during the year. The best distance, d metres,

that he achieves at each consecutive competition is modelled by d = 50 + log10 (15n), where n is the
competition number.
a Find the distance thrown at the:
i 1st competition ii 3rd competition iii 6th competition iv 10th competition.
b Sketch the graph of d versus n.
c How many competitions does it take for the thrower to reach a distance of 53 metres?

11 The population, P, of a certain fish t months after being introduced to a reservoir is

P = 400(100.08t), 0 t 20. After 20 months, fishing is allowed and the population is then modelled by
P = 15 000 + 924 log10 [10(t 19)], t 20.
a Find the initial population.
b Find the population after:
i 5 months
ii 15 months
iii 25 months
iv 40 months.
c How long does it take the population to pass 10 000?
7
12 A ball is dropped from a height of 5 metres and rebounds to 10 of
its previous height.
a Find the rule that describes the height of the ball
(h metres) after n bounces.
b Find the height after: i 4 bounces ii 8 bounces.
c Sketch the graph of the height of the ball after n bounces.
13 A computer appreciates in value by 10% per year. If the computer
costs $5000 when new, find:
a the rule describing the value, V, of the computer at any time,
t years, after purchase
b the value of the computer after 6 years
c the number of years it takes to reach double its original value.
14 From the start of 1996, a small mining town has seen a steady increase in population until 2000 as the

price of minerals improved and mining was extended.


Year
Population (P)

1996
700

1997
750

1998
804

1999
870

2000
925

Let 1996 be t = 0; then 1997 will be t = 1 and so on. Plot P against t.


What does the shape of the curve look like?
Calculate the ratio of the population in 1997 to the population in 1996.
Calculate all the ratios in successive years, and hence estimate the percentage annual increase or
growth.
To obtain an accurate estimate of population growth, follow these steps.
e On the table above, evaluate log10 (P).
f Plot log10 (P) against t. Are the points approximately collinear?
g Draw a line of best fit and find its gradient and the intercept on the y-axis.
h Write the equation for the line.
i Show that P = 700(1.07)t. Is this close to your estimate in d?
j Use this formula to estimate the population in 2001 and 2002.
k When might the population have reached 2000?
l In fact there was a downturn in the population as the mine output decreased. From 2000 onwards
there was an annual decline of 10% in population. During which year did the population reduce to
below 600?
a
b
c
d

15 A used car dealership keeps data on the value of the Fraud Atlas (new at the start of 2005) over 5 years.

Year (t)
Value (V)
a
b
c
d
e

2005
45 000

2006
35 500

2007
28 000

2008
22 500

2009
18 000

Let t = 2005 be x = 0; then 2006 will be x = 1 and so on. Plot V against x.


What does the shape of the curve look like?
Calculate the ratios of values of the car in successive years, e.g. V2006 V2005 and so on.
Estimate the annual rate of depreciation.
For a more accurate result, evaluate log10 (V).
ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

241

f
g
h
i
j
k
l

Plot log10 (V) against x. Are the points approximately collinear?


Draw a line of best fit and find its gradient and the intercept on the y-axis.
Write the equation for the line.
Show that V = 45 000(0.79)x (or a formula close to it).
What is the annual rate of depreciation?
Use this formula to estimate the cars values in 2010 and 2011.
When will it reach a value of $7000?

16 Johannes Kepler was a German astronomer born in the 16th century. He used data collected by Tycho

Brahe to formulate an equation or law connecting the period of a planets revolution around the sun
to the radius of its orbit. The following table contains the data Kepler used. The radius of the orbit is
expressed as a proportion of Earths orbit (with the period given in days).
Planet
Mercury
Venus
Earth
Mars
Jupiter

Radius (R) of orbit


0.389
0.724
1.000
1.524
5.200

Period (T)
87.77
224.70
365.25
686.98
4332.62

a Plot T against R (using (0,0) too). What does the graph look like?

The graph has the form T = aRb, where a and b are constants.
b To find them, find log10 (R) and log10 (T).
c Plot log10 (T) against log10 (R) on graph paper. Are the points collinear?
d Draw a line of best fit and find its gradient, correct to 2 decimal places.
e Read off the intercept on the y-axis and write it as the equivalent logarithm.
f Write an equation for the straight line.
g By transposition, show that T = 365.25R1.50 (or a formula close to it).
h If Saturns orbit has a radius of 9.510, find its period using the formula above. The actual period is
10 759.2 days. Why is there a difference in the results?
i Keplers Law is T 2 = kR3. What is the value of k?
242

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Summary
am an = am + n
am an = am n
(am)n = amn
a0 = 1
(ab)n = anbn
n
n
6. a = a
b
bn
To simplify indicial expressions:
when dealing with questions in the form (expression 1) (expression 2), replace expression 2
with its reciprocal and change to
remove brackets using laws 4, 5 and 6
collect plain numbers and terms of the same base
simplify using laws 1, 2 and 3.

index laws

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

negative and rational


powers

1
,a0
an

an = n a
m

n
a n = (a n ) m = ( n a ) m = a m

indicial equations

If am = an, then m = n.
A graphics calculator may be used to solve indicial equations, using the solve function.

Graphs of exponential
functions

f ( x) = ax, a > 1; f ( x) = ax, 0 < a < 1


The y-intercept is (0, 1).
The asymptote is y = 0 (x-axis).
The domain is R.
The range is R+.
y

1
0

f(x) = ax, a > 1


Asymptote
x y=0

f(x) = ax, 0 < a < 1


Asymptote
x y=0

Reflections:
f ( x) = ax, a > 1; f ( x) = ax, a > 1

f(x) = ax, a > 1

1
0

f ( x) = ax, a > 1; f ( x) = ax, a > 1

f(x) = ax, a > 1


Asymptote
x
y=0

y
f(x) = ax, a > 1
1
1

Asymptote
y=0

f(x) = ax, a > 1

ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

243

Translations
f ( x) = ax, a > 1; f ( x) = ax + b, a > 1, b > 0

x+b
y f(x) = a , a > 1, b > 0

x
b f(x) = a , a > 1

b
1
x

f ( x) = ax, a > 1; f ( x) = ax + c, a > 1, c > 0

Asymptote
y=0

x
y f(x) = a + C, a > 1, C > 0

f(x) = ax, a > 1

Asymptote
y=C
C

1
x

Dilations
f ( x) = ax, a > 1; f ( x) = Aax, A > 0, a > 1

f(x) = Aax, A > 1, a > 1


f(x) = ax, a > 1

A
1
0

f ( x) = ax, a > 1; f ( x) = akx, a > 1, k > 0

y
4

Asymptote
y=0

f(x) = 22x
f(x) = 2x
x
f(x) = 22

2
(0, 1)
3 2 1

logarithms

244

Asymptote
y=0

If y = ax, then loga ( y) = x, where a = the base, x = the power, index or logarithm, and y = the base
numeral.
Log laws:
loga (m) + loga (n) = log a (mn) m, n > 0
m
loga (m) loga (n) = loga n m, n > 0
loga (mn) = n loga (m)
loga (a) = 1
loga (1) = 0

Solving logarithmic
equations

0 1 2 3 x

m>0

Logarithmic equations are solved more easily by:


1. simplifying using log laws
2. expressing in index form
3. solving as required.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

If ax = b, then x =
loga (ax) = x

log10 (b)
= loga (b)
log10 (a)

log ( x )
a a =x

logarithmic graphs

The logarithmic function f ( x) = loga (x) is the inverse function of the exponential function
f ( x) = ax.
y

f(x) = ax, a > 1

y=x
f(x) = loga (x), a > 1

1
0 1

The x-intercept is (1, 0).


The asymptote is x = 0.
The domain is R+.
The range is R.

ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

245

Chapter review
S h oRT
anS WeR

1 Simplify the following expression with positive indices.

(16 x 6 y10 ) 2 3 (27 x 3 y9 )


2 Solve the following equations.
a 4x3 = 500
3 Find the solutions to:
a 9x 1(3x) 6 = 0
4 For the function with the rule f ( x) = 3x 2 + 1:
a find the y-intercept
b state the equation of the asymptote
c sketch the graph of f ( x)
d state the domain and range.

b 8x + 1 22x = 43x 1
b 2x + 2

x + 1

= 3.

5 For the function with the rule f ( x) = 3 2x 3:


a find the y-intercept
b state the equation of the horizontal asymptote
c find a second point on the graph
d sketch the graph of f ( x)
e state the domain and the range of the function.
6 a Evaluate log3

1
.
27

b Express y in terms of x if log10 ( x) + log10 ( y) = 2 log10 (x + 1).


7 Simplify the following.
a 3 log4 (5) 2 log4 (6)

2 log5 ( x 2 )
1
logg5 ( x )
3

8 Solve each of the following.


a log6 (x) = 3

b 2 logx (125) =

c log2 (3x + 6) log2 (5) = 2

9 If y = loge (7x 6) + 3, then what does x equal?


10 If f (x) = 3x:
a sketch the graph of f (x) and label:
i the y-intercept
ii the equation of the asymptote
b sketch the line y = x, use this line to sketch the inverse function g(x) = log3 (x), and label:
i the x-intercept
ii the equation of the asymptote.
11 The number of bacteria in a culture, N, is given by the exponential function N = 1500(20.4t ), where t is

the number of days.


a Find the initial number of bacteria in the culture.
b Find the number of bacteria (to the nearest 100) after: i 5 days
ii 10 days.
c How many days does it take for the number of bacteria to reach 12 000?
mUlTiP l e
Ch oiCe

1 When simplified,
a

x 4 y7
7

5m 4 p2 (5m 2 p6 )3
may be simplified to:

2m 3 p
3m 7 p
m2
3m10
3m 2
a
16
B
C
47 p
50 p16
2 p32

3 The value of
a

246

(2 xy3 )2 3 x 5 y 2

is equal to:
7x3
4y
3x 4 y7
3 y7
B
C
7
x2

1
20

1
2 64 3
5
125

B 5

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

3x 4
y6

x
y

m15
p29

m 20 p24
25

is:
4

C 5

D 4

e 5

4 If 252 x = 125, then x is equal to:


1

a 1

C 1

B 2

5 If 42x 17(4x) + 16 = 0, then x is equal to:


a 1 or 16

B 0 or 1

C 2 or 8

6 The rule for the graph below could be:

D 2

e 5

D 1 or 4

e 0 or 2

x
1
2

a y = 3x 2

B y = 3x + 2

D y = 2x

C y = 3x 2

e y = 2x + 2

Questions 7 to 9 refer to the function defined by the rule y = 2x + 3 1.


7 The graph that best represents this function is:
a
B
y
y

3
D

x
e

0
1

8 The domain is:


a (3, )

9 The range is:


a [1, )

a 3

a 2

e R\{3}

B R

C R+

D (1, )

e (1, )

B log5 (x) = 250


e log250 (x) = 5

log3 25
is nearest to:
log3 5
B 5

C log5 (250) = x

C 0

D 69

e 1

C 2

D 9

e 20

5
(x 4 )

log7
simplifies to:
log7 ( x )
3

log7 ( x 2 )

14 The solution to log5 (x) = 4 is:


a 25

D R

B 7

13 The expression

C R+

11 The value of log7 (49) + 3 log2 (8) 4 is:


12 The value of

B 125

log7 ( x 4 )

B 7

C 1

D 625

e 20

C 5

D 14

16 If log3 (2x 1) + log3 (2) = 2, then x is equal to:


a 2

B 1

5
8

D 4

15 The value of x if 2 logx (343) = 6 is:


a 3

B [1, )

a logx (5) = 250


D logx (250) = 5

y
1

10 When expressed in log form, 5x = 250 becomes:

a 3

C 3

D 2

7
11
4

ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

247

17 The solution to the equation 43 2x = 12 is nearest to:


a x = 1
D x = 0.2

B x = 0.35
e x=0

C x = 0.604

18 The equation of the graph shown at right is:


a y = log16 (x)

(4, 2)

B y = log2 (x)
C y = 2 log8 (x)

D y = log10 (x)

e y = 2 log10 (x)

19 The inverse of the graph below would be:


y

(2, 1)
1
0
a

x
B

0
1

(1, 2)
1

x
(1, 2)

248

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

1
0

(1, 2)

(2, 1)
0

(2, 1)

1 a For the function f ( x ) = 5 :


i find the y-intercept
ii find the values f (1) and f (1)
iii find the equation of the asymptote
iv sketch the graph of f (x)
v state the domain and range.

b For the function g(x), where g(x) = f (x + 3) 1 and f (x) = 5 x:


i state the transformations to change f (x) to g(x)
ii state the equation of the asymptote
iii sketch the graph of g(x)
iv state the domain and range of g(x).

e x Ten D eD
ReS P o n S e

2 The number of lions, L, in a wildlife park is given by L = 20 (100.1t ), where t is the number of years

since counting started. At the same time the number of cheetahs, C, is given by C = 25(100.05t ).
a Find the number of:
i lions
ii cheetahs
when counting began.
b Find the numbers of each after
i 1 year
ii 18 months.
c Which of the animals is the first to reach a population of 40 and by how long?
d After how many months are the populations equal, and what is this population?
y
3 The graph of the function f : R R, where f (x) = A 102x + 4, is shown at right.
a Give the equation of the horizontal asymptote in the form y = c.
c
b The graph passes through the point (0, 3.8). Use this information to
find the value of A.
(0, 3.8)
c Find the x-intercept, correct to 3 decimal places.
d Find the values of:
ii f (4).
i f (3)
e Find the value of x if f (x) = 5.2.
x
f State the domain and range of f (x).
4 The temperature, T C, of a coffee in a ceramic mug at time t minutes

after it is poured is given by T = 60(4 0.05t ) + 20.


a Find the initial temperature of the coffee.
b Find the temperature of the coffee, correct to one decimal place, at:
i 2 minutes after it is poured
ii 25 minutes after it is poured.
c Sketch the graph of the equation for 0 t 50.
If the coffee can be comfortably drunk when it is between temperatures of 30 C and 45 C, find:
d the time available to drink the coffee
e the final temperature the coffee will settle to.
5 The number of bacteria (N) in a culture is given by the exponential function N = 12 000(20.125t), where
t is the number of days.
a Find the initial number of bacteria in the culture.
b Find the number of bacteria in the culture after:
i 4 days
ii 2 weeks.
c Find the time taken for the bacteria to reach 32 000.
When the bacteria reach a certain number, they are treated with an anti-bacterial serum. The serum

destroys bacteria according to the exponential function D = N0 3 0.789t, where D is the number
of bacteria remaining after time t and N0 is the number of bacteria present at the time the serum is
added. The culture is considered cured when the number of bacteria drops below 1000.
d If the bacteria are treated with the serum when their numbers reach 32 000, find the number of
days it takes for the culture to be classed as cured.
e How much longer would it take the culture to be cured if the serum is applied after 6 weeks?

DiGiTal DoC
doc-9756
Test Yourself
Chapter 5

ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

249

ICT activities
Chapter opener
DIGITAL DOC
10 Quick Questions doc-9749: Warm up with ten quick questions on
exponential and logarithmic functions (page 217)

5B

Negative and rational powers

TUTORIAL
WE5 eles-1417: Watch a tutorial on writing exponential
expressions with positive indices (page 222)
DIGITAL DOC
SkillSHEET 5.1 doc-9750: Practise working with negative and rational
powers (page 224)

5C

Indicial equations

TUTORIAL
WE10 eles-1418: Watch a tutorial on solving an indicial equation
by using substitution (page 226)

5D

Graphs of exponential functions

DIGITAL DOCS
SkillSHEET 5.2 doc-9751: Practise substituting values into exponential
functions (page 230)
WorkSHEET 5.1 doc-9752: Write expressions with their simplest index
notation and solve indicial equations (page 231)

5F

5G

Logarithmic graphs

INTERACTIVITY
Logarithmic graphs int-0264: Consolidate your understanding of
logarithmic graphs and their features (page 236)

5H Applications of exponential and logarithmic


functions
DIGITAL DOCS
doc-9754: Investigate graphs of logarithmic functions
(page 238)
Extension doc-9755: Practise sketching logarithmic graphs and
identifying rules of functions (page 238)
TUTORIAL
WE26 eles-1419: Watch a tutorial on calculating the price
of gold, where the price is modelled by a logarithmic function
(page 239)

Chapter review
DIGITAL DOC
Test Yourself doc-9756: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your
progress (page 249)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

Solving logarithmic equations

DIGITAL DOC
WorkSHEET 5.2 doc-9753: Simplify logarithmic expressions and solve
logarithmic equations (page 236)

250

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

5_61_10586_MQ11_MMCAS_3E_05.indd 250

8/05/13 2:45 PM

Answers CHAPTER 5
exPonenTial anD
loGaRiThmiC FUnCTionS
exercise 5a

index laws

1 a x10
c x7y8

x 3 y9
c
2
4 p10 m8
3a
3

a9b5
4

9 xy 4
2

125k 11d 6
24
c B
b x5y6m 1

5a A
6 a x3yn + 1z

bE

7 a 211

b 324

c 55 34

f 2

8a 8

3
24
b 59 049

d 1

e 5

g 16

h 3

c 16
1

d x10
3 a 3

1
xy 2

e 213 38
b3

d 27

2
3

p2
m
1
f
4 x 6 y2
c 4
c

h 4

4E
5 a

7
33

5
x6

e 64m10

7
24

g (x

125
64

g 27

3
+ 1) 2

7 D

exercise 5D

Graphs of exponential

1 a

1 a 5
c 5

e 2
2 a 5
d

3
9
4

2
11
6

y=3

y = 0.5(4x)

y
5

y = 5x

y = 0, (0, 0.5)
c

y = 14 (2x)

1
0
y
10

4
3

1 0
y

y = 4x

y = 2x 1

1
2

b y = 0, (0, 9)

1
0

y = 0, (0, 4)
1
3 a y = 0, (0, 2 )
dom = R, ran = (0, )

y
y = 4( 13 )x

1
4)

y = 0, (0,

y = 2x

y = 10x

1
0

dom = R, ran = (0, )


y

y = 3x + 2

y
0

c y = 0, (0, 5)

dom = R, ran = (0, )

y
1 1 0

c 1
9
8

1
2
1
4

y = 0, (0, 2)

0.5

2
x3

indicial equations
b4
d2
f 3
b

3
( y 4) 2

1
y2

f x2

y = 2(3x)

y = 3x
exercise 5C

8 B

2 a

b 1.89
d 1.66

negative and rational powers


212
52
b 2
c 316
3
b

b 1 or 2
d 1 or 2

functions

2 a 22

1
1
2

1
11

b 23x 2
d 25n 6 39n 3

1
1 a 3
6

b 7

10 E
exercise 5B

y = 0.5x

f 5

9 a 22 33n + 4
c 2n 2 76n 3

5
9
10
5
7

10 E

d 222 58

18

6A
9 a 1.58
c 1.65

d 10e9f 2

15
4

b 7
5
d

5 a 0 or 1
c 0 or 1

d p11q2

c 18u11v5
4a

4 a

b 518
d 6m9p17

2 a a5b3

10

3 a 3

3
y = 3x

y = 51 x y
x
5
0

ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

251

c dom = R, ran = R+

d y = 3, (0, 4)

dom = R, ran = (3, )

y
y = 2x + 3

2 a 42 = 16

f(x) = 3 2x

e 5 = 625
2

g 3

e y=

2)

(0,
dom = R, ran = (3, )
y

d
g
j
7 a

c
e
g
i
8 a

d dom = R, ran = R+

y = 3x 3

y
x

(1, 45)

45

f(x) = 5 32x

2
3

y
5

y = 2x + 3 1
0

6
log2 (80)
log10 (100) = 2
log2 (4) = 2
log2 (3)
log3 (20)
log10 (250)

10

(2, 10)

4
3
x

dom = R, ran = (5, )

f(x) = 2

b E

f(x) = 4 23x + 3

(1, 4)

y
8

(1, 8)

f(x) = 23x

13

7 a 3.32
c 2.26
e 1.56,

d log10 (100x3)
6
f log10 ( 10 x )

3.99

e log b (a) = n

g 30

i 5

k 10

6
2
B
3.459
1.292
0.661

b 5
f 25
b A

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

( )

c 4
g 2
c E

b
e
h

0.737

3.080

0.423

h5

d 10
h1
dC
c 0.483
f 2.255
i 2.138

7C

logarithmic graphs
b b
c 3y

1
0

d 2.44, 2.86

f log2 1 = 4
16

c 3

6
3

b 1.30

13 C

b log4 (1024) = 5

f 27

2 a

d 4

Solving logarithmic equations


b 0
c 1
d 2
f 2
g 2
b 9
c 625
d 10

1 a x

logarithms
1 a log 2 (8) = 3
b log 3 (243) = 5
c log 5 (1) = 0
d log 10 (0.01) = 2

12 D

b 4
e 4.070

exercise 5G
y=3

exercise 5e
1

f 6
11 B

6 B
( 13, 5) 7
5
3

c 2
g 6

e 8

3 a
e
4 a
5 a
d
g

b dom = R, ran = R+

( x + 3)2
x 2

b 2

1 a 2
e 6
2 a 8

(3, 4)

h log10

4
2

g log3 (64)

exercise 5F
x
23

y = 102 x + 5

f(x) = 22x

f log2 [x3(x 4)]

15 a 4
d 3.170

2 x

f dom = R, ran = R+

h y = 5, (0, 105)

4 a A
5 a dom = R, ran = R+

b log2 (1728)

e log3 (4)

0 1

Undefined
log3 (105)
log6 (56)
f log3 (3) = 1
h log4 (5)

e log2 = 1
2

f 5
i 5
l 5

c log5 25

y=6 +3

h
k
b
d

5A
c 3

d log10
4

14 a log3 (81) = 4

f(x) = 2 52

252

10 E

dom = R, ran = (3, )

4 C
b 4
e 3

9 a 3
e 3

dom = R, ran = R+

g y = 3, (0, 4)

4
3
2
1

h bx = a

dom = R, ran = (1, )

c log5 (3)

f y = 1, (0, 7)

15

f 27 = 128

1
9

3D
6 a 4

0
3,

d 33 = 27

(1, 6)

b 106 = 1 000 000

c 2 1= 2

f(x) = log2(x)

(2, 1)

1
0

(5, 1)
5

f(x) = log5(x)
x

d 5x

e The population will reach a limit at

some stage.
8 a 80 kg
b i 72.1 kg
c 67 weeks

(8, 1) f(x) = log8(x)

1
0

d i
d

10

(12, 1) f(x) = log12(x)


x

12

(15, 1) f(x) = log15(x)


15

rubbish will be disposed of in 10 years


or so, which is unlikely.
9 a i 108 hectares
ii 120 hectares
iii 148 hectares
b 15 h
10 a i 51.18 m ii 51.65 m iii 51.95 m
iv 52.18 m
b

0
2
3

c
11 a
b
c
12 a
b
c

26 weeks
A = P(1.05)n
$25 000
90 C
i 76.3 C
12 min 37 s
120
i 145

20

1 2 3 4

10

h
5
4
3
2
1

b $16 288.95 c 20 years


b $14 427
c 10 years

1 2 3 4 5

N
N = 120(1.1t)
120

x 0

log10(V)
4.5
4.4
4.3

g
h
i

4 t(years)

b The graph shows a slight upward curve

not starting from (0, 0); this suggests


possible exponential growth.
c 1.071
d 1.072, 1.082, 1.063. Estimated % annual
growth is 7%.
e

x(year)

4.6

700

iii 213

4.2

ii 176

V 4.653 4.550 4.447 4.352 4.255

800

ii 64.7 C

down with a reducing slope


exponential decay.
c 0.789, 0.789, 0.804, 0.800
d The ratio is about 0.795 or a 20.5% rate
of depreciation.
e

h = 5(0.7n), n 0, n J

b The curve starts from $45 000, curving

900

c 11 1 years

30

13 a V = 5000(1.1t)
b $8857.81
c 8 years
14 a P(people)

P = 100.03t 102.845
P = 700 1.072t, i.e. 7.2% growth
similar to d
j P5 = 982 people; 2002 (t = 6),
P6 = 1051
k During 2011
l During 2004

40

67
400
i 1005 ii 6340 iii 16 643 iv 17 146
17.48 months
h = 5(0.7n)
i 1.20 m ii 0.29 m

0
W = 3 log10(8t + 10)

g m 0.03; y-intercept = 2.845


h log10 (P) = 0.03 t + 2.845
i P = 10(0.03t + 2.845)

d = 50 + log10(15n)

W
3

15 a V($000)

52
51

3 The smaller a is, the steeper the graph.


4 a log3 (x) for x > 0
1
b 2 log2 (x) for x > 0
exercise 5h applications of exponential
and logarithmic functions
1 a P = 10 000(2t)
b i 80 000
ii 640 000
c 3.32 months
2 a 15 000
b i 15 528
ii 16 077
c 19 118
d 2022
3 a 3 kg
b i 3.77 kg
ii 5.1 kg
iii 5.86 kg

50

c 5x

The points appear collinear.

ii No, the model suggests virtually no

1
0

5
4

W = 80(20.015t)

(10, 1) f(x) = log10(x)

1
0

2.9
2.8

3.0

1
0

4
5
6

3.1

ii 52.8 kg

W
80

d
a
a
a
b
c
a
b

f log10(P)

2.845 2.875 2.905 2.940 2.966

j
k
l

The points are roughly collinear.


m 0.099; y-intercept = 4.65
log10 (V ) = 0.099t + 4.65
log10 (V ) = 0.099t log10(10)
+ 4.65 log10(10)

= log10(10 0.099t)
+ log10(104.65)

V = 10 0.099t 104.65

4.65
= 10 (10 0.099)t
= 45 000(0.79)t
The rate of depreciation is about 21%.
In 2010 (x = 5), V = $13 847; in 2011,
V = $10 939.
During 2012

ChaPTeR 5 Exponential and logarithmic functions

253

16 a

7
10
13
16
19

y y = 3x 2+ 1

T
5000

)
(0,10
9

4000

(2, 2)

3000

1000
(0, 0)

The graph starts from (0, 0) and curves


slightly up to the right like a positive
exponential function.
log10 R

0.410

1.943

0.140

2.352
2.563

0.183

2.837

0.716

3.637

log10 (T )
4
3

ChaPTeR ReVieW
ShoRT anSWeR

4 y2
3x 4
2 a x=5
3 a x=1

b x=5
b x = 0 or x = 1

4 a (0, 9 )

b y=1

10

254

1
1 0

e The domain is R and the range is (3, ).


6 a 3

b y=

(x +
x

b 12

8 a x = 216

b x=5

14

y = 3x
(1, 3)

y = 3x
(1, 3)

y = log3(x)

(1, 1)

80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10

x=0

11 a 1500
b i 6000
ii 24 000
c 7.5 days

mUlTiPle ChoiCe

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

2 C
5 E

3 A
6 C

iv Domain R, range ( 1, )
2 a i 20
ii 25
b i L = 25, C = 28
ii L = 28, C = 30
c Lions by 1 year 1 month
d 31 after 1 year 11 months
3 a y= 4
b A = 0.2
c x = 0.651
d i 3.999 998 ( 4)
ii 19 999 996 ( 2 107)
e 0.831
f Domain R, range (, 4)
4 a 80 C
b i 72.2 C
ii 30.6 C
c T

(3, 1)
01

c x= 3

1 B
4 B

left, vertical translation of 1 unit down

ii y = 1
iii y = 5(x + 3) 1

y = 1

y=x

v Domain R, range R+
b i Horizontal translation of 3 units to the

1)2

ey 3 + 6
7
y

(4, 4)

7 a log4 125
36

iii y = 0

x
y = 3

y=0

E
C
B
B

(1, 5)

(1, 3)

4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 log10 (R)

The points are very close to collinear.


m 1.50
The y-intercept is 2.5614 or log10 (364.25)
log10 (T ) = 1.50 log10 (R) + 2.5614
log10 (T ) = log10 (364.25 R1.50)
T = 364.3 R1.50
T = 10 711.76 days. The difference may
be due to rounding errors or ignoring the
small effects of other planets and moons
on Saturns orbit.
k = 133 407.5625

9
12
15
18

y
y = 5x

y=0

10 a

D
B
D
C

ii 5 ,

f(x) = 3 2x 3

9 x=

d
e
f
g

1 a i 1
iv

d Domain = R, range = (1, )


5 a y=0
b y = 3
c (1, 3) (for example)

log10 T

8
11
14
17

exTenDeD ReSPonSe

2000

A
C
A
E
C

d
5 a
b
c

T(x) = 60 (40.05t) + 20

(25, 30.6)

10 20 30 40 50 x

13.2 minutes
e 20 C
12 000
i 16 970
ii 40 363
11.3 days
d 4 da ys e 4 more days

Chapter 6

Circular functions
DiGital DoC
doc-9757
10 Quick Questions

Chapter ContentS
6a
6B
6C
6D
6e
6F
6G
6h
6i

Trigonometric ratio revision


The unit circle
Radians
Symmetry
Identities
Sine and cosine graphs
Tangent graphs
Solving trigonometric equations
Applications

6a

trigonometric ratio revision

Recall that for a right-angled triangle:


O = opposite
A = adjacent
H = hypotenuse.
These ratios can be memorised using
the term SOH CAH TOA.

sin ( ) =
H
O

O
H

cos ( ) =

A
H

tan ( ) =

O
A

WorkeD exaMple 1

Find the value of x in each of the following triangles. Express lengths correct to 2 decimal places
and angles to 1 decimal place.
a
9

64

4.1

x
x
27
c
x

7.5

8.6

Chapter 6 Circular functions

255

Write

think

a 1 Write the cosine ratio.


2

Replace A with x, H with 9 and with 64.

Make x the subject of the equation.

Calculate x, correct to 2 decimal places.

cos (64 ) =

x
9

= 3.95
O
b Use sin ( ) =
H

Replace O with 4.1, H with x and with 27.

Make x the subject of the equation.

Calculate x, correct to 2 decimal places.

4.1
sin (27 ) =
x
x=

4.1
sin (27 )

= 9.03
c Use tan ( ) =

c 1 Write the tangent ratio.

DiGital DoCS
doc-9758
SkillSHEET 6.1
trigonometry review i

A
H

x = 9 cos (64 )

b 1 Write the sine ratio.

Replace O with 8.6, A with 7.5 and with x.

Evaluate the right-hand side of the equation,


keeping plenty of decimal places at this stage.

Make x the subject of the equation using


inverse tan notation.

Calculate x, correct to 1 decimal place, using


the inverse tan function of the calculator.

exercise 6a

a Use cos ( ) =

tan ( x ) =

O
A
8.6
7.5

= 1.146 67
x = tan 1 (1.14667)

= 48.9

trigonometric ratio revision

1 We1a Find the value of x in each of the following, correct to 2 decimal places.
a
b
c
10
x
18

doc-9759
SkillSHEET 6.2
trigonometry review ii

12
x

81

2 We1b Find the value of y in each of the following.


a
b
8
54
y

36

10.6
32
y

y
72

6.8

2.4

3 We1c Find the value of a in each of the following. Give answers correct to the nearest tenth of a degree.
b
c
a
a
8
2.5
9
6.4
10.2
a
a
3.7

256

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

4 MC In the figure below:


a

10 cm
a x is nearest to:
a 60 cm

21.98 cm
20

B 22 cm

C 7.5 cm

D 8 cm

e 9 cm

B 64

C 37

D 26

e 39

B 6 cm

C 5 cm

D 10 cm

e 7 cm

b angle a is nearest to:


a 53

c y is nearest to:
a 8 cm

5 MC If sin (a) = 0.951, then tan a is equal to:


a 0.000 29
D 1.32

B 0.0166
e 0.309

C 3.076

6 MC If 0 < a < 90 and cos a < 0.5, then which of the following is correct?
a a < 30
D a < 45

B a > 30
e a > 60

C a < 60

7 A tree 5 metres tall casts a shadow so that the angle of elevation from the end of the shadow to the top

of the tree is 35. How long is the shadow?

5m
35
8 A mathematically able tree removalist measures the angle of elevation of two points on a diseased

section of a large eucalypt at a distance of 40 m from the base of the tree. If the angles are 20 and 24
respectively, how tall is the diseased section of the tree?
Diseased section

20 24
40 m
9 A 60-metre flying fox cable is set up to cross a river so that it will drop 10 metres vertically. What is the

angle of depression of the cable?


10 A soccer player has a shot for goal from the position shown in the figure below right. Find the scoring

angle, .

Goal
5m
7.3 m

12 m

Chapter 6 Circular functions

257

6B

the unit circle

So far in this chapter we have considered angles in a right-angled


triangle. But trigonometric functions can be defined over a larger domain
by considering their definition inside a unit circle. This is a circle with
centre (0, 0) and a radius of 1 unit.
A point P (x, y) is a point on the circle. Its location can also be defined
as P (), where is the anticlockwise rotation from the positive x-axis. A
negative value denotes a clockwise rotation.
Using the SOH, CAH definitions in the diagram:
x
cosine () = = x
1
y
sine () = = y
1
These may be abbreviated:
x = cos ()
y = sin ()

y
1
P( )
1

0 x

1x

The point P can also be denoted as (cos (), sin ()).


Note: As increases, the x- and y-coordinates oscillate between 1 and +1, so 1 sin () +1 and
1 cos () +1 for all .
The tangent line on a unit circle is the line that is a tangent to the circle at the point (1, 0).
Tangent (), or tan () for short, is the height at which a line along an angle hits the tangent line. The
diagrams below show tan for angles in the first and second quadrants.
y

tan ( )

x
tan ()

The tangent line

sin ( )
y
.
Note: Tangent (), or tan (), may also be defined as the ratio x . That is, tan ( ) =
cos ( )
This formula and its derivation will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter.

Quadrants
The coordinate axes divide the unit circle into four quadrants as shown in the diagram below left.
The angle measurements, in degrees, between the quadrants are shown in the diagram below right.
y

y
90

2nd quadrant

1st quadrant

3rd quadrant

180

4th quadrant
270

258

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

x
0 or 360

Therefore:

quadrant 1 is where 0 < < 90


quadrant 2 is where 90 < < 180
quadrant 3 is where 180 < < 270
quadrant 4 is where 270 < < 360.
y

Since y = sin (),

sine is positive in quadrants 1 and 2 and


sine is negative in quadrants 3 and 4.
Since x = cos (), cosine is positive in quadrants 1 and 4 and
cosine is negative in quadrants 2 and 3.
y
Since tan ( ) = , tangent is positive in quadrants 1 and 3 and
x
tangent is negative in quadrants 2 and 4.
The diagram at right summarises which of the trigonometric
functions is positive in each quadrant.
The word CAST will assist in recalling this.
You could also use a short phrase, such as All Stations To Croydon.

Sine
positive

All
positive

Tangent
positive

Cosine
positive

WorkeD exaMple 2

If a is any angle, find the quadrant where:


a sin (a) > 0 and tan (a) < 0
b sin (a) < 0 and cos (a) > 0.
think

Write

a Sine is positive and tangent is negative in quadrant 2.

a Quadrant 2

b Sine is negative and cosine is positive in quadrant 4.

b Quadrant 4

exact values
Calculated trigonometric values (sin, cos and tan) of most angles
are rational approximations correct to several decimal places.
However, for a few particular angles, exact trigonometric
values can be determined. These include multiples of 90 and the
ratios of isosceles and equilateral triangles.
Exact values can be determined for 0 and any multiple of 90
using this diagram and the fact that y = sin (), x = cos () and
y
tan () .
x
The isosceles triangle with equal sides of one
unit each gives the exact trigonometric values
for 45.
The hypotenuse is calculated using
Pythagoras theorem:
hypotenuse =

12

0 or 360
x
(1, 0)

(0, 1)
270

45
2
1
45

SOH
sin (45) =

180
(1, 0)

(0, 1)

+ 12

= 2
So, using

y
90

1
2

1
2

2
2

2
2

CAH

TOA

1
cos (45) =
2
=

2
2

tan (45) =

1
1

=1

Chapter 6 Circular functions

259

The equilateral triangle with each side 2 units long, shown in the figure below, has been bisected.

Line of bisection

30
2

60
1

Using Pythagoras theorem:


line of bisection = 22 12
= 3
So, using

SOH
sin (30 ) =

CAH
1
2

TOA
1
3
1
3
=

3
3

3
2

cos (30) =

tan (30) =

3
3
3
tan (60 ) =
1
=

sin (60 ) =

3
2

cos (60 ) =

1
2

= 3
These exact values are summarised in the table below.
Angle ( )
0

sin ()
0

cos ()
1

tan ()
0

30

1
2

3
2

3
3

45

2
2

2
2

60

3
2

1
2

90

Undefined

WorkeD exaMple 3

Without using a calculator, find:


a sin (90 )
b cos (180 )

c tan (270 ).

think

Write

a 1 Sine corresponds to the y-coordinate on the unit circle.


2

The value of y at the point where = 90 is 1.

b 1 Cosine corresponds to the x-coordinate on the unit circle.


2

sin (90 ) = 1
b

The value of x at the point where = 180 is 1.

c 1 Tangent corresponds to the value of

260

y
x on the unit circle.

The value of y is 1 and the value of x is 0 at the point


where = 270.

The value of

1
0

is not defined.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

cos (180 ) = 1
c

tan (270 ) =

tan (270 ) is undefined.

WorkeD exaMple 4

Without using a calculator, state the exact value of:


a sin (45 )
b cos (60 )
c tan (30 ).
think

Write

a Read the value from the table, or

determine using the special triangle,


O
sin ( ) = .
H

45
1

45
1

a sin (45) =

1
2

1
2

2
2

b cos (60) =

b Read the value from the table, or

determine using the special triangle,


A
cos ( ) = .
H

2
2

1
2

30
3

60
1
c Read the value from the table, or

determine using the special triangle,


O
tan ( ) = .
A

30

3
3

60
1

exercise 6B

c tan (30 ) =

3
3

the unit circle

a sin (40)
f sin (260)

State whether the following values are positive (P ) or negative (N ).


b sin (65)
c sin (110)
d sin (160)
g sin (215)
h sin (321)
i sin (425)
Compare your answers with those found using a calculator.

e sin (230)
j sin (36)

a cos (27)
f cos (295)

State whether the following values are positive (P) or negative (N).
b cos (68)
c cos (115)
d cos (200)
g cos (402)
h cos (83)
i cos (240)
Compare your answers with those found using a calculator.

e cos (250)
j cos (157)

State whether the following values are positive (P ) or negative (N ).


b tan (75)
c tan (118)
d tan (166)
g tan (308)
h tan (500)
i tan (45)
Compare your answers with those found using a calculator.

e tan (199)
j tan (137)

a tan (12)
f tan (255)

DiGital DoC
doc-9760
the unit circle

4 We2 If a is any angle, find the quadrant where:


a sin (a) < 0 and tan (a) > 0
b sin (a) > 0 and cos (a) > 0.
5 MC

a If 0 < a < 360, sin (a) < 0 and cos (a) < 0, then which one of the following is true?

a 0 < a < 90
D 270 < a < 360

B 90 < a < 180


e 0 < a < 180

C 180 < a < 270

a 0 < a < 90
D cos (a) > 0

B cos (a) < 0


e 270 < a < 360

C 180 < a < 270

a one solution
D three solutions

B no solution
e four solutions

C two solutions

a no solutions
D one solution

B two solutions
e four solutions

C three solutions

b If 0 < a < 360, sin (a) > 0 and tan (a) < 0, then which one of the following is true?

c Given that 0 < a < 360, then the equation cos (a) = 1 has:
d If 0 < a < 360, then the equation sin (a) = cos (a) has:

Chapter 6 Circular functions

261

e If 0 a 180, and sin (a) = cos (a), then a is equal to:


a 60
D 0

B 150
e 90

6 We3
Find:
a cos (180)
f cos (360)
7 We4
DiGital DoC
doc-9761
WorkSHEET 6.1

b sin (270)
g tan (270)

c tan (360)
h tan (180)

d sin (180)
i sin (630)

e cos (270)
j cos (720)

c tan (30)
h cos (0)

d cos (60)
i sin (90)

e sin (30)
j tan (90)

State the exact value of:

a sin (60)
f tan (45)

6C

C 45

b cos (45)
g sin (45)

radians

You are used to measuring angles in degrees (), and will recall
that there are 360 in a circle. An alternative unit for angle measurement
is the radian (c). This is given on the calculator as (r).
Radians are derived from the circumference of the unit
circle, that is, a circle of radius 1 unit. In a unit circle, the
circumference = 2r = 2(1) = 2 units. So, the angle swept in
one revolution is equivalent to 2 c.
Therefore 2 c = 360, so:
c
180
1 =
c = 180
1c =

180

ius
rad
1 radian

An arc length of
one radian is 1c.

These formulas may be used to convert degrees to radians and vice versa.
WorkeD exaMple 5

Convert the following angles into exact radians.


a 120
b 270 using a CAS calculator
think

a 1 Multiply 120 by

Write/DiSplaY

c
.
180

a 120 = 120

2 c
3

3
2

Simplify by dividing through by the highest


common factor, 60.

b 1 Ensure your CAS calculator is in radians mode.

c
180

b 270

Enter the value of the angle in degrees.


2

Press ENTER to convert to radians.

Write the answer.

270 =

3 c
2

WorkeD exaMple 6

Convert the following angles to degrees.


3 c
a
using a CAS calculator
4
b 0.8 c
think

a 1 Ensure your CAS calculator is in degrees mode.

Enter the value of the angle in radians.


262

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Write/DiSplaY

3
4

Press ENTER to convert to degrees.

Write the answer.

b 1 Multiply 0.8 c by

= 135
3 c
= 135
4

180
.
c

b 0.8 c = 0.8

180

Cancel out c.

= 0.8 180

Simplify.

= 144

When working in degrees, all angles should be expressed to the nearest tenth of a degree unless
otherwise stated.

WorkeD exaMple 7

Use a calculator to convert:


a 57.2 to radians, correct to 3 decimal places
b 2.75c to the nearest tenth of a degree.
think

Write

a 1 Multiply 57.2 by
2

a 57.2 = 57.2

180
.

c
180

= 0.998c

Evaluate and round off to 3 decimal places.

b 1 Multiply 2.75 by
2

c
.
180

b 2.75 = 2.75

180

= 157.6

Evaluate to 1 decimal place.

exact values and radians


Since c = 180,

c
= 90
2

c
= 30
6

c
= 45
4

and

c
= 60
3

So the table of exact values can be written in terms of radian measurements:


Angle ( c)

sin ()

cos ()

tan ()

1
2

3
2

1
2

2
2

1
2

3
2

1
2

1
3

2
2

3
3

1
3
Undefined

Chapter 6 Circular functions

263

Other important angles are shown on the circle below.

c
4

45

5
c
6 15

35

0
12

3
c
4 1

60 c
3

c
2
3

90 2

30

0 0c

c 180

x
360 2 c
330 1
1 c

0
21

7
c
4

c
5
3

c
3
270
2

4 c

3 24

25

31
5

0
30

5
c
4 2

c
7
6

( 6 sectors shaded)

Our special triangles can be updated to


include radians as shown.

30
2
2

exercise 6C

radians

45

e 3.6

2
3

60

1 We5 Convert the following angles into exact radians.


a 30
b 45
d 20
e 50
g 270
h 360
j 225
k 420
2 We6 Convert the following angles to degrees.

c
f
i
l

2
9

g
4
c

60
90
150
300
d

11
6

h 0.375

3 MC The smallest angle measurement listed below is:


a 85

C 1.92c

2
3

5
4

e 3.84c

e 135

4 MC The largest angle measurement listed below is:


a 3

4
3

C 250

5 MC If sin (a) = cos (a), then a could be equal to:


a

C 50

2
5

6 We7a Use a calculator to convert the following angles to radians, correct to 3 decimal places.
a 49
b 78.2
c 125
d 191.4
e 234.6
f 327.5
g 170.25
h 216.8
264

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

7 We7b Use a calculator to convert the following radian measurements to degrees, to the nearest tenth

of a degree.
a 0.35
e 15.6
8

b 1.47
f 2.71

c 3.142
g 4.06

Find the exact value of each of the following.

a sin
b cos
4
3
e tan

6D

cos
6

d 0.958
h 8

c tan

d sin

g sin

h cos

Symmetry

The unit circle can be divided into symmetrical sections, as shown in the diagram below.
Relationships between the circular functions sine, cosine and tangent can be established, based
on these symmetrical properties.
For simplicity, assume is an acute angle, although the following properties hold for any .

interaCtiVitY
int-0265
Symmetry

P( )

1
y

P( ) = (cos ( ), sin ( ))
= (x, y)

c x
1

P( + )

0 or 2 c
x 1
P(2 )

1
c
3

Quadrant 2
By symmetry:
sin ( ) = y = sin ( )
cos ( ) = x = cos ( )
y
tan ( ) = = tan ( )
x
Quadrant 3
By symmetry:
sin ( + ) = y = sin ( )
cos ( + ) = x = cos ( )
tan ( + ) =

y
= tan ( )
x

Quadrant 1
As already seen:
sin ( ) = y
cos ( ) = x
y
tan ( ) =
x
Quadrant 4
By symmetry:
sin (2 ) = y = sin ( )
cos (2 ) = x = cos ( )
y
= tan ( )
tan (2 ) =
x

Note: An angle measurement is assumed to be in radians unless the


degree symbolis given.
Provided an angle is expressed as or 2 , the trigonometric
function remains the same, only the sign (+ or ) may change. Use this
diagram to determine the sign.

Chapter 6 Circular functions

265

WorkeD exaMple 8

a
b
c
d

If sin () = 0.93, find sin (180 + ).


If cos () = 0.44, find cos (360 ).
If tan () = 1.72, find tan ( ).
If cos () = 0.83, find cos ( + ).

tUtorial
eles-1420
Worked example 8

think

a 1 Sketch the angle on a unit circle and relate it

Write/DraW

to the first quadrant.


180
sin (180 + )
+ )
(180

By symmetry sin (180 + ) = sin ( ).

Replace sin ( ) with 0.93.

b 1 Sketch the angle on a unit circle and relate

sin ( )
x

sin (180 + ) = sin ()


= 0.93
y

it to the first quadrant.


S

By symmetry cos (360 ) = cos ( ).

Replace cos ( ) with 0.44.

c 1 Sketch the angle on a unit circle and relate

cos ( )
x
cos (360 )
(36
0

cos(360 ) = cos ()
= 0.44
y

it to the first quadrant.

By symmetry tan ( ) = tan ( ).

Replace tan ( ) with 1.72.

d 1 Sketch the angle on a unit circle and

tan ( )

x
tan ( )

tan( ) = tan ()
= 1.72
y

relate it to the first quadrant.


cos ( + )
+

266

By symmetry cos ( + ) = cos ( ).

Replace cos ( ) with 0.83.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

cos ( )
C

cos( + ) = cos ()
= 0.83

WorkeD exaMple 9

Find the exact value of each of the following.


a tan (150 )
b sin (330 )

tUtorial
eles-1421
Worked example 9

7
d tan
6

c cos

think

Write/DraW

a 1 Express tan (150 ) as tan (180 30 ).


2

a tan (150 ) = tan (180 30 )

Sketch the angle on a unit circle and relate it to


the first quadrant.

(18

30

By symmetry tan (180 30 ) = tan (30 ).

Replace tan (30 ) with its exact value,

or

3
.
3

3
3

A
30

By symmetry sin (360 30 ) = sin (30 ).

Replace sin (30 ) with its exact value, 2 .

sin (30)
x
sin (360 30)

(36

0)

sin (330 ) = sin (30 )

c 1 Express cos
.
as cos
2

or

b sin (330 ) = sin (360 30 )

Sketch the angle on a unit circle and relate it to


the first quadrant.

tan (150 ) = tan (30 )

b 1 Express sin (330 ) as sin (360 30 ).


2

tan (30)
= tan (180 30)
x

A
30

1
2

3 =

cos
4
4

c cos

Sketch the angle on a unit circle and relate it to


the first quadrant.

cos ( 4 )
C

cos ( 4 )

By symmetry cos = cos .

4
4

Replace cos with its exact value of


4

cos = cos
4
4
1
2

or

2
.
2

1
2

or

2
2

Chapter 6 Circular functions

267

7 as tan + .
d 1 Express tan
6

7 = tan +
6

d tan

Sketch the angle on a unit circle and relate it to the first


quadrant.

By symmetry tan + = tan .

6
6

Replace tan with its exact value


6

tan (6 )
= tan ( + 6 )
x

tan = tan
6
6
1
3

3
.
3

or

1
3

3
3

or

WorkeD exaMple 10

3
If sin
= 0.924 , evaluate each of the following.
8
11
.
8

a sin

b sin

think

Write

3
8 3
5

a 1 Express sin
= sin .
as sin
8

3
3
Using symmetry express sin as sin .
8

3
= sin
8

3
Replace sin with 0.924.
8

= 0.924

3
11 as sin 8 + 3 =

b 1 Express sin

sin + .

268

11 =
sin
8

b sin

+ 3

3
3
By symmetry express sin + as sin .
8

3
= sin
8

3
Replace sin with 0.924.
8

= 0.924

Symmetry

1 We 8
If sin ( ) = 0.63, find:
a sin (180 )
b sin (180 + )
2

exercise 6D

DiGital DoC
doc-9760
the unit circle

3
5 =

sin
8
8

a sin

If cos () = 0.25, find:

a cos ( )

If tan () = 2.1, find:

a tan (2 )

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

c sin ( )

d sin (360 ).

b cos ( + )

c cos (2 )

d cos ( ).

b tan ()

c tan ( + )

d tan ( ).

Given that sin (a) = 0.3, cos (b) = 0.7 and tan (c) = 0.9, write down the value of each of the
following.
a sin (180 + a)
b cos (180 b)
c tan (360 c)
d sin (a )
e sin (180 a)
f cos (b )
g cos (360 b)
h tan (180 c)
i tan (180 + c)

5 We9a, b
Find the exact value of each of the following.
a sin (150 )
b cos (135 )
c tan (240 )
e sin (240 )
f cos (210 )
g tan (120 )
i cos (60 )
j sin (135 )
k tan (180 )
6 We9c, d

5
a cos
4

Find the exact value of each of the following.


5
7
b sin
c tan
4
6

d sin

7
3

tan
6

g sin

h cos

11
tan
6

sin
4

k cos ()

e cos
i

d tan (330 )
h sin (300 )
l sin (270 )

7
6

sin
2

If sin = 0.383, cos = 0.924 and tan = 0.414, evaluate each of the following.
8
8
8
9
17
7
a sin
b cos
c tan
8
8
8

7 We 10

d cos

e sin

7
8

15
tan
8

Given that sin (75) = 0.966, cos (75) = 0.259 and tan (75) = 3.732, find the value of each of the
following.
a sin (105 )
b cos (255 )
c tan (285 )
d sin (255 )
e cos (435 )
f tan (75 )
9
If sin (0.7) = 0.644, cos (0.7) = 0.765 and tan (0.7) = 0.842, find the value of each of the following.
(Hint: = 3.142, approximately.)
a sin (2.442)
b cos (3.842)
c tan (5.584)
d sin (0.7)
8

6e

identities

An identity is a relationship that holds true for all legitimate values


of a variable or variables. For example, a simple identity is x + x = 2x.

P( )
1

the pythagorean identity


Consider the right-angled triangle in the unit circle shown.
Applying Pythagoras theorem to this triangle gives the identity:
sin2 ( ) + cos2 ( ) = 1

sin ()

cos ( )

the tangent
Consider the unit circle on the right.
A tangent is drawn at A and extended to the point C, so that OC
is an extension of OP. This tangent is called tangent ( ), which is
abbreviated to tan ( ).
Triangles ODP and OAC are similar, because they have their
three corresponding angles equal.
tan ( )
sin ( )
It follows that:
=
(corresponding sides)
1
cos ( )
or tan ( ) =

sin ( )
cos ( )

y
1

B
P( ) C
1

sin ( )

cos ( )

D 1A

tan ( )
x

(as mentioned in an earlier section).

Chapter 6 Circular functions

269

another relationship between sine and cosine


complementary functions
Consider the unit circle shown on the right.
The triangles OAB and ODC are congruent because they have all
corresponding angles equal and their hypotenuses equal (radius = 1).
Therefore all corresponding sides are equal and it follows that:
sin (90 ) = cos ( ) = x
and cos (90 ) = sin ( ) = y
or
1

sin
= cos ( )
2

and

y
1
D
x

cos = sin ( )
2

C(90 )
1

B( )
y
A1

We say that sine and cosine are complementary functions.


Though not required for this course, you may like to try to find the complementary function for
tangent, that is, tan (90 ) = ?
WorkeD exaMple 11

If sin () = 0.4 and 0 < < 90, find, correct to 3 decimal places:
a cos ()
b tan ().
think

Write

a 1 Use the identity sin2 ( ) + cos2 ( ) = 1.


2

Substitute 0.4 for sin ( ).

Solve the equation for cos () correct to 3 decimal


places.

Retain the positive answer only as cosine is positive in


the first quadrant.

b 1 Use the identity tan ( ) =

a sin2 ( ) + cos2 ( ) = 1

(0.4)2 + cos2 ( ) = 1

sin ( )
.
cos ( )

Substitute 0.4 for sin ( ) and 0.917 for cos ( ).

Calculate the solution correct to 3 decimal places.

cos2 ( ) = 1 0.16
= 0.84
cos ( ) = 0.84
= 0.917 or 0.917
For 0 < < 90, cos is positive
so cos ( ) = 0.917.
b tan ( ) =

sin ( )
cos ( )

0.4
0.917
= 0.436
=

WorkeD exaMple 12

Find all possible values of sin () if cos () = 0.75.


think

270

Use the identity sin2 ( ) + cos2 ( ) = 1.

Substitute 0.75 for cos ( ).

Solve the equation for sin ( ) correct to 3 decimal places.

Retain both the positive and negative solutions, since the


angle could be in either the first or fourth quadrants.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Write

sin2 ( ) + cos2 ( ) = 1
sin2 ( ) + (0.75)2 = 1
sin2 ( ) = 1 0.5625
= 0.4375
sin ( ) = 0.4375
= 0.661 or 0.661

WorkeD exaMple 13

Find a if 0 < a < 90 and

a sin (a) = cos (42)

think

Write

a sin (a ) = cos (42 )

a 1 Write the equation.


2

Replace cos (42 ) with sin (90 42 )


(complementary functions).

sin (a ) = sin (90 42 )


sin (a ) = sin (48 )
a = 48
b cos (a ) = sin (73 )

b 1 Write the equation.


2

b cos (a) = sin (73).

Replace sin (73 ) with cos (90 73 ).

cos (a ) = cos (90 73 )


cos (a ) = cos (17 )
a = 17

WorkeD exaMple 14
2

If 0 < a < 90 and cos (a) = 3 , find the exact values of:
a sin (a)
b tan (a)
c cos (90 a)
d sin (180 + a).
think

tUtorial
eles-1422
Worked example 14

Write/DraW

Draw a right-angled triangle.

Mark in angle a, its adjacent side (A = 2) and


the hypotenuse (H = 3).

a
H=3

A=2

O= 5
3

Use Pythagoras theorem to calculate the


opposite side (O) to a.

a 1 Use the right-angled triangle to find

Substitute O = 5 and H = 3.

b 1 Use the right-angled triangle to find

O
.
H

O
.
A

Substitute O = 5 and A = 2.

c 1 Use the identity cos (90 a ) = sin (a ).


2

Substitute sin (a ) =

5
.
3

d 1 Use the symmetry property

sin (180 + a ) =

sin

Substitute sin (a) =

(a ).

5
.
3

O2 = 32 22
=5
O= 5
a sin (a) =

O
H

5
3

b tan (a) =

O
A

5
2

c cos (90 a ) = sin (a )

5
3

d sin (180 + a ) = sin (a )

5
3

(Note: The above results could have been obtained using the identities directly.)

Chapter 6 Circular functions

271

exercise 6e

identities

1 Copy and complete the table below, correct to 3 decimal places:

30

81

129

193

260

47

350

sin2 ( )
cos2 ( )
sin2 ( ) + cos2 ( )
2 We11a If sin ( ) = 0.8 and 0 < < 90, find, correct to 3 decimal places:
a cos ( )
b tan ( ).
3 We11b If cos ( ) = 0.3 and 0 < < 90, find, correct to 3 decimal places:
a sin ( )
b tan ( ).
4 We12 Find all possible values of the following, correct to 3 decimal places.
a cos (x ) if sin (x ) = 0.4
b cos (x ) if sin (x ) = 0.7
c sin (x ) if cos (x ) = 0.24
d sin (x ) if cos (x ) = 0.9
5

Use the diagram at right to find the exact values of:

b sin (x )

a c
c cos (x ).

Use the diagram at right to find the exact values of:


a b
b cos (x)
c tan (x).

Find the exact values of:


12
a cos (x) if sin (x) = 13 and 90 < x < 180
b sin (x) if cos (x) =
c cos (x) if sin (x) =

2 7
x

and x is in the third quadrant

5
7
25

9 We13
Find a if 0 a 90 and:
a sin (a ) = cos (20 )
b sin (a ) = cos (58 )
d cos (a ) = sin (82 )
e sin (8 ) = cos (a )
g sin (89 ) = cos (a )
h cos (17 ) = sin (a ).

36

c
54
b

c cos (a ) = sin (39 )


f cos (44 ) = sin (a )

Copy and complete the following table.


sin ( )

0.8

0.28

cos ( )

0.6

0.96

tan ( )

272

bc

and x is in the fourth quadrant


3
3
< x < 2 .
d sin (x) if cos (x) = 2 and
2
8 MC
Examine the diagram at right and answer the following questions.
a sin (54 ) is equal to:
a cos (54 )
B cos (36 )
C tan (36 )
D sin (36 )
e tan (54 )
b cos (54 ) is equal to:
a tan (36 )
B cos (36 )
C tan (54 )
D sin (36 )
e sin (54 )
c tan (36 ) is equal to:
cos (36 )
sin (36 )
a
B sin (36 ) cos (36 )
C

sin (36 )
cos (36 )
D sin (54 ) cos (54 )
e sin (36 ) + cos (36 )
d tan (54 ) is equal to:
cos (36 )
cos (54 )
a
B sin (54) cos (54 )
C

sin (36 )
sin (54 )
D sin (54 ) cos (54 )
e sin (36 ) cos (36 )

10

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

0.77
0.3
3.18

0.573
0.447

1.207

0.7

11 We14
a
d
g
j

If 0 < a, b, c < 90 and sin (a ) =

sin (b )
tan (a )
sin (90 a )
sin (180 a )

b
e
h
k

2
,
5

cos (b ) = 5 , tan (c ) =

tan (b )
sin (c )
cos (90 b )
cos (180 + b )

6F Sine and cosine


the graph of y = sin (x)

11
,
5

c
f
i
l

find:

cos (a )
cos (c )
sin (90 c )
tan (180 + c ).

graphs

To get an idea of the shape of the y = sin (x) graph, we can construct a table of values, plot the points and
join them with a smooth line.
The values for the table can be generated from the unit circle. You may recall that continuing
on the unit circle past 2, the sine values begin repeating themselves. For example,
9

sin = sin 2 + = sin . We have gone exactly once around the circle from .

4
4
4
4
x
y = sin (x)

3
4

5
4

3
2

7
4

0.71

0.71

0.71

0.71

0.71

0.71

interaCtiVitY
int-0251
Sine and cosine graphs

y
( 2 , 1)

1
0.71
(, 0)

( 4 ,

(0, 0)
0

2 4

( 34 , 0.71)
( 2 , 1)

0.71)

y = sin (x)

( 3
, 0.71)
4

(2, 0)

( , 0)

( 5
, 0.71)
4

0.71

( 74 , 0.71)
( 32 , 1)

You can verify the shape of this curve using a CAS calculator. It can be observed that the curve repeats
itself in cycles after an interval of 2 units. Due to this repetition it is called a periodic function; the
period is the interval between repetitions. The
y
period of y = sin (x) is 2 radians (or 360).
When dealing with graphs of circular functions
Period
such as sin (x), unless otherwise stated, we
assume that the units for x are radians.
Amplitude
The mean position of the graph of y = sin (x) is
y = 0 and the maximum and minimum values are
x
1 and 1 respectively. The distance from the mean
Mean
position to the maximum (or minimum) position
position
is called the amplitude of the periodic function.
Period
The amplitude of y = sin ( x) is 1 unit.

the graph of y = cos (x)


As for the graph of y = sin (x), the graph of y = cos (x) can be established by first completing a table
of values.
x

3
4

3
4

5
4

3
2

7
4

y = cos (x)

0.71

0.71

0.71

0.71

0.71

0.71

Chapter 6 Circular functions

273

When these points are plotted on a set of


axes and joined with a smooth curve, the
graph looks like the diagram at right.
It can be seen that the basic shape of
the curve y = cos (x) is the same as that
of y = sin (x). It is also a periodic function
with:
period = 2
amplitude = 1.

y
y = cos (x)
(4 , 0.71)

1 (0, 1)
(4 , 0.71)

( 2 , 0)

( 2 , 0)

( 34, 0.71)

( , 1)

2 4

0.71 3
1 ( 4 , 0.71)

(2 , 1)

(74 , 0.71)

0.71)

( 32 , 0)
3

( 54 , 0.71)

( , 1)

Note: The graph of y = cos (x) is exactly the same as that of y = sin (x) translated units or 90 to
2
the left.
In general, the graphs of y = a sin (bx) + c and y = a cos (bx) + c (for a, b, c R) have the following
properties:
1. Amplitude = | a |
2
360
2. Period =
(or
)
b
b
3. Mean position at y = c
4. Maximum = c + a and minimum = c a

1
5. When c = 0, x-intercepts for cosine are at x =
and every 2 period to the left and right of these;
2
b

1
x-intercepts for sine are at x = and every 2 period to the left and right of these.
b
Note: | a | means the size or magnitude of a, expressed as a positive number, as the amplitude must
always be positive.
If a < 0, then the resulting graph is a reflection in the x-axis of the graph for which a > 0. For example,
the graph of y = 2 sin (x) is the reflection of y = 2 sin (x) in the x-axis (think of the x-axis as a plane or
flat mirror).
WorkeD exaMple 15

State i the period and ii the amplitude of each of the following functions.
a y
b y = 1.5 sin (4 x)
4

4
think

a 1 The cycle repeats after 3 units.


2

The distance from the mean position to the


maximum position is 4 units.

b 1 Write the formula for the period of y = a sin (bx).

274

Write

a i Period = 3
ii Amplitude = 4

b i Period =

2
where b = 4
b

Substitute b = 4.

2
4

Simplify.

By rule, the amplitude is | a | or | 1.5 |.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

ii Amplitude = | 1.5 |

= 1.5

WorkeD exaMple 16

Sketch the graphs of the following functions and state i the period and
ii the amplitude of each.
2
x x [0, 12]
a y = 4 cos
b y = sin (4 x) x [0, 2]
3
3
think

tUtorial
eles-1607
Worked example 16

Write/DraW

a 1 Write the formula for the period.

a i Period =

2
b
2

Substitute b = 3 .

Simplify the value of the period.

= 6

The amplitude is the value in front of cos,


written as a positive value.

Draw a set of axes.

Because the amplitude is 4, mark or


imagine horizontal guidelines at y = 4
and 4.

Sketch one cycle of the graph every


period (every 6) along the x-axis, for
x [0, 12], showing key x-values.

1
3

ii Amplitude = 4

y
4
0

6 152 9

21

12 x

b 1 Write the formula for the period.

b i Period =

2
b

Substitute b = 4.

2
4

Simplify the value of the period.

The amplitude is the value in front of sin,


written as a positive value.

Draw a set of axes.

Because the amplitude is 3 , mark


or imagine horizontal guidelines at
2
2
y = 3 and 3 .

ii Amplitude =

y
2
3

0
23

Sketch one cycle of the graph every


period (every 2 ) along the x-axis, for
x [0, 2].

Determine the x-intercepts and mark


these on the graph.

2
3

2 x

Chapter 6 Circular functions

275

WorkeD exaMple 17

Sketch the graph of y = cos (2x) 3, x [0, 2], and state:


a the pe
riod
b the amplitude
c the maximum and minimum values.
think

Write/DiSplaY

a 1 Write the formula for the period.

a Period =

2
b
2
2

Substitute b = 2.

Simplify the value of the period.

b 1 The amplitude is the value in front of cos,

written as a positive value.


2

Sketch the graph of y = cos (2x) first. Since


the amplitude is 1, mark or imagine horizontal
guidelines at y = +1 and y = 1.
Sketch one cycle of the graph every period
(every ) along the x-axis, for x [0, 2].

y
1
0

3.

y=
The maximum and minimum are at
c + a and c a.

2 x

Because the mean position is now at y = 3,


translate y = cos (2x) vertically to this position.

c Maximum = 3 + 1

= 2
Minimum = 3 1
= 4
y
1
0
1
2
3
4
5

WorkeD exaMple 18

Sketch the graph of the following function.

f: [2, 4] R, f (x) = 2 cos x


2
think

276

Determine the x-intercepts and mark these on


the graph.

c 1 The mean position of y = cos (2x) 3 is at

b Amplitude = 1

Write/DraW

, where b = .
2
b

The period of the function is

Simplify the value of the period.

The amplitude is 2.

Draw a set of axes.

Using an interval of 4 (the period), mark the


x-axis from 2 to 4 (the specified domain).

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Period =

=4
Amplitude = 2

2 x

10

Show 2 and 2 on the y-axis, since the amplitude


is 2.

x
y = 2 cos
2
(4, 2)

( )

y
2

Visualise or check the general shape of the graph


of y = a cos (bx).

Starting from the point (0, 2), complete one


cycle of the cosine function forward to (4, 2).

(2, 2)

Complete half of a cycle back from (0, 2) to


(2, 2).
The x-intercepts are halfway between the
maximum and minimum points.

Sine and cosine graphs

exercise 6F

State i the period and ii the amplitude for each of the following functions.

1 We15a
a
y

2
0

1.5

y
3
3

2
h

y
2.5
0

2.5

DiGital DoCS
doc-9762
Sine graphs
doc-9763
Cosine graphs

3 x

4
g

y
2

y
4

y
1.5

2
d

y
0.5

8
6

4
2

0.5
2

2 We15b
State i the period and ii the amplitude of each of the following functions.
a y = sin (x)
b y = 3 sin (x)
c y = 2 sin (2x)
d y = 4 sin (3x)
g y = 0.4 cos

x +1
3

y = sin (6x) + 4

e y=

1
2

x
sin
3

h y = 3 cos (5x)

k y=

1
5

sin ( x )

f
i

y = 2 cos (4x)

x
y = 2.5 cos
4
x
cos
2
y=
4

Sketch the graph of the following functions, showing one complete cycle, and state i the
period and ii the amplitude of each.
x
a y = sin (2x)
b y = 2 cos (x)
c y = 3 sin
2

3 We16

d y = 4 cos (2x)

e y = 2 sin (3x)

x
g y = 5 sin

h y = 4 cos

3
j y = 3 sin (2x)

x
2

2
3

x
cos
2

y=

y = 2 cos (4x)

Chapter 6 Circular functions

277

4 MC Parts a to c refer to the graph shown below.


y
3

3
a The amplitude of the function is:

B 3

D 3

e 6

D 6

e 3

b The period of the function is:

C
2
c The equation of the function could be:
a y = 3 sin (2x)
B y = 3 sin (x)
x
D y = 3 sin (2x)
e y = 3 sin
2
a 2

C y = 3 cos (2x)

5 MC The equation of the curve at right could be:

x
2
x
D y = cos
2

a y = 2 cos (x)

B y = 2 sin

C y = 2 cos (x)
e

x
y = 2 cos
2

State the equation of each of the functions graphed below.

1.5

2
3 x

0
1.5

2
y

4 x

1
0

5
e

y
4

3
2

x

6

278

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

7 We17 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions.


b f (x) = 3 cos x for x [4, 4]

a f (x) = cos (2x) for x [2, 2]


c f (x) = 2 sin (3x) for x [0, 2]

d f (x) =

e f (x) = 1.5 sin x for x [6, 6]


3

2
cos (2x) for x [0, 2]

f (x) = 4 sin (4x) for x [0, ]

8 We17 Sketch the graph of the following functions and state i the period, ii the amplitude, and iii the

maximum and minimum values of each.


a y = cos (2x) + 1
x [0, 2]
x
c y = 2 cos + 3
x [0, 2]
2

b y = 2 sin (x) 2

x [2, 2]

x
d y = sin 1

x [0, 6]

9 We18 Sketch the graphs of each of the following functions.


a f : [, 2] R, f (x) =

3
2

2x
sin
3

b f : [ 6, 6] R, f (x) = 1.8 cos

x
3

3 x
d f : [0, 8] R, f (x) = 3 cos

c f : [0, 6] R, f (x) = 1.4 sin x

10 For each of the functions graphed below, state the rule using full function notation.
a

y
3

y
f(x)

5
2

f(x)
0

5 x

5
2

1.8
f(x)
0

f(x)

f(x)

f(x)
x

13 0

y
0

2.4

2.4

1.8

3
2

2 10
2
3
4

2 x
DiGital DoC
doc-9764
WorkSHEET 6.2

Chapter 6 Circular functions

279

6G tangent graphs
the graph of y = tan (x)
To manually plot the graph of y = tan (x), the following table of values may be used.
x
y = tan (x)

3
4

5
4

3
2

7
4

Undefined

Undefined

Undefined

Note: Multiples of 8 could be used to give more points to plot and a clearer indication of the shape of
the graph.
sin ( x )
Note the presence of some undefined y-values. This is because y =
and cos (x) = 0 at these
cos
(x)
values.
These undefined values are shown as vertical asymptotes at the given value of x for which they occur.
(An asymptote is a line that a graph approaches, but never quite reaches. In the case of y = tan (x), y
approaches (but never actually reaches) and + for particular x-values.)
The graph of y = tan (x) is shown in the figure below.
Vertical asymptotes
y
y = tan (x)
5
3
(
, 1)
( 4 , 1) ( 4, 1)
4
1
( , 0)
(, 0)
(0, 0)
0


2 4
4 2
1
( 34, 1)

(2 , 0)
2
1)

3
2

( 74,

The features of the graph of y = tan (x) are as follows:


3
1. It has vertical asymptotes through x =
, ,
,
2 2 2
2. It has no amplitude.

3. It has a period of .
4. It has a range of R (the set of all real numbers).
In general, the graph of y = a tan (bx) + c has the following properties.
y

2b

2b

2b

3
2b

1. No amplitude

2. Period = .
b

3. When c = 0, the graph has x-intercepts at x = and every period to the left and right of these.
b

4. It has asymptotes at x =
and x =
and every period to the left and right of these.
2b
2b
(2n + 1)
5. The following formula for asymptotes applies: xasymptote =
, where n = 0, 1, 2, . . .
2b
6. Mean position at y = c. The graph is translated vertically to c.
280

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

WorkeD exaMple 19

For each function below, state i the period and ii the equation of the two asymptotes closest to the
y-axis.
1
x + 3
a y = 2 tan (4 x)
b y = 3 tan
2
think

Write

a 1 Write the formula for the period.

a i Period =

Substitute b = 4.

Write the formula to find the two closest


asymptotes to the y-axis.

Substitute b = 4.

x=

24

Simplify.

x=

b 1 Write the formula for the period.

ii Asymptotes: x =

b i Period =

1
.
2

Substitute b =

Simplify.

Write the formula to find the two closest


asymptotes to the y-axis.

Substitute b =

Simplify.

2b

1
2

= 2

1
.
2

ii Asymptotes: x =

x=

2b

1
2 2

x=

WorkeD exaMple 20

x
over [2, 4] without a
Sketch the graph of the function y = 3 tan
2
CAS calculator.
think

tUtorial
eles-1423
Worked example 20

Write

.
2

2
=2

Find the period using b =

Find the two asymptotes closest to the y-axis

by substituting b = into x = .
2
2b

Asymptotes: x =

State the other asymptotes by adding/subtracting


the period, 2 units, to/from the first asymptotes,
x = 1.

Other asymptotes are: x = 1 2, x = 1 + 2,


x = 1 + 2 + 2 etc.

Period =

= 1

Chapter 6 Circular functions

281

State all asymptotes in the domain [2, 4].

Evaluate y when x = 2 and x = 2 to


establish two definite points on the graph.

Draw a set of axes using x [2, 4].

1
When x = 2 , y = 3 tan
4
=31
=3

When x = 2 , y = 3 tan
4
= 3 1
= 3

x
y = 3 tan
2

( )

Mark in the vertical asymptotes at x = 1,


x = 1, x = 3.

Using the asymptotes as a guide, sketch the


standard tan curve.

2 1 2

1
2

Verify that this graph is correct by using a


CAS calculator.

tangent graphs

exercise 6G
DiGital DoC
doc-9765
tangent graphs

All asymptotes in the domain [2, 4] are: x = 1,


x = 1, x = 3.

State i the period and ii the equation of the two asymptotes closest to the y-axis for each of
the following.
x
x
a y = tan (2x)
b y = tan (3x)
c y = tan
d y = tan
3
2
x
x
e y = 3 tan (x)
f y = 2 tan
g y = tan
h y = 2 tan (2x)
4
2
i y = tan (x) 1
j y = tan (2x) 3

1 We19

2 Sketch the graph of each function in question 1, showing the first two cycles.
3 We20

The function y = 3 tan (4x) has a period equal to:

B
C
D
4
2

MC

a 4

4 MC
Use the graph to answer questions a and b.
a The period of the function is equal to:

C
2
e 3
b The equation of the function is:
a

a y = 1.5 tan (x)


C y = 1.5 tan (2x)
e y = 3 tan (x)

B
D 2

1.5
0

x
2
D y = 1.5 tan (3x)

e 2

B y = 1.5 tan

5 We20 Sketch the graphs of each of the following functions over the given domain.
a y = 3 tan
DiGital DoC
doc-9766
Investigation
tangent graphs

282

x , [0, 2]
2
2 x , [0, 5]

d y = 1.8 tan

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

b y = tan

x , [0, 3]
3

e y = 2 tan ( x), [1, 1]

c y = 2 tan

x , [0, 2]
3

6h

Solving trigonometric equations

To find the solution to the equation sin ( x ) =

where x [0, 4], we can consider the graph of y = sin (x).

y
1
1
2

3
2

5
2

7
2

y = 8 sin ( )

1
1

By drawing a horizontal line through y = , it can be seen that there are four solutions in the domain
2
[0, 4].

The solution for 0 < x < , that is, in the first quadrant, is (from our knowledge of exact values).
2
4
Note: For inexact solutions in the first quadrant, use a calculator.
The sine function is also positive in the second quadrant.
y
3
Using sine symmetry, the next solution is =
4
4
(different symmetry properties are used for cosine and
sin ( 4 )
sin ( 4 )
S
A
tangent). Since the graph is periodic, any further solutions are

4
found by adding (or subtracting) the period (in this case 2) to
x
(or from) each of the first two solutions.
T
C
For example, two further solutions are:
3

+ 2 and
+ 2
4
4
9
11
=
and
4
4
3 9
11
Therefore, four solutions in the specified domain are ,
,
and
.
4 4 4
4
However, if a domain is not specified, there are an infinite number of solutions, as multiples of 2

3
can be added (or subtracted) indefinitely to (or from) and
. In this situation a general solution is
4
4
obtained where the solutions are in terms of a parameter, n, where n is an integer, i.e. n Z.

The general solution for the first quadrant solution x = becomes x = 2n + where n Z.
4
4
3
3
becomes x = 2n +
The general solution for the second quadrant solution x =
where n Z.
4
4

3
Note that the general solution x = 2n +
can be expressed as x = 2n + = (2n + 1) .
4
4
4
Substituting different integer values of n will give specific solutions as shown in the table below.

x = 2n +

, n Z
4

x = 2n +

3
, n Z
4

x = 2 +

7
=
4
4

x = 2 +

3 5
=
4
4

x = 0+

x = 2 +

x = 4 +


=
4 4
9
=
4
4

17
=
and so on
4
4

x = 0+

3 3
=
4
4

x = 2 +

3 11
=
4
4

x = 4 +

3 19
=
and so on
4
4

Chapter 6 Circular functions

283

In general, if:

sin (x) = a, then x = 2n + sin 1 (a) and x = (2n + 1) sin 1 (a) where a [1, 1] and n Z.
1

cos (x) = a, then x = 2n cos (a) where a [ 1, 1] and n Z

tan (x) = a, then x = n + tan 1 (a) where a R and n Z.


When solving trigonometric equations, the following need to be determined:
1. The first quadrant angle, irrespective of the sign
2. The two quadrants in which the given function is positive or negative
3. Two solutions between x = 0 and x = 2 (use the appropriate sine, cosine or tangent symmetry property).
If more solutions are required:
1. Repeatedly add (or subtract) the period to the two solutions as many times as required, noting
solutions after each addition or subtraction.
2. Stop when all solutions within the specified domain are found.
3. If no domain is given, a general solution is required.
WorkeD exaMple 21

Find to the nearest tenth of a degree if cos ( ) = 0.58, given that [0, 360].
think

Write/DraW

Write the equation.

cos ( ) = 0.58

Find the first quadrant angle by solving


cos ( ) = 0.58 to the nearest tenth of a degree.

First quadrant angle = cos1 (0.58)


= 54.5

Identify where the cosine function is negative.

Cosine is negative in quadrants 2 and 3.

Use cosine symmetry to find the solutions.

(1

80

.5

54
54.5
0.58 + 0.58

180

(1

80

54

.5

(0.58)

Simplify the solutions.

Since the period is 360, no further solutions are


required for [0, 360].

= (180 54.5) or (180 + 54.5)


= 125.5 or 234.5

WorkeD exaMple 22

Find the value of x in each of the following equations if x [0, 4].


Give answers correct to 3 decimal places, unless exact answers may be found.
a sin (x) = 0.3
1
b cos ( x) = 2
think

a 1 Write the equation.

284

Write

a sin (x) = 0.3

x [0, 4]

Use a CAS calculator to find the first


quadrant angle (since no exact answer exists).
Ensure your CAS calculator is set to radians.

First quadrant angle = sin1 (0.3)


= 0.305

Identify where sine is positive.

Sine is positive in quadrants 1 and 2.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Use sine symmetry to find the two solutions


for x [0, 2].
2.83

.305
0.3
x

7c

0.3

For x [0, 2]
x = 0.305 or ( 0.305)
= 0.305 or 2.837
5

Convert the specified domain to a decimal.

[0, 4] = [0, 12.566]

The period of y = sin (x) is 2, so add


2 (= 6.283) to each of the solutions above.

For x [0, 4]
x = 0.305, 2.837, (0.305 + 6.283),
(2.837 + 6.283)

Adding 2 (= 6.283) to the last two solutions


would give solutions beyond the specified
domain, so stop here.

x = 0.305, 2.837, 6.588, 9.120

b 1 Write the equation.

b cos( x ) =

x [0, 4]

1 1

2

Recall a special triangle to find the first


quadrant angle. Note: This is not a solution in
this case.

First quadratic angle = cos

Identify where cosine is negative.

Cosine is negative in quadrants 2 and 3.

Use cosine symmetry to find the two solutions


for x [0, 2].

3
1

For x [0, 2]

x = or +
3
3
2
4
=
or
3
3
5

The period of y = cos (x) is 2, so add 2 to


each of the solutions above for x [0, 4].

Adding 2 (=

6
) to the last two solutions
3
would give solutions beyond the specified
12
domain (4 or
), so stop here.
3

For x [0, 4]
2 4 2
4
x=
+ 2 ,
+ 2
,
,
3 3 3
3
2 4 2 6 4 6
=
+
+
,
,
,
3 3 3
3 3
3
x=

2 4 8 10
,
, ,
3 3 3 3

Chapter 6 Circular functions

285

WorkeD exaMple 23

Find solutions to 2 sin (x) = 0.984 over the domain [0, 2].
think

Write/DraW

2 sin (x) =

x [0, 2]

Write the equation.

Divide both sides by 2 to get sin (x) by itself.

Determine the first quadrant angle in radians,


correct to 3 decimal places.

First quadrant angle = sin1 (0.492)


= 0.514

Identify where the sine is positive.

Sine is positive in quadrants 1 and 2.

Use sine symmetry to find the solutions.

0.984

sin (x) = 0.492

0.51

4) c
0.492

0.492
x
0.514c

x = 0.514 or ( 0.514)
6

Simplify the solutions.

Since the period is 2, no further solutions


are required over the domain [0, 2].

= 0.514 or 2.628

Note: Any equation not in the form sin (A) = B (or cos or tan) should be transposed before the solutions
are found.

WorkeD exaMple 24

Find the general solution of the following equations.


1
a cos ( x) =
b 2 sin (x) 1 = 0
c tan ( x) = 3
2
Hence, find all the solutions for 2 x 2 for each equation.
think

a 1 Write the general solution for

cos (x) = a.

286

tUtorial
eles-1424
Worked example 24

Write
1

a x = 2n cos

(a)

Substitute a =

1
into the general equation
2
1
, recognising that it
and evaluate cos 1
2
is an exact angle.

1
x = 2n cos 1
2

x = 2n
4

Write the two separate solutions and


specify n Z.

x = 2n +

Substitute n = 1, n = 0 and n = 1 into each


of the general solutions.

n = 1: x =

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

and x = 2n , n Z
4
4
9

and x =

7
4

n = 0: x =
and x =
4
4
7
9
n = 1: x = 2 =
and x = 2 + =
4
4
4
4

Write the solutions for 2 x 2.

b 1 Rearrange the equation and substitute

1
a = 2 into the general equations. Evaluate
1
sin 1 ( 2 ), recognising that it is an exact angle.

x=

7 7
, , ,
4 4 4 4
1
2

b sin ( x ) =

x = 2n + sin
x = 2n

Specify n Z.

(a) and x = (2n + 1) sin

1
+ sin 1 ( 2 )

and x = (2n + 1)

(a)

1
sin 1 ( 2 )

and x = (2n + 1) or
6
6
5
x = 2n +
, where n Z
6
x = 2n +

Substitute n = 1 and n = 0 into each of the


general solutions.

n = 1: x = 2 +

11
=
and
6
6

7
=
6
6

5
n = 0: x = and x = =
6
6
6
x =

Write the solutions for 2 x 2.

c 1 Write the general solution for tan x = a.

x=

11 7 5
,
, ,
6
6 6 6

c x = n + tan

(a)

x = n + tan = ( 3)

x = n + , n Z
3
1

n = 2 : x = 2 +

Substitute n = 2, n = 1, n = 0 and n = 1 into


each of the general solutions.

n = 1: x = +
=
n = 0: x =

Write the solutions for 2 x 2.

2 4
, ,
3 3 3

Solving trigonometric equations

exercise 6h
1

x=

4
3

2
3

n = 1: x = +
=

Find the exact value of x in terms of in each of the following equations, given that x is in the first
quadrant.
a cos ( x ) =

1
2

b sin ( x ) =

c tan ( x ) =

d cos ( x ) =

3
2

sin ( x ) =

3
2

e tan (x) = 1

1
2

DiGital DoC
doc-9767
trigonometric
equations

Chapter 6 Circular functions

287

2 We21 Find the value of to the nearest tenth of a degree in each of the following equations, given

that [0, 360].

b cos () = 0.25
e cos () = 0.195
h cos () = 0.757

a sin () = 0.6
d sin () = 0.85
g sin () = 0.333

c tan () = 5.72
f tan () = 0.837

3 We22 Find the value of x in each of the following equations if x [0, 4]. Give answers correct to

3 decimal places, unless exact answers are found.


a sin (x) = 0.8
b cos (x) = 0.5
d tan ( x ) =

e sin (x) =

c tan (x) = 1.5

0.39

cos ( x ) =

2
2

2
2

and 0 < x < 360, then x is equal to:


a 150 or 210
B 135 or 225
C 225
D 135 or 315
e 120

b If 3 tan (x) = 1 and 0 < x < , then x is equal to:


2

a
B
C
D
e
6
2
3
4
5
5 We23 Find solutions, exact where possible, to the following over the domain [0, 2].
a 2 sin (x) = 0.586
b 2 cos (x) = 1
c 2 tan ( x ) = 2 3
d 2 sin (x) + 0.893 = 0
3 tan ( x ) + 1 = 0
e 1.8 cos (x) + 1.236 = 0
f
4 MC a If sin ( x ) = cos ( x ) =

The solution to the equation 2 cos (x) + 1 = 0 over the domain [0, 2] is:
5 7
2 4
2
5
a
B
C
D
,
,
,
,
6 6
3 3
3 3
6 6

6 MC

4 5
,
3 3

7 Solve each of the following, to the nearest tenth of a degree, over the domain [0, 360].
a 4 sin (x) = 1
b 3 cos (x) = 2
c 2 tan (x) 7 = 0
d 4 + sin (x) = 3
e 1 + 2 cos (x) =

3 tan (x) + 9 = 0

8 Solve the following equations over [0, 360].


a sin (x + 30) = 1
c tan (x + 45) = 1

b cos (x 60) = 0
d 2 sin (x 60) = 1

2 cos (x + 90) + 1 = 0
x =1
g 2 cos
2

3 tan (2 x ) = 1


k tan (2 ( x 30) ) =
9 We24

sin (2x) = 0
x
h 2 sin = 2
2
2
cos
(3 x ) = 1
j
l

sin

1
2

( x 40)  = 0.6

Find the general solution of the following equations.

a 2 cos ( x ) 3 = 0

1
3
2 sin ( x ) 1 = 0 .

b tan ( x ) =
c

Hence, find all solutions for 2 x 2 for each equation.


10 Find the general solution of the equation 2 sin (2x) 1 = 0. Hence, find all solutions for x .
11 Find the general solution of the equation 2 cos (3x) 1 = 0. Hence, find all solutions for x .

6i

applications

Many situations arise in science and nature where relationships between two variables exhibit periodic
behaviour. Tide heights, sound waves, biorhythms and ovulation cycles are examples.
In these situations trigonometric functions can be used to model the behaviour of the variables. The
independent variable (x) is often a measurement such as time.
When modelling with trigonometric functions you should work in radians unless otherwise instructed.
288

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

WorkeD exaMple 25

E. coli is a type of bacterium. Its concentration,


P parts per million (ppm), at a particular beach
over a 12-hour period t hours after 6 am is
described by the function
t
P = 0.05 sin + 0.1.
12
a Find i the maximum and ii the minimum
E. coli levels at this beach.
b What is the level at 3 pm?
c How long is the level above 0.125 ppm
during the first 12 hours after 6 pm?

tUtorial
eles-1425
Worked example 25

think

a Write the function.

Write/DraW

a P = 0.05sin

i 1 The maximum value of the sine function

t + 0.1
12

i The maximum P occurs when sin

is 1.
2

t
Substitute sin = 1 into the equation
12
for P and evaluate.

Max. P = 0.05(1) + 0.1


= 0.15

State the solution.

The maximum E. coli level is 0.15 ppm.

ii 1 The minimum value of the sine function

ii The minimum P occurs when sin

is 1.

t = 1.
12

t = 1.
12

t
Substitute sin = 1 into the equation
12
for P and evaluate.

Min. P = 0.05(1) + 0.1


= 0.05

State the solution.

The minimum E. coli level is 0.05 ppm.

At 3 pm it is 9 hours since 6 am.

Substitute t = 9 into the equation for P and


evaluate.

At 3 pm, t = 9.
9
When t = 9, P = 0.05 sin + 0.1
12
3
= 0.05 sin + 0.1
4
1
+ 0.1
2
= 0.035 + 0.1
= 0.135
= 0.05

State the solution.

The E. coli level at 3 pm is approximately


0.135 ppm.

A sketch graph will give a better


understanding of this question.

State the amplitude.

Amplitude = 0.05

Calculate the period.

Period = 2

12
Period = 24

Chapter 6 Circular functions

289

t
The basic graph is P = 0.05 sin .
12

Identify the basic graph.

State the translations needed.

Sketch the graph of P.

Draw a horizontal line through P = 0.125.

No horizontal translation is needed; the vertical


translation is 0.1 units up.
P (parts per million)
0.150
0.125
0.100
0.050
0

12 t (hours)

Identify where P > 0.125 from the graph.

The graph shows that P > 0.125 between the


first two points where P = 0.125.

Solve the equation P = 0.125 to find the


first two values of t.

When P = 0.125,
t
0.05 sin + 0.1 = 0.125
12
t
0.05 sin = 0.025
12
t
sin = 0.5
12
t

= or
12 6
6
5
= or
6
6
t
1
5
= or
12 6
6
t = 2 or 10

10

Find the difference between the solutions


t = 2 and t = 10.

P > 0.125, for 10 2 = 8 hours

11

State the solution.

The E. coli level is above 0.125 parts per


million for 8 hours.

exercise 6i

applications

1 The weight of a rabbit over a period of time is modelled by the graph shown below.
W (kg)
4
3
2
1
0

a State i the amplitude and ii the period.


b Express W as a function of t.
290

10

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

t (days)

2 The graph below shows the heart rate of an athlete during a particular hour of a workout.
H (beats/min)
160
110
60
0

15

30

45

60

t (min)

a Find the initial heart rate.


b State i the amplitude and ii the period.
c Express H as a function of t.
3 We25 The height above the ground, h metres, of a child on a swing at any time, t seconds, after being

released is:

Find:

t
h = 1 + 0.6 cos
2

a the maximum height of the swing


b the height after
4
i 3 seconds and ii seconds
3
c the length of time that the swing is below 1.5 metres, travelling from one side to the other.

4 The temperature, T (C), inside a building on a given day is given by the function:

t
T = 8 sin + 18
12
where t is the number of hours after 8 am.
a What is the maximum temperature in the building and the time at which it first occurs?
b Find the temperature at i 8 pm, ii 6 pm and iii 12 am (midnight).
5 The displacement, x (in mm), of a harp string t seconds after it is initially plucked is modelled by the

function:
x (t) = 12 sin (20 t)
a
b
c
d

What is i the amplitude and ii the period of this function?


How many vibrations (that is, cycles) will it complete in one second?
Find the displacement after 0.08 seconds.
At what time will its displacement first be 6 mm?
Chapter 6 Circular functions

291

6 The height of a bungee jumper, h metres, above a pool of water at any time, t seconds, after jumping is

described by the function:


h (t) = 20 cos (0.8t) + 20
a What is the initial height of the bungee jumper?
b When, if at all, does the bungee jumper first touch the water?
c Assuming the cord is perfectly elastic, how long is it until the bungee jumper returns to the lowest

position?

7 A cyclist rides one lap of a circular track at a constant speed so that her distance, d metres, from her

starting point at any time, t seconds, after starting is:

t
d = 50 50 cos
30
Find:
a the time taken to complete one lap
b the radius of the track
c the maximum distance from the start
d the length of the track
e the distance from her starting point after i 15 seconds and ii 40 seconds
f the times at which she is 93.3 metres from her starting points.
8 The depth of water, d metres, at a port entrance is given by the function:

t
d (t ) = 4.5 + 1.5 sin
12
where t is in hours.
a Find i the maximum and ii the minimum depth at the port entrance.
b A certain ship needs the depth at the port entrance to be more than 5 metres. The ship can be
loaded and unloaded, and in and out of the port, in 9 hours. Assuming that the ship enters the port
just as the depth at the entrance passes 5 metres, will the ship be able to exit 9 hours later? How
long will it have to spare, or by how many minutes will it miss out?
9 The Australian dollars value (a) in US dollars was observed to follow the equation

a = 0.9 + 0.01t + 0.02 sin (0.5 t) over a period of 8 days (t represents the number of days).
Using a CAS calculator, sketch a graph of a for 0 t 8.
When will the Australian dollar first reach US$0.95?
At what other times will it be worth US$0.95?
Find all of the maximum turning points of the graph (to 3 decimal places).
What is the highest value reached?

a
b
c
d
e
292

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Summary
trigonometric ratio
revision

SOH CAH TOA


O
A
cos ( ) =
sin ( ) =
H
H

tan ( ) =

O
A

Angles of elevation and depression:

tio
leva
of e

gle
Horizontal

An

gle

An
the unit circle

sio

res

ep
of d

sin () = y
cos () = x

90
y
1st quadrant
P( )

2nd quadrant
S

cos ( )
C

, 180

sin ( )
x
0, 360, 2

3rd quadrant

4th quadrant
270
3

tan () = the height of the point where the angle line meets the tangent line (at the RHS of the unit
circle)

tan ( )

tan ( ) =
radians

y
x

c = 180
180
1c =

1 =
180

Chapter 6 Circular functions

293

For exact values use special triangles:

30
2
2

Angle ()
0

or 30
6

or 45
4

or 60
3

or 90
2

45

cos ()
1

1
2

3
2

1
2

2
2

1
2

3
2

1
2

60

sin ()
0

1
1

tan ()
0
1
3

2
2

3
3

1
3
Undefined

Symmetry

Relating a given angle back to the first quadrant of the unit circle is often helpful. Provided an
angle is expressed as or 2 , the trigonometric function (sin or cos) remains the same,
3 4 6 8
only the sign (+ or ) may change. So may be written as
etc.
,
,
,
3 4 6 8
sin ( + ) = sin ()
sin (2 ) = sin ()
sin ( ) = sin ()

cos ( ) = cos ()
cos ( + ) = cos ()
cos (2 ) = cos ()
tan ( ) = tan ()
tan ( + ) = tan ()
tan (2 ) = tan ()

identities

sin2 () + cos2 () = 1
sin ( )
tan ( ) =
cos ( )

sin (90 ) = cos ( ) or sin = cos ( )


2

cos (90 ) = sin ( ) or cos = sin ( )


2

Sine and cosine


graphs

Basic graph types:


1. y = a sin (bx) + c
y = a cos (bx) + c
2
2. Period =
, amplitude = | a |
b
y
a
0
a

294

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

y
y = a sin (bx)

y = a cos (bx)

x
= period

0
a

2b

2b

When sketching:
1. Recall the basic graph type.
2. Find the period and amplitude.
3. Sketch in sections of one period.
4. Find x-intercepts between other known intercepts or minimum and maximum points.
5. Translate the graph vertically by c.
tangent graphs

y = a tan (bx) + c

Period = , no amplitude
b

Asymptotes at x =
and every period to the
2b
left and right of these
The formula for asymptotes applies:
(2n + 1)
xasymptote =
,
2b
where n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

2b

2b

2b

3
2b

Solving trigonometric
equations

When solving trigonometric equations, the following need to be determined:


1. The first quadrant angle, irrespective of the sign
2. The two quadrants in which the given function is positive or negative
3. Two solutions between x = 0 and x = 2 (use the appropriate sine, cosine or tangent symmetry
property).
If more solutions are required:
1. Repeatedly add (or subtract) the period to the two solutions as many times as required, noting
solutions after each addition or subtraction.
2. Stop when all solutions within the specified domain are found.
3. If a general solution is required, the answer will be in tems of n, n Z.
In general, if:

sin (x) = a, then x = 2n + sin 1 (a) and x = (2n + 1) sin 1 (a) where a [1, 1] and n Z.
1
cos (x) = a, then x = 2n cos (a) where a [1, 1] and n Z

tan (x) = a, then x = n + tan 1 (a) where a R and n Z.

applications

To find the maximum value of a function, replace sin x or cos x with +1.
To find the minimum value of a function, replace sin x or cos x with 1.
Initial values occur at t = 0.
A sketch graph may provide greater understanding.

Chapter 6 Circular functions

295

Chapter review
S h ort
anS Wer

1 The angle of elevation from an observer to an aircraft when it is 4.5 km away is 30. How high is the

aircraft above the ground if the observers eye level is 1.75 m above the ground?

4.5 km

30
1.75 m
2 Find the exact values of:
a tan (120 )
3
4

3 If cos ( ) =
a sin ()

5 .
6

b cos (150 )

c sin

and 0 < < 2 , find the exact values of:


b tan ().

4 Convert the following angles to exact radians.


a 140
b 310

c 1

5 Convert the following radian measures to degrees.


a

2
5

b 1

6 If cos () = 0.69, find:


a sin (180 )

7
2

b cos (2 )
c tan ( + ).

7 If cos (x) =
and < x < , evaluate:
2
a sin (x)
b tan (x).
8 Sketch the graphs of the following functions.
x
a y = 4 sin over [2, 4]
b y = 1.5 cos (2x) over [, ]
2
9 Sketch the graph of:
1
x
a y = 2 tan (4x) for x [, ]
b y=
tan for x [0, 12].
6
2
1
10 Find all of the solutions to the equation sin ( x ) =
over the domain [0, 3].
2
11 Solve the equation 3 + 2 cos (x) = 0 over the domain [0, 360].
3
12 Find the general solution of the equation sin ( x ) =
. Hence find all solutions for 2 x 2.
2
13 If cos () = 0.40 and sin () = 0.92, find:
a tan ()
b cos (180 )
c sin ()
d cos (90 ).
14 With the aid of a diagram if necessary, find exact values for:

7
a sin
b cos
6
6
0.9

c tan

d cos ().

15 Solve the following.

3
2
1
c tan ( x ) =
3
e tan (x ) = 1
a sin ( x ) =

296

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

b cos ( x ) =

d cos (x ) = 1

16 The sound level of a siren follows the rule L (t) = 6 sin ( t) + 80, where L is the sound level measured

in decibels (dB) and t is the time in seconds.


a What is the amplitude and period of L(t)?
b What are the minimum and maximum sound levels of the siren?
c How long does it take for the sound to reach its maximum level the first time?
d Find the first time the sound level reaches 83 dB.
e Sketch the graph of L(t) for 0 t 2.
M U ltip l e
C ho iC e

1 The relationship between a, x and y in the triangle shown is:

x
a
y
a tan (a) =

y
x

sin (a) =

x
y

C tan (a) =

x
y

D cos (a) =

y
x

e sin (a) = xy

2 In the triangle shown, the value of x is closest to:

4.2

x
56

a 2.35

B 2.83

C 5.07

D 7.51

e 3.48

3 The angle that the 3-metre ladder makes with the wall in this diagram is closest to:

3.0 m

1.2 m
a 23.6

B 21.8

4 In which quadrants is tan (x) positive?


a 1 and 2

B 1 and 4

C 66.4

D 18

e 76

C 2 and 4

D 2 and 3

e 1 and 3

5 The value of cos (320) is:


a positive, as 320 is in the 1st quadrant
C negative, as 320 is in the
3rd drant
qua
e positive, as 320 is in the 4th quadrant

B negative, as 320 is in the 2nd quadrant


D negative, as 320 is in the 4th quadrant

6 If tan (a) < 0, sin (a) < 0 and 0 < a < 360, then which one of the following is correct?
a 0 < a < 90
D 0 < a < 180

B 180 < a < 270


e 270 < a < 360

C 90 < a < 180

Chapter 6 Circular functions

297

7 If tan ( ) =
a

3, then sin () could be equal to:

1
2

3
2

C 1

5
9

8 The angle 150 is equivalent to:


a

2
3

7
6

9 The angle that is equivalent to


a 405

B 315
4
is:
10 The value of cos
3
a

3
2

B 2

9
is:
4

C 540

e 0

5
6

D 270

3
2

4
3

e 300

Use the following information to answer questions 11 to 13: sin (a) = 0.6 and 0 < a < .
2
11 sin (2 a) is equal to:
a 0.36
B 0.8
C 0.6
D 0.8
12 cos (a) is equal to:
a 0.6
B 0.8
C 0.6
D 0.8
13 tan ( a) is equal to:
a 0.75
C 1.33
B 1.33
D 0.75
14 The one value that is equal to sin (53) is:
a tan (37 )
B cos (37 )
C cos (53 )
D sin (37 )
Questions 15 to 17 refer to the function f (x) = 2 sin (3x).
15 The amplitude of f (x) is equal to:
a 3
D 2
B 2
C 3
16 The period of f (x) is equal to:
2
a 6
B 4
C
D 2
3
17 The range of f (x) is:
a [0, 2]
B [0, 4]
C [2, 0]
D [1, 1]
18 The rule for this graph is:
y
x
a y = 3 cos
2
3

e 1
e 0
e 1.4
e cos (127 )

e 1

e 3
e [2, 2]

B y = 3 sin (2x)

x
3
D y = 3 cos (2x)
e y = 3 cos (2x)
C y = 2 cos

4 x

19 The function y = 5 tan (4x) has a period and asymptote respectively of:

D 4 and x = 8
e
and x =
4
2
20 If sin (3x) = 0.966, then x could be equal to:
a 65
B 75
D 25
e 20
21 If tan (2x) = 0.839 has one solution of x = 20, then another solution could be:
a 160
B 110
D 380
e 70
a 4 and x = 2

298

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

B and x =

and x =
4
8

C 105

C 200

x
22 The maximum value of y = 3 sin 1 is:
a 1

B 0

C 2

23 The minimum value of h = cos (3 t) + 5 is:


a 6

B 5

C 8

D 3

e 4

D 3

e 4

1 The temperature in an office is controlled by a thermostat. The preferred temperature, P, can be set to

values between 18 C and 25 C.


The temperature, T (C) in the office at time t hours after 9 am is given by the rule T = P + 2.4 sin ( t).
If the preferred temperature on the thermostat has been set to 23 C:

ex ten D eD
r eS p o n S e

a find the maximum and minimum temperatures


b find the temperature at
i noon nd
a
ii 3.30 pm
c sketch the graph of the function between 9 am and 5 pm.

Freddy feels thirsty if the temperature is above 24.2 C.


d Find the amount of time between 9 am and 5 pm that Freddy feels thirsty.
2 A standing wave on a guitar string may be

y
x ,
20
L
where x cm and y cm are defined on the diagram
x
at right.
a Find the period of the standing wave.
b If the frets coincide with the mean positions
of the wave, find the value of L.
c If the frets were to be spaced at 16 cm, what would be the equation of a similar standing wave of
amplitude 0.3 cm such that a fret is at each mean position?

approximated by the function y = 0.3 sin

3 The number of rabbits in a national park is observed for one year.

At any time t months after observation begins, the number is modelled


by the function:

t
P = 2 0.8 sin
6
where P is in thousands.
a Find:
i the maximum number of rabbits
ii the minimum number of rabbits
iii the median number of rabbits.
b Find i the period and ii the amplitude

of the function.
Chapter 6 Circular functions

299

c
d
e
f

Sketch the graph of the function.


Find the population after 5 months.
How long is the population below 1600?
How long is the population above 2100?

4 The height (in cm) that a clocks pendulum swings above its base can be approximated by the function

7
H = 14 + 5.9 cos
t at any time t seconds after being released. Give all answers correct to
4
3 decimal places.
a Find i the maximum and ii the minimum heights that the pendulum reaches.
b Find the height after i 1.5 seconds and ii 1 minute.
c Sketch the graph of the function for the first 2 seconds.
d On the same set of axes, sketch the median position.
e Find the length of time that the pendulum is below 14 cm travelling from one side to the other.
f Find the number of times the pendulum swings in 1 minute.
The pendulum is found to be losing time and needs its swing adjusted to 75 swings per minute.
g Find the new function H(t) that approximates the height of the pendulum.

5 The depth, h(t), of water in metres at a point on the coast at a time t hours after noon on a certain day is

2 (t + 2)
given by h(t ) = 2.5 + 0.5 cos
.

11

DiGital DoC
doc-9768
Test Yourself
Chapter 6

300

Use a CAS calculator to answer the following.


a What is the depth of the water at noon (correct to 2 decimal places)?
b What is the period of h(t)?
c What is the depth of the water (and what time does each occur) at:
i high tide?
ii low tide?
d Sketch the graph of h(t) for 0 t 12.
e The local people wish to build a bonfire for New Years celebrations on a rock shelf near that
point. They estimate that they can pass the point safely and not get splashed by waves if the depth
of water is less than 2.25 m. Between what times can they work?
f How long do they have?

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

ICT activities
Chapter opener
DiGital DoC
10 Quick Questions doc-9757: Warm up with ten quick questions on
circular functions (page 255)

6a

trigonometric ratio revision

DiGital DoCS
SkillSHEET 6.1 doc-9758: Practise identifying the hypotenuse,
adjacent and opposite sides of a right-angled triangle with respect
to a given angle (page 256)
SkillSHEET 6.2 doc-9759: Practise calculating trigonometric ratios
(page 256)

6B

the unit circle

DiGital DoCS
doc-9760: Investigate the unit circle (page 261)
WorkSHEET 6.1 doc-9761: Locating exact values in the unit circle,
finding unknown angles and sides in a right-angled triangle and
converting radians to degrees and degrees to radians (page 262)

6D

Symmetry

interaCtiVitY
Symmetry int-0265: Use the interactivity to consolidate your
understanding of symmetry in the unit circle (page 265)
tUtorialS
We 8 eles-1420: Using symmetry find the value of trigonometric
functions of angles given in radians and degrees (page 266)
We 9 eles-1421: Find the value of trigonometric functions in exact
values (page 267)
DiGital DoC
doc-9760: Investigate the unit circle using a spreadsheet (page 268)

6e

identities

tUtorial
We 14 eles-1422: Watch how to find the value of trigonometric
functions in exact values (page 271)

6F

Sine and cosine graphs

interaCtiVitY
Sine and cosine graphs int-0251: Use the interactivity to investigate
the features of sine and cosine functions (page 273)

tUtorial
We 16 int-0298: Watch how to sketch the graphs of a sine and
cosine function over a set domain, stating the amplitude and period
of each (page 275)
DiGital DoCS
doc-9762: Investigate sine graphs (page 277)
doc-9763: Investigate cosine graphs (page 277)
Worksheet 6.2 doc-9764: Sketching trigonometric graphs,
solving trigonometric equations and recognising exact values
(page 279)

6G

tangent graphs

tUtorial
We 20 eles-1423: Watch a tutorial on how to sketch the graph of a
tangent function over a given domain (page 281)
DiGital DoCS
doc-9765: Investigate tangent graphs (page 282)
Investigation doc-9766: Investigate tangent graphs
(page 282)

6h

Solving trigonometric equations

tUtorial
We 24 eles-1424: Watch a tutorial on finding a general
solution to three trigonometric equations using a CAS calculator
(page 286)
DiGital DoC
doc-9767: Investigate solutions to trigonometric equations
(page 287)

6i

applications

tUtorial
We 25 eles-1425: Watch a tutorial on applying understanding
of trigonometric graphs and equations to a real world model
(page 289)

Chapter review
DiGital DoC
Test Yourself doc-9768: take the end-of-chapter test to test your
progress (page 300)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

Chapter 6 Circular functions

301

Answers CHAPTER 6
CirCUlar FUnCtionS
exercise 6a

1
2
3
4
5
8

a
a
a
a

3.09
8.41
18.2
D

C
3.25 m

trigonometric ratio revision


b 1.88
c 4.00
b 2.97
c 12.50
b 24.3
c 51.1
bA
c B
6E
7 7.14 m
9 9.6
10 23.1

4 a
c
e
g
i

0.3

5 a

1
2
3
2

1 a
e
i
2 a
e
i
3 a
e
i
4 a
b
5 a
d
6 a
d
g
j
7 a
e

the unit circle


P
bP
cP
N
f N
gN
P
j N
P
bP
cN
N
f P
gP
N
j N
P
bP
cN
P
f P
gN
N
j P
Quadrant 3
Quadrant 1
C
bB
B
e C
1
b 1
0
e 0
Undefined
h 0
1
3
2
1
2

i 1

e
i

radians
b
f
j

2 a
b
e
f
3 E
4 C
5 B
6 a 0.855
d 3.341
g 2.971
7 a 20.1
d 54.9
g 232.6
8 a
d

2
2

1
2

g 1

302

5
4
120
30

0.63
0.63
0.25
0.25
2.1
2.1

c
g
k
c
g

1
3
2
2

1
2

i
d P
h N
d N
h P

d N
h N

7 a
d
8 a
d
9 a
c

c A
c 0
f 1

j
2
2

b
f

3
3

0.383

h 2

5
3
d 330
h 67.5
l

c 2.182
f 5.716

b
e
h
b
e
h

1.365
4.095
3.784
84.2
893.8
458.4

1
2

e 1

c 180
f 155.3

1
2
=
2
2

3
2

1 a i 4

c 1
3
3

2
2

0.63

i i 2

2 a i 2

3
2

0.924

0.383

0.259
0.259

0.765
0.644

c i

3
2

l 1
c
f
c
f

0.414
0.414

3.732
3.732

g i 6

ii 0.4

i i 8

ii 2.5

k i 2

1
5

identities

sin2 + cos2

30

0.25

0.75

81

0.976

0.024

129

0.604

0.396

193

0.051

0.949

260

0.970

0.030

350

0.030

0.970

47

0.535

0.465

2 a 0.6
3 a 0.954
4 a 0.917, 0.917
c 0.971
5 a 2

b
b

5
13

8 a B
9 a 70
e 82

b
b
b
d

7
4

c
c

bD
b 32
f 46

24
25

3 7
7

c C
c 51
g 1

d A
d 8
h 73

cos

0.6

0.96

d 2

0.25
2.1
2.1

1
5

2
5

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

5
5

2 5
5

0.3 0.638 0.447 0.819

h
k

c
11
6

4
5
3
5

ii 2

i 4

ii 3

ii 4

5
6

5
6

5
5

ii

1
2

i 4 ii

2
3

2 x
3

23

3 4 x

i 6

y
5
0

11
5

2
3

2
3

0.7

1
5

0.28 0.954 0.77 0.894 0.573

1
2

0.8

4
3

i 2

4 x

y
4

sin

ii 1

10

4
5

12

11 a

ii

3
2
2

3
0.5
3
4

ii 1

2
3
3
7

ii 3

1.333
3.180
0.714, 0.714
0.436

5
3

ii 2

f i

cos2

7 a

ii

ii

2
2
h i
5

j i
3
l i 4

1
2

e i 6

3 a

sin2

0.63
0.25

g i

3
2

k 1
b
e
b
e
b
d

e i 2

3
3

3
2

l 1

k 0

Sine and cosine graphs


ii 2
ii
b i
3
ii 1.5
d i
ii
2
4
ii 2
f i
ii
3
2
ii 2.5
h i
ii
3
ii 4
ii 1
b i 2
ii
2
ii 2
d i
ii
3

c i 3

tan 1.333 0.292 3.180 1.207

Symmetry
b
d
b
d
b
d

exercise 6F

0.3
0.7
0.9

3
2
2
1
2

0.7

1
2

2
2

0.924
0.966
0.966
0.644
0.842

h 1

3
3
2
7
3
40
45

1
2

exercise 6e

i 1

3
3

6 a

6 a 6

exercise 6D

1 a
c
2 a
c
3 a
c

j Undefined

6
5
18
5
6
36
648

1
2

f 1

exercise 6C

1 a

2
2

0.9
0.3
0.7
0.9

exercise 6B

b
d
f
h

ii 5

1
4

i 4

4
0

ii 4

2 3 4 x
x

i
2

y
2

ii 2

2
3

10 a f : 0,

8 a i
0

ii 1

iii 2, 0

2 x

b i 2

d f : [ 1, 3] R, f ( x ) = 1.8cos

iii 0, 4

ii 2

4 a D
5E

bC

2x
3

d y = 4 cos

3x
e y = sin

f y = 3 cos ( 3x)

c i 4

7 5
4

3
2

3
4

0
1

7
4

5
4

3
2

d i 6

iii 0, 2

ii 1

2
4

9 a

2
3

0
2
3

f i 4
g i 2

ii
ii

h i

ii

2
i i

ii

ii

2 x

1
0

3 3

4

8 4

y
1.8

1.8

y
1.4

1
0

1.5
6

ii

2 a y

2 x

4
3

e i

y
3
0

ii

ii

ii

j i

y
2
0

x=
6
x =
3

x=
2
x = 2
x =

x=
4

x=
2

x=
4

ii x =

d i 3

tangent graphs

1 a i
2

b i
3
c i 2

exercise 6G

iii 5, 1

5
4
3
2
1

1
3
4
4

ii 2

2x
3

g f : [0, 2] R, f (x) = sin (x) 1


h f : [, 2] R, f (x) = 2 sin (4x) 1

b y = 2 cos (2x)

x
2

1
3 x

f f : [ 3 ,1] R, f ( x ) = 2.4 cos


2

3
4

c y = 5 sin

7 a

1
2

c A

6 a y = 1.5 sin

2 x

x
2

2x

2 x
e f : [0, 3] R, f ( x ) = 3sin

y

2

5
cos
2

c f : [ 1, 1] R, f (x) = 2 sin ( x)

0
1

ii 3

3x
8
R, f ( x ) = 3sin
2
6

b f : [0, 5 ] R, f ( x ) =

8 x

y
3

1.5

12 6

6 x

2
3

1.4

Chapter 6 Circular functions

303

x =

2
1
1
0

0
1
2
3
4
5
6

3 4 x

1
0 3 3 3 9

1 a

2 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
3 a

4 2

equations

3 B
4 a D
b B
5 a y

6 x

exercise 6h

x = 3

d
e

4 a
5 a

0 2 4 6 8 x

0 3

3
2

c
d

e
y

3 4 x

2 3

3
3
2
4 2

1.8
0

8 4

0 5 5

5
2

8 4

15

x =
2

304

1
4

3
2

2 x

1 1 0
2 2

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

b
c
4
6
3

e
f
6
4
3
36.9 and 143.1
104.5 and 255.5
80.1 and 260.1
238.2 and 301.8
78.8 and 281.2
140.1 and 320.1
199.5 and 340.5
40.8 and 319.2
0.927, 2.214, 7.210, 8.497
2 4 8 10
,
,
,
3 3 3
3
0.983, 4.124, 7.266, 10.408
5 11 17 23
,
,
,
6
6
6 6
3.542, 5.882, 9.826, 12.165
7 9 15
,
,
,
4 4 4
4
C
b A
0.297, 2.844
5
,
3 3
4
,
3 3
5.820, 3.604
2.328, 3.955
5 11
,
6 6

6 D
7 a 14.5, 165.5
b 131.8, 228.2
c 74.1, 254.1
d 270
e 78, 282
f 108.4, 288.4
8 a 60
b 150, 330
c 0, 180, 360
d 90, 210
e 45, 135
f 0, 90, 180, 270, 360
g 120
h 90, 270
i 15, 105, 195, 285
j 45, 75, 165, 195, 285, 315
k 60, 150, 240, 330
l 113.74, 326.26

, n Z
6

11 11
For 2 x 2 : x =
,
, ,
6
6 6 6

b General solution: x = n + , n Z
6

11 5 7
For 2 x 2 : x =
,
, ,
6
6 6 6

9 a General solution: x = 2n

3
2
1
0
1
2
3

x = 3

Solving trigonometric

1
2

1 x

c General solution: x = (2n + 1)

or
4

and 2n + , n Z
4
4
7 5 3
For 2 x 2 : x =
,
, ,
4
4 4 4
10 General solution:
(12n + 5)
(12n + 1)
x=
and
, n Z
12
12

11 7 5
For x : x =
,
, ,
12 12 12
12
(6n 1)
11 General solution: x =
, n Z
9
x :
For

7 5 5 7
x=
,
,
, ,
,
9
9
9 9 9 9
x = 2n +

exercise 6i

applications

1 a i 1 kg
ii 6 days
b
2 a
b
c
3 a
b
c
4 a
b

5 a

t
W = cos + 3
3
110 beats/min
i 50
ii 60 min
t
H = 50sin + 110
30
1.6 m
i 1m
ii 0.7 m
3.254 s
26 C at 2 pm
i 18 C
ii 22 C
iii Approx. 11.1 C
i 12 mm

c t = 6.582; t = 6.987
d (1.206, 0.931) and (5.266, 0.971)
e $0.98 when t = 8

Chapter reVieW
Short anSWer

1 2251.75 m
2 a
3 a
4 a
5 a
b
c
6 a
b
c
7 a
b

7
4

7
9
72
57.3
630
0.724
0.690
1.049
0.436

0.484

3
2

1
2

180

7
3

31
18

13 a

14 a
c

c
e
16 a
b
c

2 3 4 x

3
2
d 1

80
74

0
2

40 m
3.9 s
7.8 s
60 s
50 m
100 m
314.16 m
i 50 m
ii 75 m
f 25 s and 35 s
8 a i 6 m ii 3 m
b Yes, by approx. 24 minutes
6 a
b
c
7 a
b
c
d
e

MUltiple ChoiCe

1
6
11
16
21

1.5

9 a

y
2

C
E
C
C
B

2
7
12
17
22

D
B
B
E
C

3
8
13
18
23

A
D
D
A
E

4
9
14
19

E
A
B
C

5
10
15
20

E
E
D
D

extenDeD reSponSe

1
S
120

1 a 25.4 C, 20.6 C
b i 23 C
ii 25.4 C
c

7
8

5
8

3
4

3
8

0
4

5
8

3
4

T (C)

27
26
25
24

25.4

23
2

b y

22
21
20
19

20.6

18
(8, 0.98)

0.96
0.93
0

0.90
0

86

positive to the right, then the string is


11.41 mm to the left (or vice versa).

0.99

d 0.92

L (t)

1.5

1
S
10

9 a a ($A)

1
2

1
6

b 0.40

2
3 5
b
,
,
3 3
4 4
7
d 0, 360
,
6 6
135, 315
Amplitude = 6, period = 2
Minimum = 74, maximum = 86
1
s
2

15 a

2 0

23
10

0.92

y
4

8 a

ii
b 10
c 11.41 mm; if the displacement is

3 9 11
,
,
,
4 4 4 4
11 150 and 210

12 General solution: x = 2n +
and
3

x = (2n + 1) , n Z
3

5 4 2
,
, ,
For 2 x 2 : x =
3 3 3
3
10

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 t (days)

b t = 4.253 (3 d.p.), on the 5th day

3 6

9 12 x

5
4
t (hours)

8 t

d 2 hours, 40 minutes
2 a 40 m
c


c 0.3sin
x
16

b 80 cm

Chapter 6 Circular functions

305

3 a i 2800 ii 1200
b i 12 months
ii 0.8
c P (thousands)

iii 2000

306

5 a 2.71 m
b 11 hours
c i 3 m at 9 pm
ii 2 m at 3:30 pm
d h(t) (m)

2.0
0

ii 8.1 cm
ii 8.1 cm

3.0 (0, 2.71)


2.5

8.1

3 6 9 12 t (months)

f Approx. 5 months
4 a i 19.9 m
c
b i 11.742 m
c

g H = 14 + 5.9cos

14

d 1600
e 4 months
1
2

8 t
5

H
19.9

2.8
2
1.2
0

d See c.
e 0.571 s
f 52.5 times

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

1.5
0

(9, 3)
(12, 2.25)

(3.5, 2)
3

e 1:40 pm and 5:20 pm


f 3 h 40 min

12 t (hours)

Exam practice 2 CHAPTERS 16


1 Determine the centre and radius of the circle described by x2 + 6x + y2 + 8y 24 = 0.

4 marks

2 a Sketch the function f defined by:

20 minutes

2x + 2

f (x) = x + 2
2x + 8

3< x <0
0x<2
2<x 5

4 marks

b State the range of f.

1 mark

3 Solve for x in each of the following.


a 23x = 5
b log2(x + 1) log2(3x) = 2

2 marks
3 marks

M U ltip l e
C ho iC e

1 For the function f (x) = (x 2)2 + 3, what are the coordinates of the turning points for f (x 1)?
a (3, 3)

B (2, 3)

C (1, 3)

D (2, 3)

e (3, 3)

1] R, where f (x) = 6 5x is:


C [6, )
D [6, 1]
3 Which one of the following represents a many-to-one relationship?
2 The range for the function f:
a [5, 1]

[5,

each question is worth


one mark.

e [0, 12.25]

12 minutes

x2,

B [0, 6]

S ho rt
a n S W er

4 62x 3x 2x + 1 simplifies to:


2
a 2 2 x + 2 x 32 x

B 364x + 1

D 23x + 1 33x

2
e 62 x +3 x

3
2
C 62 x + 2 x

x + 1 = 0 between the interval [, 2] are:


3

7
5
7
7
11
a
B
C
and
and
and
6
6
2
2
2
2

1
7
11
11
D
e
and
and
2
2
2
2
6 A possible equation for the rule of the function whose graph is shown below is:
y
a y = 2 sin (x)
B y = 2 sin (3x)

x

C y = 2 sin
D y = 2 cos (x)
3
x
5 The two x-values that satisfy the equation 2 sin

x
e y = 2 cos

Exam practice 2

307

7 Consider the function f (x) = 3

2
. The equations of the asymptotes would be:
(2 x + 1)

1
f (x) = 3
2
B x = 1
f (x) = 3
C x=0
f (x) = 0
1
D x=
f (x) = 3
2
e x=2
f (x) = 1
8 For the function g(x) = 4 2 x , the implied domain and range would be respectively:
a (, 2) and (4, )
B R /{2} a nd R +
C [2, ) and [4, )

D ( , 2] and ( , 4]
e R {0} and R+
a x=

e x t enDeD
r e S ponS e
35 minutes

DiGital DoC
doc-10162
Solutions
exam practice 2

308

1 Rock pools in a tropical lagoon form when the depth of water in the lagoon falls below 6metres. The

(t 3)
depth of water in a lagoon can be modelled using d (t ) = 1.5 sin
+ 5.5, where d is the depth
6
in metres and t is the time in hours after 7am in the morning.
a Determine the maximum and minimum water depth.
2 marks
b Determine the time, in hours, taken for the water depth to increase from the minimum
depth to the maximum depth.
1 mark
c Sketch the graph of d(t) in the time interval 0 t 24.
3 marks
d At what time will the depth of water first be 6 metres deep?
1 mark
e Billy and Tommy swim only in the safety of the rock pools. They arrive at the lagoon
at 9:30am and leave at 4:15pm.
i Determine how long they will be able to swim in the rock pools. Write your answer
correct to 2 decimal places.
1 mark
ii Determine the total time Billy and Tommy would be able to swim in the rock pools.
Write your answer to the nearest whole minute.
2 marks
kt
2 Over the summer months, the number of mosquito larvae in a dam was modelled using M=M0 e ,
where M0 is the initial population, t is the time in days and k is a positive constant. The number of
mosquito larvae was recorded each morning at 8 am. The first day of recording was taken as t = 0. The
recording lasted only until the end of summer (90days).
a On the first day of recording, there were 150 mosquito larvae. Determine the value of M0. 1 mark
b At 8 am on the fifth day there were 235 mosquito larvae.
i Write an equation that determines the number of larvae on the fifth day.
1 mark
ii Show that the value of k is 0.11.
2 marks
c If the mosquito larvae continue to increase according to the model, determine the expected
number of larvae present in the dam at the end of summer (90 days).
2 marks
d Frogs were introduced to the dam during the twentieth day. Mosquito larvae are part of the frogs
diet. Since the frogs were introduced, the number of mosquito larvae has decreased. The decrease
in mosquito larvae can be modelled using D = 200 e(20 t) + 300, where D is the decrease in
mosquito larvae after the twentieth day. The recording of the mosquito larvae has remains the
same as before.
i State the domain of the function D.
1 mark
ii Determine the number of mosquito larvae expected in the dam over the long term.
1 mark
iii By how much had the mosquito larvae decreased in the first twenty-four hours of
recording after the frogs were introduced?
1 mark

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

ChApTer 7

Matrices
diGiTAL doC
doc-9769
10 Quick Questions

ChApTer ConTenTS
7A
7B
7C
7d

Addition and subtraction of matrices


Multiplying matrices
Solving matrix equations
Matrices and transformations

7A Addition
introduction

and subtraction of matrices

In all walks of life we deal with the mathematical phenomenon called the matrix. A train timetable, a
football scorecard and examination results are all examples of matrices. Anytime there is a rectangular
grouping of numbers, there is a matrix.
A summary of cricket scores after three matches is shown in the table below.
Overs

Maidens

Wickets

Runs

Smith

10

35

Brown

14

29

Nguyen

39

Removing the headings from the table leaves only


an array of numbers:
10 3 2 35
14 2 3 29

9 2 3 39
This is called a matrix. The plural of matrix is matrices. The
matrix above is a (3 4) matrix as it has 3 rows and 4 columns.
This number of rows and columns gives the order, or the
dimensions, of the matrix.

6
3
5
4

is a (4 1) matrix since it has 4 rows and 1 column.

A matrix with m rows and n columns is called an (m n)


matrix.
ChApTer 7 Matrices

309

Each individual entry in a matrix is called an element. In general, the elements of a matrix are identified
by the row and column that pinpoint their position in the matrix. Thus if A is a (3 2) matrix, we write:
a11 a12

A = a21 a22
a31 a32

The elements of the matrix A are referred to as aij, where i refers to the position of the element in the
row and j refers to the position of the element in the column. So, a21 refers to the element that is in row
2, column 1.

Addition and subtraction of matrices


Imagine, for the three players in the cricket team, that a fourth match gave the following results:
Total

Overs

Maidens

Wickets

Runs

Smith

10

Brown

10

34

Nguyen

15

54

Clearly we can add these results to the previous results, giving the total figures for four matches:
Total

Overs

Maidens

Wickets

Runs

Smith

13

45

Brown

24

63

Nguyen

24

93

In matrix form we write this as:


10 3 2 35 3 1 0 10 13 4 2 45

14 2 3 29

+ 10 1 2 34 = 24 3 5 63
9 2 3 39 15 2 4 54 24 4 7 93
Matrices are added by adding corresponding elements.
It follows that:
13 4 2 45 3 1 0 10
24 3 5 63

10 1 2 34
24
4
7
93

15 2 4 54

10 3 2 35
14 2 3 29
=

9 2 3 39

Matrices are subtracted by subtracting corresponding elements.


The matrices we have added or subtracted have the same order, i.e. the same number of rows (three)
and the same number of columns (four).
Addition and subtraction of matrices can be performed only if the matrices are of the same order.

The commutative and associative laws for addition


of matrices
The Commutative Law
Simply stated, if this law holds, matrices can be added in reverse position. Consequently for matrix
addition, A + B = B + A, provided A and B are of the same order. And clearly with subtraction,
A B = A + (B) = (B) + A, if A and B are the same order.
The Commutative Law holds for matrix addition for matrices of the same order.
310

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

The Associative Law


Simply stated, if this law holds, any number of matrices (of the same order) can be added together,
adding any pair of matrices first. Thus:
A + B + C + D = (A + B) + C + D
= (B + C) + A + D
= (B + D) + A + C provided the matrices are the same order.
Thus for subtraction, A B C = [A + (B) + (C)] = [A + (B)] + (C) or A + [(B) + (C)] and so on.
The Associative Law holds for matrix addition for matrices of the same order.
Worked exAmpLe 1

Show that the Commutative Law holds for matrices A and B given below.
1

A= 0
2

2
1
0

1 0

4 , B = 5 3
0 0
3

1
2

Think
1

TUToriAL
eles-1426
Worked example 1

WriTe

For the Commutative Law to apply, A + B = B + A.


Both matrices have the same order so it is possible
to add them.
Find A + B by adding the corresponding
elements in each matrix.

Find B + A by adding the corresponding


elements in each matrix.

Write the answer.

Both matrices are (3 3) so it is possible for


addition to occur.
1

A+ B = 0
2

2
1
0

1 0

4 + 5 3
3 0 0

2 2

= 5 2
2 0

1 0

B+ A= 5 3
0 0

2 2

= 5 2
2 0

1
2

5
5
1

1 + 0
2 2

2
1

4
3

5
5

The Commutative Law holds for matrices


A and B as A + B = B + A.

Worked exAmpLe 2

A= 0
2

3
1

0 5
5 4

, B = 1 0 and C = 7 0
2 3
3 1

4
2

Find, if possible:
A+B
AB
AC
the answers to parts a, b and c using a calculator.

a
b
c
d

ChApTer 7 Matrices

311

Think

WriTe

1
3 0 5


a A and B have the same order, so it is
a A+ B = 0
1 + 1 0
possible to add them. Add the corresponding
2 4 2 3

elements of each matrix.


1 8

= 1 1
4 1

b A and B have the same order, so it is possible b A B = 0

to subtract them. Subtract the corresponding


elements of each matrix.

c Subtraction cannot be performed since the

order of A is (3 2) and the order of C is


(3 3).

d 1 Define the matrices using the CAS

calculator.

= 1
0

3
1

0 5


1 0
2 3

1
7

c A C cannot be calculated because A and C are of

different order.
1

d 0

3
1
4

0 5

1 0 b
2 3

5 4

7 0
3 1

Use the CAS calculator to perform the


matrix addition A + B.

Use the CAS calculator to perform the


matrix subtraction A B.

Use the CAS calculator to perform the


matrix subtraction A C.

4 c
2

a + b = 1
4

ab= 1
0

8
1
1

7
2

ERROR
(The two matrices are of different orders.)

Special types of matrices


In life it is convenient to associate shapes with names. Thus we all know what a round shape looks like,
what a pear-shaped person looks like and so on. A similar principle can be applied to describing the
shapes of matrices.
312

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Type
Column
matrix

Shape
Consists of a
single column

Row matrix

There can be any number (1 2)


of columns, but only one (1 10)
row.
(1 56)
(1 n)
Consists of an
Any number of rows.
(1 1)
equal number of
Must have the same
(2 2)
rows and columns number of columns.
(6 6)
(20 20)
A diagonal
Must be a square matrix (1 1)
matrix is a square
(3 3)
matrix with every
(6 6)
element, not on the
(25 25)
leading diagonal,
equal to 0.
A unit matrix
Must be a square matrix (1 1)
is a diagonal
(2 2)
matrix with all the
(6 6)
elements on the
(20 20)
leading diagonal
equal to 1.
Any
A zero matrix can Any shape
be any shape, but
order
all the elements
are 0.
Must
Any shape
If matrices
have
are equal, then both
same
their shape and all
corresponding elements order
must be identical.

Square
matrix

Diagonal
matrix

Unit matrix

Zero matrix

Equal
matrices

Description
Order
There can be any number (2 1)
of rows, but only one
(5 1)
column.
(27 1)
(m 1)

Consists of a
single row

Example

Order of example
(4 1)

3
2

0
[5

(1 5)

4]

(2 2)

2 0

0 0
0 0

0
0
3

(3 3)

(3 3)

0 0 0
0 0 0

(2 3)

x
y 1 3

2 p 3q = 4 9
1 4 1 4


x = 1, y = 3, p = 2, q = 3

Both
(3 2)

1 0 0
0 1 0

0 0 1

Worked exAmpLe 3

2x + y
Solve for x and y in the following equal matrices.
3 x 2 y
Think

Corresponding elements are equal, so


write these as equations.
Solve the simultaneous equations.

Write the answer.

4
=

13

WriTe

TUToriAL
eles-1427
Worked example 3

2x + y = 4
3x 2y = 13
2x + y = 4
[1]
3x 2y = 13
[2]
Multiply equation [1] by 2.
4x + 2y = 8
[3]
Add equations [2] and [3].
7x = 21
x=3
Substitute x = 3 into [1].
y = 2
x = 3 and y = 2

ChApTer 7 Matrices

313

multiplication of a matrix by a scalar


As in ordinary arithmetic, multiplication is simply a shorthand method of addition. Rather than 4 + 4 +
4 + 4 + 4 = 20, we say 5 4 = 20. Similarly, this method also applies to matrices.
2

2
+
0 1

4
=
0 2

10

is the same as:


2
2
1

4
=
0 2

10

Thus if A = [a b c], then 3A = [3a 3b 3c].


A scalar is a single (real) number.
When a matrix is multiplied by a scalar, each element of the matrix is multiplied by the scalar.

Worked exAmpLe 4

If A =

a 3A

1
and B =
7

b 4B
c 3A + 4B

4
5

0
2

, find :

d 2(A + B)

Think

a Multiply each element of A by 3.

e 5(B A) using a calculator.

WriTe

a 3A = 3

9 12
=

6 15
b Multiply each element of B by 4.

c Add the two matrices found in parts


a and b.

1
7

4
=
28

b 4B = 4

9 12 4
+

6 15 28

c 3A + 4B =

13 12
=

22 7
d 1 Find A + B by adding the

corresponding elements of A and B.

3 4 1
+

2 5 7

b A+ B =

4 4
=

5 3
2

Multiply each element of the


resulting matrix by 2.

4 4
2( A + B) = 2

5 3
8 8
=

10 6

314

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

e 1 Define the matrices using your CAS

calculator.

3
2

7
2

Perform the matrix arithmetic


5(ba) and write the result.

4
5

0
b

10
5(b a) =
45

35

20

If A and B are matrices of the same order and a and b are real numbers, then:
1. aA + bA = (a + b)A
2. aA + aB = a(A + B)
3. (ab)A = a(bA).
If aA = 0, then a = 0, or A is a zero matrix.

Addition and subtraction of matrices

exercise 7A

Show that the Commutative Law holds for matrices A and B given below.

1 We1

A=

3
1 6
and
=
B

4 2

2 3 0
2 We2
, C = 1

1 2 1
4

find each of the following, if they exist.


b BA
a A+B
c B+D
d A+C
e C D.
3 Find [2 5 3 0 4] [3 4 1 6 3].
4 We3 Solve for x and y in the following equal matrices.
1 3
If A =
2 1

x + 2y

2 x 3 y
5

5
3

, B =

3
0

and D = 2

,
1

11

State the order of each of the following matrices.

2 4
5

a 0
1 2
b

4 3 6

c [2x + y]

d [1

6 Find the matrix P such that P [1

5]

1
3
4
0

3]

= [3 4 2].

p 8


7 If 3 q = 9 , find p, q and r.
r 10

8 What does [ 5

2
4] equal?
1
ChApTer 7 Matrices

315

3[2 3 4] 5[1
A [11 1 27]
C [11 19 27]
e [1 1 27]

9 mC

3]

equals:
B [0
d [1

19
19

3]

27]

3 2 y
=
:
1 2m 2 p 12

10 mC If 2

A x = 1, y = 3, p = 1, m = 3
C x = 1, y = 3, p = 1, m = 6
e x = 2, y = 6, p = 1, m = 12

11 We4

mC

B x = 1, y = 6, p = 1, m = 3
d x = 2, y = 3, p = 1, m = 3

If A = [0 4] and B = [3 0], what is 4A 3B?

16]

A [9
C [9 19]
e [13 16]

B [5
d [5

19]
16]

12 George, Linda and Mary sat two examinations in each of English, Mathematics and Science. In the first

examination they scored 40%, 50% and 60% respectively for English; 62%, 87% and 28% respectively
for Mathematics; and 100%, 14% and 73% respectively for Science.
a Write this information as a (3 3) matrix, labelling names on columns and subjects on rows.
In the second examination their results were 50%, 65% and 80% respectively for English; 87%, 76%
and 45% respectively for Mathematics; and 95%, 37% and 89% respectively for Science.
b Write this information as a (3 3) matrix, labelling names on columns and subjects on rows.
c Add the matrices together.
d Hence calculate their average mark in each subject.
e Write Marys average as a (1 3) matrix.
13 At the Queen Victoria market, 5 people each bought 3 apples and 2 oranges, 7 people each bought

1 apple and 6 oranges, and 8 people each bought 4 apples and 2oranges. Write this information in
matrix form, and use matrix addition to calculate the total number of apples and oranges bought by
the group.

7B

multiplying matrices

Multiplying matrices is a procedure that takes place in two distinct stages:


Stage 1: Identification of the correct conditions for multiplication to occur
Stage 2: The multiplication itself.
Stage 1: We need to establish whether multiplication is possible. This can best be thought of as two tiles,
side by side, in the game of dominoes.

Here we can join the number three in each domino.


A similar principle applies to the multiplication of matrices, if we think of each domino as row
column. Specifically, only those matrices that have the same number of columns in the first matrix as the
number of rows in the second matrix can be multiplied. Further, if we can join the dominoes (matrices)
as shown, that is by placing a three against a three, not only can we multiply the matrices, but the order
of the resulting matrix is given by the two outside numbers, in this case a (2 4) matrix.
In general we can multiply an (m n) matrix by an (n p) matrix, because the inside numbers are the
same (both n). These inside numbers are called the inner product. The outer numbers (outer product)
give the order of the resultant matrix (m p).
316

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Stage 2: We know from our dominoes that we can multiply because the inner product is equal (3 3).
The resulting answer matrix is of order (2 4). For example:
4 2

and B = 1 7
3
0 2

2 5
A=
1 2

a
A B = AB =
e

0
2

1
2

c d
g h

b
f

(2 3) (3 4) = (2 4)
In the answer matrix, the letter a marks the intersection of the first row and the first column. To
calculate the value of a, we multiply the first row of the first matrix by the first column of the second
matrix. (In matrix multiplication we always multiply rows of the first matrix by columns of the second
matrix).
1

4
1
2 5 1 0
a = 2 4 + 5 1
= 8 + 5 + 0
=3
2

To calculate the value of f, at the intersection of the second row and second column of the answer
matrix, we multiply the second row of the first matrix by the second column of the second matrix.
1

f = 1 2 +
f = 2 + 14 + 6
f = 18

2
7
2
27

32

This process is repeated for each element in the answer matrix,


3 37
so A B =
6 18
b11 b12
a11 a12
In general, if A =
and B =
b21 b22
a21 a22

12
2

15
.
6

a11 b11 + a12 b21 a11 b12 + a12 b22


then A B =
a21 b11 + a22 b21 a21 b12 + a22 b22

Worked exAmpLe 5

4 1 3
1 0
P=

, Q =
2 5 7
3 2
a Write the order of the two matrices.
c Does QP exist?
Think

a 1 Matrix P has two rows and two columns.


2

Matrix Q has two rows and three columns.

b PQ is the product of a (2 2) and a

(2 3) matrix, so it exists.

TUToriAL
eles-1428
Worked example 5

b Does PQ exist?
d Calculate the product(s) that do exist.
WriTe

a P is a (2 2) matrix.

Q is a (2 3) matrix.
b PQ exists.

ChApTer 7 Matrices

317

c QP is the product of a (2 3) and a

c QP does not exist.

d 1 Multiply the rows of matrix P

d PQ = 1

(2 2) matrix, so it does not exist.

0 4 1

3 2 2 5

with the columns of matrix Q.

1 4 + 0 2 11+ 0 5 1 3 + 0 7
=

3 4 + 2 2 3 1 + 2 5 3 3 + 2 7
2

4 1
=
16 13

Simplify PQ.

Note: In worked example 5, PQ exists but QP does not exist, indicating that matrix multiplication is
not commutative.

exercise 7B

multiplying matrices

1 3
A=
2 1

1 We5

, B =

5
3

the following, if they exist.


a AB
b BA

diGiTAL doC
doc-9770
WorkSHEET 7.1

Evaluate 2

1 3
,Q =
If P =

2 1

5 0

5 3 0
R= 1 4

1 4 1
0 1

b R(P + S)
c R(P + SQ).

a QR

5
and N =

0
3
4
a Show that MN NM.
b Evaluate M2.

2
3 0
M+
c Find 2 N

0
0 3
1
2

c BD

3
0

and D = 2

d AC

and S = 1

0
2

5 a Use multiplication to simplify the matrix equation below.

1 5 x 11


=
3 4 y 5
b Write the answer to 5a in a form that does not contain matrices.
c Solve for x and y.
6 A is a (2 2) square matrix.
2 1

0 3
4 0
.
0 4

a Find A2 3 A
b Find A3.
318

. Find each of
1

e CB

5 0 3 .
2

4 M=

2 3 0
, C = 1

1 2 1
4

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

4
, evaluate:

7 Write the simultaneous equations

2x + 5y = 11
+ 2y = 12

3x

as a matrix equation.
2

8 E = 2 3 4 and F = 3 .
4

a Find EF.
b Find FE.
1
9 If A =
3

c Does the Commutative Law hold?

1 0
4
2
and I =
, find A + 5A 3I.
2

0 1

3 4
3.
, find P
1 2

10 a If P =

0
.
9 12

b Find the (2 2) matrix Q such that Q P =

3
P=
1

11 mC

2
P=
3

12 mC

1
9

0
and Q =
2

1
. PQ equals:
5

11

7 2
6 3

. P2 equals:
0

7
6

1
6

2
3

7 2

9 3

The order of the answer matrix when we multiply a matrix of order (2 3) by a matrix of
order (1 2) is:
A (1 2)
B (1 3)
C (2 1)
d (3 2)
e (3 1)

13 mC

14 The three matrices A, B and C have orders (a b), (a c) and (b a) respectively.


a For which pairs of matrices does the product exist? State the order of the answer(s).
b Is it possible to multiply all three matrices together? If so, state the order of the answer.
c For which pairs of matrices does the sum exist? State the order of the answer(s).

1 0
2
2
and I =
, evaluate M and solve for a and b such that aM bM I = 0.

0 1
16 Fast-food chain McDonuts has outlets in the centre of the city. An overall view of sales is maintained to
monitor demand. Hamburgers, drinks and chips were surveyed.
In January, Store A sold 1200 hamburgers, 2367 drinks and 4219 serves of chips.
a Write this as a (1 3) matrix.
b The selling price of each product is $4.50, $1.95 and $2.45 respectively. Write this as a
(3 1) matrix.
c Multiply these matrices to calculate the total income from these three items.
17 Mayfleet, the international hotel chain, is building a new hotel in Arcadia Waters South. The guest
accommodation comprises 80 standard rooms, 45 suites and 3 presidential suites. Each standard room
has 1 king-size bed, 1 table, 2 chairs and 1 TV. Each suite has 1 king-size bed, 2 single beds, 2 tables,
5 chairs and 3 TVs. The presidential suites have 2 king-size beds, 6 single beds, 7 tables, 18 chairs
and 6 TVs.
a Set this information out in the form of two matrices.
b Multiply these matrices to calculate the total number of pieces of furniture that Mayfleet must
purchase to fit out the guest rooms.

15 If M =

5
0

ChApTer 7 Matrices

319

7C Solving matrix equations


The multiplicative identity matrix
The unit matrix, previously defined as a significant square matrix, does not alter any other matrix by
which it is multiplied. It is denoted by I and is known as the multiplicative identity matrix.
1 0 0
I = 0 1 0 is an example of a multiplicative identity matrix.

0 0 1
2 3
If A =
0 2

1
4

4
3

1 0
and I =
, then:

0 1
1 0 2 3
IA =

0 1 0 2

2 3
Notice that
0 2

4
4 3

2 3
=
0 2

4
.
4 3

1 4 1 0

is not possible.

4 3 0 1

Thus, it follows that AI = IA = A, if A is a square matrix.

The inverse matrix


When any square matrix is multiplied by its inverse we obtain the identity, I. The inverse of matrix A is
written as A 1. By definition:

A A 1 = A 1 A = I.

1 0
Thus, if A is a (2 2) matrix, then A A 1 =
.
0 1
Similarly, if A is a (3 3) matrix, then:

A A

1 0 0
= 0 1 0

0 0 1

Calculation of the inverse of a (2 2) matrix


a b
1
Only square matrices have inverses. If A =
, then its inverse A equals
c
d

1 d b

. The number (ad bc) is called the determinant of the matrix A and is
ad bc c
a
written as det (A) or | A |. The determinant may be positive, negative or zero.
Notice that if det (A) = 0, the inverse does not exist, as 1 is undefined. In this case, matrix A is called a
0
singular matrix.
Worked exAmpLe 6

If F =

1
2

5
3

, find F 1 .

Think

320

WriTe

Find det (F ).

det (F ) = (1 3) (2 5)
= 13

Swap the elements in the main diagonal.

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Multiply the elements on the other diagonal by 1.

Write the inverse of F.

Alternatively, using your CAS calculator, define the


matrix f.

1 5

f
2 3

Use the inverse feature of the CAS calculator to

determine f 1.
Note that this is the same result as in step 4.

f 1

1 3

13 2

3
13

5
13

2
13

1
13

Use of matrices to solve simultaneous linear


equations
Matrices may be used to solve simultaneous equations of the form:
2x + 5y = 11
3x + 2y = 12
These simultaneous equations may be expressed as the matrix equation:
2 5 x 11

=

3 2 y 12
2 5
x
11
If A =
, X = y and B =
,
3 2
12

then AX = B,

A 1AX = A 1B

IX = A 1B

X = A 1B
det (A) = 2 2 (5 3) = 19
1 2 5

A 1=

19 3 2
x 1 2
y =
19 3
=

5 11

2 12

1 38

19 57

2
=

3
x = 2, y = 3
Worked exAmpLe 7

Solve the simultaneous equations using matrix methods.


3x y = 7
2x + 5y = 9
Think
1

Write the simultaneous equations as a


matrix equation.

WriTe

1
5

TUToriAL
eles-1429
Worked example 7

x 7
y =

9
ChApTer 7 Matrices

321

Calculate the inverse of the coefficient


matrix.

Multiply both sides of the equation by


this inverse matrix.

det

= 15 2 = 13
5

The inverse is

1 5 1
.

13 2 3

1 5 1

13 2 3

1 x 1 5 1
=

5 y 13 2 3

x 1 26
I =

y
13 13
4

Simplify.

Write the answers.

x 2

y =
1
x = 2 and y = 1.

Worked exAmpLe 8

Solve the simultaneous equations using matrix methods. Interpret your findings.
2x 4y = 10
3x 6y = 5
Think
1

WriTe

Write the simultaneous equations as a


matrix equation.

Calculate the inverse of the coefficient matrix.

Interpret the result.

4
6

x 10
y = 5

2 4
det
= 12 + 12 = 0
6
3

The inverse does not exist as this is a


singular matrix.
There is no point of intersection between
the lines. It follows that the lines are
parallel.

Worked exAmpLe 9

Solve the following in terms of r.

rx y = 1
x ry = 2

Think

TUToriAL
eles-1430
Worked example 9

WriTe

Write the simultaneous equations as a


matrix equation.

x 1
y =
r
2

Calculate the inverse of the coefficient matrix.

r
det
1

1
r

= (r r ) (1 1) = r 2 + 1

The inverse is

322

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

1
r2

+ 1

r
1

1
r

Multiply both sides of the equation by this inverse


matrix.

x
1

y = 2
r + 1

Write the answers.

Thus
x=
or
x=

r
1

1 1

r 2

+2
1 + 2r
,y= 2
r +1
r +1

r2
1 2r .
,y=
1 r2
1 r2

This method can be used to solve a range of problems efficiently.


Worked exAmpLe 10

A cubic equation is of the form y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d. The points (1, 1), (0, 3), (1, 3), (2, 1) lie on
the curve. Use matrices to find a, b, c and d.
Think

WriTe

Substitute the coordinates given to form equations


involving a, b, c and d.

y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d
1 = a(1)3 + b(1)2 + c(1) + d
3 = a(0)3 + b(0)2 + c(0) + d
3 = a(1)3 + b(1)2 + c(1) + d
1 = a(2)3 + b(2)2 + c(2) + d

Simplify.

1=a+b+c+d
3=0+0+0+d
3 = a + b c + d
1 = 8a + 4b + 2c + d

Set up a matrix equation, AX = B.

1 1

0 0
1 1

8 4

1
0
1
2

1
1
1
1

Using your CAS calculator, define matrix a.

1 1

0 0
1 1

8 4

1
0
1
2

1
1
1
1

Using your CAS calculator, define matrix b.

Using the CAS calculators matrix multiplication

and matrix inverse features, calculate X = A 1B.

Write the answer.

1
3
3
1

1
3
3
1

1
A B=

a
b
c
d

3
1
3

a = 3 , b = 1, c =

4
3

,d =3

ChApTer 7 Matrices

323

Solving matrix equations

exercise 7C

Find the determinant of each of the following.

a 1

2
3 4

diGiTAL doC
doc-9771
WorkSHEET 7.2

6 5

x 2

3 y

d 0

0
2 4

1
4

x2
x

x2
9

and det (A) = 3. Evaluate x.


x
+
1
3

2 5
3 We6
a Find the inverse of matrix A =

1
3
2 A=

1
1
b Show that A A = A A = I, where I is the multiplicative identity matrix.
4 If it exists, find the inverse of each of the following matrices.

5
0
a 2
b 1 1

1 2
2 0
15


3
8
d 3
e 6

1
2
1
3

x +1
2
If A =
, for what values of x is A singular?
x 1
4
6 We7, 8 Solve each of the pairs of simultaneous equations by a matrix method.
a 2x 5y = 6
b x 3y = 7
c 2x + 4y = 1
5x + y = 7
x+y=2
2x + 4y = 0

Solve for x and y in terms of p.

7 We9

d x y = 1

2x y = 6

2px y = 3
3x + py = 2

8 Solve for x, y and z, given 3x 2y + z = 1, x y 2z = 13 and x + 3y 2z = 9.


9 mC
A 30
d 16

10 mC

1
For what value of p does |D| = 0, where D =
p
B 20
e None of these

The inverse of 1 3 is:


1 4

1 1

7 1

1
1

7 1

3
4

2
?
3

B 4

1
3
1

1 4

7 1

C 13

1 4

7 1

11 mC If x + y = 4 and 4x + 6y = 5, then
equals:
y

10

324

10

6
4
6

1 4

1 5

4

5

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

10
1

10

1
4

1 4

6 5

1 4

5

10

6
4

1 4

1 5


1
4

12 If A =

12

1 1

12
, find A3 and A1.

1 0

13 P =
and Q = 1 0 . Show that P and Q do not commute when multiplied.
0 1

cos ( )

14 Find the multiplicative inverse of the matrix

sin ( )

( )
.
cos ( )

sin

0 1
1 0
and J =
, find the condition for pI + qJ to have a multiplicative inverse.

1 0
0 1

15 If I =

2 1
1 0
1 1
and N =
. If MX = XN, show that X = k

.
0
2
1
2

0 0
The point of intersection of the lines 2x + 3y = a and x 2y = 5 is (7, 1). Use a matrix method to find a.
We10 The points (1, 3), (2, 5), (1, 1) and (3, 15) lie on the curve y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d. Establish the
equation of the curve.
Solve for x, y and z in terms of r.
rx + y + z = 1, 2x ry z = 3, 3x + 4y rz = 5
Solve for a, b, c and d.
a+b+c+d=0
a 2b + 3c + d = 7
2a + b 2c d = 1
3a + 2b + c 4d = 11
Show that the following equations have a unique solution only if b 1, 2.
x+y+z=3
x + by + z = 3b
2x + 4y + bz = 2
Tercell, the clothing shop in Church Street, sells 15 suits, 45 shirts and 43 ties per week. It has another
branch in High Street that sells 24 suits, 23 shirts and 37 ties per week. If the profit from each sale is
$100 per suit, $18 per shirt and $14 per tie, use a matrix method to calculate the total weekly profit
from the two shops.
Slapstick, Brush and Company manufactures four main brands of paint, which they mix up using four basic
ingredients urg, blog, slug and nog. The four main brands of paint are Quix, Runns, Splash and Thix.
Each litre of Quix requires 0.2 kg of urg, 0.5 kg of blog, 0.3 kg of slug and 1 kg of nog.
Each litre of Runns requires 0.1 kg of urg, 0.4 kg of blog, 0.7 kg of slug and 0.8 kg of nog.
Each litre of Splash requires 0.2 kg of urg, 0.7 kg of blog, 0.1 kg of slug and 1 kg of nog.
Each litre of Thix requires 1.0 kg of urg, 0.5 kg of blog, 0.3 kg of slug and 0.0 kg of nog.
Each week the company uses 2000 kg of urg, 1945 kg of blog, 1800 kg of slug and 3230 kg of nog.
Use a matrix method to find out how many litres of each paint the company produces per week.

16 M =
17
18
19
20

21

22

23

7d

matrices and transformations

Matrices can be used to describe transformations (translation, reflection, rotation and dilation) of points or
curves in the xy plane. The point (x, y) is the image of the point (x, y) following a sequence of transformations.

Translation

inTerACTiViTY
int-0266
matrices and
transformations

A point P (x, y) is moved to the point P (x, y) by translating a units in the positive direction of the
x-axis (right) and b units in the positive direction of the y-axis (up). A horizontal translation of a units
and a vertical translation of b units can be represented by:
x x' x a
(x, y) = (x + a, y + b) or T =
= y +
y
y' b

ChApTer 7 Matrices

325

Worked exAmpLe 11


The point (2, 3) is translated by the matrix 4 . Find the new coordinates of the point.
2
Think

WriTe

x x' x a
Use the formula T =
= y + .
y
y' b

x' 2
y' = +

Add the matrices to find the image point (x, y).

x' 2
y' =

1
(x, y) = (2, 1)

other transformations by matrix multiplication


It is useful to summarise the effects of various transformations as set out in the table below. Here we deal
with (2 2) matrices that cause a change in the position of a point. These can be done on calculators or
by hand, using the usual matrix multiplication techniques.
Matrix

What it does

Calculation

Change

1 0
0 1

Nothing

x x' 1 0 x x
T =
=
y = y
y
y' 0 1

0 1
1 0

Reflection in the line


y=x

x x' 0 1 x y
T =
=
y =
y
y' 1 0 x

0

1

Reflection in the line


y = x

x x' 0
T =
=
y
y' 1

Reflection in the
x-axis

x x' 1
T =
=
y
y' 0

1 0

0 1

Reflection in the
y-axis

x x' 1 0 x
T =
y =
=
y
y' 0 1

k 0
0 1

Dilation by factor k
from the y-axis

x x' k 0 x kx
T =
=
y = y
y

y' 0 1

(x, y) = (kx, y)

1 0
0 k

Dilation by factor k
from the x-axis

x x' 1 0 x x
T =
=
y = ky
y

y' 0 k

(x, y) = (x, ky)

Anticlockwise
rotation of A degrees
about the origin

x x' cos ( A)
T =
=
y
y' sin ( A)

cos ( A)

sin ( A)

326

( A)

cos ( A)

sin

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

x
=
0 y

0 x
y =
1

(x, y) = (y, x)

(x, y) = (y, x)

(x, y) = (x, y)

(x, y) = (x, y)

( A) x

cos ( A) y

sin

(x, y) = (x, y)

x = x cos (A) y sin (A)


y = x sin (A) + y cos (A)

Worked exAmpLe 12

The point (5, 1) is translated by the matrix

y = x. Find its new coordinates.

and then reflected in the line


5

Think
1

WriTe

Write the point (5, 1) in matrix form.

TUToriAL
eles-1431
Worked example 12

5
( 5, 1) =

x x' x a
Use the formula T =
= y +
y
y' b
to translate the point.

x' 5 3

+
y' =

1 5

Add the matrices to find the image point (x, y).

x' 8

y' =

6
(x, y) = (8, 6)

0 1
The reflection matrix in y = x is
from the
1 0
table.

x' 0 1 8 6
=

y' =

1 0 6 8

x x' 0 1 x
Use the formula T =
=
y
y
y' 1 0
to reflect the point.
5

The new point is (6, 8).

Write the answer.

Worked exAmpLe 13

Find the image of the point (3, 8) under 30 anticlockwise rotation about the origin.
Think

WriTe

Write the point (3, 8) in matrix form.

Use the rotation formula


x x' cos ( A)
T
=
=
y y' sin ( A)



where A is 30.

Evaluate using exact values.

Multiply the matrices.

Write the answer.

( A) x

,
cos ( A) y

sin

3
(3, 8) =
8

x' cos (30 )


y' =

sin (30 )

2
=
1

1
2
3
2

3 3

4
= 2

3
4 3+
2

(30 ) 3

cos (30 ) 8

sin

3
8

3 3
3
4, 4 3 + . As a
The new point is
2
2
decimal approximation, the point is
(1.40, 8.43).

ChApTer 7 Matrices

327

exercise 7d

matrices and transformations


Find the new coordinates of the point P (3, 2) after the following transformations.

1 We11,12

0 1

c 1 0
b 1 0 followed by 3

1 0
0 2
2
0 1
d Reflection in the y-axis
e Translation of 6 units to the left and 4 units upwards, followed by reflection in the x-axis
a

Find the new coordinates of Q (m, n) after the following transformations.

0 1
followed by reflection in the line y = x
1 0
2n
b Reflection in the line y = x followed by a translation of

3m
3 Two transformations as shown are applied to the point M (x, y).
a Reflection by the matrix

3 0 0 1 x
0 1 1 0 y

a Find the single (2 2) matrix that can be used to describe the combined transformations.
b If M is the point (1, 0), find its new coordinates after the transformations.
4 Write the matrices for the following rotations about O.
a 90 clockwise
b 180 clockwise
d 360 clockwise
e 90 anticlockwise
g 120 clockwise
h 150 anticlockwise
j 120 anticlockwise

c 270 clockwise
f 45 anticlockwise
i 300 clockwise

5 mC Consider the point (3, 5).


a The image of this point after a reflection through the line y = x followed by a rotation of 180

anticlockwise is:
d (5, 3)
A (5, 3)
B (3, 5)
C (5, 3)
b
The image of the point (3, 5) after a rotation of 270 clockwise followed by
4
a translation of is:
2
A (1, 3)

B (9, 5)

c The image of the point

C (7, 1)

d (1, 1)

e (3, 5)

e (6, 4)

(3, 5)

after a reflection in the y-axis, followed by a reflection in the


x-axis and then an anticlockwise rotation of 45 is:
A (

2, 2 2)

d ( 4 2,

2)

B (

2, 4 2)

C (2 2, 2 2)

2, 4 2)
e (

6 mC The point (x, y) is dilated by a factor of 3 from the x-axis, then reflected in the line y = x and then

translated 2 units to the left and 1 unit down. The coordinates of the final point are:
B (3x + 2, y 1)
C (y 2, 3x + 1)

d ( 2 + 3y, 1 + x)
e (y + 2, 3x + 1)
A (3x 2, y 1)

7 a Combine a dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis and factor 3 from the y-axis to find the new

coordinates of the square (0, 0), (1, 0), (1, 1), (0, 1).

b Write down the single (2 2) matrix for the combined dilations.


c Write down the single matrix that would represent dilations of factor n from both the x-axis and

the y-axis.
8 The point P (a, b) is subjected to a sequence of transformations as follows:

a dilation of 2 away from the y-axis


a translation of 5 to the left and 3 downwards
a reflection in the x-axis
a reflection in the line y = x.
Find the new coordinates of P after all of the above transformations have been completed in the
given order, using matrix methods.
328

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

9 We13 Find the images of each of the following points under each of the anticlockwise rotations, iv.
a A (4, 0)
i 30

b B (5, 4)
ii 45

c C (3, 6)
iii 90

d D (0, 9)
iv 180

60

10 Find the image of the point (7, 2) after a rotation of 270 anticlockwise followed by a translation

2
of .
4
11 The triangle ABC, with vertices A (2, 1), B (4, 0) and C (5, 2), is rotated by a clockwise rotation of
45 (i.e. an anticlockwise rotation of 45).
a Find the new coordinates (A, B and C) of the rotated triangle.
b Compare the area of triangle ABC to that of triangle ABC.
12 Consider the point A (a, b).
a Is an anticlockwise rotation of 30 equivalent to a reflection in the line y = x followed by a
clockwise rotation of 60? Give reasons for your answer.
b Is a reflection in the x-axis followed by an anticlockwise rotation of 45 equivalent to a
transformation by the identity matrix? Give reasons for your answer.
13 The point P (3, 4) is transformed to become the point P ( 2 3, 13).
a Prove that this transformation represents an anticlockwise rotation of about the origin.
b Calculate the value of in degrees.

ChApTer 7 Matrices

329

Summary
Addition and
subtraction of matrices

Matrix definitions:
A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers arranged in rows and columns.
An m n matrix has m rows and n columns.
The individual entries in the matrix are called the elements of the matrix.
Operations with matrices:
Addition and subtraction of matrices are performed by adding or subtracting corresponding
elements.
Addition and subtraction can be performed only if the matrices are of the same order.
Scalar multiplication is performed by multiplying every element of the matrix by the scalar.
x y ax ay
a
=

p q ap aq
The Commutative Law holds: A + B = B + A
The Associative Law holds: A + B + C = (A + B) + C = A + (B + C )

multiplying matrices

Matrices are multiplied in the following way.


b11 b12
a11 a12
In general, if A =
,
and B =
b21 b22
a21 a22
a11 b11 + a12 b21 a11 b12 + a12 b22
then A B =
.
a21 b11 + a22 b21 a21 b12 + a22 b22
The orders are (m n) (n p) = (m p).
Matrix multiplication is not usually commutative. That is, AB BA.

Solving matrix
equations

I is the multiplicative identity matrix, where AI = IA = A and A is a square matrix.


The multiplicative inverse of matrix A is A 1, and A A 1 = A 1 A = I.

a b
1 d b
If A =
, then its inverse is A 1 =

ad bc c a
c d
The number (ad bc) is called the determinant of the matrix A and is written as det (A) or |A|.
If det (A) = 0, then A 1 does not exist and A is said to be singular.

matrices and
transformations

Matrices can be used to represent transformations of points in the xy plane.


A horizontal translation of a units and a vertical translation of b units can be represented by
(x, y) = (x + a, y + b)
x x' x a
or T =
= y + .
y
y' b
Pre-multiplying by a (2 2) matrix causes a change of the position of a point. For example,
0 1
pre-multiplying by
causes a reflection in the line y = x.
1 0
x x' 0 1 x y
T =
=
y =
y
y' 1 0 x
An anticlockwise rotation about the origin can be represented by
x x' cos ( A)
T =
=
y
y' sin ( A)

330

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

( A) x

cos ( A) y

sin

, where A is the angle of rotation.

Chapter review
1 State the order of:

1
0
8
4

1
2

2 Find the matrix D such that

1
2
4
0
4

2
5
0
5
1

S ho rT
A n S W er

3
1

D = 5
0
3

0
.

3 x
= . Find x and y.
1 y

4 A=

1
2


and B = [1 0 4 1]. Evaluate:
0
3

5 P=
, Q = [0
1

3] and R = [0 2

a PQ

1].

a AB

Evaluate:

b QP

6 Find the inverse of

b BA

c PR

d P(Q + R)

.
6

x y
, show that AA1 = I.
2 3
8 Solve for x, y, and z.
7 For A =

2x 3y + z = 3
+ y 2z = 1
xyz=6

3x

9 Find the new coordinates of the point R(p, q) after reflection in the x-axis followed by a translation

of a .
b

10 The point (3, 2) is dilated from the y-axis. Its new coordinates are (6, 2). Write down the (22) dilation
matrix.
11 The point A (1, 2) is rotated clockwise about the origin through an angle of 60. Find the new

coordinates of A in exact form.


2 1
0 1

12 M =
. Find MN(NM) 1.
, N =

1 4

3 5
1 4
0

13 P = 2 0 , Q =

2
1 3

0 4 . Find (QP)1.

5 1

1 3
1
3 0
, C = .
, B =

2 0
2

4 1
a Find |A|.
b Find the inverse of C if it exists.

14 A =

c Calculate BC.
ChApTer 7 Matrices

331

3
2

0
, find P2 2P. Hence, express the inverse of P in terms of P.

15 If P =

3
0

m U LT ip L e
C h oiCe

5 c
, N =
. M and N commute under multiplication. Evaluate c.

0 3

5
3

16 M =

5

2 3
0 2

equals:

A 2, 3, 0

3 2[5
A

6]

[4


= 6
0

2 If 3

3 [2

9]

2
1

4 If A =

5
2

9
, x, y and z are respectively equal to:

B 2, 3, 0

1]

equals:

B [16

15]

C 6, 9, 4

d 6, 9, 0

e 2, 3, 4

C [4

d [16

e [4

15]

9]

9]

and B = [3 0], AB equals:

B 4

4
C 5

4
B 1

6
A 5

C [6]

d [5]

6 0

3 0

1 2 2
, M 2M equals:
4 0

5 If M =

12

d 3

B 11

12

12

C 7
4

3
A (1 2)

B (2 3)

C (3 2)

d (2 1)

e (3 1)

B 7

C 5

d 6

e 4

C 4, 1

d 4, 1

e 1, 2

1
6 P = 2 , Q = [1 2] and R =

3

A 7

2
4

. The order of PQR is:

equals:

x +1

2
is singular if x equals:
3 x 4

B 1, 2
A 1, 2

332

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

1 2
is:
1 4

9 The inverse of

4
1

1 4

6 1
1

4
1

2 1

. The coordinates of the new point are:


1

A (0, 0)
C (0, 2)
B (4, 0)
d (4, 2)
e (0, 2)
1
11 The point (a, b) is reflected in the line y = x and then translated by the matrix
. Its new
coordinates are:
3
A (a 1, b + 3)
B (a + 1, b 3)
C (b + 1, a 3)
d (b 1, a + 3)
e (a + 1, b + 3)
10 The point (2, 1) is translated by the matrix

12 Reflection in the line y = x followed by a dilation of factor 2 from the y-axis is equivalent to pre-

multiplying by the single matrix:


1

2
0

A 0

B 0

0
2

1 0
0 2

0

1

13 The point (2, 1) is reflected in the y-axis followed by an anticlockwise rotation of 90 about the origin.

The coordinates of the image point are:


B (1, 2)

A (1, 2)

C (2, 1)

e (2, 1)

d (1, 2)

1
0

14 The coordinates of the image of (3, 4) under the transformation given by


A (3, 4)

B (3, 4)

C (3, 4)

0
are:
1

d (3, 4)

e (4, 3)
ex Ten d ed
r eS p o n S e

1 A and B are both square matrices.


a Show that A2 B2 = (A B)(A + B) only if A and B are commutative for multiplication.

1
9

b Use part a above to evaluate A2 B2, where A =

B
and
=

.
3

2 A and B are both (2 2) matrices.


a Show that (A + B)2 = A2 + 2AB + B2 only if A and B are commutative for multiplication.
b Use the matrices in question 1b to prove the result in question 2a numerically.
3 Potatoes cost $p per kg, carrots cost $q per kg, onions cost $r per kg and eggs cost $s per dozen.

George buys 14 kg of potatoes, 10 kg of carrots, 8 kg of onions and 2 dozen eggs for a total cost of $60.
Mary buys 10 kg of potatoes, 11 kg of carrots, 3 kg of onions and 5dozen eggs for a total cost of $52.
Cindy buys 4 kg of potatoes, 21 kg of carrots, 12 kg of onions and 1 dozen eggs for a total cost of $56.
Amy buys 15 kg of potatoes, 5 kg of carrots, 11kg of onions and 4 dozen eggs for a total cost of $69.
Establish a matrix equation and hence calculate the values of p, q, r and s.
a
4 a The point P (1, 3) is translated by the matrix
. Find its new coordinates.
b
b The new point is reflected in the line y = x. Find the new coordinates.
c This point is now rotated counterclockwise through 90 before being reflected in the x-axis. Find

the new coordinates.

d Find the transformation(s) needed to return the point found in part b to the point (1, 3).
ChApTer 7 Matrices

333

4 0
.
0 1
a Find the coordinates of the new vertices, calling them O, A and B.
b Has the area altered? If so, how?
c The new triangle is now reflected in the line y = x. Find the coordinates of the new vertices,
calling them O, A and B.
3
d Finally, OA B is translated by
. Find the final coordinates of the vertices.
1
3i 0
, where i2 = 1.
6 A=
i
2

3
a Find A 2A2.

b Find A 1.
1 0
2
3
4
c Show that A2 A 2I = (A 2I)(A + I), where I =
. Note: I = I = I = I etc.
0
1

7 Use a matrix method to solve the following simultaneous equations.


mx 3 y = 6
5 The triangle O (0, 0), A (2, 3), B (5, 4) is transformed by the matrix

2x + m2 y = 3
8 Use a matrix method to solve the following simultaneous equations.
a+b+c+d = 5
a + b c + d

= 5

8a + 4 b + 2c + d = 19

8a + 4 b 2c + d = 25

9 Tickets for a one-way trip on a Melbourne to Sydney passenger train can be purchased as either adult,

child (under 15 years old) or pensioner. The table below shows the number of passengers and the total
takings for three trips.
Number of adult
passengers
145
130
142

Number of child
passengers
103
110
115

Number of pensioner
passengers
121
90
80

Total takings ($)


20 260
18 400
19 200

a Let x equal the cost of an adults ticket. Let y equal the cost of a childs ticket. Let z equal the cost

of a pensioners ticket. Construct three equations in terms of x, y and z.

b Using matrices, express the equations in the form AX = B.

c Use your CAS calculator to find A 1.


d Use your CAS calculator to determine the costs of a train ticket for an adult, a child and a

pensioner.
10 Describe the transformation given by the following matrices. It may be helpful to use a graph and
consider the effect of the matrix on the points (a, b).
b

0 1

1 0

diGiTAL doC
doc-9772
Test Yourself
Chapter 7

334

1 0
1

a 0

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

0 1

1 0
0
1

1
0

0 1

3 0

0 3

ICT activities
Chapter opener
DIGITAL DOC
10 Quick Questions doc-9769: Warm up with ten quick questions on
matrices (page 309)

7A

Addition and subtraction of matrices

TUTORIALS
WE1 eles-1426: Watch a tutorial on showing that the Commutative
Law holds for two matrices (page 311)
WE3 eles-1427: Watch a tutorial on solving for variables in two
equivalent matrices (page 313)

7B

Multiplying matrices

TUTORIAL
WE5 eles-1428: Watch a tutorial on recognising the order of
matrices, and the products of two matrices if they exist (page 317)
DIGITAL DOC
WorkSHEET 7.1 doc-9770: Determine the order of a matrix, add,
subtract and multiply by a scalar and practise matrix multiplication
(page 318)

7C

Solving matrix equations

WE9 eles-1430: Watch a tutorial on using matrices to solve


simultaneous literal equations (page 322)
DIGITAL DOC
WorkSHEET 7.2 doc-9771: Calculate determinants and inverses of
matrices and solve matrix equations (page 324)

7D

Matrices and transformations

INTERACTIVITY
Matrices and transformations int-0266: Use the interactivity to
consolidate your understanding of matrices and transformations
(page 325)
TUTORIAL
WE12 eles-1431: Watch a tutorial on finding the new coordinates
of a point after translating then reflecting it in the line y = x
(page 327)

Chapter review
DIGITAL DOC
Test Yourself doc-9772: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your
progress (page 334)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

TUTORIALS
WE7 eles-1429: Watch a tutorial on using matrices to solve
simultaneous equations (page 321)

CHAPTER 7 Matrices

5_61_10586_MQ11_MMCAS_3E_07.indd 335

335

8/05/13 2:54 PM

Answers CHAPTER 7
mATriCeS
exercise 7A

matrices

1 A+ B =

4 1
= B+ A

2 3


5
2 a 1 6

2
1 3
c Does not exist.
5 7


1 3
3 1

[5 9 2 6
x = 1, y = 3
a 33
c 11
[4 6 3]

e
3
4
5
6

10 0
8
, NM =

10 4
0 10

7]
b 41
d 14

6 a

8 a [29]

b 6

8
c No

11
12
13
14

57.5 70
81.5
36.5

97.5 25.5 81
45

42 + 32 16

multiplying matrices
b Does not exist.

2 3

6 8

2 [13]

336

2
3

27

19

9
12

a AC, CA, CB
c None

13

7 x=

1
c
e
2

1
3

b Yes. ACB

1 0 1 2 1
45 3 1 2 2 5 3
2 6 7 18 6
Solving matrix equations
b 8
d 0
f 5x2

9
xy 6
4, 3
1 5
3 a 1

13

3 2

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

1
4

0.5
1.5

16

29

b x = 14, y = 7
d 7, 8

3p + 2
4p 9
,y= 2
2 p2 + 3
2p + 3

5 19
3

8 3, 3,

b [131 108 191 439 233]


exercise 7C

0.5

0.5

c x = 22 , y = 22

12

16

0
1

3
6

5 x = 3

17 a 80

1 2

1
e 1
3

59 92

23 36

6 a x= 7 ,y= 7

15
; a = 0.1, b = 0.3
10

4.50
16 a [1200 2367 4219]
b 1.95

2.45
c $20 352.20

1 a Does not exist.

28
d
1

D
C
B

= 54 68

8
0

1
4

c None

15
6

36.5 81

11

10 a

d 74.5

5 2 5

2 3 1

13 0
1
=I
= 13
0 13
4 a

15 16

12 3

90 115 140

c 149 163 73
195 51 162

17

1
1

13
3

60

12

60

c
108

50 65 80
b 87 76 45

95 37 89

6
5

40 50 60

12 a 62 87 28
100 14 73

2 x + 5 y 11
7
3 x + 2 y = 12

9 C
10 B
11 A

exercise 7B

2
4 ] does not exist.
1

13 15 10 + 7

1
2

1 1 5


1 13
3 2
13 0
=I
0 13

1
= 13

4 a MN =

10

e 70

12

1 15

22

x + 5 y 11
=

5 a
3 x + 4 y 5

b x + 5y = 11, 3x + 4y = 5
c x = 1, y = 2

7 p = 3 , q = 3, r = 3
8 [ 5

3 a

3 0
5

3 1 4
d Does not exist.

5 35

5 1
1 2

c R ( P + SQ ) does not exist.

Addition and subtraction of

9 E
10 E
11 D

12 I;

1
2

3
2

3
2

1
2

2 0 1 1

1 0 1 1

13

sin( )

sin( ) cos( )

p2 + q2 0
Check with your teacher.
a = 17
y = x3 2x2 + x + 3
r 2 7r + 2)
r 2 + 8r + 11
(3
x= 3
,
,y=
r + 9r + 5
r 3 + 9r + 5

2
5r + 9r 7
z= 3
r + 9r + 5
a = 1, b = 1, c = 2, d = 2
10
10
x=
, y = 3, z =
; unique solution
b+2
b+2
cos( )

14
15
16
17
18
19

20
21

if b 1 or 2.
If b = 2, division by 0
If b = 1, equations 1 and 2 become identical.
22 $2912 + $3332 = $6244
23 2834, 120, 1120, 1037

iii (9, 0)
iv (0, 9)

exercise 7d

matrices and transformations


b (6, 0)
c (3, 4)
1 a ( 2, 3)
d (3, 2)
e (3, 2)
2 a (m, n)
b (3n, 4m)

0 3
1 0

3 a

1
3

1
2

1
b B

1
1

3
3
5 a D
c E
6D
7 a (0, 0), (3, 0), (3, 2), (0, 2)
3 0
b

0 2
n 0

0 n
8 (3 b, 2a 5)
c

ii (2 2, 2 2)
iii (0, 4)

b i

2,

1
2

9
2

ii

iii

(4,

5
2

i
ii

5
2

9
2

5 3
2

3,
3

ChApTer reVieW

3
2

d i
ii

(
(

9
2

9 3
2

9
2

9
2

12

0
3

3 3
2

+3

1
5
9
13

d Impossible
6

y
=

x
2

3x 2 y
0
=
0
3x 2 y

12

37

8 x = 11 , y = 11 , z = 11
9 (a p, b q)

2 0
10

0 1
11

b [2]

6 4

5 2

1
2

+ 3,1

1
2

2
6
10
14

B
C
B
A

3 A
7 B
11 D

4 E
8 B
12 E

1 a (A B)(A + B) = A2 + AB BA B2 =

b [3]

C
B
E
A

exTended reSponSe

3
4

17

+ 3 3,

1 0
0 1 =I

iv (3, 6)
v

3 x 2 y

iii (6, 3)
3

y
1

2 3 3 x 2 y

+3 3

mULTipLe ChoiCe

2
2 1

3 x = 3 and y = 1

7 x

+2

1 a 41
b 52

2 6

1
27

16 c = 3

ShorT AnSWer

+ 2 3,
2

5)

3 3

+2 3

iv (5, 4)
v

)
)

5 a

3)

5 3
2

0 6

0 3
0 4 2
c

0 2 1

iv (4, 0)
v (2,

2
3
2

b
moves. Only if tan 1 = 22.5 would
a
this be true.
13 a OP = 5 = OP. The transformation could
be a rotation (in this case anticlockwise)
about the origin. (It could also be a
translation, but that is not the question.)
b 80.72

2
4 a
0

9 a i (2 3, 2)

7
2

b Areas are the same.


12 a No. Single matrix combined matrices.
b No. Under the identity matrix nothing

3)

(
C' = (

9 3 9
,
2
2

3
, B' = ( 2 2, 2 2)
11 a A' = 1 ,

1 0

0 1

0
e
1
g

1
b
0

0
1

10 (0,

b (0, 1)

0 1
4 a

1 0

1 5 12
62 19
13 64

257
67
7 4

14 a | A | = 6
b C is not a square matrix. No inverse.
3
c BC =

2
15 P(P 2) = 3I
P2 1 1 0
=
The inverse of P is
.
3
3 2 3

12

A2 B2 only if AB BA, i.e., if A and B


are commutative for multiplication.
54 12
b

6
42
a (A + B)(A + B) = A2 + AB + BA + B2 =
A2 + 2AB + B2 only if AB + BA = 2AB,
i.e., if A and B are commutative for
multiplication.
b Not equal
p = 2, q = 1, r = 2 and s = 3
a (a + 1, b 3)
b (3 b, a 1)
c (1 + a, 3 + b)
d Translation by (a, b)
a O (0, 0), A (8, 3) and B (20, 4)
b Yes, by a factor of four. The new
triangle is now reflected in the line
y = x.
c O (0, 0), A (3, 8) and B (4, 20).
d The final coordinates of the vertices are
(3, 1), (0, 7) and (1, 21).

27i + 18
0

a A3 2A2 =

14 8i
14 8i

i
0

1
b A 1=

2
3
i

c A2 A 2I

3i 0 2 0
= 9 0

2 i 0 2
4i 1

0
3i

4i 2 i 3

11

(A 2I )(A + I )
3i 2
= 2

0 3i + 1

i2 2

i +1

0
3i

4i 2 i 3

11

ChApTer 7 Matrices

337

x
1 6m 2 + 9
= 3

y
m
+ 6 3m 12

2
1

=
3
1

9 a 145x + 103y + 121z = 20 260


130x + 110y + 90z = 18 400
142x + 115y + 80z = 19 200
145 103 121 x 20 260


b 130 110 90
y = 18 400

19 200

142 115 80 z

338

a
b
c
d

145 103 121


c 130 110 90

142 115 80
155 1135 101
6068 12 136 1517

= 119 2791 67
3034 30 340 1517
67 2049 64

6068 60 680 1517


d $70 for an adults ticket, $50 for a
pensioners and $35 for a childs.
10 a None
b Rotation through 180
c Reflection in the x-axis

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

Reflection in the y-axis


Reflection in the line y = x
Clockwise rotation of 90
Reflection in the line y = x
Dilation by a factor 3 from both the
x-axis and the y-axis
i Dilation by a factor 3 from both the
x-axis and the y-axis and rotation
through 180
j Anticlockwise rotation of 90
d
e
f
g
h

Exam practice 3 CHAPTERS 17


S ho rT
A n S W er

3
1
1 Let A =
.

2
2
a Determine det (A)

b Hence, find A 1.

20 minutes

1 mark
2 marks

3 2
and A =

1 2

2 Let B =
a B+A
b AB
c

1
2

. Determine the following.

4
2 0

2 marks
3 marks

A 2B

3 marks

3 The point P (4, 2) has been dilated by a factor of k from the y-axis to form a new

coordinate P. The new coordinate of P is (4, 4).

a Show that k = 1.

2 marks

b P is now translated by the matrix

to form a new coordinate R. The coordinates

of R are (2a, b 1). Determine the value of a and b.


1
1 Let C =
3

a
1

A 3
d

2 marks

m U LTip L e
C ho iC e

. If C is a singular matrix, then the value of a would be:

1
B
C 0
3

1
3

10 minutes

each question is worth


one mark.

e 3

2 The point (1, 4) has been translated by the matrix

a
. If the coordinates of the new point are
b

(1, 2), then the values of a and b would be:


A a = 2, b = 1
B a = 2, b = 2
2

d a = 1, b = 1

C a = 2, b = 2

e a = 1, b = 2

3 A is a matrix of order m n, B is a matrix of order p n and C is a matrix of order n p. Which one of

the following is correct?


(AB)C would result in a matrix of order m n.
A + C would result in a matrix of order (m + n) (n + p).
BC would result in a matrix of order n p.
(AC)B would result in a matrix of order m n.
(BA)C would result in a matrix of order p (nm) p.

A
B
C
d
e

4 Which one of the following matrix equations would provide a solution to the simultaneous equations

x 2y = 3, 3y 2z = 1 and 3x + 4z = 2?
x 3 1

A y = 1 = 3


z 2 3
x 1


d
y = 3
z 3

2

2
4

x 1


2 B y = 0

z 3
2

e
1
2

3 2

0 4

x 3 1

y =
1 0
z 2 3

3 2
0 4

x 1


C y = 3
z 3

2
4

1
2

Exam practice 3

339

e x T ended
r e SponS e
35 minutes

1 A triangle ABC has been transformed by a factor of 3 from the x-axis and a reflection in the line y = x.

The transformed triangle has vertices A, B and C.


a i Write down the (2 2) matrix that can be used to describe a dilation by a factor of 3 from the
x-axis.
ii Write down the (2 2) matrix that can be used to describe a reflection in the line y = x.
iii Hence, write down the (2 2) matrix that can be used to describe the combined
transformations.
1+1+1 = 3 marks
b A has coordinates (2, 3). Using your matrix from part a iii, determine the coordinates of A.
2 marks
c The triangle ABC is rotated anticlockwise by 90 to form three new vertices, A, B and C.
i Write down the (2 2) matrix to describe this transformation.
ii Hence, determine the coordinates of B if B is (5, 3).
1+1 = 2 marks
2 Jim owns a garden centre. He sells four varieties of fruit trees: apple, plum, nectarine and cherry. He

recorded the number of each tree he sold over a four-week period during spring.
In the first week, he sold 4 apple trees, 2 plum trees, 3 nectarine trees and no cherry trees. In the
second week, he sold 2 apple trees, 1 plum tree, 3 cherry trees and no nectarine trees. In the third
week, he did not sell any plum or apple trees but he did sell 2 nectarine trees and 1 cherry tree.
During the fourth week, Jims assistant did not record the number of plum trees sold. He did
record that he sold 2 apple trees and 3 cherry trees but did not sell any nectarine trees. Let the unit
cost, in dollars, of each type of tree sold be represented by the following variables:
e = cost of an apple tree f = cost of a plum tree g = cost of a nectarine tree h = cost of a cherry tree.
a Write a (1 4) matrix to record the number of apple, plum, nectarine and cherry trees sold in the
first week.
1 mark
b The (4 1) matrix C below shows the unit price, in dollars, of each type of fruit tree.

diGiTAL doC
doc-10163
Solutions
exam practice 3

340

e
f

C=
g

h
1 mark
Using the matrix above, write the cost of 3 cherry trees.
c The matrices W3 and C show the number of trees sold in the third week and the unit cost of each tree.
e
f

W3 C = 0 0 2 1
g

h
i Write the order of the product of W3C.
1 mark
ii In the context of this problem, what would the matrix W3C determine?
1 mark
d The number of trees sold over weeks 2 to 4 can be represented in the following matrix, T.
2 1 0 3
T = 0 0 2 1
2 p 0 3
where p is the number of plum trees sold during the fourth week.
By adding in your matrix from part a, write down the matrix that represents the total number of
fruit trees sold over the four-week period.
1 mark
The unit cost of a plum tree is $16.50. The amount of money Jim earns from selling the fruit trees for
each of the first three weeks is $195.30, $175.35, $74.65 and ($158.85 + the money from the selling
of p plum trees) respectively.
e Write down a matrix, A, that shows the amount Jim earned over the four-week period.
1 mark
f Set up a matrix equation that would determine the unknown values of e, g, h and p.
2 marks
g Using an appropriate method, solve the matrix equation to find the unit cost of an apple
tree, a nectarine tree and a cherry tree.
3 marks
h The amount of money collected from selling the fruit trees during the fourth week was
$208.35. Determine the number of plum trees that were sold during the fourth week.
1 mark

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

ChapTer 8

Rates of change
diGiTal doC
doc-9773
10 Quick Questions

ChapTer ConTenTS
8a
8B
8C
8d
8e
8F
8G
8h
8i

Identifying rates
Constant rates
Variable rates
Average rates of change
Instantaneous rates
Motion graphs (kinematics)
Relating the gradient function to the original function
Relating velocitytime graphs to positiontime graphs
Rates of change of polynomials

8a

identifying rates

In any subject dealing with things that move, grow or change it is often important to know the rate
(speed) with which quantities change. An example is the amount of water a city consumes per year.
Knowing this rate is important so that measures can be taken to ensure there are adequate supplies of
water stored in dams or reservoirs.
Rates describe how much one quantity
changes with respect to another.
Example 1. The speed of a car is 70km/h.
This rate is read as 70 kilometres per
hour, meaning that the car will travel
70kilometres in an hour.
Example 2. The council rates for a
household are $560 per year.
As with many rates, examples 1 and 2
involve time as the second variable. But this
is not always the case.
Example 3. The price of petrol is $1.129 per
litre. This rate means that the petrol will cost
112.9 cents for every litre purchased.
Rates usually have units associated with
them but not always.
1
Example 4. The gradient of a road is 25 . This rate is read as 1 in 25 and means the road rises one unit
vertically for every 25 units in length (horizontally). This is often expressed as a percentage, i.e. a 4%
grade in this case.
Road

25

In general, for two quantities A and B:


Rate of change of A with respect to B = amount of A per B
change in A
.
=
change in B
ChapTer 8 Rates of change

341

Worked example 1

Which of the following represent a rate?


a 20 m/s
b 75 ents
c
pe
r pac
ket

c $13

Think

WriTe

a 20 m/s is a rate as it compares distance and time. A

a 20 m/s is a rate.

distance of 20 metres is travelled each second.


b 75 cents per packet is a rate as it compares cost and

b 75 cents per packet is a rate.

quantity of items. There is a cost of 75 cents for every


packet.
c $13 is not a rate as there is only one quantity.

e $13 is not a rate.

Worked example 2

A car travels 259 kilometres using 35 litres of petrol. Express this rate in km/L.
Think

WriTe

distance travelled
amount of petrol used

Rate =

259 km
35 L

Divide 259 by 35 to compare the number of kilometres


travelled for each 1 litre of petrol.

7.4 km
1L

Express as a simplified rate.

= 7.4 km/L

Rate =

Note: Petrol consumption is usually expressed in L/100 km.


35
In this case, that would be
100 = 13.5 L/100 km.
259

exercise 8a

identifying rates

1 We1
Which of the following represent a rate?
a 100 km/h
b $140 per week
d 80 beats per minute
e $2.75
g 25 kg
h 10 000 litre s
j 18 degrees
k 1.4% per quarter
m 5 per person
n A gradient of 0.8
p Cars per hour
2
a
B
C
d
e
F
G
h
i

342

c
f
i
l
o

64%
$35.90 per m2
$11.00 per dozen
33
3.4

Match each of the rates you identified in question 1 to the most appropriate description below.
The rental fee for a house
The slope of a buildings roof
The speed of a car
The number of cards dealt in a game of poker
The cost of oysters at a restaurant
The pulse rate of a person walking
The number of cars entering a car park
The price of carpet
The inflation rate one year ago

A horseriding school wishes to organise four-day riding treks for a group of twelve people. The
following arrangements are made.
a Each day the group will ride off at 9 am.
b They will travel 20 km each day.
c There will be four rest stops per day.
d Each person must bring sleeping gear.
e They will sleep two people per tent.
f Meals will be supplied.
g The cost will be $200 per person.
h Three spare horses will be taken.
Which of these arrangements represent a rate?

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

4 Find the cost of the following items.


a 5 dozen eggs at $2.12 per dozen
c 27 hours of work at $11.25 per hour
e 3.8 m3 of sand at $19.75 per m3

b 42.5 litres of petrol at 73.9 cents per litre


d 4.9 kg of oranges at $1.14 per kg
f 55 427 people at $11 per person

5 mC Francis delivers 440 pamphlets in 2 hours and earns $5 per 100pamphlets delivered.
a The rate of delivery of pamphlets per hour is:
a 220
B 20
C 880
d 440
e 2.5
b How long will it take Francis to earn $55?
a 4 hours
B 4 hours, 20 mins
C 5 hours
d 6 hours
e 3 hours
6 We2 Express the following as the rate indicated in the brackets.
a Running 100 m in 12 seconds
(m/s)
b A rise of 21 C in 6 hours
(C/h)
c A meal costing $250 for 10 people
($/person)
d 2.34 kg of washing powder added to 9 litres of water
(g/L)
e 32 m2 of lawn costing $149.50
($/m2)
f Losing 12.76 kg in 11 weeks
(kg/week)

diGiTal doC
doc-9774
SkillSHEET 8.1
introduction to rates of
change

7 A 100-litre tank filled with water is leaking water at the rate of 2.5 litres per hour.
a How long will it take for the tank to be half full?

Once it is half full, water is added to the tank at the rate of 3 litres per hour.
b How much longer will it take until the tank is full again?
c mC Which of the graphs below correctly shows the volume of water in the tank, v litres, as a
function of time, t hours?
a

100

100

50

50

50

120 t

20

120 t

20

120 t

20

120 t

100

100

50

50
100120 t

8B

100

20
d

Constant rates

When the rate of change of one quantity with respect to another does not alter, the rate is constant.
For example, if petrol is $1.60 per litre, then every litre of petrol purchased at this rate always costs
$1.60. This means 10 litres of petrol would cost $16.00 and 100 litres of petrol would cost $160.00.
Calculating the gradient from the graph:
rise
run
$(160 16)
=
(100 10) litres
$144
=
90 litres

Gradient =

$1.60
1litre

Price ($)

160

16
10

100

= $1.60/litre
Number of litres (L)
= rate
That is, the gradient of this graph represents a rate.
A straight line graph shows that the rate of change between two quantities is constant.

ChapTer 8 Rates of change

343

Worked example 3

The graph shown represents the height, H, in metres (m) of a hot


air balloon and time, T, in hours (h) after it is launched from a
mountain top. Use the graph to find:
a the gradient
b the rate of change
c the rule for height as a function of time.

Height (m)

1100

500

Time (h)
Think

a Use the gradient of a straight line, m =

WriTe

rise
.
run

b Rate of change is the same as the gradient. Include

appropriate units.
c As the graph is a straight line, express the rule in the

form y = mx + c.
Remember that m is the gradient and c is the
y-intercept.

1100 500
5 0
600
=
= 120
5

a Gradient =

b Rate of change = 120 m/h


c The rule is of the form H = mT + c where

m = 20 and c = 500.
H = 120T + 500

Worked example 4

The table below shows the number of people, N, left inside an office building Tminutes after the
alarm goes during a fire drill.
a Show that the relationship is linear.
T
0
1
2
3
4
b Find the rate of change.
N
140 105
70
35
0
c Express N as a function of T.
Think

a 1 Plot the graph of the points given.

WriTe/draW

N
140
105
70
35
1

Check whether the points are collinear, that is,


whether they lie on a straight line.

b 1 Calculate the gradient, m.

Use the gradient to state the rate of change. Include


the appropriate units.

c Express the rule in the form y = mx + c where m = 35

and c = 140. Use N and T instead of y and x.

344

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

A straight-line graph was produced, so


the relationship is linear.
0 140
40
140
=
= 35
4
Rate of change = 35 people/min
The number of people left inside the
building is decreasing at a constant rate.

bm=

c The rule is N = 35T + 140.

exercise 8B
1
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
j
k
2

Which of the following rates are constant?


A persons pulse rate when running 3 km
The rate of growth of Australias population
A persons pulse rate when lying down
The daily hire rate of a certain car
The rate of growth of a baby
The rate of temperature change during the day
The commission rate of pay of a salesperson
The rate at which the Earth spins on its axis
The rate at which students arrive at school in the morning
The rate at which water runs into a bath when the tap is left on
The number of hours of daylight per day
Which of the following graphs show a constant rate of change?

0
g

0
j

0
f

0
3

0
i

0
e

Constant rates

0
h

For the constant rates of change found in question 2, which of these rates are:
i positive?
ii negative?
iii zero?

The distance travelled by a car is shown in this graph.


The graph shows that the car is:
a slowing down
B speeding up
C travelling uphill
d travelling at constant speed
e stationary
5 mC
The volume of water, v litres, in a container is shown as
a function of time, t minutes, in the graph. The rate of change of
water in the container is:
a 2 L/min
B 8 L/min
C 2 L/min
d 8 L/min
e 0 L/min

Distance (metres)

4 mC

Time (hours)

v (litres)
18
10

t (min)

ChapTer 8 Rates of change

345

6 We3
For each of the functions graphed below, state:
i the gradient
ii the rate of change
iii the rule.
a d (m)
b v (litres)
260

200

0
c

50
4

t (h)

0
d

w (kg)
100

30

t (min)

h (m)
75

60

0
e

40

t (weeks)
f

w (g)
16

t (years)

10

w (g)
30

10

5
0

t (min)

120 v (litres)

20

7 mC Water is being pumped out of a swimming pool holding 30 000 litres at a constant rate. It takes

25 minutes to remove 1000 litres of water.


a The rate of change of the volume of water in the pool is:
a 400 L/min
B 1200 L/min
e 40 L/min
d 40 L/min
b The time taken to empty the pool is:
a 12 hours, 5 minutes
B 12 hours, 30 minutes
d 2 days
e 18 hours
8

1200

C 6 hours, 30 minutes

The number of crates of fruit picked by a fruit-picker over the course of a day is shown in the graph.

Number of crates

13

7
6

5 pm

11 am
12 pm
1 pm

8 am

0
Time

If the fruit-picker is paid $12 per crate, answer the following.


a What is the rate of pay per hour in the first 3 hours?
b Explain what probably happened between 12 pm and 1 pm.
c What is the rate of pay per hour in the last 4 hours?
d Suggest two possible reasons why the line is not as steep in the afternoon.
e How much is earned for the day?
346

L/min

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

9 An athlete runs at a constant speed of 6 m/s for the first 420 m of a race. The next 400 m are run at a

constant speed of 5 m/s and the final 180 m at a constant speed of 6 m/s.
a How far is the race?
b How long does it take to run the first 420 m?
c How long does it take to run the next 400 m?
d How long does it take to run the final 180 m?
e Sketch the graph of distance, D metres, versus time, T seconds.
10 We4
A spring is stretched a distance x cm beyond its natural length when a weight of W kg is
attached to one end as shown in the following table.
x

10

15

20

25

diGiTal doC
doc-9775
plotting relations

a Show that there is a linear relationship between the variables.


b What is the rate of change of W with respect to x?
c Express W as a function of x.

A bucket contains 40 litres of water when it starts leaking through a hole in the bottom, such that the
volume of water, V litres, in the bucket at any time, t hours, is given by the rule V = 40 6t.
a At what constant rate, in litres/hour, is the water leaking?
b How long will it take for the bucket to be empty?
12
Water is poured at a constant rate into the vessels a, b, c and d shown below.
11

Match the appropriate graph below, representing height of water, h, at any time, t, with each vessel
above.
i

ii

8C

iii h

Variable rates

If a rate is not constant (is changing), then it must be a variable rate.


For example, the amount of electricity used per hour by a household
is most likely to be a variable rate as the need for electricity will change
throughout the day.
Graphically, a variable rate will not be linear, because the gradient
(or rate of change) is not constant.
The distancetime graph at right shows a variable rate between t = 0
and t = 3, because the gradient is changing over this interval. However,
it shows a constant rate between t=0 and t = 1; t = 1 and t = 2; and t = 2
and t=3, because the gradient is not changing over these intervals.
Relationships that give curves when graphed show that the rate of
change is continually changing; that is, a variable rate exists.

iv h

ChapTer 8 Rates of change

347

Worked example 5

Consider the graph shown.


For each interval, state whether:
a the rate of change is constant or variable
b the rate of change is positive, negative or zero.

C
TUTorial
eles-1432
Worked example 5

A
Think

WriTe

a Consider whether the graph is linear for each

a Interval AB: variable rate of change

interval. The rate of change is constant if the


graph is linear; otherwise it is variable.

Interval BC: constant rate of change


Interval CD: constant rate of change

b Since the gradient of the graph gives a measure

of the rate of change, consider whether the


gradient is positive, negative or zero in each
interval.

exercise 8C
1
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
2

b Interval AB: positive rate of change

Interval BC: zero rate of change


Interval CD: negative rate of change

Variable rates

List which of the following rates are variable.


The pulse rate of a person watching a horror movie
The cost per kilogram of tomatoes at the local greengrocer today
The speed of a car travelling through the city
The cost per kilogram of tomatoes at the local greengrocer during the year
The number of hours of sunlight per day
The hourly rate of a receptionist
The hourly rate of a private taxi driver
The speed of a marble rolling down an incline
Which of the following graphs show variable rates of change between points A and B?
b

B
A
A

B
A

348

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

The graph at right shows how the distance of a


runner from the starting line changes over the duration of
a race.
100
For the graph shown, state whether:
a the rate of change is constant or variable
50
b the rate of change is positive or negative.
A
c mC The rate of change of distance with respect to
time is greatest at point:
a A
B B
C C
d D
e E
d The runner is travelling slowest (but still moving) at point:
a A
B B
C C
d D
e E
e At point E, the runner is:
a moving very fast
B speeding up
d not moving
e just beginning to move

3 We5

Distance (m)

D
C
B
6
Time (s)

12

C slowing down

The following table shows how weight, W (kg) varies with time, t (min), for a particular box as it is
filled.
t (min)
W (kg)
a
b
c
d

0
0

1
3

2
6

3
9

4
12

Plot a graph of W versus t.


What do you notice about the plotted points?
Is the rate of change variable or constant?
What is the rate of change in kg/min?
The following table also shows weight, W (kg), varying with time, t (min).
t (min)
W (kg)

0
2

1
4

2
7

3
11

4
18

Plot these points on a graph.


Do these points form a straight line?
Is the rate of change variable or constant?
What is the rate of change during:
i the first minute?
ii the second minute?
iii the fourth minute?
6
The following tables of values show distance travelled, d km, at various times, t hours. Decide
whether the rate of change of distance with respect to time appears constant or variable.
a
b
c
d

8d

t
d

0
0

1
5

2
10

3
15

4
20

t
d

0
0

1
15

2
20

3
45

4
80

diGiTal doC
doc-9775
plotting relations

average rates of change

If a rate is variable, it is sometimes useful to know the average rate of change over a specified interval.
For example, a tree grew from 6.2 m this time last year to 6.75 m now.
The trees average rate of growth =

change in height
change in time

(6.75 6.2) m
1 year
= 0.55 m/year
=

This means that the tree grew by 0.55 metres over the past year but not necessarily constantly at that
rate during the year.
ChapTer 8 Rates of change

349

Worked example 6

Calculate the average rate of change between points P and Q marked on the graph.
Q

Distance (m)

48
P

30

Think

Time (s)

WriTe

48 30 18
=
= 3.6
5
72

Find the gradient of the chord PQ.

Gradient of PQ =

Use the gradient to state the average rate of


change. Include the appropriate units.

Average rate of change = 3.6 m/s

Worked example 7

Find the average rate of change of height between t = 1 and t = 3 from the table below.
t (min)

h (m)

20

60

90

130

140

145

Think

Calculate the average rate of change of height


with respect to time by considering the change
in each quantity. When the time changes from
t = 1 min to t = 3 min, the height changes from
60 m to 130 m.

WriTe

Average rate of change of height


change in height
=
change in time
(130 60) m
=
(3 1) min
70 m
=
2 min
= 35 m/min

Worked example 8

Over a period of 6 hours, the temperature of a room is described by the


function T(h) = h2 4h + 22, where T is the temperature in degrees
Celsius after h hours.
a What is the initial temperature of the room?
b Sketch the graph of the function over the given time interval.
c Draw a chord between the points where h = 1 and h = 5.
d What is the gradient of this chord?
e What is the average rate of change of temperature between h = 1 and h = 5?
Think

a The initial temperature is the temperature at the

start of the time period. Substitute h = 0 into the


function to find T(0).

350

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

WriTe/draW

a When h = 0, T(0) = 0 0 + 22

= 22
The initial temperature is 22 C.

TUTorial
eles-1433
Worked example 8

b 1 To find the turning point, let h =

b
.
2a

T (2) = 4 8 + 22
= 18
The turning point of the parabola is (2, 18).

Evaluate T (2).

c 1 Find the required points:

c T (C)
27

T(1) = 12 4(1) + 22 = 19
T(5) = 52 4(5) + 22 = 27.

Indicate the points (1, 19) and (5, 27) on


the graph and join with a straight line.
rise
and the points (1, 19)
Use gradient =
run
and (5, 27).

Use the gradient to state the average rate of


change. Include appropriate units.

exercise 8d

18

(2, 18)
1

5 H (hours)

27 19
51
8
=
4
=2

d Gradient =

e The average rate of change is 2 C/h.

average rates of change


b

y
8

y
10

0
2

diGiTal doC
doc-9776
SkillSHEET 8.2
Gradient of a
straight line

0
2

19

(5, 27)

22 (1, 19)

Calculate the average rate of change between the points P and Q marked on each graph.

1 We6
a

b
2a
4
=
2
=2

bh=

Which of the following graphs have a straight line drawn that can aid in finding the average rate of
change over a specified interval?
a

0
c

0
d

ChapTer 8 Rates of change

351

For each of the distancetime graphs below:

i draw a chord to the graph for the interval t = 1 to t = 3


ii find the gradient of this chord
iii hence, find the average speed from t = 1 to t = 3.
a d (km)
b d (km)
70
70
50

10
0
c

t (h)

d (km)
70

t (h)

t (h)

t (h)

d (km)
70
60

40

0
e

t (h)

d (km)
70

d (km)
90
70

0
4

t (h)

The graph at right represents the weight of a non-uniform beam,


W (kg), versus its length, L (m).
a Find the gradient of the chord to the graph for the interval L = 5
and L = 20.
b Find the gradient of the chord from L = 15 and L = 20.
c What is the average rate of change between:
i L = 5 and L = 20?
ii L = 15 and L = 20?
d Are these rates the same? Explain your answer.

W (kg)
32.5
30

10
0

Consider the graph at right. The chord with the highest


gradient is the one from point 0 to point number:
a 4
B 3
C 2
d 1
e 5

5 10 15 20 L (m)

5 mC

0
6

The total number of people at the zoo at various times of the day is shown in the table below.
am
T (time of day)
N (number of
people at the zoo)

10.00
0

pm
11.00
200

a Plot the graph of N versus T.


b Draw chords to the graph for the interval:
i 10.00 am to 1.00 pm
ii 1.00 pm to 3.00 pm
iii 3.00 pm to 5.00 pm.
352

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

12.00
360

1.00
510

2.00
540

3.00
550

4.00
550

5.00
550

c Find the gradient of each of these chords.


d What is the average rate of change from:
i 10.00 am to 1.00 pm?
ii 1.00 pm to 3.00 pm?
iii 3.00 pm to 5.00 pm?
e Briefly describe what these rates suggest about the number of people attending the zoo during the

course of the day.


The height, h metres, reached by a balloon released from ground level after t minutes is
shown in the table below.

7 We7

t (mins)
h (m)

0
0

2
220

4
360

6
450

8
480

10
490

a Without drawing the graph, find the average rate of change of height with respect to time

between:
i t = 0 and t = 2
ii t = 2 and t = 4
iii t = 4 and t = 6
iv t = 6 and t = 8
v t = 8 and t = 10.
b Is the average rate of change for each 2-minute interval increasing or decreasing?
8 We8 The temperature of an iron rod placed in a furnace is described by the function T(t) = t2 + 20

between t = 0 and t = 10.


T represents the temperature of the rod in degrees Celsius and t is the time in seconds.
a What is the initial temperature of the iron rod?
b Sketch the graph of the function over the given time interval.
c Draw a chord between the points where t = 2 and t = 8.
d What is the gradient of this chord?
e What is the average rate of change of temperature between t = 2 and t = 8?

9 The weight of a rabbit in its first eight weeks is described by the function W(t) = t3 3t2 + 200, where

W represents the weight of the rabbit in grams and t is the time in weeks.
a What is the weight of the rabbit at birth?
b What is the average rate of change of weight of the rabbit between:
i weeks 1 and 3?
ii weeks 1 and 2?
iii weeks 2 and 4?
iv weeks 2 and 6?

8e

diGiTal doCS
doc-9777
Gradient between
two points
doc-9778
WorkSHEET 8.1

instantaneous rates

If a rate is variable, it is often useful to know the rate of change at any given time or point, that is, the
instantaneous rate of change.
For example, a police radar gun is designed to give an instantaneous reading of a vehicles speed. This
enables the police to make an immediate decision as to whether a car is breaking the speed limit or not.
y

P
0

Tangent
x

Instantaneous rates can be found from a curved graph by:


1. drawing a tangent to the curve at the point in question
2. calculating the gradient of the tangent over an appropriate interval (that is, between two points whose
coordinates are easily identified).
Note: The gradient of the curve at a point, P, is defined as the gradient of the tangent at that point.
ChapTer 8 Rates of change

353

Worked example 9

a Use the following graph to find the gradient of the tangent

W (kg)

at the point where L = 10.


b Hence, find the instantaneous rate of change of weight, W,
with respect to length, L, when L = 10.

10
Think

WriTe/draW

a 1 Draw in the required tangent. Do this by eye

(estimation).
2

W (kg)
12

To find the gradient of the tangent, choose a


convenient interval (between the points where
L = 5 and L = 15).

8
4
0

Use gradient =

appropriate units.

10 15 20 L (m)

48
15 5
4
=
10
= 0.4

rise
.
run

b Use the gradient to state the rate of change. Include

Gradient =

b Rate = 0.4 kg/m

The weight is decreasing with respect to length


at a rate of 0.4 kg/m.

Worked example 10

a By plotting the graph of y = x2 2, find the instantaneous rate of change

where x = 1.

b Find the instantaneous rate of change of y = x2 1 at x = 2 using a calculator.


Think

a 1 Plot the graph.


2

Draw a tangent to the curve at the point where


x = 1. Do this by eye (estimation).

WriTe/draW

y
2
1
2 1 0
1

2 x

2
3

354

L (m)

Find the gradient of the tangent. (Use points


(1.5 O) and (0, 3) on the tangent line.)

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

0 ( 3)
1.5 0
3
=
1.5
=2

Gradient =

Use the gradient to state the rate of change.


Note: There are no units to include as the
required rate of change is the gradient.

b 1 Define the function using the CAS calculator.

Hence, the rate of change is 2.

b f1(x) = x2 1

Use the draw tangent feature of the CAS


calculator to draw a tangent to f1(x) at (2, 3).

f1(2) = 22 1
=3

Use the coordinates and equations feature of


the CAS calculator to determine the equation
of the tangent line. Point the cursor to (2, 3) on
the graph.

ytangent = 4x 5

Answer the question.

The equation of the tangent is ytangent = 4x 5.


The gradient is 4.
Hence, the instantaneous rate of change at
(2,3) is 4.

instantaneous rates

exercise 8e

Describe each of the rates below as either an instantaneous rate (I) or an average rate (A).

a Bill walks 12 kilometres in 2 hours.


b An aircraft leaves the runway at 270 km/h.
c A household uses 560 litres of water in one

day.
d The pulse rate of a runner as he crosses the

finish line is 141 beats per minute.


e A gas heater raises the temperature of a

room by 10 C in half an hour.


f A baby puts on 300 g in one week.
g A road drops 20 m over a distance of 100 m.
h Halfway along a flying fox, Jill is travelling

at 40 km/h.
2

Which of the following graphs have a tangent drawn at the point where x = 4?
y

0
c

0
e

0
d

0
f

ChapTer 8 Rates of change

355

In each of the following graphs, find an approximate value for the gradient of the tangent at
the point indicated.

3 We9a
a

x=1

3
2

y
20

x=2

10

1
0
c

y
x=4

22
20

x = 1.7

2
0

1 1.7

Find the approximate value for the instantaneous rate of change of weight with respect to
time at the time indicated on the graph.

4 We9b
a

w (g)

t = 20

130

160

70

t = 10

80
0

w (g)

10 20 30 t (min)

w (g)

140

5 10 15 t (min)

w (g)
110
t=1

t=4
50

40
0

0 1

6 t (min)

t (min)

5 The weight of a person over a 40-week period is illustrated in the graph below.
diGiTal doC
doc-9779
Gradient at a point

Weight (kg)

90
80
70
60
50
40

10

20
30
Time (weeks)

40

a Estimate the maximum weight and the time at which it occurs.


b Estimate the average rate of change of weight between week 10 and week 20.
c Estimate the rate of change of weight at 30 weeks.
356

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

6 The change of temperature in a restaurant kitchen over a 12-hour period is illustrated in the graph below.

Temperature (C)

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10111213

Time (hours)
a When is the rate of temperature rise greatest?
b Estimate the rate of temperature rise at 6 hours.
7 a Plot the graph of y = x2 from x = 0 to x = 4.
b Draw tangents at the points where x = 1, x = 2 and x = 3.
c mC The gradient of the tangent at x = 1 is closest to:
a 0
C 2
B 1
d mC The gradient of the tangent at x = 2 is closest to:
a 8
B 6
C 4
e mC The gradient of the tangent at x = 3 is closest to:
a 6
B 9
C 3

d 3

e 4

d 2

e 0

d 7

8 We10a
a Plot the graph of y = 9 x2 from x = 4 to x = 4.
b Draw tangents at the points x = 2, x = 0 and x = 2.
c Hence, estimate the instantaneous rate of change at the points:
i x = 2
ii x = 0
iii x = 2.
9 We10b A tank is being filled at a variable rate. The depth of the water, H cm, at any time, tminutes, is

described by the rule H = t2 + 2t. At what rate is the depth of water changing after 2 minutes?

8F

motion graphs (kinematics)

In this section we will consider only objects moving in straight lines, either right and left, or up and down.
Definitions
1. Position, x, describes the location of an object.
2. Distance, d, is how far an object has travelled.
3. Displacement, s, describes the change in an objects position; that is, displacement = change in
position = final position initial position, or s = xfinal xinitial.
distance
d
4. Speed =
or speed = .
time taken
t
5. Velocity is the rate of change of position with respect to time, so
change in position displacement
s
velocity =
=
, that is, v = .
change in time
t
time taken
Consider an object that begins at the 3-metre mark on a number line, moves 5 metres to the right, and
then moves 5 metres to the left, taking 2 seconds to do so.
For this example we have:
x
1. Position (initially and finally) = 3 m
4321 0 1 2 3 4
2. Distance = 10 m
3. Displacement = 0 m
10 m
4. Speed =
= 5 m/s
2s
0m
5. Velocity =
= 0 m/s
2s
Distance and speed are (technically) always positive. Displacement and velocity can be either positive
or negative, depending on the direction of motion.

inTeraCTiViTY
int-0267
motion graphs
(kinematics)

ChapTer 8 Rates of change

357

Note: Some texts use displacement and position interchangeably (perhaps assuming displacement
from a fixed origin).
Worked example 11

Consider a lift starting from the ground floor, moving up to the top floor,
stopping and then coming down to the fifth floor at the times shown
on the diagram.
Find:
Top
a the total distance travelled by the lift
t = 14 s
t = 20 s
b the displacement of the lift after 25 s
c the average speed of the lift
d the average velocity of the lift.

TUTorial
eles-1434
Worked example 11

Positive
100 m

150 m
t = 25 s
(5th floor)

t=0
Think

WriTe

a Add the distance travelled up (150 m) to the

distance travelled down (100 m).


b At t = 0 s, the position of the lift is 0 m.

At t = 25 s, the position is +50 m.

c Average speed =

Ground floor

total distance travelled


time taken

d Average velocity =

change in position
change in time

a Total distance = 150 m + 100 m

= 250 m

b Displacement = change in position

= +50 0
= +50 m

250 m
25 s
= 10 m/s

c Average speed =

(+ 50 0) m
25 s
= +2 m/s

d Average velocity =

Worked example 12

Use the positiontime graph at right, which shows the position


of a particle, x, travelling in a horizontal straight line at any
time, t, to find:
a where the journey started
b in which direction the particle moved initially
c when and where the particle changed direction
d when and where the particle finished its journey.
Think

a Find x when t = 0.

x (m)
20
10
5
0

4 t (s)

WriTe

a When t = 0, x = 10 m. The journey started

10 metres from the origin or reference point.


b Compare the position at t = 0 to the position a

short time after this. Notice that the graph has a


negative gradient during this time.

358

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

b As the position changes from 10 m at t = 0 s to

5 m at t = 2 s, the particle was moving towards


the origin or reference point in the negative
x-direction.

c Find x and t where the graph turns or changes

c After 2 s at a position of 5 m, the particle changed

direction. The particle changes direction at


t = 2. When t = 2, x = 5.

direction.

d Find x and t where the curve stops.

d The particle finished its journey at a position of

20 m after 4 s.
Worked example 13

Using the graph in worked example 12, consider the interval between t = 2 and t = 4 to decide
whether:
a the velocity of the particle is positive or negative
b the particle is speeding up or slowing down.
Think

WriTe

a 1 For this graph,

as

rise
(or gradient) is the same
run

change in position
(or velocity).
change in time
So the gradient of a positiontime graph
gives the velocity.
2

Consider the gradient between t = 2


and t = 4.

From t = 2 to t = 4 the gradient is positive, so the


velocity of the particle is positive.

b Consider how the gradient between t = 2 and

b The gradient is increasing, so the velocity is

t = 4 is changing.

increasing. This means the particle is speeding up.

Similarly, for the interval between t = 0 and t = 2 in worked example 12:


x (m)
20

Positive gradient
getting steeper
Negative gradient
getting less steep

10
5
0

t (s)

1. the velocity is negative because the gradient is negative


2. the magnitude of the velocity is decreasing because the magnitude of the gradient is decreasing. The
negative gradient indicates the direction in which the particle is moving.
3. the speed is decreasing between t = 0 and t = 2 because the magnitude of the gradient is decreasing.

exercise 8F
1

motion graphs (kinematics)

Match the correct description (a, B, C or d) to each of the quantities (a, b, c or d) below.
Quantity
a Distance
b Displacement
c Speed
d Velocity

a
B
C
d

Description
Rate of change of displacement with respect to time
Change in position
Length travelled
Distance travelled with respect to time

2 State whether each of the following are true or false.


a Speed can be positive or negative.
b Displacement can be positive or negative.
c Distance travelled is positive only.
d Velocity is positive only.
ChapTer 8 Rates of change

359

A parachute ride takes people in a basket vertically up in the air from a platform 2 metres
above the ground, then drops them back to the ground. Use the diagram below showing the position of
the parachute basket at various times to find:
a the total distance travelled by the parachute basket
t = 55 s
t = 60 s
during a ride
b the displacement of the parachute basket after 80 s
c the average speed of the parachute basket during
the ride
d the average velocity of the parachute basket during
the ride.

3 We11
diGiTal doC
doc-9780
SkillSHEET 8.3
displacement
and distance

19 m

t=0
2 m Platform
4

Consider the position and direction, at various times, of a particle travelling in a straight line as
indicated below.
t=5

a
b
c
d
e

t=2

t=0

3 2 1

Where does the particle start?


Where does the particle finish?
In which direction does the particle move initially?
When does the particle change direction?
mC Which positiontime graph below most accurately represents the particles motion?
a

x (m)
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3

d x (m)
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3

360

t = 80 s Ground

5 t (s)

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

5 t (s)

x (m)
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3

5 t (s)

5 t (s)

x (m)
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

x (m)
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3

5 t (s)

The total distance travelled in the first 5 seconds is:


a 4m
B 13 m
d 14 m
e 11 m
g The displacement of the particle after 5 seconds is:
B 14 m
a 3 m
e 0m
d 4 m
h The average speed in the first 2 seconds is:
a 3 m/s
B 2.5 m/s
d 2.5 m/s
e 1 m/s
i The average velocity between t = 2 and t = 5 is:
a 3 m/s
B 2 m/s
d 2 m/s
e 1 m/s
j The instantaneous speed when t = 2 is:
a 2.5 m/s
B 0 m/s
d 2.8 m/s
e 1 m/s
f

C 9m

C 4m

C 6 m/s

m/s

C 3 m/s

The following positiontime graphs show the journey of a particle travelling in a straight
line. For each graph, find:
i where the journey started
ii in which direction the particle moved initially
iii when and where the particle changed direction
iv when and where the particle finished its journey.

5 We12

a x (m)
8

b x (m)
12

c x (m)
12

10

10

1 2 3 4 5 t (s)

d x (m)
18

e x (m)

1 2 3 4 5 6 t (s)
f

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 t (s)

x (m)
5
4
2

1 2 3 4 5 t (s)

1 2 3 4 5 6 t (s)

3
0

1 2 3 t (s)

5
6 For each position function of a particle given below (af ), sketch the positiontime graph. In each case

explain:
i where the particle started its journey
ii in which direction it moved initially
iii whether the particle changed its direction and, if so, when and where that happened
iv where the particle finished its journey.
a x(t) = 2t, t [0, 5]
b x(t) = 3t 2, t [0, 6]
c x(t) = t2 2t, t [0, 5]
d x(t) = 2t t2, t [0, 4]
e x(t) = t2 4t + 4, t [0, 5]
f x(t) = t2 + t 12, t [0, 5]

diGiTal doC
doc-9781
SkillSHEET 8.4
interval notation

ChapTer 8 Rates of change

361

7 a Plot the positiontime graph for x(t) = 4t t2.


b Find the gradient at:
i t=0
ii t = 1
iii t = 2
iv t = 3
v t=4
c Hence, give the instantaneous rate of change of position with respect to time (that is,

velocity) at:
i t=0
ii t = 1
iv t = 3
v t=4
d Sketch the velocitytime graph from t = 0 to t = 5.

iii t = 2

8 We13
For each of the following positiontime graphs, determine:
i whether the velocity is positive or negative
ii whether the particle is speeding up or slowing down.
x
b x
c x
a

0
9

Match the following positiontime graphs (af ) with the corresponding velocitytime graphs
(aF ) on the opposite page.
Positiontime graphs
a

x (m)

x (m)

x (m)

4 t (s)

4 t (s)

x (m)

x (m)

4 t (s)

0
1

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

4 t (s)

4 t (s)

4 t (s)

x (m)
4

362

0
1
2
3
4

Velocitytime graphs
B v (m/s)

a v (m/s)

C v (m/s)
1

4 t (s)

4 t (s)

4 t (s)

e v (m/s)

d v (m/s)

4 t (s)

4 t (s)

F v (m/s)

4 t (s)

10 A ball is projected vertically upwards from the top of a building 25 m high. Its position relative to the

11

The diagram at right shows the distancetime graph of two


swimmers in a 200-metre race.
a Who won the race?
b Who was in front after 150 metres?
c What was the approximate winning margin (in metres)?
d What was the average speed of the winner?
e For approximately how many seconds did Bill lead
the race?
f How many times did the lead change?

Distance (metres)

ground is given by the equation x = 25 + 20t 5t2, where t is the time in seconds.
Sketch a positiontime graph for the ball and hence find:
a the greatest height reached
b when the ball reaches the ground
c when the velocity of the ball is zero
d an estimate for the velocity at which the ball is initially projected.

200
150

Alan

100
50
0

Bill
20 40 60 80 100 120
Time (seconds)

diGiTal doC
doc-9782
WorkSHEET 8.2

ChapTer 8 Rates of change

363

relating the gradient function to the


original function
8G

Earlier we considered gradients calculated at a single point on a graph. However, if the gradients are
calculated at every point within the domain of the function, the results can be graphed. This is the graph
of the gradient function.
The gradient of the function below has been calculated at several points as shown, and a table of
gradient values has beenconstructed.
Graph of
original function
y
y = x3 2x2 + 2

6
4
Gradient = 7 2

0 1
2 1
2

x
Gradient

1.0

0.5

0.5

1.0

1.3

1.5

2.0

2.75

1.25

0.75

The table of values above may by be used to sketch a gradient function such
as that at right.
4
Note: The gradient function is zero at x = 0 and x = 3 , which corresponds to
the zero gradient (turning points) of f (x). The gradient function is negative in
4
the interval 0 < x < 3 , as is the gradient of f (x). The gradient function is positive
elsewhere, which corresponds to the positive gradient of f (x).

Graph of
gradient function
y
8
6
4
2
2 12 0 1

relating the gradient function to the


original function
exercise 8G

1 Select several points (at least 6) on each of the graphs below and construct a table of gradient values.
diGiTal doCS
doc-9779
Gradient at a point
doc-9775
plotting relations

Use each table to plot the gradient function in each case. You may use a CAS calculator to work
through these problems.
a

y y = x2 4
4

x
21 01 2
2

321 01 2 x
2
y = x3 + 3x2 + 2

2
1
y = ex

321 0 1 2 3

4
2

x
y = sin
4

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8x

y
6

y = 2x + 3

321 0 1 2 3
2

y
40
32
24
16
8

y = x4

x
21 01 2

2 What do you notice about the gradient function of the quadratic function in question 1a?
3 Investigate other quadratic functions and their related gradient functions. What do you notice?
364

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

4 Investigate the gradient functions of other cubics besides that shown in question 1c. What types of

functions are the gradient functions of cubics?


5 Which functions have a gradient function similar to the original function?
6 What do you notice about the original functions at x-values where the gradient function intersects the

x-axis?
7 When the gradient function is negative, what do you notice about the original function?

relating velocitytime graphs to


positiontime graphs
8h

The gradient of a positiontime graph gives the velocity, because velocity is the rate of change of
position with respect to time.
Therefore, by measuring the gradient of a positiontime graph at various points, a velocitytime graph
can be derived.
Worked example 14

The positiontime graph for a particle moving in a straight line is shown below.
x
3
2
Gradient = 2

1 Gradient = 2
0
1

2
Gradient = 1

Gradient = 1
Gradient = 0

The gradient of the curve at various times is indicated on the graph.


Use this information to draw a velocitytime graph for the particle.
Think
1

Set up a table of corresponding velocity and


time values from the graph.
Use the table of values to plot the velocity
time graph.

WriTe/draW

t
v

2
0

3
1

4
2

v
3
2
1
3 2 1 0
1

Similarly, a positiontime graph can be derived from a velocitytime graph.


The value of the velocity at a given time is equal to the gradient of the positiontime graph at that
time. By obtaining several of these values and knowing the initial position of a particle, the general
shape of the positiontime graph can be produced.
The following example demonstrates the steps involved.
ChapTer 8 Rates of change

365

Worked example 15

v
4
3
2
1

The velocitytime graph for a particle moving


in a straight line and starting at the origin is
shown in the diagram. Sketch the corresponding
positiontime graph.

0
1
2
3
4
Think
1

TUTorial
eles-1435
Worked example 15

1 2 3 4 5

WriTe/draW

Set up a table of corresponding velocity and


time values. (These velocity values represent
the gradient of the positiontime curve at the
given times.)

Set up the axes for the positiontime graph.

Draw in a curve starting at (0, 0) with a


gradient of 4 decreasing to a gradient of 0
at t = 2 (the turning point). From t = 2 to
t = 4, the gradient changes from 0 to 4. This
means the curve will become steeper but
with a negative slope.

relating velocitytime graphs to


positiontime graphs
exercise 8h

For each positiontime graph for a particle moving in a straight line, draw a velocitytime
graph. The gradient of the curve at various times is indicated on each of thegraphs.

1 We14

x
Gradient = 0

Gradient = 3

Gradient = 3
0

Gradient = 2

Gradient = 2
Gradient = 2
Gradient = 1
2 mC

Gradient = 1
Gradient = 0

Gradients are shown at various points on a positiontime graph.


m=0

m = 6
m=6
m = 12

m = 12
0

366

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

1
2
Gradient = 2

The velocitytime graph obtained from this positiontime graph is:


v
12

v
12

v
12

12

12

v
12

v
12

12

Sketch the velocitytime graph for each of the following positiontime graphs.

3
a

x
5

x
4

x
1

x
8
7

2
1

0
1

4
3

1
4

4
5

3
4

5
6
7
8

For each velocitytime graph shown below, sketch a positiontime graph, given that the
particle starts at the origin.

4 We15
a

0
1

ChapTer 8 Rates of change

367

v
8

v
3

0
1

A particle starting at the origin moves with velocity v(t) = 2t 4.

a Complete the table below.

Gradient of xt graph
b Sketch the positiontime graph.
6

The velocities for a particle starting at the origin are given as a function
of time.
Sketch a positiontime graph for each using t [0, 4].
a v=t+2
b v=2t
c v = 3t
d v = t

v
3

4 t

4 t

A positiontime graph is obtained from the velocitytime


graph shown at right. For a particle starting at the origin, this
positiontime graph will look like:

7 mC

4 t

2
0

4 t

4 t

Briefly describe the motion of a car during the first 30 seconds for each of the velocitytime
graphs below.
a v (m/s)

b v (m/s)

20

18

368

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

30 t (s)

c v (m/s)
25

15

30 t (s)

10

25 30 t (s)

Sketch a velocitytime graph for each car described below for its first 20 seconds ofmotion.

a A car, initially at rest, increases its speed at a constant rate until it reaches a speed of 35m/s after

10 s. It then maintains this speed.


b A car is travelling at a constant speed 30 m/s. After 15 s the brakes are applied, decreasing its

speed at a constant rate until it stops after another 5 s.


10 A parachutist jumps from an aircraft and freefalls
for 6 seconds.
a If a parachutist falls y metres in t seconds where
y = 5t2, find the average speed of the parachutist
between:
i t = 0 and t = 3
ii t = 3 and t = 6.
b What is the speed of the parachutist after 6 seconds
of freefall?
c When the parachute is released (after 6 seconds of
freefall), the speed of the parachutist is reduced by
2 m/s every second until a speed of 4 m/s is reached.
How long after jumping from the aircraft does it take
the parachutist to reach a speed of 4 m/s?

rates of change of polynomials

8i

We have seen that instantaneous rates of change can be found from a graph by finding the gradient of the
tangent drawn through the point in question. The following method uses a series of approximations to
find the gradient.
Worked example 16

a Plot the graph of y = 2x2, x [0, 4].


b Draw a line through the following points on the curve and find the gradient of each line.
i x = 2 and x = 3
ii x = 2 and x = 2.1
iii x = 2 and x = 2.01
iv x = 2 and x = 2.001
c Hence, predict the gradient of the tangent at the point on the curve where x = 2.
Think

Use a table of values or a CAS calculator.

Plot the points using graph paper.

WriTe/draW

x
y

0
0

1
2

2
8

3
18

4
32

y
32
i
ii
iii

18

iv

8
0
b i 1 Mark the points on the curve where x= 2 and

x = 3 and rule a line through them.

Select suitable values to calculate the


rise
.
gradient using
run
When x = 2, y = 8; when x = 3, y = 18.

b i Line i

18 8
3 2
10
=
1
= 10

Gradient =

ChapTer 8 Rates of change

369

ii 1 Again, mark the points and rule a line

ii Line ii

through them.
2

When x = 2.1, y = 2(2.1)2 = 8.82

Select suitable points to calculate the


gradient. Calculate the y-value for
x = 2.1 using the rule y = 2x2.

8.82 8
2.1 2
0.82
=
0.1
= 8.2

Gradient =

iii 1 Again, mark the points and rule a line

iii Line iii

through them.
2

Select suitable points to calculate the


gradient. This may be difficult, so select an
x-value and calculate the y-value using the
rule y = 2x2.

iv 1 Again, mark the points and rule a line

When x = 2.01, y = 2(2.01)2 = 8.0802


8.0802 8
Gradient =
2.01 2
0.0802
=
0.01
= 8.02
iv Line iv

through them.
2

When x = 2.001, y = 2(2.001)2


= 8.008 002
8.008 002 8
Gradient =
2.001 2
0.008 002
=
0.001
= 8.002

Select suitable points to calculate the


gradient. Calculate the y-value for
x = 2.001 using the rule y = 2x2.

c Continue to bring the second x-value closer and

c The gradient of the tangent at the point on

closer to 2. As the second x-value becomes closer to


2, the gradient of the line is becoming closer to 8.
Notice that the slope of each line has progressively
become closer to the slope of the tangent at x = 2.

the curve where x = 2 appears to be 8.

Worked example 17

Consider the function f (x) = 2 x2.


a Using a CAS calculator, calculate the gradients of the chords connecting two points on the curve
with the following coordinates:
i x = 3 and x = 4
ii x = 3 and x = 3.1
iii x = 3 and x = 3.01
iv x = 3 and x = 3.001.
b Hence, predict the gradient of the curve at x = 3.
Think

a 1 Using the average rate of change

function of the CAS calculator,


complete the function entry lines as:
avgRC(2x2, x, 1) | x = 3
avgRC(2x2, x, 0.1) | x = 3
avgRC(2x2, x, 0.01) | x = 3
avgRC(2x2, x, 0.001) | x = 3
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Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS

WriTe

a i
ii
iii
iv

avgRC(2x2, x, 1) | x = 3
avgRC(2x2, x, 0.1) | x = 3
avgRC(2x2, x, 0.01) | x = 3
avgRC(2x2, x, 0.001) | x = 3

Record the results.

b As the interval becomes smaller and

the two points come closer together, the


chord approximates the tangent. The
gradient of this tangent is the gradient of
the curve at x = 3.

i
ii
iii
iv

Between x = 3 and x = 4, the gradient is 14.


Between x = 3 and x = 3.1, the gradient is 12.2.
Between x = 3 and x = 3.01, the gradient is 12.01.
Between x = 3 and x = 3.001, the gradient is 12.002.

b The gradient of f (x) = 2x2 approaches 12 as the interval

decreases. So, the gradient of f (x) = 2x2 at x = 3 is 12.

The previous example demonstrates that the gradient of a tangent to a function at a given point, x = a,
can be approximated by finding the gradient of a line joining the point x=a and another point as close
as possible to x = a.

hybrid functions
A hybrid function is one that has different rules over different sections of its domain. For example:
x + 2, x 0
f (x) = 2
x>0
y
x ,
The graph of f (x) is shown at right.
This is a discontinuous function because there is a break (orjump) in
2
y = x2
the graph at x = 0. There is also no defined gradient at the point x = 0 on
y=x+2
this graph, because at x = 0 two different values of the gradient can be
obtained.
x
0
2
2
If the rate of change of y at x = 0 is calculated using points just to the
left of x = 0, and then calculated using points just to the right of x = 0,
different values are obtained:
rise 2
= =1
Straight line: m =
run 2
y
Parabola: At the turning point (x = 0), gradient = 0.
Not all hybrid functions have a break in them. For
example:
x , x 0
f (x) = 2
x , x > 0

Gradient of straight
line is 1 at x = 0. 2

y = x2

Gradient of parabola
The graph of f (x) is shown at right.
y=x
is 0 at x = 0.
However, even for this graph, there is no defined gradient
at x = 0.
The gradient of the tangent approaching x=0 from the left is equal to the gradient of the straight line,
that is, 1. The gradient of the tangent to the parabola approaching x= 0 from the right, is equal to zero.
Therefore the gradient (or instantaneous rate of change) does not exist at x = 0.
If the hybrid function is smooth at the point where the combined functions meet, then the gradient
does exist.
A function is smooth at a given point if the left-hand gradient equals
the right-hand gradient at that point.
For example:
y
x 1
2 x ,
f (x) = 2
x + 1, x > 1
y = x2 + 1
The left-hand gradient of f (x) at x = 1 is the gradient of the line
y = 2x, which equals 2.
The right-hand gradient of f (x) at x = 1 is the gradient of the
Both gradients
2
are 2 at x = 1.
parabola y = x2 + 1, which also equals 2. So the left-hand gradient
equals the right-hand gradient. Therefore, this hybrid function
x
0
1
is smooth at x = 1, and the gradient (or the instantaneous rate of
y = 2x
change) at x = 1 is equal to 2.
ChapTer 8 Rates of change

371

In summary, for a hybrid function to have a gradient (or instantaneous rate of change) at the point in
the domain where the rule changes:
1. the function must be continuous at that point
2. the left-hand gradient must equal the right-hand gradient at that point. This makes the curve smooth.
Worked example 18

Verify that the rate of change of the hybrid function


2 x,
x2
f ( x) = 2
x>2
x
,

does not exist at x = 2, using a CAS calculator.


Think

WriTe

Define a hybrid function using