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....................................................................................................................................2
..........................................................................................................4
..................................................................................................................4
............................................................................................4
..........................................................................4
. ..........................................................5
1. 1 .........................................................................................................6
1.1 .........................................................................................................................6
1.2 ...................................................................................................................6
1.3 .................................................................................................12
1.3.1. ..........................................13
1.3.2. ...............13
1.3.3.
...................................................................................14
1.3.4 .................................................14
1.3.5. ............................................................15
1.4 .......................................................................................................17
2. 2 .......................................................................................................20
2.1 .......................................................................................................................20
2.2 .................................................................................................................20
2. 3 ................................................................................................21
2.3.1. ...........................................................................................21
2.3.2. ........................................................22
2.3.3. .......................................................22
2.3.4. () Rt=f(t)
..................................................................................................................22
2.3.5. ...............................................23
2.3.6. ...................................23
2.3.7. ...............................24
2.4 ......................................................................................................26
3 ...........................................................................................................31
3.1 .......................................................................................................................31
3.2 .................................................................................................................31
3.3 .................................................................................................33
3.3.1
........................................................................................................................33
3.3.2 - . ....................................34
3.4 .......................................................................................................35
4 ...........................................................................................................40
4.1 .......................................................................................................................40
2

4.2 ..................................................................................................................40
4.3 ..................................................................................................42
4.3.1. ..........................................42
4.3.2.
................................................................................................................................43
4.4 .......................................................................................................44
......................................................................................................................49



:
, ;
.
.


.
.
:
; . , , .
, , .
.
, .


, . .
, , .
,
, .

. .
:
4 ,
;
3

4 , , -

;
4 , ;
4 ;
4 , , -

1. 1

1.1

4 ;
4 .

, :
4 ;
4 ;
4 , ,

03.

: ,
, ; .

1.2

,
, . .
:
; ,
, ; ; .
,
. , .
.
.
. .

.

, ,
[1]
() , . , , ,
. [2].
: , ,
,
, , ().
: , , .
, , .

. . 1.1, 1.2 - , . 1.3 1.4 .
1 2.
3.
.
.
X ( ).
6

R = ,
:

U
r ,
(1.1)
R
: U - ; R ;
r - , .
, r = x , l , :
R
l
U
U = x = k x ,
(1.2)
l
k - .
:
U = k ,
(1.3)
U =

- .
(1.3) (1.2) . 1.5. .
( ).
,
. . 1.6 , .
1.7 : I - (.1.6), II - , (.1.6).
:
, ,
, , , .
. . 1.8
:
R
= ,
R
R - , R .
. 1.9 - .

. 1-10 . 1.12.

1.2.

1.3.

1.4.

1.1.
1.5.
7

1.9
(1 = 1, 2 = 5, 3 = ) (1 < 2 <3 )

1.6

. 1.6

1.10

. 1.6

. 1.6
1.6.

1.11, 1.12
, :

U = k x 2 , k ln( x), k sin( x), k x}

1.7

,
(.1.13)

(. 1.14).
, ( hx - x):

1.8

hx =

dU
dx

10

hx - x, k - , k =

RlS
, R- ,
2Vw

l- , S- , - , w- .
, . 1.15.
Ri [2]:
R r
,
(1.4)
Ri = i
Ri + r
Ri , r .
i- :
i 1
Ri
i
(1.5)
U
= U k + I
rxi ,
Ri + r
k =1
Uk k- , I , , rxi i- , rxi = (r/l)xi, r, l , xi i- .
:
j 1
Ri
r
X i = U k + k i xi , (1.6)
Ri + r l
k =1
k =1
Ki - i - .
, i , , Ri , , Ri, , .

1.14

i 1

i
U
= U k + I

1.15

1.3
: ; .
(. 1.16), :
- RP1 R1R8 XS8XS16 ;
- R1 ;
- RP2 ( XS17, XS18, XS19);
- :
SA1 ;
SA2 1 2 ( );
SA3 1 2 ( );

1.13

11

12

SA4 SA7 ;
SA8 (U = 12B, f = 400.);
SA9 RP1;
SA10 R1, R2, R3, R4;
SA11 R1 R8
;
SA12 RP1, .
- :
XS1, XS2 (7-16)
RP1;
XS3, XS4 (7-16) R1 R8;
XS6, XS7 (3-109),
.
XS5 ( );
XS8 XS15 (RP1);
XS17 XS19 (RP2);
,
.
. 1.17.

1.3.1.
.
XSI XS2. .
V 20. SA1 (), SA8, SA9. SA2 .
R1
. .
SA2
.
, SA12 RP1 .

1.3.2.
SA10 Rxx ( ). SA4 SA7 .
XS1 XS2.
13

SA12,

. 1.1.
(R1, R2, R3).
1.1.

Ri .
1.1

,
U xx, Rxx
U2, R1
U3, R2
U4, R3

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

330

( 1.1) U i = f ( ) ,

U i = U i1 U 1 , i = 1,2,3. .

1.3.3. .
SA10 Rxx. SA4SA7 .. XS1XS5
XS2XS5 ( ).
RP1
SA12,
. 1.2. 2- RP1 (
). .
1.2

U

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

330

U xx
U, Ri

1.3.4
RP1 . SA10 Rxx. SA3 2, .
SA4 SA7 , . . R1 R 8 RP1.

14

. XS4 XS5, 2 20.


SA11 I, R1

1.3. .
SA11, .
1.3

Ri,

R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
R8
R1
1
0,01 0,10 0,40 0,80 1,20 2,50
4
6
2
3

10
0,05

8
0,90

6
1,40

4
3

2,5
4

1,2
5

0,80
5

0,40
6

10

10

10

0,60

R1 R 8 SA4 SA7
, R1 R8 RP1. RP1 . SA3 I. 7-I6 XS1 XS2. SA12
. 1.4 .
( 1.3) U = f ( )
1.4

,
U,

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

330

1.3.5.
.1.2 (.1.3)
[2].
, .
- . - , 8 ( ).
.
15

,
, Rc XS8 XS16. 1.3.

U i :

U i = U i +1 U i ,
Ui , Ui+1 - .
1.5.
, ,
:
R R
(1.7)
Ri = c i ,
Rc + Ri
Ri 1.4. , , :
U 1 U 2 U i U n
,
(1.8)
I=
=
=
=
R1 R 2 Ri Rn

:
R R
U 1
,
R1 = Ri
R1 = c 1 ,
U i
Rc R1
R 2 = Ri

U 2
,
U i

R 2 =

Rc R 2
,
Rc R 2

Rn = Ri

U n
,
U i

Rn =

Rc Rn
,
Rc Rn

(1.9)

Ri Ri 1.2.
1.4 . R1 R8 , , . Rxx.
1.5, . . .
1.5
.

8
330

Ui,
Ri,
Ri,
16

12.
13.
14.
16.

, .
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
,
.
,
R= 2, R = 6.
,
10 , 0,1.
,
20 , - 0,1%
,
40 , - 0,1, 1 , R=10 .

17

1.16

1.4
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
8.
9.
10.
11.

18

2. 2

2.17 1

2.1
, ,
.

2.2
, , .

[3];
[3];
() [5].
[4].
(C),
0100C 0,0035 0,0068-1.
.
, , , .
, , .
0
1650 :

Rt = R0 (1 + A + B 2 ) ,

(2.1)

: R0 0; - , , A=3.96487.10-3 C, B =5.847 10-7 C-2.


-50 +180 :
Rt = R0 (1 + ) ,
(2.2)
.

=4.25.10-3 C-1.
S 0 =

dRt
,
dt

S 0 = R0 A , S 0 = R0 .

19

20

( )
R.
. . 2.1

:

R = R1e

(B B )
T
T1

(2.3)

: R1- , 1=293, - , - .

: = 2 . (
) (.2.2).
()- .
. .2.3, .2.4
.
,
, , ( 1, 3, , )
, ( 5,6), .
() . .2.5, .2.6 .

2. 3
.
(.2.6),
; ; .
, S1, S2, S3, S4, S5
, ( U ""),
; XI ( ), X2
( ), X3 ( ), 4 ( ),
5 ( ), . , R1 .

2.3.1.
21

. .
.

2.3.2.
S3 1.
S2 . , 2.1.
2.1
T
Rt2,
Rt3,
Rt4,
Rt5,
Rt6,
Rt7,
Rt8,
Rt1,

2.3.3.
S1 , S4 - 2, S3 - 2, S2 .
. R1 (Imin Imax , Umin Umax ). , 6-8
. 2.2. 3-4 . .
2.2

I, mA
Rti , k
U, mV

2.3.4. () Rt=f(t)

3.3.4, 3.3.6, 3.3.7 , ,


.
7-32. 3.3.4, 3.3.5, 3.3.6, 3.3.7.
: S4 - 1; S1
, S3 - 1, S2 - . . , S2. 2.3.
Rti=f(t). .
.

22

RT = R exp(

B B
)
T T
2.3

T,
Rti , k

.
30
50
60
70
80

30

90

100

: S5 X3. S5 X3 (
, 1 , 2 ), X3
, .
. 3.5. , .
2.5

2.3.5.

Mi

:
I V = b ,
(2.4)
I, V ; b
; - .
:
= T T0 ,
(2.5)
T , ; T0 .
-
b = f().
2.4

I, A

U, B

R,

T, K

T0, K

, K

B,

. 2.1 .

T,
U, B

2.3.7.
- , , ,
.
,
TTP=To+Tnep.
, , ,
.

. 2.3

2.3.6.

. :

: S1 , . .

23

24

. , X4.
, X5 . 2.6.
, .
2.6

T, oC
R,

: R =

c RT + d
a RT + b

(2.12)

2.4

. :

RT 1 = A e

B
T1

RT 2 = A e

B
T2

T T
R
: B = 1 2 ln T 1
T2 T1
RT 2

(2.13) (2.14)

(2.15)

(1=298 2=363 )
(R1=519 , R2=101 ) ,
.
:
A = RT1 e

B
T1

(2.16)

4. R1
, :
T +T
T= 1 2
(2.17)
2

b
B 2 T
= RT

a
B + 2 T

d
B 2 T
= RT

c
B + 2 T

1. .
2. , , .
3. .
4. ?
5. .
6. .
7. .
8.
.
9. .
10. - .
11.

(2.18) (2.19)

(2.12)
(=r1, d=0, b=r1, a=1), R1
B 2 T

R1 = RT
B + 2 T

(2.20)

25

26

) -1 (I), -4 (II)

. 2.4 :
, , ,
, .
1 , 2 .

) -1 (I), -4 (II)

2.6

. 2.5 ()

27

28

29
30

2.8

. 2.7 :
)
.
) .
) .

: U~ ; R ; r
; L ; = 2f , RH -

3
.

.
:
(R + r)>> L
(3.2)
:

3.1
: , ( ); .

3.2
() [2, 6, 7].
( ), , .
, . [8].
: , , ,
, .
.
() .
, (), .
:
1. ;
2. ( );
3. ;
4. .
. 3.1. 1
2 X.
( X);
- U, R.
U [6]:
U ~ R
U =
(3.1)
( R + r ) 2 + ( L) 2
31

L=

0 S W 2 1 S0
=
2
X X

(3.3)

: 0 = 410-7 / ; S ; W ; 2 , ; S0 .
(2.3.) : ; .
(2.2.) (2.3.) :
U R
2 U~ R
X =
X = S X
(3.4.)
U = ~
S0
0 S W2
S =

2 U~ R
- .
0 S W 2

(3.4.) . . 3.2
.
. 3.3 (, 1) (, 2)
.
:
;
.
,
. .

( 3.4). (. 3.6)
(1 2). ,
.
(. 3.5) . , , .

.

32

(. 3.7,
3.8)
W1 W2 .
:
.

3.3

; - .
,
( ); -38 1-55; -109.

.

. 3.9.


:
. .
-109 (1, 10, 100)
= 400 .
-109 ( ) U = 9.
.
, ( ), -38 1-55
.

3.3.1
.

U0, (0 0). : U0, 0, 0.


( ) 0 ( 0), 3.1 , , :
0 = - 0;
U = U U0;
= 0;
: () - ; U - , -38.
, 1-55
.
, U.
(U = const) .

. , .
3.1

Ri
Ri

3.3.2 - .
-109 U = 9,
. SA2
R, .
( 0 Xmax 0 max)
( ) (X, U) .
20
5000 , .
3.2.
3.2
-

f,
U,
f,

20

50

100

150

200

300

600

800 1000 1500 2000 2500

SA 1 . SA2 R1, .
(.. ) , -38 1-55.

min ( min) max ( max),


-

33

34

U,

.
- .

3.4
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

.
.
.
.
.
.
?
8. ?
9. ?
10. .
11. ?
12. .

3.2
.
: 0,001 1

3.3

---

3.1 .
: 0,001 1

35

36

3.4 ( )
: 0,001 1

3.6

3.7

3.5
50

: (10 12)

37

38

4
-
.
4.1

; - .

4.2
()
,
,
.
, , .
:
1. - (), () () [9; 10].
2. ( - ) [9].
3. [10].
4. [9].
.
. ,
. , (. 4.1.) (. 4.2.).
,

3.8
( )
: 0,1 8

. : - (),
- (), : () () (. 4.3.).
. ... , ,
.
, . - .

.

3.9

39

40


.
U,
%, .. . U=() Ui =(), U.
: (U = 0.05%); (U = 0.05 +
1%); (U = 0.1 + 0.25%); (U > 0.25%).

(. 4.4.).
() U , , , :
= kU sin(); = kU cos()
(4.1.)
k - .
(4.1.) . (, ) I,
, . (
). , cd cg :
cd = c sin(); cg = c cos()
(4.2.)
(. 4.4 ). cd, , I. , ,
, , cd = const.
cg .
, E cl,
2

Ecl cos ().


, (. 4.4 )
"sin" :
c = + Ecl
(4.3.)
, cg
... . ( ) ( ) cg, .
. :
Z + Z + Z = Z + Z

Z, Z - ;
Z - .
Z = Z, Z = 0, Z = 0, Z = 0, .. (. 4.5.). cg .
(. 4.6.) .

.
. [10].

4.3
.
(. 4.3.). , ,
; 1 2
; 1 2; 1 2 R1 R2, ; XS1, XS2, XS3;
51 SA2; 1-55; -38;
3-109.

4.3.1.
: -38, 1-55, .
XS1,XS2 XS3.
.
SA1 ( SA2 )
".". R1 R2 , - "0" .
(1, 10, 100) = 400 . " "
Ui = 20. Ui
1 2.
,
. ,
.

(4.4.)

Z, Z - ;
41

42


R1 R2 , 1 2.
U1
U2 :
1. U 1 = U 2 ; 1 = 2
2. U 1 = U 2 ; 1 = 2
3. U 1 = U 1max ;U 2 = 0
4. U 2 = U 2 max ;U 1 = 0
1 2 - . .

4.3.2.

4.4
1. .
2. , . , . .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. .
11. .
12. .
13. .

.
:
1. -38.
2. XS1 - XS2 ; XS2 - XS3 - .
3. U1 10 25.
4. R1 R2
. I1 = I2. I1 I2 1 2.
=45
U1 = (),
U2 = (). 4.1. 4.2.
, I1 I2, .
4.1. 4.2. .
4.1.
.
,

15

30

45

Ui,

4.2.
.
,

15

30

45

Ui,

43

44

4.3 . f ,
, - , b .
4.1

4.2
1
2
3
4 -

5
6
7
8

4.4 -
b .

45

46

4.7 -

4.5
; .

4.8 6
4

4.6
; .
47

48


1. .., .. .: 2- ., . . : ,
, 1982 477.
2. . . .: , 1968 354.
3. .:
/ .., .., .. . .. .: , 1981 391.
4. . . .: , 1973 416.
5. .. .:
. .: , 1975 456.
6. . . .:
- .: , 1975 - 456.
7. / . .., .. - .: , 1983 - 504.
8. .., .. .:
- 2- ., . . - .: , 1986-335.
9. .. . - .: , 1969 - 288.
10. .., .., ..
- ( , ). -.: .,
1977 - 88.

49