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Section 2 - Sensors

Definition:
A sensor is a device that measures or detects real world values. (A sensor simply measures the amount of something). A Sensor is also a piece
of hardware and inputs data into a computer.

KEY POINT: Sensors are used to input for measurement applications.

Task 1
Each of the pictures below shows a different type of sensor. Work out what type of sensor each one is and what system its part of.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

A proximity Sensor, being used in an automatic door System


A motion Sensor, being used in an security System
A inferred Sensor, being used in a light System
A Temperature Sensor, being used in an Air conditioning System
A finger Sensor, being used in a finger print recognition System

Task 2

Analogue data is extremely precise amounts of numbers that fluxes over time; this change is very smooth and is
usually not very jumpy. Only sensors can read this time of information, computers don not read this. In addition it is
important to know that it is a measurement of something physical.

Digital data is also known as binary (the numbers 0 and 1). This information can only be read by a computer not a
sensor.

Therefore we need an ADC component because, without it the sensor wouldnt be able to input its information
because the computer only reads digital data.

Task 3

A heating system uses a sensor to decide when the radiators should be turned on and off.
The controls are set to maintain a room temperature of 22 Degrees C
When the system turns on, the water must flow round and be constantly warmed.
Output Devices

Sensors
Pressure

Light

Motor

Heater

Moisture

Infra-Red

Pump

Buzzer

Light

Temperature

1. What Sensor(s) would be needed in this system? Explain their use, a Temperature sensor would be needed
because without it, the radiator would not know when to turn on and/or if it did turn on it wouldnt know
what temperature to start on or turn to.

2. What output devices would be needed in this system? Explain their use; a heater would be needed so that if
the sensor does work you would be able to actually heat the room. Without it you wouldnt be able to
maintain the heat in the room.

3. Fill in the PROCESSES (rules) below that this system would need to follow
If temperature is below 22 degrees turn on heater. If temperature is greater than 22 degrees turn heater off.

Example: If the speed is greater than 70 then turn the motor OFF.

Rule 1: If the

is

than

then turn

Rule 2: If the

is

than

then turn

Sensors Exam questions

To answer this question, you will need to think about the rules you created in the final lesson task

First of all the input would be the sensor, because when the house is getting
burgled the sensor will pick up the movement sending all its new information into
the processing unit of the system. The processing unit/rules of the system will
then decide if the output is too be made, for example: if someone does burgle the
house the input/sensor will send its new information to the processer then, based
on the rules programed the output will be made. The output finally would be the:
alarms, buzzers, flashing lights etc When the processer has analysed the data
from the sensor and has decided what the outcome is going to be, it will trigger the
output. So when the house is in the midst of being burgled the output/alarm will
be triggered making lots of noise, light and in some cases sending an automatic
alert to the police.
A summary of the system is:
Sensor/Input picks up movement and sends new information to processer Then
processer decides whether the output is to be needed If so output is triggered:
buzzers, lights will all go off alerting everyone that there is something wrong.