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Mc lc
I. Phng php truyn sng trc tip trong tm nhn thng................................................................ 2
1. c im ............................................................................................................................................ 2
2. Kho st s chuyn sng l tng. .............................................................................................. 3
3. Kho st truyn sng khi tnh n nh hng ca cong Tri t. ......................................... 4
4. nh hng ca tng i lu............................................................................................................. 6
4.1. c im. .................................................................................................................................... 6
4.2. Lm un cong tia sng. .............................................................................................................. 6
4.3. nh hng ca Fadin ................................................................................................................ 7
4.4. nh hng ca ma .................................................................................................................. 8
4.5. nh hng ca c li truyn sng.............................................................................................. 8
II. Thit k ng truyn ......................................................................................................................... 9

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I. Phng php truyn sng trc tip trong tm nhn thng


1. c im
- S dng sng cc ngn.
Gii thch: vi sng cc ngn bn knh min Fresnel th nht c tnh theo
cng thc:

Nn rng min Fresnel b dn n suy hao nng lng trn ng


truyn nh.
-Tn s cao nn khng th phn x trn tng in ly( i xuyn qua)
-Bc sng ngn nn kh nng nhiu x km
-Tn x trn tng i lu (li dng truyn song)
=> phng php truyn sng trc tip trong tm nhn thng l ph hp nht.
- Sng truyn t pht n thu trong min khng gian nhn thy trc tip gia 2
anten nn thng s dng cc loi anten bc x ng hng v c h s nh
hng cao( thng s dng anten parabol c h s nh hng cao nht)
- t b ph thuc vo iu kin t nhin.
- c s dng ph bin.
* Min Fresnel
- l nhng min khng gian hnh elipsoit trn xoay hu nh ton b nng lng t
im pht n im thu nm trong min Fresnel l min khng gian quan trng
nht trong truyn sng trc tip trong tm nhn thng.
- yu cu khong h Fresnel trong truyn sng trc tip trong tm nhn thng:
L khong cch t nh vt cn n ng truyn:

Vi

l bn knh min Fresnel

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2. Kho st s chuyn sng l tng.


* iu kin:
- Mt t l bng phng khng c vt cn trn ng truyn.
- Kh quyn ng nht, ng hng v khng hp th.
- Anten t cao trn mt t t nht vi bc sng.
* S lan truyn sng.
- Sng n im thu theo 2 ng:
+ Sng trc tip: i trc tip t pht n thu.
+ Sng phn x n thu sau khi phn x t mt t.

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* Phng php tnh trng ti im thu.

+ Tng hp trng hai sng thnh phn( giao thoa).


[

+ Cng trng do tia phn x.

Trong :
:on ng i ca tia ti trc tip;

:on ng i ca tia phn x;

l hiu s ng i ca 2 tia;

l h s sng

:l h s phn x phc ca mt t
v

l h s khuch i ca anten pht theo hng tia trc tip v tia phn

x
3. Kho st truyn sng khi tnh n nh hng ca cong Tri t.
* nh hng ca cong Tri t

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- Hiu s ng i gia sng trc tip v sng phn x thay i.


- im phn x li nn c tnh phn x nn h s phn x nh.
- Hn ch tm nhn trc tip gia anten thu v pht.

*C li thng tin cc i trong tm nhn thng.


+L c li ln nht c th thy c vi anten c cao h1,h2

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+ Cng thc thc nghim:vi a=6370km


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*Cng in trng.
+Qua trnh truyn sng c li nh hn c li nhn thy trc tip.
-Tng t nh mt t phng, chiu cao anten xc nh bng chiu cao gi nh
4. nh hng ca tng i lu.
4.1. c im.
- L tng kh quyn st mt t.
- Chiu cao khong 15km.
Thnh phn kh quyn: -Nito: 78%
-Oxi: 21%
-Nhit gim dn theo cao ln 1km nhit gim 5,5C.
-p sut kh quyn gim dn theo cao.
+Chit sut kh quyn n thay i theo cao.
+Sng b khc x.
4.2. Lm un cong tia sng.
* Nguyn Tc: Chia tng i lu thnh cc lp mng vi dy dh chit sut
thay i mt lng dn. Sng b khc x lin tc nn b un cong
* Bn knh cong: R=25000km.
* Bn knh tng ng ca Tra t,
+ Mt t thc bn knh a=6.378 km, tia sng b khc x vi bn knh cong R
+ Tri t c bn knh
Bn knh
khng i

, tia sng i thng (R= )

phi tha mn iu kin: cong tng i gia mt t v tia sng

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suy ra:

Cng thc ng cho tia sng un cong:

41

4.3. nh hng ca Fadin


4.3.1. Hin tng
L hin tng trng nhn c ti im thu thay i theo thi gian.
4.3.2. Nguyn nhn
Do thay i ng truyn
4.3.3. Khc phc
a). Phn tp khn gian
S dng hai hay nhiu anten thu hay nhiu anten pht thu cng cng mt
tn hiu trn cng mt tn s. Do ng i ca cc tia sng khc nhau nn t b
Fadin mt cch ng thi.
b). Phn tp tn s
S dng mt anten thu v mt anten pht thu pht mt tn hiu trn nhiu
tn s khc nhau nh trnh c nh hng ca nhng i pht thanh ln cn
c . a nh hng ca Fadin vo tnh ton ng truyn
- L phng php ti u nht

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- Mc suy hao t Fadin t 20-30 dB (cng trng suy hao 100-1000 ln)
- B vo cng sut u vo
d). Hin tng siu khc x trong tng i lu
- iu kin pht sinh:

Xy ra khi c hin tng o nhit, hay khi m gim mnh theo cao
- Khi nhng tia sng c gc xut pht ln so vi mt phng ngang(tia 1 v 2)
s b khc x t v n i xuyn qua min siu khc x. Tt c cc tia sng c gc
xut pht nm trong gii hn
u c bao bc bi min siu khc x v c
kh nng truyn lan ti nhng khong cch rt ln.
1

3
gh

4
h0

4.4. nh hng ca ma
- Ma nh hng n ng truyn sng v tuyn (c bit l sng siu cao
tn <10cm)
- Ma to: mt mt (0,22-0,4)dB/1km
- Ma rt nh: mt mt (1-1,2)dB/1km
4.5. nh hng ca c li truyn sng
Cng thc tnh suy hao trong khng gian t do

[dB]=

d: khong cch thu pht; : bc sng lm vic ca my pht

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II. Thit k ng truyn


Bi ton 1: Tuyn thng tin viba H Ni-Thng Tn ( 40km ) f = 2GHz. S
dng anten Parabol pht c ng knh 2m hiu sut lm vic 100%, my pht c
cng sut 100W. Chiu cao anten pht l 90m, anten thu l 50m. Xc nh trng
nhn c ti im thu? ( coi mt t cong v khng khi kh )

iu kin p dng cng thc vedenski trong truyn sng trc tip trong tm
nhn thng ta cn xc nh chiu cao v chiu cao .
Ta c:

=
=
Vi

38m,
H s nh hng ca anten parabol D = G =

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=1754

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