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The Principles of

Design

The Rules of good


Design

The principles of design are


the rules that govern how we
use each of the elements of
design in any given art work.

The Relationship of the


Elements and principles of
design

ELEMENTS OF
DESIGN

PRINCIPLES OF
DESIGN

Line
Texture
Color
Shape/Form
Pattern

Balance
Rhythm
Emphasis
Proportion/Scale

TOOLS

RULES

To
create

Harmony

Principles of Design

Balance
Proportion & Scale
Emphasis
Rhythm
Harmony

BALANCE

Balance
The parts of a design are arranged so they achieve
a feeling of rest and equilibrium
Refers to how lines, shapes, colors, textures, and
patterns are used to break up an area or space into
parts.
You can manipulate the elements of design to
increase or decrease apparent visual weight.

Two types of balance


Within balance there are two main methods
to create equilibrium:
Symmetrical Balance
Asymmetrical Balance

Symmetrical Balance
Both sides are EXACTLY the same, a
mirror image of each other.
This type of balance gives a very solid and
professional look.
Symmetrical balance is referred to as formal
balance.

Symmetrical Examples

Asymmetrical Balance
The design is balanced, but each side is
different in some way.
This type of balance tends to draw attention
to a particular area.
Asymmetrical is referred to as informal
balance.

Asymmetrical Examples

Proportion
Flattering the figure

Proportion
Refers to how lines and shapes divide the
space, garment, or outfit into parts. It
involves the relationship of one part or
space compared to another part or space,
compared to the whole garment, and to the
body.

Proportion= ratios

1 to 3 ratio

Any fashion can be divided


into parts and compared,
which creates a ratio.
Draw visual lines across the
design to begin.
Where there is a line, color,
texture or shape change begin
the first part of your ratio.
The second part of the ratio is
the remaining part of the
outfit.

Proportion
A garment is generally more interesting and
pleasing if divided into uneven or unequal parts,
and if the parts are in scale with the body.
For example, uneven ratios of one part to three
parts, two parts to three parts and three to five are
traditionally considered to be more interesting and
artistically pleasing than one to one or two to four
which can appear boring or bulky.
Uneven ratios are more similar to natural body
proportions and less obvious than even ratios.

Natural proportion
With the waist as the dividing line, the bodys ratio
averages two parts above the waist and three parts
below or three parts above five parts below.
Garment proportions that are harmonious with the
body do not reveal nor emphasize variations in body
proportions that occur due to bone structure and
uneven weight distribution.
Clothing proportions can be manipulated using the
elements of design to visually alter body proportions
and created an illusion about the figure.

Mark the proportion

1
1
1

2
3

Proportion assignment

Choose two pictures of full length designs.


Cut them out nicely and paste them to a white piece of paper
Using a ruler decide what the proportion of the outfit is.
Draw your box and lines on top of the design, using a pen that can
be seen. Label with numbers the divisions
Write on the back of the white sheet:
What is the ratio?
How does the proportion add interest, help the figure or detract from the
figure?

EXTRA CREDIT: turn in to two portfolio pages

Portfolio
Assignment

Emphasis The
Focal Point of Fashion

emphasis
A dominant focal point or center of interest in a
garment or an outfit created by the use of line,
shape, color, texture, and/or pattern.
A point for the eye to rest on for a period of time.
An outfit without a dominant point of interest
appears uninteresting, boring, and unfinished.

Too much emphasis


Two or more dominant areas or points of
emphasis, are distracting and confusing the eye
becomes overly stimulated and the effect is spotty
and displeasing.
Other points of interest may be present but they
must be less obvious in their claim for attention.
The eye notices them, does not rest there, but
returns to the dominant point.

Examples of emphasis
Color
Pattern

Color
Shape
Line
Color

The

Rhythm of
Fashion

Rhythm
Refers to how attention is led around the
garment or the outfit.
Rhythm is achieved when the lines, shapes,
colors, textures, or patterns in clothing and
accessories are arranged to lead the
viewers eye easily from one part of the
garment to another.

Rhythm
Split your notes into 5 sections. We are
now going to talk about the 5 different ways
to achieve rhythm.

Rhythm by Repetition
Repetition of line, shape, color, texture, or
pattern within the design
Examples: row of buttons, trim on collar
and cuffs, the same color used several
times.

Examples of rhythm by
repetition

Rhythm by gradation
Gradual change in lines, shapes, color
values or textures within the design
The degree of change must be SMALL or a
jumpy, choppy effect will result.

Examples of rhythm by gradation

Rhythm by radiation
Of lines, shapes, colors, or textural folds
inward or outward from a central point or
area.

Examples of
rhythm by
radiation

Rhythm by transition
Continuous line movement created by a line
of shapes, colors, or textural trims.
Examples: princess seamlines, contrasting
piping around the collar and down the
center front to the hemline

Examples of
rhythm by
transition

Rhythm by opposition/
alternation
Alternation of two or more lines, shapes,
colors, textures, or patterns. Causes
contrast or opposing details in a design.
Examples: yellow then blue stripes in a
shirt, beads used against feathers, sheer then
opaque fabric used.

Examples of rhythm by
Opposition

Harmony

Harmony
Refers to the use of lines, shapes, colors, textures and
patterns with enough variety to avoid boredom, but not so
much variety as to create conflict.
VARIETY (Things that are different) when the design
has differences to create interest
UNITY (Things that are alike) a sense of completeness,
when nothing is missing, left out or undone
Both can be overdone, the key is to balance both to
achieve harmony

How is harmony
achieved?
Unity: repetition of red and
black
Variety: texture below the
skirt, flower above

How is harmony
achieved?
Unity gray throughout,
fitted, repeating lines
Variety bows add
interest, slit in front

How is harmony
achieved
Unity: neutral colors, vertical
lines, brown repeated in shoes
Variety: belt-horizontal line

Harmony assignment
Choose one picture of a GOOD design.
Cut out nicely, glue to a white piece of paper.
On the back of the paper write the following:
The elements of design that create variety
The elements of design that create unity
Write how they work together to create a good design.