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-ET

- Ethernet

4.0.0-1, 2014

c , 20062013

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-ET
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11

4
13
4.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
5
6
6.1 . . . . .
6.2 . . . .
6.3 . . . . . .
6.4
6.5 .

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17
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7 .
7.1 RFC 2544 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 . . . . . . .
7.2.1 . . . . . . . . .
7.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5 RFC 2544. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.2 () . . .
7.5.3 RFC 2544. MPLS . . . . . . . . .
7.5.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.5.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6 RFC 2544. . . . . . .
7.6.1
7.6.2 . . . . . . . .
7.6.3 . . . . .
7.6.4 .
7.6.5 . . . . . . . . . .
7.7 RFC 2544. . . . . . . . . . . . .

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25
25
29
29
31
32
33
33
35
37
37
38
39
39
40
41
41
42
43

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7.8

7.9
7.10
7.11

7.12
7.13
7.14

7.15
7.16
7.17

7.18
7.19
7.20

7.21

7.7.1 . . .
7.7.2 .
7.7.3 . . . .
7.7.4 . . . . .
Y.1564 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.2 RFC 2544 ITU-T Y.1564 . . . . . . .
7.8.3 . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.8 M- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.9 FTD . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8.10 FDV . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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7.9.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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7.10.1 . MPLS . . . . . . .
(Loopback) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.11.1 . . . . . . . .
7.11.2 . . . . . . . .
OAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ET- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
TCP/IP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.14.1 - (Ping) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.14.2 (Traceroute) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.14.3 DNS (DNS lookup) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.14.4 ARP- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.14.5 TCP- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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BERT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.17.1 BERT. MPLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.17.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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7.19.1 . MPLS . . . . . . . . .
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7.20.1 . . . . . . . .
7.20.2 . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.20.3 . . . . . . . . . .
7.20.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.20.5 : . . . . . . . . . . . .
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43
44
45
46
48
48
49
50
50
53
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57
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61
62
67
72
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100
105
106
108
111
113
114
114
115
115
116
116
117

-ET.


7.22 . . . . . . . . .
7.23 . . . .
7.24 . . . . . . .
7.24.1 . . .
7.24.2 . . .
7.24.3 . . . . . . .
7.24.4 SFP . . .
7.24.5 . . . . . . .
7.24.6 .
7.24.7 . .
7.25 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.26 . . .

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119
120
123
123
123
124
125
126
127
129
130
131

8
133
8.1 0.0.1 . . . . 133
8.2 0.0.7 . . . . 135
8.3 0.0.10 137
9
9.1 . . . . . . . . .
9.1.1 . . .
9.2 TELNET . .
9.3 WWW- .
9.3.1

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139
139
139
143
144
145

10
10.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3 . . .
10.4 . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.7.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.7.2
10.8 . . . . . . . .

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147
147
147
147
148
148
148
148
148
149
150

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151

B Ethernet-

155

157

161

179

-ET.

181

183

191

-ET.

1.

- Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet -ET ( , )


RFC 2544 [5], , . ,
.
-ET :
/ (MAC), (IP)
;
,
;
RFC-25441 : Throughput ( ), Latency ( ), Frame Loss
( ), Back-to-Back ( );
;
(Loopback) , , ;

OAM;
(BERT);
.

7.1.

-ET.

-ET.

2.

2.1.

- Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet
-
- Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet
-.

-
1
1

USB

Ethernet

-ET.

10

-ET.

11

3.

1. Ethernet -ET 51350-99.


2.
III, II
51350-99.
3. , ,
, 12.3.019.
4.
.
5.
12.1.005.
:
.
.

-ET.

12

-ET.

13

4.

1. -ET , , .
2. ,
, .
3. ,

.
4. .
5. :
90260 , 50 , ,
;
(NiMh, 4,8 4300 ).
6.
.

12 . .

-. 500 -. 6 1 .
:
( 30 ).
1 .

40 %; 50 %; . 5 .

-ET.

14


: 220 , 50 , .

4.1


20010144 ;
714039 ;
0,640 ;
0,1 .

-ET.

15

5.

1.
2.1.
2. 2 (
, , ).
3. ( 90260 ,
50 ).
4. / (. 6.1).

-ET.

16

-ET.

17

6.

6.1

-ET 6.1.
Link Tx Rx Test

Link Tx Rx Test

1
4

. 6.1.
1 .
.
-ET.

18


Link :
;
.
Tx :
( ) ;
.
Rx :
( ) ;
.
Test :
;
() .


:
;
() ;
() .
2 .
6.3.
3 .
.
4 .
/ (On/Off )
/ 12 .
(Main menu)
.

-ET.

6.1

19


, ,

;
. ,
,

/
, .



; .
,
,
,
.
,

,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
,
, .
, , , 6.1.
6.1. ,

---

abc

---

def

---

ghi

---

jkl

---

mno

---

pqrs

---

tuv

---

wxyz

---

---

-----ET.

@ /

: ;
*

20

6.2

6.2 6.3.

. 6.2.

. 6.3.
1 6.3 .

6.2.
6.2.

A, B1


RJ-45 - Ethernet


Ethernet/Gigabit
Ethernet
(
10/100/1000 /)
SFP-
SFP-

1 (A B) 2 RJ-45 SFP. 1 .

-ET.

6.2

21

6.2. :
LAN
USB
12 V (12 )

- Ethernet

USB
USB

-ET.

22

6.3

( ):
;
A (, A:100 ,
100 /);
: SFP- .
A (F , H );
, A ( , );
B;
: SFP- .
B (F , H );
, B ( , );
.
, (),
:
THR (throughput) .
LAT (latency) .
BTB (back-to-back) .
FRL (frame loss) .
LB1 (loopback layer 1) () .
LB2 (loopback layer 2) () .
LB3 (loopback layer 3) () .
LB4 (loopback layer 4) () .
BER (bit error rate test) .
PJ (packet jitter) .
GEN (generate) .
J+G (jitter + generate) .
PTH (pass through) .
CTR (complex traffic) / .
REM (remote) .
Y (Y.1564) Y.1564.
-ET.

6.4

6.4

23

-ET (
),
(-ET ),
(-ET ),

(-ET ).
A.

1. -ET .

. 6.4. -ET
2. -ET .

. 6.5. -ET

-ET.

24


3. -ET .

. 6.6. -ET

6.5


(), .

. 6.7.

.
.
( .
(, ).
, .
.
(
).
.

-ET.

25

7. .

7.1

RFC 2544

-ET RFC 2544


4 , :
1. (Throughput). , Ethernet.
, 1 , DUT, , .

DUT2
(. 7.1 3 ). ,
DUT. ,
.
: , .
1

, .

.
3
/. . 7.2.
2

-ET.

26

..
.
.

. 7.1.
2. (Latency).
, , . ,
.
DUT .
.
120 ( 1 2886 ).
.
Ta , .
Tb . (Latency) (Tb Ta).
20 ( 1 30).
.
Ta

= Tb - Ta

Tb

. 7.2.
-ET.

7.1 RFC 2544

27

3. (Frame Loss Rate). ,


( ),
.
,
- .
DUT (input count)
, DUT (output count).
:
100 (input count output count)
(input count)
, . , 90 % ,
, 80 % . , 10 % ( ), , .
100%
1

-X %
1

90%

NUT/DUT

-X%
..
..

X %, X %
1

. 7.3.
4. (Back-to-back). , .
DUT DUT. DUT, ,
-ET.

28

.
, (
). DUT
, .

1

...
.

. 7.4.

-ET.

7.2

7.2

29

7.2.1

MAC 1

MAC 2

B)

A(B)

DUT

2-

. 7.5. 1

MAC 1
IP 1

MAC 2
IP 2

IP s = IP 1 IP d =IP 2
MAC d = MAC R MAC s = MAC 1

A(B)

IP s = IP 1 IP d = IP 2

NUT/DUT

MAC d = MAC 2 MAC s = MAC R

IP s = IP 2 IP d =IP 1
MAC d = MAC 1 MAC s = MAC R

MAC R

A(B)

router

IP s = IP 2 IP d = IP 1
MAC d = MAC R MAC s = MAC 2

MAC d
IP d

. 7.6. 2

MAC 1
MAC 2
IP 1
IP 2

IP s = IP 1 IP d = IP 2
MAC d = MAC R MAC s = MAC 1

NUT/DUT
router

MAC R

IP s = IP 1 IP d = IP 2
MAC d = MAC 2 MAC s = MAC R

. 7.7. 3

-ET.

MAC s
IP s

30

.
MAC 1 MAC 2
IP 1
IP 2

IP s = IP 1 IP d = IP 2
MAC d = MAC 2 MAC s = MAC 1

DUT

B
IP s = IP 1 IP d = IP 2
MAC d = MAC 2 MAC s = MAC 1

. 7.8. 4

. 7.5 ( ) , ,
, , , , (switch).
(loopback).
MAC-
, .
:
MAC s MAC- ;
MAC d MAC- ;
MAC R MAC- ;
IP s IP- ;
IP d IP- .
. 7.6 , , , , , , (switch), (router).
, MAC-
IP- , c .
/ IP- (. 7.7).
.
-ET ,
. 7.8.

-ET.

7.3

7.3

31

-ET 4 .
,
RFC-2544 BERT :

BERT BERT;
RFC-2544 RFC-2544;
BERT RFC-2544;
RFC-2544 BERT.

7.9 4 : A B RFC-2544,
B A BERT.

NUT
B

RFC-2544 (A B)
BERT (B A)

. 7.9.

.
.

. 7.10.
4

. .

-ET.

32

7.4

-ET :

0.3.7-15

BERT/RFC-2544

0.3.7-15

BERT

Y.1564/RFC-2544/

1 , , 2. ,
FPGA. .
, BERT/RFC-2544,
,
.
2.1 ( 9xxx) 3 .
2.1 40 ,
:

. 7.11.

-ET.

7.5 RFC 2544.

7.5

33

RFC 2544.

. 7.12. RFC 2544.



:
1. RFC 2544
(
( )).
, . 7.12,
.
2. (. 7.5.17.5.5, 7.6.17.6.5).
7.5.1

. 7.13.
MAC . MAC- . MAC- MAC- .
MAC . MAC- :

-ET.

34

.
, , MAC- MAC- ;

, MAC- .
IP . IP- .
IP . IP- .

MAC- IP:
(
) MAC-

MAC- A (B), ;

(
) IP- IP- A (B),
;

( MAC .)
ARP-. MAC MAC-,
IP- .
, (.).

-ET.

7.5 RFC 2544.


7.5.2

35

()

. 7.14. (.)
Auto-ARP , ARP-.
MAC- MAC-,
IP- , .
VLAN VLAN,
VLAN-:
:
/
(A/B)
VLAN , VLAN A(B).

. 7.15. VLAN
ID 12- VLAN,
0 4095. VLAN,
. VLAN ID ,
-ET.

36

.
VLAN, . VLAN ID 1, VLAN ID
VLAN ID .
, . 8 ([1]), C.1.
MPLS .
/
(A/B)
:
MPLS , MPLS A(B).

IP DiffServ Precedence ToS


(PREC+TOS) DSCP
:
Precedence , .
RFC 791 [2].
C.2.
ToS , IP- (Type
of Service). C.3, RFC 1349 [4].
4- .
DSCP DSCP 8 , Precedence
ToS. 6 . C.4.
2 TCP
. C.5.
UDP src UDP- .
UDP dst UDP- .

-ET.

7.5 RFC 2544.


7.5.3

37

RFC 2544. MPLS

RFC 2544
: RFC 2544
MPLS.

. 7.16.
- ( 1 3).
.
MPLS COS .
TTL .
7.5.4

. 7.17.
. (, Loopback).

/ (. 7.9).
-ET.

38

7.5.5

. 7.18.

:
1.
RFC 2544 (
( )): 64, 128,
256, 512, 1024, 1280, 1518 . ( 64 9600
).
2. .
64 9600 .

-ET.

7.6 RFC 2544.

7.6
7.6.1

39

RFC 2544.

. 7.19.
/ .
(L1) (L1)
(
), / (
) /c (
).
, ,
(12886 ).
, % , . : 10 (
), 1 (
),
), 0,01 (
).
0,1 (
.
, % (010 %).
, .

-ET.

40
7.6.2

. 7.20.
/
.
-
.
, ,
(12886 c).
(L1) (L1).

. 7.21. (L1)
. . (
)
, . (
) , .

-ET.

7.6 RFC 2544.


7.6.3

41

. 7.22.
/ .
, ,
(12886 ).
- .
(L1) (L1) ,
. (L1)
(
), / (
) /c (
).
7.6.4

. 7.23.
/ .
-
.
-ET.

42

, ,
(22886 ).
(L1) (L1) (. . 7.21).
7.6.5

. 7.24.
,
5 .
, ,
.
RFC 2544, 7000 (2000
, 5000 ), 2000 .

100 10000 ,
100 10000 .
5

-ET.

7.7 RFC 2544.

7.7
7.7.1

43

RFC 2544.
.

. 7.25. :
: ( ), ( %),
.
(/ L2, / L3, / L4 /c):
(/ L2): Ethernet ( CRC);
(/ L3): Ethernet-
CRC, Ethernet-, VLAN- MPLS-;
(/ L4): Ethernet CRC, Ethernet- IP-, VLAN- MPLS-.

. 7.26. :

-ET.

44


() :
1. Y . .
2. Y .
X , .
/c .
7.7.2

. 7.27. :
( )

( %),
.

-ET.

7.7 RFC 2544.

45

. 7.28. :
, ( ).
7.7.3

. 7.29. :
( ) ( %) .


(/ L2, /
L3, / L4 /c):
(/ L2): Ethernet ( CRC);
(/ L3): Ethernet-
CRC, Ethernet-, VLAN- MPLS-;
(/ L4): Ethernet CRC, Ethernet- IP-, VLAN- MPLS-.
-ET.

46

. 7.30. :
( %) ( %).
7.7.4

. 7.31. :
, . , ,
, ,
, .
() ,

,
, .

-ET.

7.7 RFC 2544.

47

. 7.32. :
, ,
.
, .

-ET.

48

7.8

Y.1564

Ethernet- (, , , , - ..) ,
(SLA Service
Level Agreement) .
(QoS Quality of Service), (. 7.8.1).
RFC 2544[5] (. 7.1)
ITU-T Y.15646 [10].

. 7.33. Y.1564
7.8.1

7 (SAC
Service Acceptance Criteria) :
1. FTD (Frame Transfer Delay) .
2. FDV (Frame Delay Variation) .
3. FLR (Frame Loss Ratio) .
4. CIR (Committed Information Rate) .
5. EIR (Excess Information Rate) CIR.
6. M- CIR+EIR.
6 Y.1564
0.3.7-15.
7 ,

-ET.

7.8 Y.1564
7.8.2

49

RFC 2544 ITU-T Y.1564

RFC 2544

.
, ,
.
ITU-T Y.1564 ,
SLA.

FTD
FDV8
FLR

RFC 2544

SLA
. .

ITU-T Y.1564


6 .
.

, Y.1564 , SLA,

.

8 FDV VoIP/IPTV
.

-ET.

50

7.8.3

:
1. (. 7.22)
(. 7.23).
2. (. 7.8.4).
3.
(. 7.8.4.1 7.8.4.2).
4. (. 7.8.5).
7.8.4

. 7.34. Y.1564.

( 1 10).
:
. ;
. ;
. + .
.

(. 7.5.4).
(. 7.8.4.1).
(. 7.8.5).

-ET.

7.8 Y.1564
7.8.4.1

51

,
(CIR EIR), Traffic Policing.

. 7.35. Y.1564.

CIR (L2)
EIR (L2)
Traf. Pol. (L2)

SAC

.
CIR.
Traffic Policing.
CIR (L2)+EIR (L2) (. 7.8.6.3).
.
SAC (. 7.8.4.2).
(. 7.5.1).

, , . (. 7.8.4)
,

/

/
.
/

-ET.

52
7.8.4.2

.
SAC

SAC
(SLA).

. 7.36. Y.1564. SAC


FTD,
FDV,
M, /c

.
.
.
- (. 7.8.8).

, , . (. 7.8.4)
,

/

/
.
/

-ET.

7.8 Y.1564
7.8.5

53


( , ) (), ,
.
:
(.
7.8.4) .

. 7.37. Y.1564.

. ,
CIR
-
EIR
Traf. Policing

, .
/ CIR.
(. 7.8.6.1).
/ EIR.
/ Traffic Policing.
.

-ET.

54
7.8.6

, SAC (. 7.8.4.2), ,
. ,

. -,
(. 7.8.7).
CIR, EIR Traffic
Policing. , , ,
(. 7.8.5).
7.8.6.1

CIR

CIR ,
CIR ,
SLA.
(FTD, FDV, FLR),
, SAC (. 7.8.4.2).
- : 1 CIR 100 % ; 2 : 50
100 % ; 3 : 50,
75 100 % ; 4
: 25, 50, 75 100 % .

CIR
0.75 x CIR
0.5 x CIR
0.25 x CIR

-ET.

7.8 Y.1564
7.8.6.2

55

EIR

EIR , CIR+EIR

CIR ( ) CIR+EIR:
CIR(1-FLR)IRCIR+EIR. (FLR) SAC (. 7.8.4.2).
: colour-aware ( ) .

CIR+EIR
CIR
CIR x (1-FLR)

CIR
1

7.8.6.3

CIR
2

CIR
3

CIR
4

Traffic Policing

Traffic Policing ,
, ,
. Traf. Pol. (L2)
(. 7.8.4.1) CIR+EIR .

Traf. Pol. (L2)


CIR+EIR+M
CIR+EIR
CIR
CIR x (1-FLR)

CIR
1

CIR
2

CIR
3

CIR
4

EIR

-ET.

56
7.8.6.4

. 7.38.

IR, /c
FTD,
FDV,
FLR, %

( ).
( . 7.8.9).

( . 7.8.10).
.
(
6.5).

, ().
,
6.5.
CIR

, SLA.



, SLA.

EIR



CIR (
)
CIR+EIR: CIR(1FLR)IRCIR+EIR

Traffic Policing

CIR (

CIR+EIR+M: CIR(1FLR)IRCIR+EIR+M
-

-
CIR(1-FLR) CIR(1 CIR+EIR FLR)
CIR+EIR+M

-ET.

7.8 Y.1564

57

/

.
7.8.7

.
CIR
. ,
4- .
7.8.7.1

. 7.39.

IR, /c
FTD,
FDV,
FLR, %

-
IR

(
).
( . 7.8.9).

( . 7.8.10).
.
.
.
.

, ().
,
6.5.

-ET.

58

, SLA.
, SLA.

/
.
7.8.8

M-

Traffic Policing
,
. , . , ITU-T Y.1564
- CIR+EIR
(. ITU-T Y.1564 . C.2 . 8.1.2).
7.8.9

FTD

(FTD) :
1. (Ta).
2.
(Tb).
3. , : T b T a.
:
, PTP (.
7.24.6).

4. (F T D_min), (F T D_avg) (F T D_max).



, .
.
.

-ET.

7.8 Y.1564
7.8.10

59

FDV

(FDV)
ITU-T Y.1563[14] :
F DV = F T D F T D_min.
, : F T D_min = 1.5, F T D_avg = 2.5, F T D_max = 5.5,
FDV : F DV _min = 0, F DV _avg = 1.0,
F DV _max = 4.0.

.
.

-ET.

60

-ET.

7.9

7.9

61

9
, ( , ..) ,
(. . 7.40).

Tx = 500 Mbps

Tx = 500 Mbps

NUT
Rx = 100 Mbps

Rx = 100 Mbps

. 7.40.
-
.

, ,
, .
2 -ET: , , , . .
, :
1. RFC 2544: , , , .
2. BERT.
3. Y.1564.
: RFC 2544,

Y.1564 PTP- (. 7.24.6).
9

. .

-ET.

62

7.9.1

Y.1564 ( BERT
RFC 2544 ).
. 7.41 A. B
.

...

02

-ET

-ET

IP

IP

. 7.41.
:
MAC 1 MAC- A ;
IP 1 IP- ;
MAC R1 MAC- , ;
MAC RN MAC- , ;
MAC 2 MAC- A ;
IP 2 IP- .

:
1. , : -ET.

ETAT.
2. -ET , . 7.41.
3.
-ET. . :
A
-ET.

7.9

63

IP- (IP 1) IP- (IP 2):


IP- ( DHCP );
IP- DHCP,
():
DHCP
, IP-
1-2 .
4.
-ET.
A PTP- (. 7.24.6).
: BERT RFC 2544 ( , , ) .
5. Y.1564
(. . 7.42). :
A

. IP IP 2

. 7.42.
6. -ET.
Y.1564
(. . 7.43). :
MAC . MAC 1
MAC . MAC R1
IP . IP 1
IP . IP 2
-ET.

64

.
: MAC- ARP-:
.
MAC .

. 7.43.
7. 7.8 Y.1564.
-ET. Y.1564
().
: :
. ...
.
,
.
,
.
, (. 7.4).
, - .
. BERT 1-
BERT .
: .
-ET.

7.9

65

:
1. , : -ET.

ETAT.
2. -ET -ET
, . 7.41.
3.
-ET. . :
A
IP- (IP 1) IP- (IP 2):
IP- ( DHCP );
IP- DHCP,
():
DHCP
, IP-
1-2 .
4.
-ET.
A PTP- (. 7.24.6).
: BERT RFC 2544 ( , , ) .
5. Y.1564
(. . 7.44). :

A
. IP IP 2

-ET.

66

. 7.44.
6. -ET.
Y.1564
(. . 7.45). :
MAC . MAC 2
MAC . MAC RN
IP . IP 2
IP . IP 1

. 7.45.
7. 7.8 Y.1564.
-ET. Y.1564
().
: , . 64.

-ET.

7.10

7.10

67


: 0.3.7-15
,
Y.1564
(. 7.8).

10
10 .
, , .

. 7.46.
: (
, ).

. 7.47. :

(),
.
10

. .

-ET.

68

;
(L2) ;
, ;
, .


()
, .

. 7.48. ()
, .
(./.)
(. 7.21).

: .

. 7.49. :

-ET.

7.10

69

Cur .
Min .
Avg .
Max .


: .

. 7.50. :

(Tx) (Rx) .
.

. 7.51.
(110 ).
(12886 ).
.

-ET.

70

. 7.52.
.

(, Loopback).
/ (. 7.9).
.

. 7.53.

.
7.5.1 7.5.2.

-ET.

7.10

71

. 7.54.

64 9600 .
(L2) (L2).

. 7.55. (L2)
(L2) (
/ (

) / (

).

-ET.

),

72
7.10.1

.
. MPLS

: MPLS.

. 7.56.
- ( 1 3),
.
.
MPLS COS .
TTL .

-ET.

7.11 (Loopback)

7.11

73

(Loopback)

RFC 2544,
Loopback. Loopback
.
OSI.
(L1) , .
(L2)
, MAC- . , , MAC- ( 0.3.8-0 ). .
: (L2) (L3)
MAC Dst MAC Src,
M (OAMPDU) ARP-, , .
(L3) , IP- .
, ,
IP- ( 0.3.7-15 ).
.
: MPLS ,
.
(L4) ( ), ,
- IP-, TCP/UDP
.
: MPLS ,
.

-ET.

74

. 7.57.
(A B), Loopback.
,
:

;
1 ;
2 (MAC);
3 (IP);
4 (TCP/UDP).

ET- ET-.
OAM OAM.

-ET.

7.11 (Loopback)
7.11.1

75

. 7.58. 2
: 0.3.8-0 .
MAC / , MAC .
MAC -:
MAC- ;
Source MAC Address (MAC-
), . . 7.60;
Destination MAC Address (MAC ), . . 7.59;
Source MAC Address Destination MAC
Address, . . 7.61.
MAC-, Source MAC Address Ethernet-.
MAC-, Destination MAC Address Ethernet-.
VLAN VLAN-:
VLAN- ;
ID VLAN ID ( VLAN);
VLAN priority ( );
ID+ VLAN ID VLAN priority.
-ET.

76

ID ,
VLAN ID Ethernet-.
,
VLAN priority Ethernet-.

. 7.59. .

MAC d = MAC 1

MAC s = MAC 2

A(B)
MAC d = MAC 2 MAC s = Src MAC

. 7.60. .

MAC d = MAC 1 MAC s = MAC 2

B)
MAC d = Dst MAC MAC s = Src MAC

. 7.61.

-ET.

7.11 (Loopback)
7.11.2

77

. 7.62. 3
: 0.3.7-15 .
IP IP-:
IP- ;
Source IP address (IP- ), . . 7.63;
Destination IP address (IP- ), . . 7.64;
Source IP address Destination IP address,
. . 7.65.
IP-, Source IP address Ethernet-.
IP-,
Destination IP address Ethernet-.
ToS:
Type of Service ( )
Precedence () ;
ToS Type of Service;
Prec Precedence;
ToS+Prec Type of Service Precedence.
ToS ,
Type of Service Ethernet-.

-ET.

78

Precedence ,
Precedence Ethernet-.

P-

. 7.63. .

IP s = IP 2

IP d = IP 1

IP s = IP 2

IP d = Dst IP

B)

Dst IP - IP- , .

. 7.64. .

IP s = IP 2

IP d = IP 1

B)
IP s = Src IP

IP d = Dst IP

PP-

. 7.65.

-ET.

7.12 OAM

7.12

79

OAM

Ethernet. IEEE 802.3ah[8] ( Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) OAM Ethernet OAM
).
OAM (Operations, Administration, and Maintenance ,
)
, OSI.
Ethernet-
OAMPDU.
OAM
.
-ET OAM
:
1. -ET 11 , .

. 7.66.
2. OAM .
:
3. OAM (. . 7.67).
4. , .
5. OAM.
6. Send any.
11

. 7.66 -ET .

-ET.

80

.
7. . .
(LB up). 8.
(L2) (
MAC-).

(LB down).

. 7.67. OAM
OAM.
OAM:
;

,
Ethernet OAM ;
; ,
Ethernet OAM ;
OAM .
. :
Fault ,
;
Send local OAMPDU
;
Passive wait OAMPDU , ;
-ET.

7.12 OAM

81

Send loc/rem OAMPDU ,


;
Send loc/rem ok OAMPDU ,
;
Send any 12 .
,
.

. 7.68.
MAC MAC- .
Vendor OUI , MAC-.
OAM .
Unidirectional .
Rem. loopback .
Link events .
Var. retrieval ,
.
LB status .
12 , Remote loopback ( ).
Send loc/rem ok.

-ET.

82

7.13

ET-

ET-
(L2), (L3) (L4) - -ET
-ETL.

.
.
.

NUT

. 7.69.
-ET / - ETL, , .

. 7.70. ET-
:
-ET.

7.13 ET-

83

1. .
2. ,
(A/B/). , :
A B (. .
IP-, ,
), A;
A B ,
, ,
;
A, B , A.
3. IP- IP- .
4.
().
IP-, MAC- (. . 7.71).
.

. 7.71. ET-
:
/ ;
;
;
.
: UDP.
32 792. 32 793.
-ET.

84

7.14

TCP/IP

, , , , . TCP/IP ,
, ,
,
.
7.14.1

- (Ping)

- .

. IP-
ICMP- .
:
1.
, :

A(B)

NUT

. 7.72. 1
:
(. . 7.73). .

-ET.

7.14 TCP/IP

85

NUT
B

. 7.73. 2
2. - (. . 7.74).
().

. 7.74. -
:
() .
() .
() .
(./.) .
3. -.

-ET.

86

. 7.75. -
,
(A/B/).
, :
A B (. .
IP-, ,
), - A;
A B , -
, ,
;
A, B , - A.
IP IP- , .
ICMP- .
( 0 9999).
,
().
,
- ( ).

( ).
4.
(). ,
,
( ):

ICMP-;
IP- , -;
;
.
-ET.

7.14 TCP/IP

87

7.76.

. 7.76. -
(. . 7.77).
, ,
,
, ,
( ) . ,
- .

. 7.77. -

-ET.

88

7.14.2

(Traceroute)

13
TCP/IP.
,
,
. ,
.
:
1. ,
. 7.72.
2. (. . 7.78).

. 7.78.
3. .

. 7.79.
13

. .

-ET.

7.14 TCP/IP

89

,
(A/B/).
, :
A B (. .
IP-, ,
), A;
A B ,
, ,
;
A, B , A.
IP IP- .
. , .
.
,
( , ).
4.
(). ,
,
( ):
;
IP- ;
.

, .
. 7.80

. 7.80.

-ET.

90

7.14.3

DNS (DNS lookup)

DNS (Domain Name System ) , , ,


IP-. DNS lookup ( )14
NS-.
:
1. ,
. 7.72.
2. DNS (. . 7.81).
3. .
4. .
(). IP 5.
IP- .
IP- , IP IP- (0.0.0.0).
. 7.81.

. 7.81. DNS
.
, IP- .
IP IP- ,
.
14

. .

-ET.

7.14 TCP/IP
7.14.4

91

ARP-

ARP ARP-, , IP- MAC . (. . 7.83).


:
1. ,
. 7.72 . 7.73.
2. ARP (. . 7.82).

. 7.82. ARP
:
() .
(B/A) IP- MAC-
B(A).
3.
(A B).
4. ARP-
IP- MAC- .
. 7.83.

-ET.

92

. 7.83. ARP
- ,
.
5.
().

-ET.

7.14 TCP/IP
7.14.5

93

TCP-

TCP-15 TCP-
,
. TELNET.
:
1. ,
. 7.72.
2. ( TCP-
)):
(
;
IP- ;
( C.6).

. 7.84. TCP-
.
IP- .
.
,
HTTP GET-.
().
3. TCP-,
(. . 7.85)
, -.
.
7.12.
15

. .

-ET.

94

.
7.11. TCP/IP

()

21 (FTP)

22 (SSH)
23 (TELNET)
25 (SMTP)


, -
-

80 (HTTP(WWW))
161 (SNMP)

. 7.85.

7.12.

protocol not supported

cant assign requested address


network is down

network is unreachable
network dropped connection
on reset
software caused connection
abort

connection reset by peer

-ET.

7.14 TCP/IP

95
7.12. ()

connection timed out

connection refused

host is down

no route to host

- HTTP. HTTP GET-16 . , HTTP- .


:
1. (. . 7.84)
.
2. .
3. TCP
(HTTPGET). . 7.86.

. 7.86. HTTP GET-


16

-ET.

96

7.15


. , A(B) B(A), . 7.87.

NUT

NUT

. 7.87.
. .
.
A B ,
.
,
.

. 7.88.

-ET.

7.16

7.16

97

-ET
,
.
:
1. (. .7.89).
2. / / RJ-4517 .
3.
(), ,
, .

(A)
(B) .
:
1. .
2. A(B) ,
B(A).
3.
().
4. , . A B, , 7.13.

. 7.89.
17 RJ-45. SFP- .

-ET.

98

.
:

;
. ;
;
.. ;
.

. .
. .
. :
<+> ( );
<> (
).
. (MDI/MDI-X); ,
. .

-ET.

7.16

99
7.13.

18

10/100

1000

1-2
3-6
4-5
7-8
1-2
3-6
4-5
7-8
1-2
3-6
4-5
7-8
1-2
3-6
4-5
7-8
1-2
3-6
4-5
7-8
1-2
3-6
4-5
7-8
1-2
3-6
4-5
7-8
1-2
3-6
4-5
7-8

.
A
MDI
MDI

MDI-X
MDI-X

MDI-X
MDI-X

MDI
MDI

MDI
MDI
MDI
MDI
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI
MDI
MDI
MDI


-
.
B
MDI
MDI

MDI-X
MDI-X

MDI
MDI

MDI-X
MDI-X

MDI
MDI
MDI
MDI
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI
MDI
MDI
MDI
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X
MDI-X

18 A B ( /) .

-ET.

100

7.17

BERT

BERT (Bit Error Rate Test) , bit error rate (


), . . .
Ethernet-, .
, .
TDM- , (Ethernet)
, TDM-.
OSI.
(IFG Interframe Gap).
A (B) B (A) (. . 7.100)
(. . 7.101).

.
IFG

. 7.90.
Ethernet-,
,
, OSI (,
(switch)).
. 7.102, 7.103, 7.104.

M 

. 7.91.
IP-,
Ethernet-. , , (, , (router)).
. 7.102, 7.103,
7.104.

-ET.

7.17 BERT

101

MACIP

. 7.92.
Ethernet-,
IP- UDP-, .
. 7.102, 7.103, 7.104.
MAC-

UDP-

  





.

. 7.93.

. 7.94. BERT
ET , .
RT , .
BITs .
EBITs .
BER .
LSS ,
.
%LSS ,
, ,
( ).
LOS , .
%LOS , ,
, ( ).
-ET.

102

.
BERT.
: LSS , BER. :
(, 2e15, 2e23);
, , BER (
0,01).


(./.) , ), (
),
(
(
) (
) .
7.21.

. 7.95. BERT
OSI,
:

1
2
3
4

;
;
;
.

. .
-ET.

7.17 BERT

103

. .
(L2) (L2) ), / (
) / (
).
(
.
:
,
( . ,
. );
, , .
.
.

. 7.96.
.

(, Loopback).
/ (. 7.9).
(. 7.5.1).
, ,
ITU-T O.150 [7].

-ET.

104

.
7.14.


2e9-1

2e11-1

2e15-1

2e20-1

2e23-1
2e29-1
2e31-1

(.)
( 14,4 /).
( 64 /
64N /, N ).
(
1544, 2048, 6312,
8448, 32 064 44 736 /).
(
71 /).
(
34 368 139 264
/).
(
( 139 264 /c)).

-ET.

7.17 BERT
7.17.1

105

BERT. MPLS

MPLS:
BERT MPLS.

. 7.97. MPLS
.
.
MPLS.

. 7.98.
- ( 1 3),
.
.
MPLS COS .
TTL .

-ET.

106

. 7.99.
- .
1, 2, 3 .
7.17.2

. 7.100. ( 1)

. 7.101. ( 2)

-ET.

7.17 BERT

107

Ethernet-

switch/
router

TDM-

. 7.102. / ( 1)


A(B)

Ethernet-
switch/
router

. 7.103. / ( 2)


A(B)

-
. 7.104. / ( 3)

-ET.

108

7.18

Ethernet- . RFC 4689 [6],


,
. , , .
19 .

. 7.105. .
ET , .
RT , .
PKTs .
OOOPs , ,
.
%OOOPs , , ,
.
INOPs , , . %INOPs ,
, ,
.
< ms %PKTs ( ), .
>= ms %PKTs ( ), .
. .
19

. .

-ET.

7.18

109


()
, ,
. .
.
, . 7.109 . 7.110, (. 7.19).

()
, .

. 7.106. ()

() , .

. 7.107. .
:
, ( ), . . -ET.

110

, .
;
, .
(./.)

, (
), (
),
(
) (
)
.
.
7.21.

. 7.108. .
, .
, .
.
.

-ET.

7.19

7.19

111

.
(. . 7.109),
(. . 7.110),
, . . 7.111.
.

. 7.109. . 1

B(A)

NUT
A(B)

. 7.110. . 2

-ET.

112

A(B)

NUT

A(B)

. 7.111. . 3

. 7.112.
/ .
, .
, .
(L2) (L2) (
), / (
) / (
).
:
,
( . ,
. );
, , .
( 64 9600 ).
.
ET , .
RT , .
-ET.

7.19
7.19.1

113

. MPLS

:
MPLS.

. 7.113.
- ( 1 3),
.
.
MPLS COS .
TTL .

-ET.

114

7.20

() -

, , (A, B).

7.20.1

. 7.114.
Rx .
Tx .
Rx .
Tx .
Rx /
.

-ET.

7.20
7.20.2

. 7.115.
Broadcast .
Multicast .
Unicast .
Pause .
Rx .
Tx .
7.20.3

. 7.116.
( ).
Rx .
Tx .

-ET.

115

116
7.20.4

. 7.117.
. 2 (Rx) (Tx)
.
. 3 (Rx) (Tx)
.
7.20.5

. 7.118. :
CRC , .
Runt 64
.
Jabber 1518
, .

-ET.

7.21

7.21

117

), ( (
) (
(

), (

) .

:
. , //
- (-).

. 7.119.

.

. 7.120.
:
, ;
-ET.

118


;
;
;

().

:
;

().
:
, ;

().

().

-ET.

7.22

7.22

119

. 7.121.
(A, B LAN) .
DHCP IP- , , IP- IP- , DNS,
DHCP .
IP- IP- .
, IP-,
, ,
.
IP- .
DNS IP- , DNS.
MPLS /
A B ( LAN MPLS ).
MPLS (
) .
: IP- IP- , DNS,
.

-ET.

120

7.23

. 7.122.
.
/ ( ).
.
.,
.
.
:
, parallel detection function[9].
, , .
(. . 6.3).
.
MAC MAC- (A, B LAN), 20 .
VLAN VLAN (. . 7.15).
MPLS MPLS. A (MPLS. B).
: SFP-
1 /.
20
() MAC- MAC- , .

-ET.

7.23

121

. 7.123. MPLS. A
.
.
MPLS,
.

. 7.124.
LSR IP- , , .
/
, .
IP IP- .
.
.

-ET.

122

. 7.125.
- ( 1 3),
.
.
MPLS COS .
TTL .

. 7.126.
- .
1, 2, 3 .

-ET.

7.24

7.24

7.24.1

123

. 7.127. .
. .
.
.
.
/ .
LCD . : , 20 , 40 , 60 ;
.

: , 1, 5, 10 .
7.24.2

. 7.128.

-ET.

124

.
.
.
/
(. 7.26).
7.24.3

. 7.129.
MCU MCU.
SYS FPGA system FPGA.
EXP FPGA expansion FPGA.
BOOT .
FILES .
HW .
S/N .
MAC A MAC A.
MAC B MAC B.
MAC LAN MAC LAN.
()

.

-ET.

7.24

125

. 7.130.
.

.
7.24.4

SFP

. 7.131. SFP-
, SFP-. ( A)
( B).

-ET.

126
7.24.5

. 7.132.
: ( C), (), (), / (), , (c).

-ET.

7.24
7.24.6

127

21 -ET PTPv2, IEEE 1588.



RFC 2544, Y.1564 (. 7.9).

. 7.133.
PTP-: A B .
: , 100 %
,
, , ..
.
: UDP Ethernet.
IP IP- .
PTPv2: E2E P2P.
.
.

,
, .

(Master) (Grandmaster).
21 ,
.

-ET.

128

. 7.134.

-ET.

7.24
7.24.7

129

-ET, . ,
,
ats (. D).
7.15.

ETIP

TCP/IP (,
, DNS)

ETWEB

HTTP- ( ETIP)

ETJT


TELNET
WWW-

ETRC
ETMM

Y.1564

ETMPLS

MPLS

ETAT

ET2P

ETPTP

-ET.

130

7.25

-ET .

. 7.135.
:
,
RFC 2544, Y.1564, BERT, , , .
.
IP-: -, , TCP-.
,
().

D.

-ET.

7.26

7.26

131


-ET. ,
USB TELNET.
:

/ ;
/ ;
;
;
/ ;
.


/ :
<> <> <> <>
, 2- B
:

. 7.136.
USB- TELNET . /
log on/off.

-ET.

132

. 7.137.

() -

.
()
.
.

-ET.

133

8.

-ET , . BOOT
( ). ,
.

8.1

0.0.1

1. :

b3et-2ndbootldr_0.0.10.bin;
b3et-files_0.X.Y-Z.bin;
b3et-mcu_0.X.Y-Z.bin;
b3et-sys_0.A.B-C.bin.

2. .
3. USB (. 9.1).
4. .
, .
.
5. 1 MCU.
6.
MCU b3et-2ndbootldr_0.0.10.bin.
7. Xmodem. .
HyperTerminal
.
8. :
Secondary bootloader 0.0.10
Upgrade via XMODEM: FS image
9.
-ET.

134

b3et-files_0.X.Y-Z.bin.
10. Xmodem. .
HyperTerminal
.
11. .
.
12. 2 system FPGA. 2
12 ,
HyperTerminal
boot>2. 2 system FPGA.
13.
b3et-sys_0.A.B-C.bin.
14. Xmodem. .
HyperTerminal
.
15. .
.
16. 1 MCU. 1
12 ,
HyperTerminal
boot>1. 1 system FPGA.
17.
b3et-mcu_0.X.Y-Z.bin.
18. Xmodem. .
HyperTerminal
.

FS Image: Reconfiguring.... 1 .
, . - - ,
.

-ET.

8.2 0.0.7

8.2

135

0.0.7

0.0.7
MCU, FPGA (system FPGA)
(FS Image).
MCU :
1.
2.
3.
4.

b3et-mcu_0.X.Y-Z.bin.
.
USB (. 9.1).
.
, .
5. 1 MCU.
6.
MCU b3et-mcu_0.X.Y-Z.bin.
7. Xmodem. .
1 . . -
- ,
.
MCU
system FPGA FS Image,
.
.
FPGA (system FPGA) :
1.
2.
3.
4.

b3et-sys_0.A.B-C.bin.
.
USB (. 9.1).
.
, .
5. 2 system FPGA.
6.
MCU b3et-sys_0.A.B-C.bin.
7. Xmodem. .
1 . . -
- ,
.
-ET.

136


(FS Image) :

1.
2.
3.
4.

b3et-files_0.X.Y-Z.bin.
.
USB (. 9.1).
.
, .
5. 4 FS image.
6.
MCU b3et-files_0.X.Y-Z.bin.
7. Xmodem. .

5 .
. -
- , .

-ET.

8.3 0.0.10

137

8.3

0.0.10


.
1.
2.
3.
4.

b3et-files_0.X.Y-Z.bin.
.
USB (. 9.1).
.
, .
5. 4 FS image.
6.
MCU b3et-files_0.X.Y-Z.bin.
7. Xmodem. .
, 3-4 . , HyperTerminal:
Reflashing...done
Upgrade expansion FPGA #1...
Erasing epcs...done.
Reflashing...done
Upgrade expansion FPGA #2...
Erasing epcs...done.
Reflashing...done
Upgrade system FPGA...
Erasing epcs...done.
Reflashing...done
OK

-ET.

138

-ET.

139

9.

-ET
() USB 1.1/2.0 LAN.
USB-
Virtual COM Port.
! .

FTDI Chip:
(http://www.ftdichip.com/Drivers/VCP.htm).

9.1


Windows 95/98/XP/2000/2003 HyperTerminal,
.
X-modem.
9.1.1

1. , .
2. -ET USB- , .
3. HyperTerminal .
( ).
.

-ET.

140

. 9.1.
, COM- -ET,
(
).

. 9.2.

-ET.

9.1

141

, .

. 9.3. COM-
.

. 9.4.
OK HyperTerminal -ET. AT, OK.
: AT
.

-ET.

142

. 9.5.

, , D.

-ET.

9.2 TELNET

9.2

143

TELNET

TELNET (Telecommunication Network) .


, . , D, ,
.
TELNET 1 .
-ET TELNET
A(B) LAN,
telnet IP-_.
( ) admin.
1

. .

-ET.

144

9.3

WWW-

2
-.
:
1. A(B) LAN .
2. - IP-
.
:
1. (. . 9.6):
(comma);
(semicolon).
2. Download report.
.csv.

. 9.6. RFC 2544


2

. .

-ET.

9.3 WWW-
9.3.1

:
1. A(B) LAN .
2. - :
http://IP-__A(B)/sshot.

. 9.7.

-ET.

145

146

-ET.

147

10.

- Ethernet -ET.

10.1

, 10.1.
10.1.

10.7.1


1G Ethernet

10.7.2

10.2

:
Tektronix TDS 2022;
Pendulum CNT-69.
,
.

10.3

, -ET, -ET.

148

,
.

10.4

12.3.019, , 3 .

10.5

-ET
:
0-35 ;
40-90 %, ;
12 .

10.6


.
, .

10.7

10.7.1


-ET , . , .

-ET.

10.7
10.7.2

149

1G Ethernet , . 10.1.

TX+
1G (RJ-45)
-ET

100

TX-

. 10.1.
-ET :
1. .
2. *+F2. 2. .
3. , . 10.1.
4. , .
-ET IEEE 802.3 . 40.6.1.1.1
( 2)

62,5 6250 (100 ppm).

-ET.

150

10.8

, , .

.

-ET.

151

A.

. A.1. -ET

. A.2. -ET

. A.3. -ET

-ET.

152

. A.4. RFC-2544 (-ET


RFC-2544)

. A.5. (-ET )

-ET.

153

. A.6. BERT (-ET


BERT)

. A.7. (-ET )

-ET.

154

. A.8. (-ET )

-ET.

155

B. Ethernet-

Destination MAC Address


Source MAC Address
Length/Type
DATA
Pad
Frame Check Sequence
. B.1. Ethernet-
Destination MAC Address MAC- .
6 , , .
Source MAC Address MAC- .
6 , .
Length/Type /. 16-
:
, , 1500, Length ()
;
, , 1536,
Type () .
Data , 46 42 ( ,
VLAN-) 1500 .
Pad Padding ( ).
46 ,
64 .
Frame Check Sequence .
4 , .
-ET.

156

Ethernet-

Destination MAC Address


Source MAC Address
Tag Protocol Identifier
Tag Control Information

Priority

CFI

VLAN ID

Length/Type
DATA
Pad
Frame Check Sequence

. B.2. Ethernet-, VLAN-


Tag Protocol Identifier . 16 ,
802.1Q [1].
Tag Control Information .
TCI .
Priority User (VLAN) Priority. , ( ([1])).
CFI Canonical Format Indicator ( ). ,
Ethernet.
VLAN ID VLAN Identifier (VID). 12-
VLAN, 802.1Q [1]. VLAN, .

-ET.

157

C.

C.1.

Background

0 (Default)

Best Effort

Excellent Effort

Critical Applications

Video

Voice

Internetwork Control

Network Control

Network Control Internetwork Control . 4 5 , ,


. 3 1 FTP-,
. 0 , .
C.2. Precedence

Routine

Priority

Immediate

Flash

Flash Override

CRITIC/ECP

Internetwork Control

Network Control

-ET.

158


C.3. ToS

1000

Minimize delay

0100

Maximize throughput

0010

Maximize reliability

0001

Minimize monetary cost

0000

All normal

. ,
( ) .
. ,
.
. , , .
. , .
. .

C.4. DSCP

DSCP

Default

000 000

AF11

001 010

AF12

001 100

AF13

001 110

AF21

010 010

AF22

010 100

AF23

010 110

AF31

011 010

AF32

011 100

AF33

011 110

AF41

100 010

AF42

100 100

AF43

100 110

EF

101 110

DSCP. RFC 2597 [11] RFC 2598 [12].


Default . ,
.
-ET.

159
AF (Assured Forwarding) . TCP-
AF-. IP-
(. RFC 2597 [11]).
EF (Expedited Forwarding) .
,
, , (Voice over IP
VoIP).
C.5. ECN

00
01
10
11

Not-ECT (Not-ECN-Capable Transport) , ECN.


ECT (1) (ECN-Capable Transport) , ECN.
ECT (0) (ECN-Capable Transport) , ECN. ,
ECT (1).
CE (Congestion Experienced) .

ECN (Explicit Congestion Notification) .


.
ECN RFC 3168 [13].
C.6. TCP/IP
()

21 (FTP)

22 (SSH)
23 (TELNET)
25 (SMTP)
80 (HTTP(WWW))
161 (SNMP)


, -

-ET.

160

-ET.

161

D.

D.1. ( )

AT

ATR

ATM


, N
(N = 1 .. 10)

ATMN
ATMA

ATMI

ATI

ATH


( ) , ats ( )
, ()

ATS
ATC

D.2. (TELNET)

,
RFC 2544

show rfc2544 header src udp

UDP-

show rfc2544 header src mac

MAC-

show rfc2544 header src ip

IP-

show rfc2544 header dst udp

UDP-

show rfc2544 header dst mac

MAC-

show rfc2544 header dst ip

IP-

show rfc2544 header vlan count

VLAN-

show rfc2544 header vlan [1-3] id

VLAN

show rfc2544 header vlan [1-3] priority


show rfc2544 header mpls count

MPLS-

show rfc2544 header mpls [1-3] label

MPLS-

show rfc2544 header mpls [1-3] cos

show rfc2544 header mpls [1-3] ttl

-ET.

162


D.2. (TELNET) ()

show rfc2544 header autoarp


show rfc2544 header diffserv


ARP-
,

show rfc2544 header dscp

DSCP- IP- (. . C.4)

show rfc2544 header precedence

show rfc2544 header tos

IP-

show rfc2544 topology tx

show rfc2544 topology rx

show rfc2544 topology remote ip

IP-
,




, ( RFC 2544)


show rfc2544 throughput duration


show rfc2544 throughput enabled
show rfc2544 throughput maxrate
show rfc2544 throughput resolution
show rfc2544 throughput threshold
show rfc2544 frames [1-9] size
show rfc2544 frames [1-9] enable
show rfc2544 latency enabled
show rfc2544 latency count
show rfc2544 latency duration
show rfc2544 latency rates src


,
(throughput
, manually )

show rfc2544 latency rates [1-9]

show rfc2544 frameloss enabled

show rfc2544 frameloss duration


show rfc2544 frameloss steps

show rfc2544 frameloss rates start

show rfc2544 frameloss rates stop

show rfc2544 back2back enabled

show rfc2544 back2back count

show rfc2544 back2back duration

-ET.

163
D.2. (TELNET) ()
show rfc2544 back2back rates src

(throughput
, manually )

show rfc2544 back2back rates [1-9]

show rfc2544 advanced wait

show rfc2544 advanced learn

rfc2544 results

RFC 2544
Y.1564

show y15641

Y.1564

show y1564 topology tx

show y1564 topology rx

show y1564 topology remote ip

IP-

show y1564 nservices

show y1564 service

, y1564 service

show y1564 header src mac

MAC-

show y1564 header src ip

IP-

show y1564 header src udp

UDP-

show y1564 header dst mac

MAC-

show y1564 header dst ip

IP-

show y1564 header dst udp

UDP-

show y1564 header vlan count

VLAN-

show y1564 header vlan <1|2|3> id


VLAN
show y1564 header vlan <1|2|3>

priority
show y1564 header mpls count

MPLS-

show y1564 header mpls <1|2|3> label MPLS-


show y1564 header mpls <1|2|3> cos

show y1564 header mpls <1|2|3> ttl

show y1564 header diffserv


show y1564 header dscp

DSCP- IP- (. . C.4)

show y1564 header precedence

show y1564 header tos

IP-

show y1564 serv_setup cir

show y1564 serv_setup eir

CIR

show y1564 sac flr

show y1564 sac ftd

show y1564 sac fdv


show y1564 sac avail

1 , , , , y1564 service <1 10>

-ET.

164


D.2. (TELNET) ()

show y1564 tests cfg duration

show y1564 tests cfg cir

CIR

show y1564 tests cfg steps

CIR

show y1564 tests cfg eir

EIR

show y1564 tests cfg traf_policing

Traffic Policing

show y1564 tests perf enabled

show y1564 tests perf duration

y1564 results

Y.1564

show ctraf nstreams

show ctraf stream

show ctraf topology port tx

show ctraf topology port rx

show ctraf duration

show ctraf header src mac

MAC-

show ctraf header src ip

IP-

show ctraf header src udp

UDP-

show ctraf header dst mac

MAC-

show ctraf header dst ip

IP-

show ctraf header dst udp

UDP-

show ctraf header vlan count

VLAN

show ctraf header vlan [1-3] id

VLAN

show ctraf header vlan [1-3] priority

show ctraf header mpls count

show ctraf header mpls [1-3] label

show ctraf header mpls [1-3] cos

show ctraf header mpls [1-3] ttl



ARP-
IP Precedence Type of Service
DSCP

show ctraf header autoarp


show ctraf header diffserv
show ctraf header dscp

DSCP

show ctraf header precedence

show ctraf header tos

show ctraf rate

show ctraf frame

ctraf results


BERT

show bert header src mac

MAC-

show bert header src ip

IP-

-ET.

165
D.2. (TELNET) ()
show bert header src udp

UDP-

show bert header dst mac

MAC-

show bert header dst ip

IP-

show bert header dst udp

UDP-

show bert header vlan count

VLAN

show bert header vlan [1-3] id

VLAN

show bert header vlan [1-3] priority

show bert header mpls tx count

show bert header mpls tx [1-3] label

show bert header mpls tx [1-3] cos

show bert header mpls tx [1-3] ttl



ARP-
IP Precedence Type of Service
DSCP

show bert header autoarp


show bert header diffserv
show bert header dscp

DSCP

show bert header precedence

show bert header tos

show bert frame random min


show bert frame random max
show bert frame constant

show bert frame type

show bert topology port tx

show bert topology port rx

show bert level

OSI,

show bert pattern

show bert user-pattern

show bert rate

, /

show bert duration

bert results
show jitter txgen
show jitter port

BERT


,

show jitter threshold

show jitter duration

jitter results
show txgen header src mac



MAC-

-ET.

166


D.2. (TELNET) ()

show txgen header src ip

IP-

show txgen header src udp

UDP-

show txgen header dst mac

MAC-

show txgen header dst ip

IP-

show txgen header dst udp

UDP-

show txgen header vlan count

VLAN

show txgen header vlan [1-3] id

VLAN

show txgen header vlan [1-3] priority

show txgen header mpls count

show txgen header mpls [1-3] label

show txgen header mpls [1-3] cos

show txgen header mpls [1-3 ttl



ARP-
IP Precedence Type of Service
DSCP

show txgen header autoarp


show txgen header diffserv
show txgen header dscp

DSCP

show txgen header precedence

show txgen header tos

show txgen port


show txgen frame random min
show txgen frame random max
show txgen frame constant

show txgen frame type

show txgen duration

show txgen rate

, / %

txgen results

show network a dhcp

DHCP A

show network a ip

IP-

show network a subnet

show network b dhcp

DHCP B

show network b ip

IP- B

show network b subnet

show network gateway

IP-
IP- ,
DNS

show network dns

-ET.

167
D.2. (TELNET) ()

show gbe a speed

show gbe a state

A (/)

show gbe b speed

show gbe b state

B (/)
TCP/IP

ping

results save N
results load N
results show
results show N
results show all
results info

log < off | on >


log show

-
/
N (N = 1 .. 10)
, N

, N

show version

exit

reboot

help

configure

username

password

show options

show time

show date

-ET.

168


D.3. (TELNET).

RFC 2544

rfc2544 header src udp <int>

UDP-

rfc2544 header src mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC-

rfc2544 header src ip <i.i.i.i>

IP-
UDP-

rfc2544 header dst udp <int>


rfc2544 header dst mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC-

rfc2544 header dst ip <i.i.i.i>

IP-

rfc2544 header vlan count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >

VLAN

VLAN

rfc2544 header vlan < 1 | 2 | 3 > id <int>


rfc2544 header vlan < 1 | 2 | 3 > priority <int>
rfc2544 header mpls tx count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >

rfc2544 header mpls tx [1-3] label <int>

/

ARP-
IP
Precedence Type of Service
DSCP

rfc2544 header mpls tx [1-3] cos <int>


rfc2544 header mpls tx [1-3] ttl <int>
rfc2544 header autoarp < off | on >

rfc2544 header diffserv < prec+tos | dscp >


rfc2544 header dscp text

DSCP, 8

rfc2544 header precedence <int>


rfc2544 header tos <int>
rfc2544 topology tx < a | b | remote >

rfc2544 topology rx < a | b | remote>


IP-

rfc2544 topology ip <i.i.i.i>


rfc2544 throughput duration <int>
rfc2544 throughput enabled < no | yes >
rfc2544 throughput maxrate
rfc2544 throughput threshold <int>

-ET.

169
D.3. (TELNET) ()
rfc2544 throughput resolution < 10 | 1 | 0.1 | 0.01 >
rfc2544 frames [1-8] enable <on|off>
rfc2544 frames [1-8] size < XXXX >


/ rfc2544 latency enabled < no | yes >

rfc2544 latency count <int>


rfc2544 latency duration <int>

rfc2544 latency rates src <throughput | manually>
(throughput , manually )

rfc2544 latency rates [1-8] < XXXX > <%|kbps|mbps>

/ rfc2544 frameloss enabled < no | yes >


rfc2544 frameloss duration <int>

rfc2544 frameloss steps < XX >


rfc2544 frameloss rates start < XX > <%|kbps|mbps>


rfc2544 frameloss rates stop < XX > <%|kbps|mbps>

/ rfc2544 back2back enabled < no | yes >

rfc2544 back2back count <int>


rfc2544 back2back duration <int>

rfc2544 back2back rates src <throughput | manually>
(throughput , manually )

rfc2544 back2back rates [1-8] < XXXX > <%|kbps|mbps>

rfc2544 advanced wait <int>

rfc2544 advanced learn <int>

rfc2544 start
RFC 2544
rfc2544 stop
RFC 2544

-ET.

170


D.3. (TELNET) ()
Y.1564

y1564 topology tx < a | b | remote >

y1564 topology rx < a | b | remote >


IP-

y1564 topology remote ip <i.i.i.i>


y1564 nservices < 1 10 >
y1564 service < 1 10 >

y1564 header src mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC-

y1564 header src ip <i.i.i.i>

IP-
UDP-

y1564 header src udp <int>


y1564 header dst mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC-

y1564 header dst ip <i.i.i.i>

IP-
UDP-

y1564 header dst udp <int>


y1564 header vlan count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >
y1564 header vlan < 1 | 2 | 3 > id <int>
y1564 header vlan < 1 | 2 | 3 > priority <int>

VLAN

VLAN

y1564 header mpls count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >

MPLS-

y1564 header mpls [1-3] label <int>

MPLS-


DSCP- IP (. . C.4)

y1564 header mpls [1-3] cos <int>


y1564 header mpls [1-3] ttl <int>
y1564 header diffserv < prec+tos | dscp >
y1564 header dscp <int>
y1564 header precedence <int>
y1564 header tos <int>
y1564 serv_setup cir <int> <%|kbps|mbps>
y1564 serv_setup eir <int> <%|kbps|mbps>
y1564 sac flr <float>

y1564 sac ftd <int>


IP

CIR
(
, , 1e-7)
(
)

-ET.

171
D.3. (TELNET) ()
y1564 sac fdv <int>

y1564 sac avail <float> <%>

y1564 tests cfg duration <int>


y1564 tests cfg cir < on | off >
y1564 tests cfg steps <int>



( )
( , 4- )
(
)
/ CIR
CIR

y1564 tests cfg eir < on | off >


y1564
y1564
y1564
y1564
y1564
y1564

/ EIR
/ Traffic
tests cfg traf_policing < on | off >
Policing
tests perf enabled < yes | no >

tests perf duration <HH:MM:SS>

copy < 1 10 > < 1 10 >



start
Y.1564
stop
Y.1564

ctraf header mpls tx count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >

ctraf header mpls tx [1-3] label <int>

ARP
IP
Precedence Type of Service
DSCP

ctraf header mpls tx [1-3] cos <int>


ctraf header mpls tx [1-3] ttl <int>
ctraf header autoarp < off | on >

ctraf header diffserv < prec+tos | dscp >


ctraf header dscp text

DSCP, 8

ctraf nstreams <int>

ctraf stream <int>

ctraf topology tx < a | b | remote >

ctraf topology rx < a | b | remote >


IP-

ctraf topology ip <i.i.i.i>

-ET.

172


D.3. (TELNET) ()

ctraf duration <int>

ctraf header src mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC-

ctraf header src ip <i.i.i.i>

IP-
UDP-

ctraf header src udp <int>


ctraf header dst mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC-

ctraf header dst ip <i.i.i.i>

IP-
UDP-

ctraf header dst udp <int>


ctraf header vlan count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >

VLAN
VLAN

( )

(/, /c %)

ctraf header vlan [1-3] id <int>


ctarf header vlan [1-3] priority <int>
ctraf header precedence <int>
ctraf header tos text
ctraf rate <int>
ctraf rate <int> <unit>
ctraf frame <int>

ctraf start
ctraf stop
BERT
bert header mpls tx count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >

bert header mpls tx [1-3] label <int>

bert header mpls tx [1-3] cos <int>


bert header mpls tx [1-3] ttl <int>
bert header mpls rx count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >

bert header mpls rx [1-3] label <int>

ARP
IP
Precedence Type of Service
DSCP

bert header autoarp < off | on >

bert header diffserv < prec+tos | dscp >

-ET.

173
D.3. (TELNET) ()
bert header dscp text

DSCP, 8

bert header src mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC-

bert header src ip <i.i.i.i>

IP-
UDP-

bert header src udp <int>


bert header dst mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC-

bert header dst ip <i.i.i.i>

IP-
UDP-

bert header dst udp <int>


bert header vlan count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >
bert header vlan [1-3] id <int>
bert header vlan [1-3] priority <int>
bert header precedence <int>
bert header tos text
bert frame random min <int>

bert frame random max <int>


bert frame constant <int>
bert frame type < constant | random >
bert topology tx < a | b | remote >

VLAN
VLAN

bert topology rx < a | b | remote >


IP-
bert topology ip <i.i.i.i>

OSI, bert level < 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 >




bert pattern < user | crtp | 2e11-1 | 2e15-1 | 2e20-1 | 2e23-1
| 2e29-1 | 2e31-1 >

bert user-pattern hex

bert rate

bert duration <hh.mm.ss>

bert start

BERT

bert stop

BERT

-ET.

174


D.3. (TELNET) ()

jitter txgen < off | on >


jitter port < a | b >
jitter threshold <int>
jitter duration <hh.mm.ss>
jitter start
jitter stop


/
,


txgen header mpls tx count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >

txgen header mpls tx [1-3] label <int>

ARP
IP
Precedence Type of Service
DSCP

txgen header mpls tx [1-3] cos <int>


txgen header mpls tx [1-3] ttl <int>
txgen header autoarp < off | on >

txgen header diffserv < prec+tos | dscp >


txgen header dscp text

DSCP, 8

txgen header src mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC-

txgen header src ip <i.i.i.i>

IP-
UDP-

txgen header src udp <int>


txgen header dst mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC-

txgen header dst ip <i.i.i.i>

IP-
UDP-

txgen header dst udp <int>


txgen header vlan count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >
txgen header vlan [1-3] id <int>
txgen header vlan [1-3] priority <int>
txgen header precedence <int>
txgen header tos text

VLAN
VLAN

-ET.

175
D.3. (TELNET) ()
,





txgen port < a | b >


txgen frame random min <int>

txgen frame random max <int>


txgen frame constant <int>
txgen frame type < constant | random >
txgen frame <int>

txgen duration <hh.mm.ss>

txgen rate

txgen start

txgen stop
2

/
,
MAC- loopback < a | b > mac swap < off | on >


MAC-
loopback < a | b > mac replace < off | source | destination
( | | |
| src+dst >
)
MAC-, loopback < a | b > mac src <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>
Source MAC
Address Ethernet-
MAC-, loopback < a | b > mac dst <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>
Destination
MAC Address Ethernet-
loopback < a | b > vlan replace < off | id | priority | id+pr VLAN-
>
( | id | | id+)

loopback < a | b > vlan id <int>
VLAN
loopback < a | b > vlan priority <int>

loopback < a | b > layer < off | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 >

2
settings apply reboot.

-ET.

176


D.3. (TELNET) ()

IP-
loopback < a | b > ip replace < off | source | destination
( | | |
| src+dst >
)
IP-, Source IP
loopback < a | b > ip src <i.i.i.i>
Address Ethernet-
IP-,
loopback < a | b > ip dst <i.i.i.i>
Destination IP
Address Ethernet-
loopback < a | b > tos replace < off | tos | precedence |
ToS
tos+prec >
,
Type of Service
loopback < a | b > tos flags <bin>
Ethernet-
,
Precedence
loopback < a | b > tos precedence <int>
Ethernet-

passthrough < off | on >

3
/

network a dhcp < off | on >


DHCP A
network a ip <i.i.i.i>
network a subnet <i.i.i.i>
network a gateway <i.i.i.i>
network a dns <i.i.i.i>
network b dhcp < off | on >
network b ip <i.i.i.i>
network b subnet <i.i.i.i>
network b gateway <i.i.i.i>
network b dns <i.i.i.i>
lan dhcp < off | on >
lan ip <i.i.i.i>

IP- A

A
IP- A
IP- ,
DNS, A
/

DHCP B
IP- B

B
IP- B
IP- ,
DNS, B
/

DHCP LAN
IP- LAN

3
settings apply reboot.

-ET.

177
D.3. (TELNET) ()

LAN
IP- lan gateway <i.i.i.i>
LAN
/ network mpls < off | on >



gbe a speed < automatic | 10 | 100 | 1000 >
A
lan subnet <i.i.i.i>

gbe a state <off|on>

/ A

gbe a mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC- A

B

gbe b speed < automatic | 10 | 100 | 1000 >


gbe b state <off|on>

/ B

gbe b mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC- B

lan mac <XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX>

MAC- LAN

lan vlan count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >

VLAN
12- VLAN

lan vlan < 1 | 2 | 3 > id < int >


lan vlan < 1 | 2 | 3 > priority < int >
gbe < a | b > vlan count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >
gbe < a | b > vlan < 1 | 2 | 3 > id < int >
gbe < a | b > vlan < 1 | 2 | 3 > priority < int >
gbe <a | b > mpls tx lsr <i.i.i.i>
gbe <a | b > mpls tx rule < off | on >

VLAN
12- VLAN

IP-
,

/

gbe <a | b > mpls tx subnet <i.i.i.i>

IP-

gbe <a | b > mpls tx mask <i.i.i.i>

gbe <a | b > mpls tx stack count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >

gbe <a | b > mpls tx stack [1-3] label <int>

gbe <a | b > mpls tx stack [1-3] cos <int>


gbe <a | b > mpls tx stack [1-3] ttl <int>
gbe <a | b > mpls rx count < off | 1 | 2 | 3 >
gbe <a | b > mpls rx [1-3] label <int>

-ET.

178


D.3. (TELNET) ()

profile rename [n] [name]



n

n

n
n
n

index, name,
data, status, index , ,
name , data , status ( )

profile save [n]


profile lock [n]
profile unlock [n]
profile load [n]
profile delete [n]

profile list

profile show [n]

exit

help

time HH:MM:SS

date DD-MM-YYYY

-ET.

179

E.

E.1. -ET

, 320240

(25 )

USB-

12


1 A
4 NiMH , .
- 4,8 , 4300 .

5 A
Gigabit Ethernet

210/100/1000 Base-T SFP


USB, LAN 10/100 Ethernet
62,5 6250 (100 ppm)
1G Ethernet
20010144

0,640


035
-10...+45

4090 %,

E.2. -ET
: Throughput ( ),

Frame Loss ( ), Back-to-Back ( RFC 2544
), Latency ().
: 64, 128, 256, 512, 1024, 1280 1518
, .

-ET.

180


E.2. -ET ()

Ping (-), Traceroute (), DNS lookup


( ), TCP-.
(PHY), (MAC) (loopback) (IP) VLAN .
, ,

.
BERT
bit error rate (
).
, .
.
,
.
, TELNET, WWW-.

, ,
.

, .

, .
IP-

-ET.

181

F.

F.1.

-

,



12

- -
, , ,

-ET.

182

-ET.

183

G.

10Base-T
10 / Ethernet
.
100Base-T (100Base-TX)
100 / Ethernet
.
1000Base-T
1000 / (1 /)
Ethernet .
Back-to-back
. , ,
.
ARP
Address Resolution Protocol ( ).
, IP- (
) MAC- ( )
TCP/IP. RFC 826 [3].
Auto-negotiation
. , .
CSMA/CD
Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (
).

, Ethernet.
DHCP
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol ( ). , IP- ,
-ET.

184

TCP/IP.

DNS
Domain Name System ( ). ( ),
IP-. DNS TCP/IP.
DUT
Device Under Test. .
EIR
Excess Information Rate. .
Ethernet
.
IEEE 802.3.
Frame loss rate
. , ,
-
.
FTP
File Transfer Protocol ( ). , .
Full-duplex
. ,
.
Gateway
. ,
, .
Half-duplex
. , , , .
ICMP
Internet Control Message Protocol ( ). ,
TCP/IP. ,
-ET.

185
.
IEEE 802.1Q
, Ethernet,
VLAN .
IP
Internet Protocol ( Internet).
TCP/IP, , .
IP address
Internet Protocol address. () , TCP/IP. 32- .
Jabber-
1518 , .
Jumbo-
1518 . ,
, , , .
LAN
Local Area Network ( ). , (, Ethernet). ( 10 /
/) .
LD
Latency Deviation. .
LoT
Latency over Time. .
MAC address
Media Access Control address. ,
.
Ethernet 48- MAC-.

-ET.

186

MDI
Medium Dependent Interface (,
). Ethernet-, .
MDI-X
Medium Dependent Interface with Crossover (,
). Ethernet-
RJ-45, .
MPLS
Multi-Protocol Label Switching (
). IP-, .
NUT
Network Under Test. .
OAM
Operations, Administration, and Maintenance (, ). .
OSI
Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model ( ). (ISO) .
,
.
RJ
Registered Jack. , .
RJ-45
Registered Jack,
Ethernet .
Runt-
64 .

-ET.

187
SFP
Small Form-factor Pluggable. , .

, .
SLA
Service Level Agreement. , .
TCP
Transmission Control Protocol ( ). , TCP/IP
.
TDM
Time Division Multiplexing (
). ,
; .
Throughput
. , , ,
DUT, ,
.
ToS
Type of Service ( ).
IP-. ,
, .
Traceroute
, TCP/IP, ICMP.
UDP
User Datagram Protocol ( ).
IP,
.

-ET.

188

VLAN
Virtual Local Area Network ( ). , ,
.
VLAN ID
VLAN Identifier (VID). 12- VLAN,
802.1Q [1]. VLAN, .
VLAN Priority
, . ([1]).


.


, .

Data Link layer. ,
.
, .

, MAC- . ,
, .. . MAC- ,
.

, . .
OSI.

, . , , .
-ET.

189


Network layer. .
,
, ,
.

Transport layer.
. ,
,
.

Physical layer.
. .

,
, .

-ET.

190

-ET.

191

[1] IEEE Std 802.1Q, IEEE Standard for Local and metropolitan area
networks Virtual Bridged Local Area Networks.
[2] RFC 791, Postel, J., Internet Protocol, DARPA, September 1981.
[3] RFC 826, Plummer, D., Ethernet Address Resolution Protocol or
converting network protocol addresses to 48.bit Ethernet address for
transmission on Ethernet hardware, November 1982.
[4] RFC 1349, Almquist, P., Type of Service in the Internet Protocol Suite,
July 1992.
[5] RFC 2544, Benchmarking Methodology for Network Interconnect
Devices, S. Bradner and J. McQuaid, March 1999.
[6] RFC 4689, Terminology for Benchmarking Network-layer Traffic Control
Mechanisms, S. Poretsky, October 2006.
[7] ITU-T O.150 (05/96), General requirements for instrumentation for
performance measurements on digital transmission equipment.
[8] IEEE 802.3ah, Ethernet in the First Mile Task Force.
[9] IEEE 802.3, Part 3: Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision
Detection (CSMA/CD) access method and Physical Layer specifications.
[10] ITU-T Y.1564 (03/2011), Ethernet service activation test
methodology.
[11] RFC 2597, Assured Forwarding PHB Group, J. Heinanen, F. Baker,
W. Weiss, J. Wroclawski, June 1999.
[12] RFC 2598, An Expedited Forwarding PHB, V. Jacobson, K. Nichols,
K. Poduri, June 1999.
[13] RFC 3168, The Addition of Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN) to
IP, K. Ramakrishnan, S. Floyd, D. Black, September 2001.
[14] ITU-T Y.1563 (01/2009), Ethernet frame transfer and availability
performance.

-ET.

192

-ET.