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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

1.

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150

(152).

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155

(155). 2. .11 (161). 3.


(161).

11 .

ii

13.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

1. , . 11 {162). 2. 11
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14.

...... . .................

168

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N

15.
16.
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(173).

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!{ n \1 . , . . . . . 181
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(\83).

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(184). 4.

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1. u . . . . . . ... 189
2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
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. n p=aV~. (~)..
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4.

(201). 7.

1.

5.

p=a'Vf +l

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(202). 2.
(208). 4.

.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
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(211).

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

~: ~~~~: ~~~~t~l~t~~~~~~~1)~~;:u;.~: <~Jf~). 35. ~~~~~;~~~~: :;~ <t~~Jj.

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4.

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(225). &.

(224).

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13.

14.
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(240). 2. tt
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t'i

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n n

tt-t

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240

51

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(251).

... . , ... . .. . ... . ... . . . . 252

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(2541

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 259
.. . .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 262

VIII. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266
1.
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2.
.
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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
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, , n . . . . . . . .
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+1

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)=

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+(1-v')=O.

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1IOPBMhl

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, , n,

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, n

r, . . , n- ,
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), r-

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(. . , ), w-

k-

,
:

k=n(n-1)-2d-3r,
n=k(k-1)-2t-3w,
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//
n

1834 .

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n (- 1),
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19371

22

4.

(n-l)(n-2)

(11-

+1

n- 2.

<

+l]+-=(-2)+1

2((n-l)2(n- 2)

(n-l)(n-2)
2

n- 3

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2)- (-

2)

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k(k-1)

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32

54

n,

n -

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k (k:; l)

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ll.

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2

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t-w.


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u .
,

(k-l)(k-2)

d-r,

n ,

(n-l)(n-2)

3]

23

. n- 3 n J(
(n - 2)- n, n. ,
(n-J)(n-2)

,
(+

J)(n-2)
2

+ n- 3 =

n (n- 2)- n. / 1 (,)


f, (, )= - n. n

, ,

n (n- 2).

3 = n (n - 2)- 1,

+n -

(- l)(n-2)

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n,


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rzu.ll,

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1, 11 (1, l, )

,
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z.

,.

11

12,

24

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5.

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n ,

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n u~
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2-

n.

2-

n,

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u

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~& 1 , .. u"u
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J::f

k',

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J1,

k,

k ,
k , n

Jg.

k' " k, "


_ F n ,
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tt

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t1

paccmozii

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n.

n- 1, , n

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.,

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1:1

25

2-ro n, n

3-ro

6.

r1
,

11

n.

oropoft

0 1 npoecmll , 11
n-zo R1, R2, , Rn S1, S9, , Sn,
., . .

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o.s. o.s!OtSn,

em

. -

=pcos<p,

= sin <

n-ro

n .
~

+ ..+ sin" <)" + ...

( cos" < +, cos~ < sin 'f'

... +( cos < +Lo s!n <) +=.


n
~

OR,

- 1 ,

~ n~. ~

< 1 ,

~ ~

OR, OR, . R = , cos" f +, cos"

'f sin f

n f1

+ ...

(1)

1 , n
n n tt -n n

q> 1

~ ~.

~ , , .

- ~

O,S,-O,S, O,Sn =

0 cos" f + 1 ~;

ft sin f

+ ...

(2)

(1) (2) , OR,OR, ... ORn = ~ =const,


83.

o,s,-o,s,.... o,s.

26

QJI[P.

R.

[.

, : ecll
t,

- R 1, R~ . ... , R S 1, S2, , S,
amu.x n.t, . . -

~~: :g~'.'.".' ." g~ ,


, ,

,
ecll ~< ,
~< , Imll ~< R ~<,

OR, + OR, +--+ R'

OR =

R1, R2, , Rn- mouu npn.Ato -


, morte
tz.


. , n

n-ro

fn+(K,cos<p+Losin<p) P~-t

+-

... + cos" 'f +, cos 'f' si 'f' + .. -+. s!n" <)=,

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1 +

n
01[ = -

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1 +

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cos Cf

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+ Lo sin <f

...

1 _

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cos ~ + L0 sin ~

0
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2-

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r~ ,

~. , ecll "

1<11

npoecmll cltcmey

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1.

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n ,

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*).

1)

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2)

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t : .\1 tt
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28

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6

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en

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(\)

~ 93

(1)

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+
.,,.

(2)

2]

29

. 11!/

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a 2ka21

k=l
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n k =1= l, u ~

n
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n , n

n- n,

n, n n, . , , n
n

rt

2. 11
; ,

3.

j:Jex

morte,

~t, .

4.

..

n;

, n

, , .

30

5.

U-

en

,=!!.. U,

[. 11

n
,

U 1 -

l!.=la" a"l
111

22

u,

3.

, u

n, ,

ii.

u. u. (, )

t,, t,, t2,

u.

u u< , . ., ,

1 =,+,+,,}

pt, =
pt3 =

+
+3 +3

, +,,

(!)

;:
l ~:'~: ,,- ::;::::::::::: :.::~n:;::::::::
:

3 3

(!)

, :

, ,,

/''
' , ,

=~:~ ~', ~:t,


, ,
3 3

,.

1 ,
=

t3

1 ,
,
,

~1,,
,,

Ct

(2)

,, '' 1
,

,,

*),

, ,

*) ., r, . . n r , . r, 1936.

3]

31

}t

,+ 1 + 1 =0,
,+,+,=,
,
, + ,= ,

n
h

~: ~:

1 :;
/
3 3 3

"=

(1)

<,=,

0,0,0,.

<2 =

< =

r-I<.
,

, 0), 0 2 (0, 1, ) 0 8 (0, , 1).


tt

0 1 (1,

n,

n

~ .

.~

n.

>

( 1 , 2 , 3)

, tt
tt 1

, -2- , 3 1. ,
, r n (1) (2)

n l!

, :n
.
.. ,
tt n
. n
tt ,

n t1 n

>r

32

nJ

J<

onepaut.t,
l<oeu, 66

n,

[. 11


. Ha-

,
n . , ,

1<r

n.

+ +=

(2):

i: t: ~: + ~: ~: ~: + ~: ~: i: =.
1

~. 3 3

, ~. 3

, 3 ~.

flt = ~2 t ~~~~'
1

3 3

tl~ = :t3 ~~3 ~13


1

uj~ 1

+2 +
=
~:
!! ~,

!!3( 3 =,

1 : : ::

,,

,
2-

11 <!

+ 212:,;, +.,~~+ 2 13:,;, + 2a (,t + <! = .


23

JJ , n, n


tJ.

. ,

2- ,

. 0 1, ,
;, = < = ,
, 11 =. , a 2g =

33 ~; , 12~ 1 ~ 11

+ t~t~ + 2~'.!~ =

2 -

+
t 1,

~~~ ~ 3 .
~ 1 ~2 ~s n
, 6 3
.

4]

33

, ,

, n

, ,

- , .
, , 3-ro n

q- s' =,
n 4- - pqs- Q.' =, , q, s-
n ,

g -

n n~.

3-ro

n , , r
f::t . ,

=,
, n 3, n

n s = , = s =
, , ,

n , : oJ< Otl r
n . q = = ,
r, , , _

n s= .
,

4. n. n
:

aJ1X1
a,1Xt
-n -
1 1 -

.,11 .,
13 1 ; .
,.
23

+ 1 +~,
+ ,~ 1 + '

(\)

n n,

n :

,= a,Ei
,~ a,Ei
, = a,Ei

<,. <,, <,-

+ ,2 + ,.
+ ,2 + ,.
+ ,<2 + ,.

n n,

Ei, 2, -

. . Caueou

(2)

[. 11

:.

l! n n.
(1) , n!! 31 1 +., 1 +,.=
( n n
,

).
l! (2)
15s n-ro n

. , , ~
.

s .
s.z , ,

n n n
,

n n , , .
,

~~ : ~. : ~.

= ~~ :~2 : ~3.

~.=k~i.}
~.=k~2.

(3)

~.=k~.
~ 1 ,, ~.

(2),

nl! ul!; n -

(, -k)~i +1~2+,<3=0,
a,Ej +(, - k)<2+ ,<- ,
,;

}
(4)

+ ,2 +(,- k) < =.

l! ,

1
ll
.

( 4),

1<

a,;k ,t::_k ~: /=.


,

(5)

(5)

c3 - k
n

!! ,

.
(5) n n
.

k 1, k 2, k 3 ,
n t 1 , 9., 3
, ~

4)

35

1 ,,

. , n
9
()

(5)

- ,

, u,
,
k 1
k,, (~)

. ~ ,
1 ,, ( 4),
. ()

(7)
n

, . ,

- 8 ;
n n 1 2,
. , (7) ,

e:=t;,.

, -

(~ 1 , ~.. 3 ) n ~ 1
bl, , n
3, 1 (Ei, ~2. ~3) l! n
. ,

~ 1

+ bl,

+ ~, = ,

k 1 (aEj

- n
. 1 n

+ 2) + ck3~3 = ,

n, ,

~,

+ , = .

llOIOtoe
n

k 1 = 1, k,=-1.

n,

nl! ~.

...

(7)

, , :

e,=<i. <,= <2. ,=-~3.

n ,=

, n
=- 1 ,

= - 1

n .
n n, n l!

[.

. ,

...


. , n, n
.

3-
.
n .. ~

(.

51).

3-ro


n,

n .

,
n

co6ot1

(. .

6\).

,
,
,
2- .
t1 .

5.

. .1

, n (, ), ,
- , 1 ( 1 , 1 ), t1
t1, 1

OM 1 =const=r.

(\)

n , ,
, n .
,

t1

t-

(\) , l!
t1 . , n
,

1 .

n,

. , ,
6.

n

(!),

(2)

5]

37

~ = ~, ,

ll

(3)

, ,
n

=r.

- u ,
, , n
, ll
,

,
,

ll

, ll

, ,

-.

Q,

en

.f.tn

:..

, ,

. , , ,

tj ,

nepetje

u, ,
1 u
tj , .

,
,

-"' +'= -

r, ..

38

[.

=-~

xf+YJ'

r 2y1

Y--xf+Y1 '

(3)

".

"

180

, .

. ,
u " "
, m< _

6.

(\)
el, 2, - , ; , ~,
~ - n en ; . 1 - ,
~ .

(\)

u- ,
u

, ,

=;,

=~,

(1) , 1 = 0 ~= <; = ,
, n 1 =
, ,

n . :!:t
1<

. 1

+ he +
0

~=

6]

!!

39

'!

(!), 2
;;;3 +;;;= ,
2-ro ;

),

eJ:I

2-ro
. ,

;,
, = , ,
n .
2- 203

+ boio3 =, <3 =

+
+ 3 =,

n, - = -

tl
!! , ;
.

- ;

;mll

np11


2n1 tt, tt.eem
-; ;/1, tl

!!

k 1, k'l, k3

,
n

2n.

..

, ..

, !!
(. .

n 2n. , n
- k 1 ,
n

, n- ..

otl , tl

, 9 ,

'

k 1 .
l! .
, 2- tl

k1

+ k, + k,

~,

, 2n - k 1 - k,- k 8

, l! , -

n n .
,

1 , 2 , 3 k 1, k<J, k ; n.
- n n. -
, 1 =, n ,
k, k 8 , 8 9 k,
k8
,

40

n,

[rn.

k~, k~ k~

k: =n-kg-k8,

k;=n-k,-k,,
k; = n- k 1 - k,.
, , 2- n

,,

+ +
,,

,, =,

4- n,
,

4- 1- 1 -

1=

1,

,
2 - 1 - 1
.
n n ,

, , - ,
,

...

. ll,

f<

~m . n ,
n n

n n n.

7.

1 n , . .
n

n.

n.

n,

11

no

n > , n

(1)


- ,
(, )

n ,

(1 ).

ll

n,

7]

no

41

(2)
n

f(x,

)= .

(3)

no (2)
(1).

(, );
n n

(3),

n
n,


n,

n -

n,

. n
!! , !!

F(u,v)=O
n

(3)

(4)

(2).

nl! (3) n,
(4) v 1 ,

n,

, . .
,

.~

, 11, , . i :.

u n

. .

n
, . . n

n
,

n,

h ,

, , .

, n n ,

, n, .
(2) ,

n , . . .

L,

n n

42

[r. 11

'

..

. n,

2-

, n n-ro
n, (4) !! !! -
n v. , 4
-
~.

- n.
n n,
. , n
.

n
. , n,

, n

nn,

. , <I

n,

n,

<

t::t
t::t,
, ,- (. . ,

),

mo,tce,

, - .

!! n

s, n

(5)

n!!

(1 , 1 )

n :

7]

43

!IU

(5).

n', n

(6)

el:t

(6). (6) (5)

n .

- ~i!

9r .

n , n :
n
n, n ,

n n

n ,
n
n

n ,

, h , .

3-

\, .
3-ro .
u 3-

, ~

, n
3- n,

n.

3- n

+ 3' + Dy' + 3' + 6F +


+30y'+3Hx+3Ky+L=0.
kx +
n
k
kx +

'+ 3

(!)

=
- .
, n
nu

,

(1)

. n

n.

+ 3Bk

+ 3Ck' + Dk' =.

(2)

- -

(+ 2Ck

+ Dk')b =-(+ 2Fk + Qk),

, (2).
(2),

(3)

k,

k,

n , , .
, n
. 11-

\]

k n , ,
k n (3),
.

k = k 1,

(2);

(\)

(3).

k 1 - (2),
- 1 ,
y=k 1x+b 1, . .
Zllnepollecoo n. (3)

(3)

k = k1

, . .

n.

(3),

B+2Ck+Dk'=O,

(4)

E+2Fk+Ok' ,

(5)

B+2Ck+Dk'=O,

(6

E+2Fk+ Ok'=O.

(7)

, - n
. , .

1. (2)

( 4),

(2),

;
.

2.

(2)

3.

(2)

(4).
(5),

n .

(2)

, ,

, ,

(4)

k
n

4. (2),
(),
(7), ,
(3) .

3-rO

OIUIIB

46

(1)

[, 111

kx+b.

u ; ,

, :

'(+ Dk)+ 2b(F

+ Ok)+ + Kk =0.

(8)

.
(2) , + Dk ,
, , (8) ,
,
. (2)

n ,

, .

5. , (2)
.
,

(2),

. .

B+2Ck+Dk'=O
C+Dk=O.
:

E+2Fk+Ok',PO,
;

n;

+ Ok' =,

E+2Fk+Ok'=O

6) + 2Fk

+ Ok , ,

(3)

(8),
, + Dk =,
; ,
;

, ,

F+Ok=O,

(, + Kk =,
).
.,

3-

(2),

nn, ,

\-
;

(2)

dantes

hyperbolae redun-

( );

xy'+ey=ax'+bx'+cx+d,

>.

1)

KJ!Ac'CRRKAURR

47

(9)

1) (9)
; n n
n
(

n, n tt,

n
) (. 2, );

2)

(9)

- n; n

(. 2, );
3) (9)
,

tt;

2, z

(.

no

n,

);

4) (9) ,
; n

(.

2, );

(9) ;
,

5)

(.
2

2, ).

n :

(2)

n ;


. nn hyper-

bolae defectivae

( );

(9),

1)

(9)

(. 3, );
2) (9) ,
- ; n:

(. 3, );

3)

~" . ~;

(9)

n , (. 3, );

48

[. 111

! 3-

4)

(9)

66

n.
nllll (. 3, );

lf)

~
.

11)
n
(.

(9)

3, ).

2.

rl! .
nn J ~ r

1]

'

3- r

2Fk

49

(2)

+ Ok' =

,
. !! hyperbolae parabollcae
(< );

' += '

+ + d.

!!

bx'+cx'+dx

+ ~=0.

:
1) (10)

~~;

(10)
;

3.

n, ,

(.

2)

(1 )

(.

3)

4,

6);

(10)

4,

);

, n

, (. 4, 2 );
4) (10) ;


(. 4, );
5)

4,
4-

(.

(10)

n,

).
:

n ,

2Fk

(2)

+ Ok' =; ,

R 3-

[.

n n n ,
. . ll

hyperbollsml sectiomtm

6)

'

)
.

4.

conicarrtm

(l511 "ouec"ttx

' + ='

ceetii);

+ + d.

1]

51

d'-

. :

1)

n,

d'- '> ,

d'- '< ,

n ,
(. 5, );
2) n n
n ,

5,

(.

);

(
)

3)

= ,

5.

5, z).
5 :

(.


+ 2Fk

nn

(2)

,
=;

+ Ok'

6 n r

parabolae divergentes

n); n

='+

+ + d.

"+

+ + d = .

(11)

1)

(11) ,
n


(. , );

52

[.

I!S1 3-

2)

111

n ,

(11)

(.

6,

);

1)
.

3)

6.

(11)

6 J IJJX ,

(.

);

6,

4) (11)

n,
, n
( . 6, );
5)
,

(11)

,
(. 6, ).
~)

7.

6-
(2)

2Fk

+ Ok' =,
+

F
Ok=
=0; ~
-r (. 7, ); trldens ()

='+ '

+ + d.

2]

7-

53

I!UI! J!U

(2) R
+ 2Fk
Ok' = F Ok =;
n (. 7, ),
parabola 11 ( )
:

y=ax'+bx'+cx+d.
.
n n r

2.

2-

. ,

n . n n ,
3-ro n n ,
n .

3-zo

.. ,

ll !l .

3-ro

3-ro

, , ,

, n n

n 3- ,
, ,

*).

J<

3-

(1869).

3-

; , , ,

, , (
1).

3- 1 9 1
=, J =,
~=, 1 =0- ,
, =- .
s

t1,

3-ro

!!

[. 111

3.

1. n ,
= , n 3-ro
, 1 , , (. 8), v =
, 1 , ,. , 1 1 , ,,,
=0, q =0
=.

9 ,

9 ; 9 , 1 , ,,
8 , w =.
pqr = 11vw =
3- n , ,
3-ro (). , -

8.

3-ro

- pqr = vw =.

, 1 ,
,,
,
8 1, B<J, 1 , 3-ro
, , ,
9-

uvw =,

v =

2,

9
,

9-

w =,

. .

,.

2.

.)

3-

, //1

.
, , n
v =
= . , 1 , r

, 1 2 , , , 1 1 21
, , 1 1

4]

n,

3.

(j

3- , I 6
6 .
n, 1 =:
nr , 11 ,
, ,

!!;

!!

, 1 1 ,
11 2 11 n
, ,

!! =

!!;

ll


!! 3- .

4. tt 3- !
2- ,
, ., .. , ~
3- , 6

2-
,
__

mOICU.

, ,

3-

2-

2-

N 1

3-

2-
!! NN1 3- (
), , , 6
!! 2- !! 3-
!! NN1 !! !!.
2- !! 1
cooll 3- ,
. ,
3-ro .

3-

.
ll !! 3- !! 1
!! NN1, , ,
!! oll

!!

2-

4.

r, .
11 3- 11 6,

..
neper6a, r

3-ro

56

3-

[.

, n
r *).
!! 3- , , !! 3-

n. ,
!! 3- n .
,

. , 6

, , ,
n, , , 3-ro n
, .

. 3- , tl ,
... . " nepetta. ,

n , "

3-ro

r, , ~

( ..

).

ll 3-

3 - n .

mortJCll.
, , , ~
,

, n

,
.

3-zo

, ll.Ateue

1, 1u.. n,
,
!!

' + 3'

+ 3' + Dy' + 3' + 6Fxy + 30' =.

n =

tx,

(E+ 2Ft+Ot')

+ t

+ t'+ Dt''
+ Ot')

t (+ 2Ft

=- A+Bt+Ct'+Dt"

n .

j!\

(, )=

1~;; ~;: F; 1~. . . , r


,

1952.

Fx F~

5)

57

, ul 3-zo
J , .

. nepe2ua, -
t .
3- (. 21),

t<

..

*):

1d 1' 1 1

1 "'

il~l?l~l g1
, n- , k-
d- ( ),

r-

t - .

w-

5.

+ 3' + ' + Dy' + 3Ex'z +


+ 6Fxyz + 3Qy'z + 3Hxz' + 3Kyz' + Lz' =.

(\)

=.

(, , z)

~+
~+~=
'~
z

(2)

, 'lJ - , ..
l<. 3-ro

+ + +
+ + + + Kz') +

('+ 2 +'+ 2Exz


2Fyz Hz')
1J ('
2
Dy'
2Fxz 20yz

+<Ex'+2Fxy+Oy'+2Hxz+2Kyz+Lz')=O. (3)

. , R

r
(.

21).

KneA..

3-

:\8
( 1 , 1 ,

z1),

(.

1 ('+ 28 +'+ 2Exz + 2Fyz + Hz') +


+ 1 (' + 2 + Dy' + 2Fxz + 20yz + Kz') +
+ z (' + 2Fxy + ' + 2Hxz + 2Kyz + Lz') =.

(4)

1 , 1 z 1
2-r . ,
~. ~ s s~ ( 1 , 1 , z 1)
3-ro , n n
~ 2-ro n, ~ ( 4) *).
2-ro ,
, n ~

n = s ( 1 , 1 ,

3-ro


.
n ~

n,

n ~

2-ro

( 4),

+z, az =0.
z 1)
(4).

, ( 1 , 1 ,

zt),

= ,

,+

(5)

, , ,

(:+ 2 1 1 +;+ 2Ex 1z 1


+ (;
2 1 1
Dy; 2Fx1z 1
z (; 2Fx1 y 1 +:+ 2Hx1z 1

+
+

1 1

1 1

1 1

1 , 1

z 1
,
( 1 , 1 , z 1)
~ 3-ro n (\). ~ ~ n,.
(6)

+ 2Fy z + z:) +
+ 20y z + z:) +
+ 2Ky z + Lz;) =. (6)

{6),

u,+Yu,+zu!=O,
,

u1

(7)

.,

(1)

z,

1 ,

z,.

(5)

(7)

n~

n,

,
n . ~

\)

ll:

:,

*) 3-ro 2ro , ,
, 3-ro
n . .

5]

2)

'

59

<t t,

t .

(7)

n 3-ro ,
n (2), , n

n,
,

n n" n.
n n

3-ro

,
.


. u (6)

z = 1.

n ( 1 , 1 )

= 1im ~ . (6).
z n, ~
,

(+ 2+ ')+ (+ 2+ Dm')y
+<+2F+')=0.
,
3- n, n

n
,

(8)

( ,
, . .

24),

(8).

3-zo

..t .
, t t 3- t rt
r ,
.
n,

n ,

lt,

'

+ 2Fxy +'+ 2 + 2 =.

u ' = '' = - {
u "
n

3-ro

n u

'+3+3=0,

1 +,=- 1 ,=

(9)

3
0).
, ,

. .

._

.11 ..

(9).
.~-

60

3-

2
n ( -,

[.

tl -

1, .
t~

, ,

3-ro

, ,

rof::l

n~

.
n

= ,

n n

' (+ 3

+ 3' + Dy' + 3' + 6F +


+ 3' + 3 + 3 =,

'+ 3'

+ 3' + D') + 3' (+ 2F +')+

+(+)=.

, n ,

+2F+'=, +=.
,

'

+ 2FHK +'= ,

(10)

L

n
.

'

3-

3-ro

zt

't

n,

n,

oii n

(10).

+ 2Fxy + ' + 2 + 2 =.

I<n

z.

.
zeo.empuecu.At

m't.

't.

ICpllBO , ~& nepema. n

nn

r.

n,

7]

2-ro

1-ro

6\

. , n
n n

6.

1 +,=0,
+,=,
1 , ,, , ,- .

n ,

2-

, .- ,, =.
,

3-ro

n n: n n ,

+,= n 2-ro n 1 +2 =0 (1 ,
, 1 ,- ).

3-ro

, ,- ,,

=0.

3-rp , , ,
, 2- 1 =
,=

1 =

,= , . .

n.

n
3-ro
12 ,

3 - n

9,

, n,

3- .

3-

, . ,
3-zo ~, ~, tl
tnoICll ~, tt.Atem

rt .

7.

3-ro

*).

3- n
, h J.1 .
, n 3-ro ,

. . ,

r. ,

1952.

62

3~ro

[r. 111

n.

2-ro

!!

!! !!

; , n
2-ro ,
n

, .
n

~-!

n,

*).

16

3-ro

, n n

3-ro

, ,

, ,

!!

**)

2-ro , !! 3-ro ,
.

2-

. , , ,
16 ~& ~& l&u 3-zo / 1ta
, .
n ,
. ,
u, n , . .
,-

(' +')+ '+ '


,

+ =,

(!)

'+ cos'~+b sin'~


COS ~

= '

, 1 2 =. , ectt ...
". ~& ~& 3-zo ~& ( 1) z 11,
~& , ,
. ,
, n n (1)
- !!, ,

3-ro

ft

*) . . 24.

- TOfiKO , ,t~.:_r.

8]

53

nr

n.

8. .
3-ro

3-ro

n 2- ,

. ,

2- n
,

'+ +'+ =,
,

1 (

cos' '1' +

1,

<.

cos '1' sin '1'+ sln' <) + cos <=.

1 ='.

cos '1' +'( cos' '1' + '1' sln '1' + sln' <)= ,

, J.t

(' +')+ r' ('+ +')= .


,
3- n.
n, ,

. '- 4 <, . .
n,

(.

9,

).

- 4 =
(. 9, 6). , '- 4 >,

(.

9,

).

rt 3-

*).

, '= 2 -

=mx

+ 2~ ;

(, ),

- = - _!_ (-). ,

2 (-) [ (- )+(-)) +(-)'= .


) ~ llOCKOCTK
,
~R , "u
.

84

(. 111

0 3-

(, ),

1 (; +:>+ : + 1 1

+ -f := .

, 3- -

9.

D)

10.

n, nn

, nn , . . .
, ,
n n ,

, u
(.

10,

, , ).

ll

IV

3-

1.
1.
3-ro

. !>

'+'-=.

(1)

t.x,

, n, =

(1) _

!{ . ; ' :
t

= i+t"

(2)

t '

y=i+t''

~t

u.

2 COSCf

sin

(3)

= cos3<p + sin'Cf'

,

..

6 = .

*)

, ~
,

. = ,

= = -

*)

., , . .

l'r , .

. . Ca~JJOB

I.

, )'

[. tV

3-

66
, ,
n

yr .

Jlero

yr

N ( {, -}). ,
, , (
,(
i/2) (. 11).

V4,

v2. V4>

= kx
.
kx
,

u . 1
k3 =
3k'b-3ak=0, k=-1
,
=-. , :

=- -;

2-

4-

J<

.
I

2. .

54),

(. .

3-ro ,

t-1

11.

.
.

t,

kx

/ 1, 2

n ,

x=l+t''

t'- t + t+ 1=0,
t1, t, / 8 ,

2ak

t,t,t,= - 1.

(4)

~ 1 (tt),
, (t,) , (/3) .
n , ~
. ,

!]
1

(f!)

t9 =

t 1,

67

1 (4) t;, =
11 3

9 =-1
3 =-1.
, (t 1t,t,)' T 1T,T,=-I, (4)
, 1 ,3 =-1, . . N 1 (T1), N,(T,) N 8 (T8)

::::::::- 1.

t:

t:

n.

n:

9' soo t'dt

'

Joo

(l+t')'=-a' I+t' =2-.

3.

- --=

, _ _ _!_~'
-

+2

(5)

( .;., ) =

h. Q
QA
!1
QN,

(. 12).
R QA

=-h

RO
Q1 QN.
, Q

Q 1

Q,

12.

x=f+r cos w, y=r sin w.

w-.

" , Q,
. QA

n (

+ i) s!n -I + cos -'f =.

[r.

3~

68

-i) f

= - h, = ( h tg
R. , n!! RQ1 n

r-2h

"'

(6)

2htg 2 x.

n!!

Q1N

x=-i+r.cos w.
(6) (7)
Q1

(7)

w,
r

(r-2h)' -2

,_

- - --;;- - - r-

+2

(5),

, .

(. .

4.

87).

. n ,

1638

. ,

, n tt ',
, n ,

. n ,
,

.
, ,

. t1 ~, ,
n. - t1
n ( \692) . .

<~: 18 .

2.
\.

rl- ,

, npocre
. ( ii)

08

= 2

. n
= .

n .

08

2]

u, . . (. 13).

2

08= cos ~

= 2

cos

<,

69

n,

== - ;

sin'

(\)

=~

n n ,
n u

'=-2
,

(2)

ty;

(2),

x=t ~!' y=t(t'~J)'

(2)

( 3)

u
n 3- ,
n (3) ,
n

n.

13.

2, ;
11 \- .

2.

. , n
,
, n

(. 14).
n,

D, ,
t::,BCE= t::, BEO, L = LCBE,

t::,NBE- n, ED= 2 =

=,
, ,

DM

. ,

n DM
, .
!< , ()D,

eJI

11

70

3-ro

[. IV

" . ", , .
" DMK F, ,
DOF ".
, DF
, , DM
F.
, n.

". ,
.

'= 2- " .
," (, "1) !\

-'Jjy +~=, ,

, =- ..1 ;

"

no

=-2('+~')

(4)

~
=2('+~').

=-

2+,

"1 n '=

, , n
n n ~= 2, n,
(4) , , ,

= - /+~~, = . +~ ~, .

"1 = - +.
,

, ...

.. .

, ,

"

n,

2]

71

, !!
, f;l . ,

eumopuu

uatc mpa-

x=2asl'cp, =2 sin'~.
cos ~

, . rt ..,

; ,
2

=2 ~ydx=16a'

i
2

sin' dcp =

3"'.

n .
n

(. 15), ,
=

= 4 ,

( 1t 11

- 4- -

:' )., -

2') =3 ('-

!!

CLANC.

11

'l

CMANC

11

- 4- -

15.

CMANC = 3

CLANC.

n,

"

"'

V=2"

~ (4a'- x')dy= i 61ta8

, [ 1
= 16 "
2 2

5(
2

sln'cp+ sln'cp- 2 s!n 6 cp)d<p=

,
+ 21 43 2

1. 3 5 J
- 2 ~ 2 = 5 2"

, 27t2a:J,

, n n

, , . .

[. IV

3-

72
~,

acu;.tnmomoil,

/1./

. , -

r .
6 n.

n n n;

no
V= 27tx,, V -
, n .

acuA/.nmomo,

acutnmomo

20 ~ =.
,

5.

, . -

5 )

3 =

21't'!l:a3 .

= 2" (2 -

,) = "' 2" ( 2 -

, n n .

, .t , o
, . , -

upyz

f2

n S=a ~

10 (z-})(2+ ))
+ )
2
(z+Jf)(2-Jf3)
3.

'

~f8'-

2 - dx=a(z-2) +

-4 -

z_

il

, u

!!

, , , :
, ;
no n ,
, .
,

. ,
, n

)'

(),

n
II,

, ,

2]

73

J<, 3 .

n

,
, -
.
- , -

V2.

; 8 3 = 2 3 , , =
,

(-f-) =
8

V2.
2 :_ .

=k

J< n

(5)

AD=2ak

(. 16) n
, -

20 :._ = k'.

n~,

(2, )

(6)

2ak'.

= -21

2,
( 1, 0), n
n

16.

, ,

(5) (6), AD

V2.

,

n .

n , n

, *).
17
. -

*)

Xt0'0'6;- ,

ny t' eJ

[r.

3-

3.

1.

3-ro

rv

"

-
,

t!:,

!!- n "- fl.

n u n.

,
,

1 =
1 ('f')
n , n

n!!

p,=/o('f'),

, - ,

=,-,.

, .
, .

p1 = /1 ('f') 2 =/('f') - n ,
= f('f')- n n, ,
=,-,.

n
:

sn1=~,
dp,

*)

dp,

ng=~,

dp
dp,
dp,
~=---;[<f-(i;f
. .

s.=s., -s."

/l

11

"'.

KpllBX.

t!:


n n. n n
, n = f('f') n
t , , n ".
n, t!:,
~.

, , -

(' +'') 2

R= '+2''-"

'

*) ., , . . r , r
artr.Pankoro , t. 1.

3]

75

"=+~- ('+'')2

1
=(' +' 2 ) 0

- ;

= ,

,2

( 1)

(. 17). PBJ_PM,

0B=POtg(90-j)=L

(1)

pR

'

.~

=+=-__;

"=- MPR-R

- u

08- ,

"

:
, , t!
.
n
,

R. ,

R;

".

n 1 11 ;

BM(MP-R)

, , "
1< ;

= ,

"
,

9 n

R1 R,
. 17.
n . R 1 R,,
tt i' 2,
", "
pj- 2. ",

n n

R,

, .

2. U 2-ro .
2-ro ,
'= 2+ qx';

u
(2)

[.

3-

76

1v

X=k.

(3)

(2)

2 cos~

Pt= sin 1 ~

q cos 2 ~'

k
2= COS<f ;
,

p=p2-Pt=

k
COS<p -

coscp
sin'cp-q COS2 <p'

, :

(x-k)(y' -qx')+2px'=O.

(4)

2- n.


( =-

v;

av'2
-2- ,

(2)-
q

'2
n

=-.}),

(4)

(3)

Vt

( =

(2)-

f ,

=.} ),

(4)

(3) = -

+ f) ~'-.} ') + f =

(5)

, olllltaAta (.

f,

Jl

18).

,
, J( . ,

= = 2,

18

, < =

2,

= =<,

= __1!__
cos 3

. ,
(5).

u.

3]

t> =

cos

cos tf

'f' (.

77

I30

166).

18.

.
(4)

2-ro

(x-k)(y'-qx' )-2px'=O. (6)

=
= ~ , q=O,
k = ~

'= 2

(- ~ ) '-2'=

(7)

t>yut>o (.

19).

19.

. = ( - ~ ) .
; ,

78

[. IV

S 3~ro

, .

. ,

yp=PN=xtga=xy.4;

.4=4=

(- ~)

= Jfp(x- ~)'

, (7),
- ,

(7)

.
, -...

4.
1.

, n yi

'(- ~ )-2'=

\1

r~_< ,

g,

= -

;
, ~

, n

(. 20) . 1 -

20.

1 =;

=;

=-0-, BC=atg<p,
COOf

4]

70

;r

= 1 sin!f.

(!)

cos~

, :

=(-) 2~

2at'
= ::t=t''
l<

(2);

at(t'-1)

(3)

=~-

(2)

= 2 . (, )
. , (2) :

'=[(-) 2 (2- )'20.. r __


_+ 2~]
Jl

. .

(, ) '=

1,

2-

=- ,

n n

2.
1.

yr .

.
< ~

11

= 2 (1 , 1 )
1 =(+1 ), , -

(-

) ,

+ 1 =- ~, . , :

=-~
P'+Yf'

pt'
X=-l+t''

pt'-pt
= 2(I+t')'

t=ll. .

2.
,

.~ . ~ ~
~ 1 ,

lt ~.

ll

80

[.

3-

rv

r,

(3),

x=1s!n<p,

3. rr rr ,
u. , 51
, ,

(!- sin ~)

= (!+ sin ~).

cos '

cos '

,='.

4.

n , n:

S1 =~=a(1

S,

s!n

<),

S _'-+ l:t. sinCf!


---

S.,

cos11 cp

(1

(4)

'

sin

<),

(. 121), =+ 1 :in~, .
-

S1

St

, ,

cos

( 4)

S, +S!=2a.
5.
n

6 n ,

n .

t1, t2

! 8,

2at'

=+/''

at(t'-!)

=~,

n 13 - 2kt'- ~ t'- t - ~ =,
n

(5)

t9.,

n t 1,
t 3 1 '' , n
. n r -

4]

81

'+'+++=;
2at'

at(t'-1)

X=l+t~'

= ~ ,

+t,t,t,=A'

11 + t, +t +t=- t1t,t,+t 1t,t,+t1t 3

t,+

t, + t, + t, + t, + t,t,t, + t,t,t, + t,t,t, + t,t,t, =.


, , , n
, t1,

t ..

t9,

t, + t, + t, + t,t,t, =.
n 6 .
: t<t<- t< ,

(6)
~
,

, ~
mol(aX Q,
t< , Q
t<,


t< (. 21 ).


, ,

t 1,

Q,

(6).

n ~

t 3,

t2

= t,.

13
n

. 21.
t 1t,+t 1t,+t,t,=-1,
t, = -11 V
1 . ~ ,
- Q. (6), -

n~

t;-

(5),

82

I 3-

6. ,

[.

tv

~ ~--

(-)

=2

'

2- dx=2a'-

2'

+2

ru

2,

2.

3. .

g9.

V,

g1

g, ( . 22).

,

1
. n,

, 1

, ll, ' ,

22.

n. n
1 ,

1.

, ,

. .

,
, , !,
g,. , N
, V ,
, V
. V= , VP
-+
-++
= =, AM=-- l --,
2

4]

83

=
-

- 2- ,

2,

= 1 =-2-,

. 1= 2

= 1 = .

n : n ;

g,

; 1

= 1 =,
.

n
,
,

n,

g1

g2,

- ;

, -

g1

23.

g2

(.

23).

: - ,

, , ;
, g 2 ,
0 1 , 1 0 2 , ,

1 ==.

, , .
n u ACN ~.
, - ;
(.

22)

sin (.+<)= sin

sin

= sin {

+ ~),

sin <f

= sin {

sin <f '

+ ~), -

1 ,

, u

= ,

[. IV

3J! 3

84

- sina sin!f

~ =
4.

.;-,

sin(+~)

(1645),

o<tpo~-f,- n.

19

tt,
I

5.
1.

. , *),
- ,
1

(1)+bJ'=-4c~

(1)

(. 24).
~

-1)=- ~+ (-~).

(~.

1))

(2)

-- ~+
2

(3),

24.

1)

(3)
(1), (2)

('+ ')= ( -).

*)

O!f!Lo;-

oUpa- .

(4)

5)

85

= =!!..; n =, . . ,

(4)

=,

u,

, ,
.

2.

ocu,

1m

: (. 25).

upe1Cmptlc

!1

1i'=-4a(!+3a)

(5)

D (!, "1)

y-1j=---;-(x-!),

:r

(6)

25.

(7)

"1

(5), (6)

(7),

(' +') = ('- ').

(8)

3-ro ;
(0, );

u (-, )

= .

n (- 2, ) n
. (- 2, ),

(- )('+ ')+4'=.

n n

. 3~r0

86

[. !V

8 cos '1'

+ - 4 =0.
8

(9)

cos '1' =4 cos 8

- 3 cos

f,

f-

(9)

(10)

=--.

cosf

(.

N,

!!.

25),

= .

BN =,

cos L NBA, , , , L NBA 1 = 3 L NBA.


( 1) ,

= =

= cos

,
,

6 J:::I:

0 1
r (. 26); u

l;
w

::

n
AQ,
ON
,

1 ;

1 (, )
.

=
.

=2rPA,

26.

. 26 = =
- l - 1 =-1-(r);

'
,

=~,
AMSI= cos
~ () , , PA=2rcos 9 w, =
()
-=-l-(2rcos' w-r)=-l-rcos 2w; , y=-xtgw.

5]

87

"

ro,

(r+ l) ' -(l-r)y'.


=

(' +')=-

r
2 l =, (' +')=
= (' - 3')- (8) .

,
!l.< *).
q ,

27).

(.

etl 1 ,


1
R, n
q.
,

q,

~,

27.

0 1 (. 26; 0 1),
,
0 1 . q
.
ef::l 1 ,

"

. ,


:
, ,
,
r , , q
, ,
q,

1)

*)
(crp. 67).

(. .

90);

[. IV

9 3

2)

JI ,
, q ,

3)

(. .

67);

, - ,

(. . 68);
4) , u
,

, q- i- ,
(. . 78).

3.

.
.

. 11"

11 mpllcempuco .

' ,

'= 2

+ ',


1<

F-

(. 28).

FN,
N

28.

! S1

--.

NM

cos w + sin w =

1_

(1)

(1)

w:
.

-xsw+ycosw=- (1

~os "'

(1)

(2)

sin (!,\
cos)l .

3(1,1

""
=----,

2sin'f

(2)

pcos

3(1)

=----.

2sin 8

5]

I(

89

, :

=--2 sin 8

cos' -; ~

= f,

tg<p=-ctg 2

, !! ,

2(2+>'=21('+ ').
, , tt

(-f, )

3-ro ,

(4,

0).

, 60.
,

!!,

4.

3-

(1718-1799).

.r.
.

29.

= (. 29)

, : BD =: ;

BDM,

, .

29 ,
0 =
.

J f; BD = lfy (- ),

]/( - )

= '+''

, -

= -~,

(1)

3~ro

.!90

[.

tv

, !!
~ n, ;

n ;

, .

x =t, = t' +a'.

n,

f::l

t 1, t 9

t3 t, ,
!! !!, 111,
1113 t,t, ='.
t 1 ti = t 8, ,

+ +

n = ; ,

ll

, n

!!

n ll

caoll ,


.
llll ll

,
, .

, ,
2'

r.

xs

:~

( 1)

( . 87).

4-

1.

4-

n, ,
3- .

{1792), n 12 ,
84 551 .
1! , n
6 , 4-ro
9 ,

1)

2)

, n ;
;

3)

4)

n n ;

5)

6)
7)
8)
9)

;
. ;
;
.

152

4-

4 :
1) , ;
2) *);
*)

9 , , ;

- 4 +'+ ' =;
,

or

_ .

[.

4-

92
3)

cuu.A ,

aunmtttte

4)

4-ro

1< 4- n,

28
16

10

2
1

3
2
1

1
2
3

19

24
18
16
12
10
8
6
4
2

8
4
1
4
2
1
1

".

12
10
9
8
7
6
6
5
4
3

3
2
2
1
1
1

1 """ 1

n 4- , n
n. 36 ,

2.

n
4- n,



, n

n,

n.

13

(.

23).

4-ro

4- n .

4- n.

4- n

n n n , n,

l! 2 - n .
4 - n,
n 2- n .
,

tt

;:

~:~,

;;

4-

;;

+ 2dx x,x; + 2,,; +2gx,x,x : =.


1

2]

93

Xt=PX~X~,
2 =:~,

=~~,

;'+ ;'

+ ;' + 2dx;x; + 2;; + 2gx;x; =,

2- n.

4- n.

2-

, n ,

4-

n,

4-ro

. , ,

2~

5,

lt

4- -

30.

30

n,

2-

n ,

4-ro

4- .

nepece

2-ro
n. ,
,

31-34,

npeu

2- n .

94

[.

' 4-


4-ro ,
2- ,

31.

33.

32.

34.

m . , 1
,

,,

" , (
2- ,
,

n).

!! ,

yr

, ,

2]

( .

35).

95

cnocot ;

Pg,

1 ,

1 - ,
, ,,
1 yr ( . 36).
,
, .

Cz

35.

36.


4-ro ,
2- .

( 1 ,

p'i,

2 ,

3)

n ,

n}
1 ,

, . .

(1)
,

1,

2 ,

3 -

1 , 2, 8 1 , 2 , 3 U
, ,

1 1

+ +
,,

,,

= 2 .

(2)

6 n ,

96

[.

4-

n
. , (2)
.

+ ,, + ,, =.

1 1

(3)

" n, .
1 , 2 , 3 ( 1), n:

( 11

+ ,, + ,3) =.
!.t

(2),

, n

=. ,

(l), ,
1 , 2, Ps ,
1 =, 2 =, =, .
, (3)
", (3)
n . J<J< 1 : 2 : 3 =
= sin : sin : si , (3)

sin

+,

sin

sin =.

"

"

, :

;;

sin

+ ;; si + ;;

z.

sin = .

uz
tt.

.t-t

..

4-ro ,

" 2- ,

"

. . ~,
4-ro n .

4-ro

l<

n 2- ,

4]

F.

4.

97

4-ro
3-ro , ~ tt

. n

~t

4-ro , , "
n u .

n ' ~ n

n~ n 2-ro ~
n~~ n.

~ ~

3-

n,

~ .
4- n

*),

( . . 62), : 16 ~t ~t
tt 420 , , ttempe ~t ~t.

W'
,

4-ro

, ~ ,
h J< u
n,

, ~.

(' + 2 )2 +

(dx +) (' +')+ '+ +'= .

(1)

nn

+ +'= .

( ) 9 - 4
n

n,

3-ro , ,
3-ro

n 2- ,

4-ro n 2-ro n ,
,

,.

rf:

n.

(1) n

q>:

p; + (d cos q> + sin q>)p 1 + < cos' q> + cos q> sln q> + sln' q>)=O.
1

= r 2,

n11:

~+(d cos '1'+ sln q>)~ +< cos'q> + cos q> sin '1' + sin'q>)=O,

*) . u t 1, A1gebraische Kur vcn, 1911.

. . CaeJlQU

98

[rn v

4-

{'(

cos'<p+b cos '1' sln '1' + sln 2 <p)+r'p(d cos '1' + sln

<) +' = .

, :

'+ +'+ ' (dx +)+ =

, , u,

37.

39.

(2)

bg- 4

40.

n,
(

(2)

n, ,

38.

2-ro

n~

2-ro

(1).

- 9

n, n - .

. 37 9,

~ n. .
. 40-
rn11.

n,

38

39

n, n

n,

""

5]

, ,

99

f<

4-

3-ro , ,
n, .

f{

1)

1< ,

; n

3)

r.n

(. 144);

u (.

; ,

121);

n ,

4)

106);

, n (.
,

, u (.

2)

4-ro

rnep

155).

, u 4-
( )
,

,


. n .
.

5 -

<1n, n
,

6-

12

(1750).

n.
, -
.

1 1
4-ro , ~
.

Vl

4-

1.

. .'<1111 n
(3 . .), ~ n

1.

n
h

:
n11

. ,
gn

LL 1,

, =, n , ~
n
~ LL 1
l (. 41 ).

41.

0 180 n n

~ ,

,
nh,

n;

n-n

,- ~.

f.:l ,

n-

1 <, =

+ l,

nn,

, n

1]

101

---+t
sin_. r;

(\)

P-

Vx'+Y'

t:;OMP~D.KMS , , =s --1--=-'

(' +') (- )'- t'y' =.

(2)

npoopu'i ,
1 , (2)

(2) ,
4-r t< .

43.

t<

are6pateCt<o~

t<

/.- ,
(0, + l) (0, - [),

= , =

(2)

11 n

=; JJ, (0, )
n h.
,

n,

,
. .

li~

102

[. Vl

8R 4-

+ '' -!''= ,

''

= V

0
zt-a

. ;

, l <
~ (. 41 ), 1=
~ = (. 42); L>a
(. 43).

LL 1,

lim
f.....O

2.

n ,

MP=Iimp sin <= lim

.....

f.....O

+ 2''- " =.

(-.-"-+ 1) sin <=.

n , ,

'

,
SI r.p

~.

n =

20

":'~ , , epeSin r.p

, '= 2'.

u .. .
, J. l,

'= 2'.

= ',
= ....,.".._

S n S

' = ~
1 6~ ~
n,
n~
- .c~s ' ; , n
SI

ff

n 6~ n~
~ (. 41 ).
n
.

, ,
, n

~ - , < (.

41),

U= -21

{\(~+!)'-(..,!!....-l)'jd<p=2at
=2alintg -2' .
Slff
SI!f
Jt ..!!;L
SIff

, .

:: t> pauycoJ<

2/.


n -

1]

(. .

74).

103

" , "
; n "

(=).

!! !!

!! ",

, , ,

----...;::,~

l! "
(. 44).
,

,
, ,

..L .

81

N,
,

3.

-....:

.
ABCD (. 45).

'
''

'

'' ''

u.

44.

MN. , l! AD,
OL , . MN

,:~~~~~~~~~~;J]

OL

u,


!! .

- l!,

45.

. OL

!! . MN
. 2!.
,
.

104

KPIJI>IE 4-

4.

ll

, ; n

u .

(. 46).

v1

=!. ~ , !,

nn . , , n;.
n . n
, 0 - - n,
. , u,

i .

, ~ n
!/

..

46.

N, . MN=l ( . ), ,
, 6 CMN - ;

.. . .. n,

L =

i .

,
~ -r; n n
*).

n
, n,

. t1r

, n
.

. .. ,
, n.
fd 6 .

~ , ~
~ , l Jt
*)

<1 1,

1938.

11

105

. ,,

n .
n, h .
n ,
, . ,

n~n.

n-

n,

. -

.r

c!gj-l cos (+ j),


y=-lsin (+j),

n,

47.

47.

w, n w
n

1t.

.r

48.

49.

cos - (' +-!') sln ]'=( sin+y cos + cos )(l'-'),

1t

..

n" , tn w =

w =.:

R. .

106

~:~

4-rQ

[.

vt

yr

48

"- :

49

w=

4 ,

, - u> = -; .

2.
1.

. zumcy

, .

r,

u " (. 50). ,

, t< J
N

1<Zr

NM=l.
0 180 J r .

50

l,

",

1 1 n
.

p=2rcosrp+t.

(1)

, :

(' +'-

2rx)' -t' (' +')= .

:t

(2)

4-ro

/.
(2) (0, 0), ,
~,
"

",

4r'x' -l'x'- t'y' =,

<

f.t

"

Y4r'-l'

= - 1- - JC. -

, l
2r, :t.

- 11 (. 50);
2r,
, - (. 51);

t>

2]

!\

l = 2r,

107

rt,

(. 52).
, n n
p=2r(l+cosq>) ,
, , .

51 .

?fiC.

Pftc. 52.

1 tt
z-t . .
, u

(. 50) ANMD, ~
, , , ,


. ,

. . ,

ll

.
ll

ICptto 2- / /l ~.

CllU

k'

= k'

'

t.
2, cos ~ + l, 1 = 2r cos '

2r, - ,
!! ll; != 2r
, ell -; t
2r,
, ell

53.

t>

<

cJ

r.

[. Vl

. 4

108

n, , nn

( l
r), ,
. 53, M 1NC NCO , -

, L OM 1B=i L .
, l
135);

(.
ll (: 118) JJ<

= { ''\ (2r cos '1'


d

2.

Z> 2r,

n-

+ !)' d<p =" (2r'+ !').

2-ro

. 6

n
,
,

, n

(.

54)

S= = 2r cos wt +Z=2r si9(wl + 1-J+l,

w-r

= - 2rw sin wt

v=S

nn

9,

f!

,
, ,

v,

v),

. n
.

54.

' ,
n

n,

_
. n
nn l
, n

~~ - ,

: .

3]

3.

109

. n
: n,

1.

;
, , n

n .
~

n,

no

n.. ,
, tt

n n,

npoJ:t, . .

,
, ~

n,
, J:t

n .
.

U , 6~

. n , ~
, J<, , tl . .

u n (ni-Jr)

zzt

n ;

n . .

, n

n .

R-

n .

1.1

n .n , h n
n, n (. 55

56).

M0 1N

t.

n =~, n .~
. R n

, AN

= MN,

nn

R L NOA

= rt,

L NOA= )[t=mt.
n n
n (.

55).

x=OP=OD+ME=(R+r)cost+rsln

y=MP=01 D+01 E=(R

+) sln

mt

- cos

1 ,

0 1 ;

[.

3. 4

110

sln L M0 1E=sin(t- L OO,D)= sin


cos L

01 =

sin (1 + mt),

vr

[t-( i-mt)J=-cos (t+mt),

r,

r = mR,

55.

..56.

x=(R+mR)cos mt-mR cos(t+mt), }


y=(R+mR)sin mt-mR sin(t+mt).
, u (.

(1)

56)

x=OP=OD+ME=(R-r) cos mt+r sin L ,,


y=MP=01D-0 1E =(R-r) sin ml-r cos L ,;

sin LM01E= sin

[1t-l- ("i- mt )]= cos (t- ml)


cos L

sin (t- mt),


r

x=(R-mR) cos mt mR cos (t- ml), }


y=(R-mR) sl mt -mR sin (1-mt).

- ;

( 1)

(2)

x = (R-mR) cos mt + R cos (t- mt),


}
-[(R-mR) sin mt- mR sin (1- mi)J.

()


ru,

(2)

npaon .

3]

llhi

(3)

II,

r rn

x=(R+R)

cos t -R cos (t+t),


sin / -R sin (1
t),

<

= R
.
(4)

(4)

,
,

y=CR+R)

(2)

111

-2

r;

> u
, < - u.

1 1
1 1

u
,

< !,
< R-

n n
U;

, ,

. , , n
.

2.

nu

-;
6)

57

(.

58).

!!.
,
q

n ;

m--f

. 57.

,
q q

[. v1

9 4-

112

( ru

< 2

> 2

).

pyroU

)
.

58.

;
-

1.

6)

, , :

n .

tt

, = + .
n

nr , rn
(. 58, ).

,
, n
;
,

3]

113

3.

1.

zu. .

(4)

i,

, , ,

n:

xyi=(R +R)e mti -mRe Im+ 11".

+yi =, - yi = ~.
(R + mR)
= (R +

"= ,

=
~

- mRm+~,

R) -- R--.

(5)

(5)

u,

2.

!\

(4)

t,

( 4).

f cos (mt+ f).


=2R(l +) si f si (t+ f).
x=2R(l +)si

tg = {

= tg (mt + f), , ,
=mt+

(4)

lln

npoxollm

n,

ll

(6)

, ll
.

;z-

, .

59

, , -,

59.

, N, f:t ,
n , ~,

114

.h!

mt

+ 1-,

4-ro

[.

. . . n

3.

( 4), :

dS=V x'+.Y'dt=2R(1 +> sin fdt.

f) dt,

, , d~ =(+

R -_

( 4)

t=O,

(7)

(6),

U:

4Rm (1 +) . t
2m + 1 SI 2

da -

(8)

(7),

S2R ( 1 +) sin ~ dt +.

S=

S =

= , ,

S=8R(l+) sin' {.

n

t=

1t,

n ,

vt

(9)
,

S=-4Rm(l+)cos ~

(8)

( 1)

S'+(2+

(\0)

t,

.ru

l)'Ri= 16R''(l +)'.


S

Rx

(11)
,

, n,

.t, .t

uJc

(. .

4.

~ :

morta.At

..

251 ).

( 4)

3]

115

Rm
<= R(l+m)
1 + 2111 cosmt+ 1+ 2111

'lj=

cos(t+mt),
(12)

+ +RmZm SI. (t + mt).


SI mt

(1 +)

+Zm

(4),

npaof! .
. 11 n
, n .
, :

COS

- 'lj SI =

R+mR
l

+ Zm

COS

=< sin e+'l cos e=~t~:

+RmZm

COS (/

+ mt +),

+eJ+ 1 ~~

sin (t

+ mt +).

+)+

(mt

sin (mt

= tn1t. t +
<, t
t += <
1t , ,

+' -

R+mR

Rm

= I+Zm cosm<- 1 + 2111 s(<+<),

R + mR .
1 +2m SI

Rm

nl't- 1 +2m

. (

SI

't

+ nl't).

)
(4), -

mo,u

t<

"

*)

(.

+1 2111 ,

(),

11 -

60).

5.

(9), S

r.
,

S= 8R (1

+).

t = 21t,

t =

, -

- ,

dU= xdy ;- dx
*)

60.

. ~

, rn .>.t.

rn

<.

116

3..

4-

ml

nn

dU = (R + R) (R + 2R) sin'

..

f dt,

[r.1 v r

=~ dU =m.",(R+mR)(R+2mR).
ti
6. rn nu r
1871 . I<,
tt
,

08

rr

..u yzo.Alll

.tt

w1

w11,

uu .
,
n, , n u

=/


1, = / 2 , , l< ,
n t, LOAx =tw1 LOBx=tw, , ,
z 1, z 2 z:

! ,

z 1 =l1ew /l,
,

z 9 =12ewsti,

z.ewtti

z =

Z = Z 1 + z9

(13)

[9.ewtti,

, n,

z=(l1 cos w1t+t, cos w,t)+i(l1 sin w1t+t, sln w,t),


z=x+(y. ~_:

=11 ccis w1t + l, cos

w,t,

.11 sin w1t + t, sin w,t. ,


n !1 1-.

(13)

ru.

Z=lo+t,e~tt+t,e~tt+ ... +t.~",


!,
(1890). n

, .
7. r //mu/ ! ( .
. 279). n n
ll Jiyen. n ,

,
, .
(. 61), - sin ~
tg 2~ (- cos ~).

s1n

2~ -

cos

2~=

s1n

~-

2xcos2a+2ysin2a=acosa.

(14)
,

(15)

3]

(14)

r~

= (2 si sin 2

117

(15)

+ cos cos 2),

= f(sin 2 cosa- 2cos 2 sin ).


!t

=4

= 4

cos
.

Stn

cos
.

SI

J<OTOpOJ.t

z;

3.
h

61 .

n ,
-

62.

, n n ,

. r
.

8.

n nu u *).
.., zt,
,zl

,
ut _
t t< (. 62).
"').
.

11, 1911.

L r _i , Spezielle algebraische und transcendente ebene Kurven,

118

[. VI

4-

u1 ,
, 1 tcpyza t.ll
1.., 1m

4.

. n

, ,
. ,

h.

u..

63.

n u

, n

no

< r-

!! n .

> r,
n

, n

h =

nlil

un.

!! .

= =
=

OD

63

+ = <R.+ mR.) cos mt+ h sln L.M0 E,


1

MP=0 1D+ 0 1E = (R.+ mR,) sln mt - h cos L.MO,E;

sln LM01E= sln [t- (

-i- mt)] = - cos (t+t),


= sin (t + mt);

cos L. 1

3]

"

.119

x=(R mR) cos mt -lz cos (t+ mt),


=<R+mR) sin mt-h sin (t+t).

(R- mR) sin mt- h sin (t-mt).

- h,

n.
, h =
,

= (R- mR) cos mt + h cos (t- mt),

r,

n.

n
n

x=(R+ mR) cos mt- h cos (t+ mt),


=<R+ mR) sin rnt- h sin (t + t), (l)
,

. 64, 64,
n.
ll

!!

ll

n,

n,

n-

J\

64.

h = R + = R mR. n
x=<R+ mR) cos mt -.<R+ mR) cos (t +t),
= (R
mR) sin mt- (R mR) s!n (t mt),

x=(R+mR) 2 s!n (mt+ ~) s!n ~.

= - (R

+mR) 2 cos (rn + ~ ) sin i,

~..R " 1<R. " 4- I i<

120

x'+y'==4(R+R)'sin'~

=-

tg

[.

~=-ctg(mt+~) =

l1"- (mt + ~)J. n ., n:


= 2(R+R) sin 2111 ~ 1 ( rp+i)

, n

2 ,

+ mR) sin 2111 ~ 1 rp.


2 (R + mR) =, :

= 2 (R
2"'

1
+
1=

!'

sin

!''

fJ.

, n

(. .

m=

1-1'-

~;

n !'

>

!'
1

2111

+ 1 = !'

<1

162).

n-

n,
n

r.

h.

!'

n-

1
= :z.

-.

, ( 1) n

Pttc. 65.

R= r

65

2r cos t - h cos

2t,

2r sln

t - h sin 2t,

= cos 'f'

h=2 cos t(r- h cos t),


n

sin 'f'

t(r- h cos t).


-

h=

p=2(r- h cos t),


, ", =

2 sin

f=<p,

2 (r- h cos <)- .

1]

tiJI

R = 2r,

R .

= 2 SI

t
+ h cos 2t = (2R+ h ) cos 2.
t - h . 2=
t
(R
2
2- h ) . t
Sl

SI ~2 .'

, Jl . n

4.

1.
,

2R cos 2t

121

, t1

co6ot1,

l.

n n


(1)). :

2r cos t - r cos 2t. \

(.

00 1 -

u", n"

66),

(1)

t 6

110,

t.

y=2rsit-rsi2/.

(.

j (1)

si

t.

sin t,

n
-

p=2r(I-COS<p).

(2)

66.

u
, n

. _ ~, ~u,,.. . t!.
.

122

4-

(2)

vt

n:

(' +'+

2r)' = 4r' (' +').

(3)

n .

4-

2.

un

l,

n.
.

1.

2. ., n

- n
2' ( 1 - cos ~)

tg .f.
2'

2rsin ~

AMN,

u,

66).

n .
1<

tll,

<

yr ,

. ,

tg 1~

=f=

< (

=-;-,

"=
~2 . eno

, ,

J<OIax

,
,

11.<t

!IJ<

n,

1
1
f't= 2'ft f'= 2('f, +1t),

1 = f'- f'l

=.; (. 67).

' +'=
,

9r'.
n

67.

( 1) , 6

sln ~ - cos ~=
r sin ~ . cos + sln ~ = r cos f . ~

'f

n , n . -

4]

123

3.

8r . ~
R .=s2.

(4)

, " ,.
,. "

,.,. mo~rce.

n, N = ' + '' = 4r si f,

(4)

R. = 32 N .

4. ,
u,
,

n,

, u-

!80.

5.

S=l6rsi'f.

(5)

1 ,
,

(6)

S=-8rcosf.

6. ,
(4) (6) .
9+S'=64r'.

7. _,

(7)

=2. i .( ' d<p= 4r' .~(!-~ <p)'d<p=6"r'

, , n .

.
.
J'+''4<=2 J4rsifd<p=l6r

"

S=2

, ,

eJia,

6
,

3 4

124

[. v1

~ 1tr3 . ,
,

128

5 . 'l't'9

, .
~ tt u.
n -

t<u,

..

mot-

n,
11,

,(.

'

2r,

68). ,; =';
=+, p=2r cos 'f'

+ 2r,

ri<

p=2r(l + cos <p).
,

6R.

(.

150),

: . ,
n , u.u ..
.

1.

u,

, . .

3 .

nJ

u (. . 110, (2)) =.},


2r cos 3t + r cos 2t
3,

t
. 21
2
= S I - S -3

t.

1
}

(1)

,J

, n .

('+')'+

(1)

8rx(3y'- ').

t,

+\Br'(x'+ y')-27r'=O.

(2)

5]

125

...?

(2) n,
4- n . n n
. 69 70.

!/

69.

70.

n,

1) n R, = 8r sin ~;
2) (t)
n S= ~ r sin' ~;
16

r,

lr;

3)

, ,

4)

21tr'i!;

, n

n
5)

3,

(. 70); .

n ,

R~

+ 9S' =

1t,

64r'.

t=

3.

tl

,
.

126

"

si

t=

fr.

4~ R

vr

<,

1 u

i- + cos i = r sin ~ .


:
1

(3)

"
, (. 71).

(3)

"

(!)

t,

(3)

. (t+')
-t
3
12 =0.

sl

71.

n"

n , n

"

"

"

t = <.

1 2 ,
. .

,= r ( sl

J +2 si i )

,= r ( sin

i - 2 sl i-).

"

,,.

,, =

(,- 1 )'+ (,- 1 )'- 4r, , .

..m mottau nzo1ee



,

, ).

n
J1:

N-

,,, n

5]

...

, erlm

r.

127

n.

, motta,

, ,
1 ,

upyza.

cos z + sin z = - r cos

"f ,

x_sin ~- cos"f2=-r sin

-i,

, , ~

".
n Ji

'

xc=-r cos

.
=- s

3.

'

.
~~.

"

zt

n , .
, . h
n

t Ctt.AICOLl.
, r.

t CllAtCOLl,
,

*).

n n n,

n - ,

h ,

*) .
.

1!.

t
2t
3 -s 3

. 3t
2 SI

1911,

60,

=2s

f:t

! 2t
S 3

u n

L r i , Spezielle a1gebraische

und

transcedete

ebene Kurven,

!28

AMP.ATRJibHhiP. . 4-

[. Vl

cos f; + sin

f; = r cos f.

(4)

, ., 1 u Mi;
1 ,

,
.
~!

i1

ll

r,

ma1e,

HllX

,,

, , i.. ,
n ,, :
COS

SI

= 2.
=

COS

,,

n. n

3>

l.

(4),

(5)

n.

2.

~.

n ,

n ,

= cos 8

(5),

34

cos 2

1-- 3 f 1-, nn
cos

sin 2

cos
;

sin-;- =

r ( cos 3

;--

3 cos ; sin 2

~).

(6)

n, S(a, 0),
. n ,

(-) sin - cos% =0.


n sln

cos (7)
(6), n (,
, . . n S)

, -
n n n

('

(7)

'' +[(+ )' +(

S (,

-r)x']x=O,

(8)

129

. .".

5)

_, h ,

p=4r cos 3 <p -(+ 3r) cos <.


(8)

4-ro

(9)

:r

72.

73.

(8) (9):
1) =, ('+'>'+r('-')=,
= r cos < -
(. 72);

2)

74.

75.

(x'+y')'+4ry'x=0, =
sl' < llm -

a=r,

= - 4r cos <

S (. 73);
3) a=-r, (x'+y')'+2rx(v'-x')=0,
= 2r cos < cos 2< ,
S 1 (. 74);
5

4-

!30

[.

V!

4) =- , ('+ ')'= 4rx', = 4rcos'rp


.- ~

S,

(. 75).

~' (1t

+ 8),

1tr'~;

~' (3" -

8);

2 "' .

. , n,

u, , rU

1
2 1trg;

6.
1.

!
4.

, , , n

r,


, ,

(.

11 ,

(2))

1
4.

x = 43 Rcos 4t

D
.

3
=4

76.

+ 41 R cos 3t4 , ] (1)


1

. 3t

R s 4-R s 4,

t, , (.
(1)
:

76).

t,

(' +'-

R' )'

+ 27 R'xY' =.

(2)

(2) , r6n ,
n 6- n .

( 1)

x=R cos:, }
y=Rslo 4 .

(3)

6]

131

t,

!!

x3

1)

+y3 =R 3 -

=-

1
4 ,

(4)
u-

(5)
2)

S = 23 R s1' 4t
-}R. !! 6R;

3)

M(t)

t=

- ,
=, ,

1t,

1)-

_3R( s1n ,t 3R
t,
S ---
4
2 - - 4 cos 2 ,

l!

(5)

(6),

(6)

+4S'= 2R)' ;

4)
n,

,
, 2,

ll .;- (. 77);
3

5) , ll, "R';
, ,
,

32

l05"R';

12

"R'.

ll rr ~> llt, ~>

~>

.<.

~> . r

132

4- 3.

[r.

vr

,
ND
R : (. 78),
ND

sl :-

cos :+ R sl

cos := .

(7)

n :, :

cos :+ sln :- R sl'o:+R cos'o:=O.


n

(7)

n :,
2

3 =

. .

R3 '

ND

Yf

77.

78.

, , ,

, ~1 . u

N D r
nn

(. .

58, ).

r / .


. ODCN,

R;

, ,

. n n,
DN,
, .~ .
.,
.

6J

2. li . (7)
ND, . . U ,

~ , U U

. U ,

nepou,

(8)

xcosa.+ysln+Rslncos=O.

(7)

(8)

"

R' ('-')'= 2 (' +')'. , , =

;'I

cos 2'f',

. , ..,

. . ,

:
,

/(

~,

npe..

\-

=
. ,

ND = R.
u .
,

n,

79.

ND (. 79). ..1. ND, OQ, Q-


ND. n n, n n
. n 'f'

- - . , , Q= 2'f'.
1
R '
R
OQ = 2 ND= 2 , = 2 cos 2'f'. , U , ~ 08 + = cos 'f' + . n
,

= 2 $

2'f'-C

COS

'f'

(' +') (' +'+ )' = ~ ('-')'.

134

[.

I! 4-

6-ro

vr

yJCo.At. -

, = , (. .

!62).

. .
,
ND R.

80.

3 n ,
, ND ,

OND (. 80) :

t.

ON
sin (t-1)

OD

si t

sin 1'

ON= sin(l-y) R.
S1

sm 1

nn

sin (t -)

OD= sint R

+ sin 1 =

ND

sin 1

'

t,

=--!-.--1 cos t sin'(t-1),


SI

=~1 cos(t-1) sin't;


SI

1 = ~
.

7)

7.
1.

135

. ,

. ~
F F 1 F u
,

~ FF1 .
~ , = k ,

k-

AN
AF1 , u.
CN,

F,

.

(.

81).

MF=FB=FA+AB=
1

=FA+k ,
MF 1 =NC=
=- AN =- F,A .

: kMF-

. 81 .

!Ji-.

-MF1 =kFA -,. k=


F
F 1 = F
F,,

, ,

, ,

+ F, =.

(1)

, .
, ,
, oteyca..tt , .... , . ..

n ,

FF1 - ~ , FF1 d.
MF=p, MF1 = V p'+d'- 2pd cos q>, , (1)

'
d'- 2pd cos q> =

+ V +

('-')' +2(-'d

cos

q>)+'d' - '=.

(2)

4- '

136

, n

-J-,

,2dn', cos q>- 2mc 1


n -
n -

vt

(2)

, , n

, , , , -

..

F.

Vx'+Y'+V(x-d)'+Y'-c.

nl!

(' +'- 2)' -t'(x' +')- k=O,

(3)

r r, l k- ,
, n d.

, n

F1

11

n ,

+ 1 =.

(4)

ll .
, n ,

ru. tt ~t h

17

11

. ,

,
, -1',
.J J,
.

(4)

1.- + n ~~ =. , , 1.- =

s.

cos , dJ~ = cos 1 ,


- 1 (. 82).

1 - !!
n nn

.,

cos

+ n cos

1 =.

(5)

n - FM F,M
MD = MD,
n n n.

, = MD

+ MD

1,

., = 11., MD

7]

.,D 1 =

+ n cos

cos

= , , _L

!37

1 , ,

(5), . 1 =

1.

n~

_!}s:_

~in 1

s 1

sin 1 '

F,MC

F-

DC = ~ = const.
MD

MD
sin Tt

FMC 1

82:.

F, - .

,

F,,

F 1,

+ nMF =,
+ n,MF, = 1 ,
m.MF + n,MF, =,.
mMF

m,MF

(mc 1 - m1c) MF
nc 1MF1 - n 1cMF, =;
, ~ 1 :

aMF

+ ~MF1 + 7MF, =.

138

[.

R 4-

vt

, z... .
, t

,,

, ~t ~t.

, 3-

, . , , n
, " n,
, , -

',

',

'

\
\
\

1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

1
1

1
1

..,...",.""'""
.

83.

n,
n 3- .

FF,F,.


10,

. .

83

l (3) k.
k = n n -
,

. .

k >

n,

, - .

F 1 - .
, k, ,

, n

k <

7]

139

,
n

k,

. n

2.

, "

84.

. ,
F F 1

r, (. 84);

- r = ': , - np 1 = r- nr1 = const, . .


m

Pt-t

,
, .

85.

u q 0 1,
r r1 (. 85). N ,
D1, Q, D, Q. ui

[r.

4~

140

R,

vr

, 1 , ,, ,,
n r N n

, ,

OV O,Q, MD
r 0 1 , NO, Q,M DO

t
= ON o1Q 1 = ON ;:; = cons ,
NO, DO

NO, r

MD
MQ, =

= - 1,

n .

cno

n .

, ,

~,

/rt

~.

~t~

/ rt. .,

, n

(-)'+ (- )'

(- 1 )' +(

z,

1 )'

= k' (z- )',


= k: (z- 1)'.

k 1 V<x-a)'+(y-b)'-kV(x-a 1 )'+(y-b1)' =(c-c,)kk1,


, , .

8.

rR

(anna), n

IC

, ; . ll.

r (.

86) = t cos <. t =

9
nn

t,

V ' + .

(!)

p=actg<p.
r R ,

('

+')'=''.

(2)

rR R 4-r ,
. n

t.

=.

8)

141


, 1662 .

. ,
,

86.

11 , . .
, , .

= ;

Kanna n

(. 87),
ll
ll ON;
,

87.

; n

!!. ,

==

ctg - -

n n S1, n S 1 ==~=

=- cos' . , ~

. , OC=OA-AC=a-asl'ep=acos'cp.

n,

142

[.

r 4-

vt

n , ,

= ctg k'f .

n,

. coUc , , -

====::~'f:o,...f-.d;:+:::==::::.

ctg k'f,
= tg k'f,

, -

90.
,

88.

, , ,

1
k
2 ,
k = 2 (. 88).

9.
1.

. ,
,

~&

z,

ezo

.
(
spira -).

89).

x 10 1z 1

(1 , 1 ,

(.

R,
z 1)

u-

'fi
.

d.

89.

(: +:+ z:

+ d" -

R')' = 4d' (: +;).

(1)

9]

t<

143


, n ,

0 1 .
(, ),
n, . . . ,
, 1
, 1
, z 1 =.

p>d-R

d)

p>R

(1)

1 , 1

z 1,

90,

6,

OJ

+ tf'- R')' = 4d' (' + ').

p>d

90.

(' +'+ '

+
(2)

4-r ,

d>R- , d=R-l!
d
R- .

<


. .

144

I 4-

[.

1 F(m, ) F 1 (-,
,

0),

f".; = +,,
1 - .
IIepce.
,

(3)

(3)

[ (- )'+ '] [ (+ )'+ ']= ('+ ')+ 1 ,


, ,

(' +')'- (2m'+ ) ' +(2m'

(2)

)' + - 1 =.

( 4)

(' +')'+ (2'- 21f'- 2R') ' + (2' + 21f'- 2R')y' +

+ [( + d)'- R'] [ (- d)'- R'] =.

(5)

n ( 4) (5), ,
.
(3) = , Kaccutl
(. 146); 1 =, .u/m

(.

155); u, n 1 = ./m .

2.

l!

(' +')'- (2m'+ ) ' +(2m'- ) '= .

!!

(4),

> 2', , 2' +='

(6)

i1

c-2m'=b',

(' +')'= ''


< 2m', ,

+ ''.

(7)

2m'+ = ' 2m'- = ,

(' +')'= ''- ''.


,

(8)

'
'
~- """"' =

1 -

) ~: ~{ = l - (1 ) 1 );

u) n ~~ X:::t= ~~=. 1 1 )

9]

145

I!

(7) ( )
(8) ( ).

un~

(7)
(. 91 ),
/, (8) (. 92).
.

f .

(8),


(). , = 2m',

xt

+
11

2mx =,

, = ,

-
.

91.

92.

F 1,

, ~.

-.

n ,

2'+=',

c - 2m'=b',

2'+=',

2'-='.

, = {
=
.

ai + bg
2rv--

V 11 -

bi

:

u ,

k;

1 ,
= 1 ;

n
n,
n

, , .

146

KPRBhlB 4-

[. VI

,
, , tt

tt .
tt
...u

uz

' +'= cz J< ~< ''


+ ' =

c'z'.

~<

!<

2-zo : a'x'by'=k' 1<


k 4 .
(' +')'= '' ' n !!
2 = 2 cos'i! ~ 2 sin 2 <.

!! :

'

~ (' cos'

U= 2

'!'

+ ' s!' '!') d'f' =

1('+ '),
arctg%

Jr

('

11 -"''

cos''f'- ' sin''f')d'f'= - 2-arctg

-;;+
2 .

, n

R-

'

- 2 '-'

d- '-'
2

(d

< R),

=2 '-'

(d> R),
'

R=2~

Jla' + '

d = -- 2-

10.
1.

'

2'+'.

, , ~
,

f'~='+ 1 ,

10]

F F 1 - , - ,
FF1, 1 - n.
, = , . . MFMF1

= lfC'; =

const.

z..

, ,

- mo,eiC,

; ; ;

F 1,

-,

n MF-MF1, '.

, ,

lf(x- )'+ '

V ( +)'+ '= .

n n

(' +')'- 2' ('-')= ~'.

(1)

n , :

= cos 2'f' cos'2'f'+ ( ~: -1)


(1)

(2)

,
,

4-r

>, =, <-

1.

> .

. 'f'
1 =

(2)

n,

V 2 +<.

V a'l -

2 =

'f' -;- n ' ,


,

2.

ocen

= . n

(2)

p=cV2cos2'f'
n n ,
q, .

[.

4-

148

vt

3. <. -~: =sin 2.


(2) n

< 45.

Vcos 2q> V cos' 2q>- cos'2a.

, < ,
(3) ,

(3)

<

2
1 , ,

sln

yr 1>

:
, q> =

p1 =Vc'+a' p,=Vc'-a'. '!'

1 , ,- . '!' ="
~. ~ '!'

~ .
.

~
('+'-')

. ( 1) : '=- (' +'+ '),

=;

u ( =1= 0). ,
' . ,
' +'- '= ,
. . 9.
yi = ...

=
,

<
<

V2.

V4c-a4
2

all
, =2,

, , . ; ;, '!-
; ; ' +' = '

V2,

, ;; .

, >

V2,

. , u,

, = V2, , n
= ,

'

6 .

R. =

'

+ 'cos 2~ .

(2),

, -

, ' +' cos 2q> =,


. ,
, , = - cos 2q>.

10)

149

+'= ',

, n u,

p\J = - 2 cos 2<, r,

n , ,

1m

93.

tl, ll 11 moll m11 ' +'= ',


nepezua- t. 2 =-2 cos 2<.
n n r.<

J<

F F 1; n
F F 1

, ,

= ,
.

n.

94.

V2

.
(. 93}.

2. . !
. , F F 1
1 (. 94}. .,

150

, i<

l_

N 1

AN

AN1 ,

F1

ANN1,

.
U,
MF1 MF =
const U

n ,
.

= AN1 AN =

[. V1

4-


, 17

11.
1.

, , n n.

pm =

.
,

si r

(1)

. n !'I n
. :

1) =1 p=acosrp- ;
2) =- 1 =__- ;
cos ~
3) = 2 ' =' cos 2rp-

4) =- 2 ' =

'

cos 2~ - r -

5)

={ =s.;.-;

1
- ~
- ~
2
6) =- 2 2 = 2 cos ~. = 1 cos~-

n .

11]

JI

151


n ,
. ,
n .
,

(1)

n,

n .

, .

(1)

, ,

, ,

- 'f,

pm = am cos 'f 'f

~,
, (1)

'f

'ft

+ 2",

pm=amcos'f 1,

pm=amcos[('f+ ~ )]

= f!_ , qq
....,

. n ~.

'f = 'f = 2,.;


; n , n

, ~.

=
. ,
q

, , ,

, n n.

no

,
n

. ,

hi 4~ro

\52

V1

95

m.
~

n =
4 (nl! l!).

(nl! l!) =-

2.
1.

1'-

~~

-~ ~/u ~, <

<f'-

+ i,

tgf'o=f.=tg('f+i)
,

(2)

pm

1'- =

= am s!n <

+; 1'- = 2<
n

+ ~; .

1'-

= <;

!!

11]
2.

153

> . ., .

t,

(.

96).

, -

(2) !'t= 1 +1'1'=,+.;.=(1t+ 1 )+.;..

T=P.t-f'='!'t +1--1t - 1 -.;.=-1t=COSt.


3. n n,

v ' + ''

(' + '') 2

R= '+2''--;;-=~

V ' + '' = __
_,
COS!n'f

(3)

R-

(4)

-(+ 1) ~'

, (3)
n

N,

~tt

R: N =

V ' +
1

+ 1

''
= const,

. . -

. t ~

4.

R cos ~

1
3.

(4)

----= +

R cos

1;

. -~

, ~ 1
5.

n , ..

~ l<ll -~ ~ ~

. 96.

- , n

, -

n n ,

. , - r =
1 )
r= ( 1- + 1 =

~ 1 , rnam
+ 1 s"',r"'=<+ 1 )"' s.

_..!._

n, . .
~tt ~ l<ll -

154

[r.

R . 4~ <;>

rt

vr

. ., t .

dS =

V ' + '' drp = cosiii - l rpdrp,

S=a

Scosiii- 1 rpdrp.

(5)

(4)

..!.

cosm

r,

.!_

-J

R= m+ 1 cosm

r,

()

dR=

m-1
+!

(5),

7.

..!.-2

rpsinrpdrp.

acosm

()

(7),

(7)

'f


r, 31/ cnrrpau. , n

pm
am cos ~

PPt = 1, p;-m =am cos r.


, ,

97.

cos Cf

cos 'f

. .

rrr

8.

~ 1
,
1

1 -

' f -

n ,

OMN

(.

97)

12)

155

0N=p 1 =pcos(<j> 1 -<j>), p 1 =acosm'fCOS(<j> 1 -<j>).


, (2) 'ft - 'f = 1'- --;- =

='f+-i--i='f, 'f= m':t-!.

,+l=+l cos ~! 'f


, t
,
, - . .

12.
\.

4-
u

~<

.~

. 1 ,
~< ~< ~< ~1< F 11 F 1

F F 1 -
-,

MFMF1 =a', VCx-a)'+Y'V(x+a)' +Y' -a',


(' +')'- 2' ('- ')= .

(1)

, :

'

2' cos

2'f.

(2)

, ira
, ,
,
>1 = 2.

(.
151), ,

= .
,

rt

. (2) , 'f = = V 2,

f56

4-

[.

vt

. . ( V2, )
1 (-
0).

V2.

1.

~~

<

+ ~; ,
2.

2<

.
n

- .

98.

" .,

+ ~.

n,

m-rt,

- 21t,

.,

, .
. 98 , ,

,
n

yr

3.
R =

( + 1 ~ cosmrp

; , -

R = 3 c~s 2~ ,
,
N = V ' '' = ___1.._
cos 2!f
R = 31 N, . . t<ll

12]

4'

' =

4.

157

npoeun

ll

~t

6.

ll

2'

cos 2'f',

pm =

cos

= 2' cos 2'f'


.

pa~tocmopo!tltiOIO

pm+l

'

.~t.

dR

5.

cos 2'f'.

S=3J V (~R)-1

!1

m+l cos + 1 'f'; -

..
..
2
2
2

p8=(JI2a)B cos 'f'. ..

~<!t
" .
l:t ,
-

99.

ll -

p-'i =-' cos 2<, ,


p'i
9 cos 2, , , .

7.

.tl~< ~t.

pa~tocmopoltlte

1 - 1

(.

99).

_, = -

cos 2'f' -

.~t~<

( 0 , 0 )-

, ~)-

, N ( ~

( 1 , 1 )-

!!

... .. ... , .

!!

!!

- ,+ 1 =.

!! !! ,
,

. , 0 1 - 0 1 = 2 ,
01
0 1 =. , xf- 1= , 4

l 4-

\58

[. v

n. n 1 1 ,
n

(5 +~)'= (- ),

8. n
r,
n. tt,

2, 2

V2

(. \00).

n l!
n!!,

n n

EF-

-
n

n.

, ..

100.

DC ,
, . . I<
. 7 ,
.
9. ; zt;tt . ;.t tt.tt
;

~;

.;

; ~ 6;.

,
n , ..

11 =

-,

p1pg =ag, ,

1
",
n u,

1 =a(chtt

+ sh ),

p,=a(ch - sh ).

(3)

n , F,D+F,D=2a (. 101)
F,D: F,D= 1 : ,, F,D F,D 1 ,,
(3) : F 1D =(\+ th ), F,D =(\ - th )
F 1D F,D
F1M 1 FgM 1

OD =F,D - F,O= -a th.

= M 1D'+F1D F,D,
M 1D ~ OD,

1.

n M,D'=(a
.

th )'

12)

159

< :

(4)

-i

'1' =

:
(5)

. . , .~,

-2.

1750

.,

r:2

101.

, ,

( 4)

n,

(5)

.=,

sin2<p.

(6)

n -,

n.

, ,

U
U ~ ~ U'f'

= -,

~~

(6) 1 _ in 2 ~

= n

, ,

sln 2< =

_ n.

<,

-.

n,

sln

2<

= 21

<= ln2.
3 ll n,
,
- ~,

[.

vr

1835

4-

160

F;

F;

n F 1 Fi 1 2
{. 101). OF1 =0F,= a OA 1 =0A,=aV2.

, n , OF, . OF;
;
OF, OF;
:, oF;
oF;
2. n

n, < ( <

< ~) ,

1 ~- n.

F;

n , n

N1

N,.

F;

N 1M 1 = ON1 -

2 cos <-

V 2cos 2<,

N 1M , =ON1 +, =2 cos <p+aY2cos 2<,


N 1M 1

N 1M , = 4' cos' <- 2' cos 2< = 2' , ,


N 1M 1 N 1M,

.u/,
..
. ..

11.

< 1 =

z.
,

<, :

'1' =

d~ = r
J Vcos2~
J

s = t v ' + '' d<p = t

d~

Vi-2sin'~

(7)

, 9

Jt

1-ro . , u :

d~

1 - k' sin' ~

n,

k'

< 1,

{7) 2 sln' < = sin n

. , <

<~ .

n n .

S=-" \

V21J

d
ft-~sin'6

=-" F(-1
V 2'

V 2' '

n n =

1-;

2sin'~>= 1 , , ..;-.

12]

161

2'

dO

~ ft--}si'O

j/"2

i<

, -u

np011OJIIO~

L-ro

2.

V2 cos r.p,

p'=a'(2cos'rp-1).


:

1 = (. 102);

1< =; , =

= (2,

rp

; n

( ~)
N 10N;

1<

<

1<

08

'= '- '

ND;
OD,

OD' - '=
=(0NcOS'f)'- OA'=(ay2 cos rp)'- 2, , l<

102.

, -

n rp. , n , fla
N 10N 1 ,.
. fl n

N 10N

3.
J<

n,

,
,

~\

J<
<

nn

n.

n t~
,

, ~! u,

J<

. . u

l),

CJJyae

162

4-

[. VI

, n, n r
n,

-1

, n

t1 nn
, . !\

45 *).

l-1

. 11 Acta eraditortim 1694 .


1< n
, ft,
,

u.

.1J!J.V(axo,- n

13.
\.

, .

, t::~ ,

cos kcp,

sin k<p
k-

(1)

n;

f::l

~, . . u ,
, r

n .

n i< .

sin

< = (~) cos A -

'1' sin '1' -

(~ ) cos - ' sin 3 <p +

+ (~) cos -'? sin' '1' - n .

_ npaott sin ===== sin n ~, :


("; )cosm-t '1' sln '1'- (~)

cosm- '1' sin 3 '1' + ('~) cosm- 'f' sin' 'f' -

= ( n)
cosn- I!!: sin ~ - ( n) s 11- ~ sin 3 ~ +
I
n
n
,3
n
n

+( 5n)cos n-tsm

. ~
'~'-

'~' s

.. .

(2)

*) . L r i , Spezielle algebraische und transcendente ebene Kurven,

1911,

1.

13]

163

, , ,

COS'f= '+''

('+')

11

COS'!!_'f=Ya'-p' ='

sin'!!_<p=_t=Yx'+.v',

(2),

"[(";) xm-ly _ ('~) -

+ (~) ;m-'y' _ ...] =


+l

-1

=(';)<x'+y')-2-[a'-(x'+y')J---,--m-1

n-3

-(~)('+')-2-['-('+')]---,-- + ...

t1

n,

u . n
- 2 ( + n). , 11

,.., + n,
, ,

2 (+ n).
.
, n n

<,

, 11 . ,
,

l<

sin kcp

u" ~

n,

, U


k.

n :
1) k - , k
u n k 2k u n k (. 103, , 6);

2) k- , ';i-<> 1),
' n ,
,
;

2m

n ,

t-1

(.

103,

, , , );

k - u ,
,

3)

164

9l\fF. 1 1TF.bHJ,fE \(PRI.II! 4-

n
,

Ah!CWHX

[. v1

I(

, n; ,

1t

(),

11

4,

4,

0000
)

d)

/( 1

oi

P"r . 103.

2,

n1

"(P)+"(f) . , , 4- n
"(4) = 2 ( k = 3, '' = {),
7t(6)+7t(3)=4 (k=2,

6- n

k=-}, k=5 k=-})*>

l<.
, , r, k
l,
, k
1, n1<1 (. 120).
,

<

>

nr

n -

n ~~

>~') .

(.

104)

cootl

L_o i 1 Algcbraische und transccndcnte

Kurven, U.

13J
,

165

POhl

, rpaeroren

n ~r
h . r<

LAOP=o., LMAB=ma. ,

2r.p
l<al< '1' =+ 2 , = 111 + 2 ,

= 2 cos + 2 'f

cos 2 .

08

n -

I2J

_ --

.
.

mp 1'

104.

105.

t< . , tt
, , r pcr
n (. 105).
oJrarae, n
n u.
. r<tt

cos m<p,

cos

<,

COS

sin ln'f,

sin 'f,

sin 'f,

<- 1<011 .

08

<,

u1 11..

.~,

~u

uu,

sin 'f-a sin fll'f=- cos~(p


cos "'-
cosm"'''
Slll t
r
,,
=

cos (- 1) 'f

166
,

4-

[.

Vl

,
tl,

tl

- u

, n .

2-ro

2.

n =

sin

2,

~ , (' +')'- 4''' =.


n

sin

'f,

u , (' +')'= (3'- ').


u

, I< (.

n ;

103,

).

tl , r =
, I(
.

118);

~,.-~-------'"""-=
, r=
106.

5
4 R

(.

R , ,

" h=R+r=+ R (. 103, ).

n ~ ~ ~

R , -

{
/1 = R_ + r =

(. .

133

128).
n .

1.

tt, ~ ttoopuam 1/lL

JComopoo

..

~., . 106 PD
=

~r--y,

CD
2 +:?";!< , MD

=:t;,

MD =

OD
PD. -

, (-.~

~)3 -4 2 2 =

0,.

13]
"

2.

mo.At

167

(. . 133).
3. n

eoAtemputtecuu.

"

J<

'

at

sin 2~ (. 107).

_ ,/

21 1ta ' ,

!l,

1 \
1
, ,___ _

---t------1

1
--------1-- --~-::::.~---=~
----.....
1

~ ,

1
1

-------

11
11

/1

!/

11

+' = 1, , n

r n

Xi

.ec

'
41 1ta.

1/

11

1/

\1
'1

3. .

1/

. 107.

Fiores geometrici rhodanearum et


claelarum descriptione resultantes, 1728 .

19 ,
Die analitische Form der Bter , 1896 .

n n

J<

J< n,

27t.

~ n

rp

tt

= F (q>),

l ,

tl

, ,

n,

F(q>) = f(cos q>).

n n n

'1' +, cos 'q> + , cos 3 '1' + .. . + . cos"q>.


cos' '1' cos q>, cos 2q>, .. .

=+ 1 cos

..., cos krp,

1 cos

'1' + , cos 2q> + ... +

. cos nq>,

. 11t1 h,
n _
, , . .

h!. KPBhiB 4-

168

[. Vl

I<

~:

+
+
+
3 (1 + cos' <) + 2cos 'f + sin ' f - 2sin

= 4 (1
cos <)
4 sin' <- aue.OR;
= 4 (1
cos <)- 4sin 2 <- ;
2

< cos'

f - n .

4. >). 1 ,
1 = ~k JI = ~k , /z-
tf

SI

COS

tp

, , =
= cos k<p.

sin kff

k.

= ~k k
s

l'

etl, n .

k ~~ , U 2k.
)

tll (A.hrenkrve).
:

= __,..;- - " ( . 166);


SIO

-'f

=--~--

1<

(.

85);

= cos 3 ~

14.

(.

76).

J<
. n
lz k 1, pyrott 1 .

<
.

n 1 1 n
,

108.

l<
k
n (.

k1
108).


n rotl tt )
. J<u k fl 1

14]

k1

ri!il,

169

I<

1- n.
r<n ,
n k k 1

BD DA,
n

CD

h,
,

n (. 109).
, l-1

, <,

x=ED+DN=m cos cp+h si ,


y=CN +DQ= Itcoscp+ sin .
Tal<on

sin < cos <


r.-t

t!

sin 2 <

109.

+ cos

= l,

(nx-hy)'+<hx-my)'=(mll-11')',
,

b'x'+a'y'-2chxy=(mn-h')'.

(1)

tt , n.
,

t1

t1

1 ,

'?,

unmllttecu..

1)

n ,

'

yt

-.+=1;
2)

. . r,

h' = mn., ( i)

hi 4-

170
n

'' +)!'- 2 =,

[.

{i

vt

n n

ocen

n,

n .
i , n u
1 1

1 -

(1)

~=

1 i< , n

(1).

(1)

n,

1, , ocen

1 ,

2 1 2 1 .

, 6 n .
, ,

11
n ,

tt

n,

1<

r ,

1 , 1 , 2 3 (.

110).

, u

01

110.

n , n

n,
nn

,

4-ro

i<

0 1,

0 10,

0 1 , n

883 ,
883

14]

1<

2.

1:1
r

171

I<U.~

n ~

eJ<oropon n.
-

n,

- .

,
. 111,

OP=x-bcos(et+q>),

(1)

ON=y-bsi(et+q>),

(2)

-~

OD=k=~-

cos (<:< + q>) + cos '

'

+ ON' = r',

(1)

' +'+ ' - r'

(2)

( cos "+ sl <:<) cos q>

2
si q>,
- sin sin .

(3)

(3)

111.

+ ( cos " -

- k

cos

cos sin

sin <:<)

"-)

rp,

cos q> -

cos 2 rp
sin11 = 1.
2 - 2 cos = 2, sin = sin 1
, b'l.
-

cos

4'' ( sin

cos i

1 + cos 1)' =

='(' +' + '- r' )'

+ 4ab(x -

4'('+ ') ( -k)'+


k)(x' + y'+b' - r')(y sin 1- cos 1),

, n ,

[ cos

1(x'+Y'+b'-r')- 2bx(x-k)J'+
+ [ si 1('+ '+ ' -r')
2 (x-k)J'=
= 4'' ( sln 1 + cos 1)'. (4)

4-r

(4)


()

tl=a cos 1('+ '+ b'-r')- 2bx(x-k),


v=a sin 1('+ ' +' - r')+2by(x--k),
w = 2 ( sin 1 + cos 1J.

ME'IATF.J.IIMP. I<

172

n 11 =,

=,

(4)

2-ro

cos ('+ '+'- r 2 ) - 2(- k) =0,


sin ('+ y'+b'-'r'J+ 2( -k)=O,

(6)

(7)

2 (

sin

110 ,

w =,

! . Vl

4-

)= .

cos

(8)

(4). , F(x,y)='+v'-w', Fx(x,y)=


2vv~- 2ww:, f~. (, )= 21111_~
2vv;- 2ww;,
ll = v =, , , w =, n

= 2:,
,

. n
tt (8) -

"3 (6) (7),


u tt
,

,
3I

!J.=b'k'-(b'r') ('- ').

. -

, ,

(4)
.,

.,t

180-.
~

ia(x'

,
,

112.

1
180, . .

(4)

+y'+b'-r') + 2bx(x-k)l'+ 4b'y'(x-k)'=4a'by'.

(9)

, ;
n ,

~~

n-

n (. 112).
(9) r ,

n,

14]

f(PFIF.

. .
t

k =.

(.

3.

113.

'' n

u ~~

113). u cooll

t<

i<

J<tl

tt tt

ocen.

1<

(9)

JJ,

173

I<hI

R.

, n
, 001 , Cl
r 1< 0 1 (
w ,
0 18 - w
).
n ~n , ,
, ~ . n
k, ,
(, ), ( 1 , 1 ) (,, ,),

'!'

00 1,
(.
,

114).

1 =- cos <,

,= - cos ('!'+).

1 = - sin <,

,=- sin (< +).

>J

;+:=' (,-!)'+;=R'. JJ:


[(

k) cos + si 11 cos ' - ((x - k) si 1 - cos 11 ' < =


~-~+~+~-~

COS < + SI < =

u cos-z rp

cos

+ sin-.!

< =

~ +~+~-~

sin < ~~
l, n

'I. R. 4

174

[J

[.

v1

u'+v'=w',

(1)

u=a f(x- k) cos 1+ sln 1]('+ y'+b'-r')-bx[(x-k)' +Y' +a'- R' J,


v=a [(- k) sin 1- cos 11 ('+ '+ b'-r')+
+by[(x-k)'+Y'+a'-R'J,
w=2ab sin 1 [x(x-k)+ ' +kyctg1].
, n n
6-

11=0

v=O

w=O,

114.

i< 11 =

v =, n
=.
n ,
n . ,


=.
, , n

(0, ) 0 1 (k, ) n .
n , 002 0 1,
001
(. 115); n .

, 11 , *).

J<

n : u . 001 tt
nocmpOltm 00 10 2, 11.
z

*)

W i 1 i t n r, Spezielle ebcne Kurven, 1908.

14]

R.

17~

..

11 ( ).

0010,

115.

:t n

4.

l:t,

;
00,0, 001 n
: n, 0 2 001
: n. , 00 1 0j,
n, n 0 1, n

, t

0 1.

,
.

R= r

n,

.
reopen ,
.
n .:tt.zz. (1)

. 174.

R= r, a= -f, b=-f

1=180, n

'
k' ]'
k)' [( -k )' +'++r'-4
4 (-

+ 4 '[(

k)'+ '+'
k']' ='k',
-r'+ 4

-2

3h! I<R

176

4-

v1

n 00 1, ;
1<
2

2k,

n:

(' +') (' +'+ '

r'- k')' + 4t,'y' (' +'- r') = .

( 1)

~' , ~
u k, Q~ r(n

J<,

;J

V kY. + r'l- ,
+ r' >'.
2

k'

tt

t.

=
,

ecJi

c2 -k 1 -r 1
]f4k'r' (' k'

4k'r'><c'-k' - r')'.

<<'-k'-')'.

(2)

r')'

41''<

, k, r
1 << +, I<
80 1 . n
,
+> r,

k-

k+< .

,
+> ,
, !+ <
.

r-

~1

116

117.

".

(- V k'+r'- ', )

116.

117.

<+ V k'+'- ', )

n n

(1),

n~

15]

' (r'

177

~110

l<t-1

+ k'- ')'+ k'y' (k'- ')= .

, n > k l<
3 (. 118); n
c<k (. 119).
, ,

J.>.

118.

119.

,
.
,

k, r , , n

n n1-1

n.

+ 4k'y' =.

n:

c=k.

' +'- r' =

r = k V2,

('

(1)

+')(' +'- r') +

n,

_
.

15.

(.

120).

1<

t, n

- n

120.

. -

;1

Q.

t, nu 1 . n n,
t 1 , 9., ... , Pn.

178

3 4-

Pn,

[. v1

t,

, .

n 1~r,
, - .
d,

p'-2dp cos <+d'-'=. (1)

... , Pn;

1 , 2 , , n 1 ,
,

p1 =pcos'<p,

p,=pcos'<p, ...
. . . 'Pn = cos2n '

--"t"'--.,.--7-l"---- -

~
COS n!f'

(1),
r

Ph- 2dp. cos 2"+1 ' (d'- ') cos'" ' =.


, :

(' +')'"+'

2 dx'"+' (' + y'i" +


(2)

+(d'- ') '" =.

(2) ,

121.

2 (2n

+ 1).



4n ,

. )'{ ,

u , d , . . .
(2) , r
. .
(2) n =, .
n
1 (2)

(' +')'- 2 dx' (' +')+ (d'- ') ' =

(3)

. 6- n. ,
, ,

(3)


, , .

121,

16]

R.

179

11 , d =.
;J .

tt.

tt

= r cos<t ; ntl
(' +')'- ' =. 11

cos 2

+ i,

, utt

16.

u .

(1)

- .

n

n~

, )!_.
q
: f'_
1.

>

) - , q ocen ,

(0,

) (.

122,

) ;

q-

) - ,

(,

;
1< (, )
;

h =.!!.._ ;

(, ) n ,

q-

) - ,

), ,

(0,

(0,

)- (.

122, 6);

1-,

2- 4- , n = - ~ ;
(, )

(0,

) (.

Bopoll : L<1 .
q
) - , q-

(.
( . . 267);

123,

(0,

. (,

);

) -:- ,

q- ;

) ( .

(0,

).

122,

( , )

123, 6);

) -, q-; 1-,
2-

4-

4-

\80

( .

(,

(0,

Vt

123, ).

) - ,

r.h

122.

(.
2

'

~1n

1!._ . :
q

q- ;

6)

[.

) n

124,

+ ; = 1;

= = ;
);

123.

.,...- ,

q-

, U, n n

n = = ;

y=_l>_ (. 124, );

) - ,

q-

tt ,

; n = = Ji (.

124,

).

17]

,
.u.t

.t

.f

181

KPRI>IB

( ) + (y)m -_ 1

_)

. (~) -t--(~)=l , 1 rt 2 -
.
,

<, -

(t) ~ +(~)m~nn=t.

. '-

/\

n, u

*).
,

(~ )'+ (-');-)' =

1,

t1u

+ !!_ = 1, or (f) ~ +
+ (f,) "= 1 x j-+yt= c,t .

.,

.!!_

Cr

.,

"

n ,

n ,

124.

, n, ,

=]!__> ,
q

pq, =-

17.
}{

f <,

2pq.

y = c.xm,

n ,

n, - 011 .

nn

*) . . . , .:::11.1 r.:, 1934.

!82

f.

~ 4~ro "{

vr

J.:t ~1 :

, , > , z,

< .

1. = , = Lq >.

, t1 '~

125.

126.

, = 1 ; , ' =
=mc.xm-l, , , n = '=, > 1, '=, ;t
< 1, . . 6

, > 1 ., < l .

1- : =.1'.>1
q
q - ;

) - ,

, (.

125,

);

17)

1 1

183

) - , q- ;
n ,
!- (. 125, 6);
) - , q- ; n

,
= (. 125, ).

2- : m=1. < t .
q
q- ;

) - ,

(. 126, );
) - ,

q- ;

, ,

!- (.

126, 6);

) -, q - ;

n
!

YJ

n-

= ( . 126, ).
n n

(.

127)

n,
~ , > 1,
, < ! .
n

, n

n
>

127.

, n

tn .

, n

2.

1. n

St

un, : St = ~
= cmx;_ 1

= . ::.. _.

n n n n
nU .

2.

( 1 , 1 )- ,


(. 128).

U1

U 2,


2m.

3.

4. 1n
n (, )

184

[r .v1

F. F. 4-

S= ~ / 1

+c'm'x'<m-I)

dx. Ii -

~ ,

2m - 2 2m-2+ 2
I-l
, n

f.!
,

I<

Uz

na-

3. = '
.

{piiC. 125,

128.

ex iJI<e

un u

Jlr .

). .I

Kai< , n

t1

n. 1< n t~ <
, ,

n l<pott,

1<

l<

n , t
.
s ~
n

11110

mv'
R .

n J<

R=

-f

JJ

S,

. .

, . !<

'

R = '!.., - - .

fl

m ur .
n
=

= ~. rfl, = -6~' : R=(l+:::>f =


( l+i,)'

= ________

17]

II<

<'

, i

l<

un,

185

( )
= '
(. 125, 6). J< nJJ li 17
n u u,
, , ~Jr n

4.

l< r,

< (. . n).

1t

., J<

168 7

J<

.

n
n

, n n
n
.


.,)

, n 1

u l<

t1n ,

u,

V=t

r' c2x3dx=C!1tX4=1ty2x.
J
4
4

ti~

n 1 , l< hl

1temepmu
.

ru

iJ< n
4- = . , ,
n , n n
,

5. = cx-m, = __ >.


, r1 l<
n = xPyQ =,
, nn.


= -
= . ..f , n

n,

n
--+
--+ .

JJ

1(00

fr.vt

8 4-

186

, ,

(1, ).
n

ni< = __ . . 129, , ,
q

!1

q,

n .

~ ,)' ~

\'

q-d

n n

S1

1<

-v

q-

129.

n , n: S 1 =

d)

rnt<n n

=-

cx- m

cx-m-t =-.

n n

6.

~ ~

u,

= cxm.
, ,

pva. =,

, n . = .!... ,
Cv

.>

l,

Ji

. - -

11 -

17J

JfF.I{

187

.
n

pva. =,

.
n,

,
,

m
noumpona.u
zz

vp= .

"

"

".
n
n .
:

lgy- lg -lg = ;

lg = (, lgy = 1j, lg = ,, 11- <- 1 =.

I011 . ,

~011

n ,

",

n)',

"
,

ef.1

n"

"

~01]

",

n,

, .

.).

, n

~OYJ

... , . (.,

130.

1 ( 1 , 1 ), , (,, ,),

"

lJ

"

f.1

f.1

n yr n , . .
f.1 .

f.1

.
11, 1 , 1 2 , , -

188

S 1 1II. 4 III J

V 1 2

J1

3 = ( 1 2

cxm,

[. Vt

r1<0

. ,

n, 1 ( 1 , 1 )

2 ( 2 , 2 ).

n n ~<
, OD
1
(. t 30). M,N _[_ OD 1 _[_ .

u , n
ON, S Q. SMa
3 , , 1<
3 , ~ n11n. , , = OQ ==

-= 1 2

y,=OS=ON= yODOF

, ;
.

1 2 ,

, u

VJJ

1.

...u

un lil:, =

, ,

sin

, n ,

n.

n.

n, r,
. .) u
.
11

11

(,

= si J. ),

, n . .

n ,
n,
. f{ mortu ,

n ,
, n

n (,

mortKil,
=

arctg

+ 21

).

1 ( 1

= ln , ~

, n

'),

yr

(,

).

lilCll.Atntnotnttttecy

190

TPHCitEHEHTHhiE

[r.

v11

n (,

="', n n
).
,
.
, n, .. ,

(n, = sin

u -

21t, -

'lt',

tt

37t


. .).

. ,
,

ul! n, , = xv'-.
2

n , n ,

n = xV2 , ,
11 . u
. *).
n
,

(,

, n) ,


. n n

, ,

.
,
,

'
1'" t, 11
11 . J ,

r- n
!f (, y)y'n-r =,
r=D

) intcrscindo

(.)- .

1]

I!

/ 0,

f.,. .. ,

/ 1,

191

RI

l.t

n .

,

t,

f- n

l</l

n,

. n

, , ,

v-

n n / 0 , / 1, f<J, . , f.
:
11

n
11

. . . . . .

. .
. . . .. , . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .
U . . . . . . .

Ll . .
. . . . .

1
2

. . . . . .

r~t

. . . . . . . . . .
2-ro
3-ro

1
1
1
1
1
1
1

.. .
.. .

1
1

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

2
2
2
2

2
2

2
4

2
2

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.

n 11 .

*),

n 1< 11.

1< n

+ v,

v,

1)

z6t

1<m mo""a n-1<

, z,

**).

, n,
ltptttt nepozo ( );
,

2)

n , z ;

3)

, ,

*) L i

1911,

**)

mpemezo

Spezielle

algebraische

und

transcendente

Kurven,

11.
~ ,

192

f. Vll

, f1 ,
n ,
n
, . , , n
, .

ft n , 1.
u - .

2.
.

!.

n11


11

n ,

J<

ON,

ON

(. 131 ).

, n
,

ON

<

, .
n

=<,
-

ON

. ' " -

131.

(1)

'+'= arctg ~

( 1)

. r
,

11).

t:p

<,

nn

1(

R n

r,p.

2]

CP:\Jifo

1-

193

1\..Jl

= (<

+ 21t) -

n .

arp = 2a1t

u .

fL

tl ett J<, tg 1.1. =

= <

, , IJ.

.Atepe

= arctg <.

cmzpau

f = ~=

-i, . .

cmpe.Attunc ....

.t-...

< ~, 1.1.---+


f.1. n ,

yrJJa

-,

q>,

. S, S = ' =, . .
t molfeK

.ii,

t! , J<

t1 g

n.

rpg,

2,

q>1

;J

(2)

< 1

, , 1

(2)

1 ' .

=(2n)'- r;~2(n-: 1)1' =~"'' ['-(-1)'].

(3)

nJJ:

(4)

1- ,

Un+1 1f6 6

(3)

(4)

= i "'a' [(

.. . .

+ 1)

3-

, -

'- ' -f- (n-

1)'] =8"'',

194

[ v

I{

, , .. .t:
..tl um1Cau Apx1u.tea, .tt

z,

, (,,

'f)

81t 3a 2

1 ( 1 ,

v' ' + ' 2 d'f = ~' ' 1 + 'f' d<f =

S=

91

9t

= -
2 ['f ! +'f' +Jn('f+
i< ~

yl

..

+'f')l' .

t1

Apxu.Atea
m2 .
ii
'{

= k arctg

+yi = a z

2 2

z=

ufl r ,

n ~+ ~ =/. arctg l..;

'f 1)

no

J<

=ak'f-

n ,

n .

Apxtu.cea nor)pa

:Ji (. . 254).
ApxllMea cy'lai'i ~
:mll (. .

aq>

+ l,

66

255).
n

1<1 cnpam1

1<1

2.
J<

.
, ~ -

tg ~ =

<, ,

tg f.LA =

, , 0C=0Atg{~A=OA21t (. 132). ,
01< , .
.

=21t

, n, n

tttt,

, n

".

n n ,

(. 133) n -
n AN1, N 1N , , . . . , N._,B ,
AN1, ANg, . , N_ 1 , 1 , Mi -l

21

!Ih

195

If.

- 1 , .1 ,

AMn_1,

ll tl. 1<
1.t

n n

tt n-

'--v-'

132.

~11[.

G:

s . ,

yr;1a

coott

n 1

SI

1<

tl

MN,

MN,

134).

,
I~

tt

-n

(.

I.

. n

3.

. .

n .
,
. u-

I<,

MN

n ,

cooll 1 n . , = :,

196

[. VII

1'.h! i<PRf,JP.

1 =(";- <),

= a.t =

const.

n I<
,


Ji

lt

135).

(.

I<I

4. . -

135.

cnpamt n

(ann) ,
,
n

t1,

.
17 , ,

. 1<
anny.

3.

n n

.ut

(,

'f') =

q>.

uuu

/fn !< z = k arctgf !<


f(z,

nepecerten

i<I/

v'' +') = , /- ., n

, f (k arctg

? ,v' ' +')=

nJ

, n

, f(k<p, )=, n.
1
,

3]

F.r.~

1. =

'f'

191

CftliPA~

~1

, n

, . .

h, r

n noJJpo , JJ

~ ~.

*).
n -

J< n. , = sin = sin <,


~

, lim = lim ~= ; n n, n, .....

,-

tp

n "

!<

'f'

, ,

136). , n

n" n (.

136.

n n"

n,

rn

, S1= ~

=.;. : (-~)=-.
~

" n

.m .
~

rnepe

, u n. n n

n n
n

*) .

1J17

136

: 1-t .

, . .u

~, r

19R

[. v11

UI! I<

1 1

2 ,

=~'d<=~ f'~=~(,).
'PJ

!f'l

1 ( 1 , < 1 )
2 (2 ,

1')


'f'~

S=

'!!

SVP'+p''d<p=a SVl.tf' d<p=


'1'1

fl

=[- VJ f+f' +J(<+ Vl +'f'')]".


~

mocLu,

onpe

llHll.IO.


< <

t u. z = arctg

u z V ' +'= *J.

n 1 n

, ,
n

2.

1-1

noJica.

(t

> 0).

(.

_!!__ +

137).

t
t

,
, n-n lim
lim sin <

= 'f'-0
lim (_!!__ +
<
~

t) si 1' =.
nn

"_

'-

, t<

u, I<

' + 2'' - " =.

i 1<

2at =.

1' =

'f' (t<p+ )'

< n , ,
<

*)

11>1

oepx tiOCTI.J truu r .~

u.

3]

'.

199

<=< 1 , << 1 <1 .

< + ->- l, . . ,
, .r n

l<

= l.

137.

JI :

- , =-+ ,
JJ. n

3.

= <' - !

(!;;:;, 0).

= 1 <'

+ ,< + 3,

nn

= a<p'-

-l.

J')
,

138.

1, nn

yr ,

~ ~

1, 2, 3, ... (. 138).
l =

= ak 21tY. - l ,

:'\ n
, (. 139).

200

TPAHCL\EHl!HTH!.IE

u
n

[ . V!l

I{.

17

, ~

1.19.
n

, n

4.
n

=-.;.
~

,
1 =~;

,
n
n (. 140).

5.

= ~

6

.

n ,

140.

u.

6 .

; ,
.
d,

a=a(V'f+2"- V<f)

3]

, , lim d = lim (V<

201

+ 2" -

V~) =. -

'f'-+=
f-00
, .
~. . .

n
,
n ,

(.

6.

141).

p=aV~+Z (l>O).
-

, n

141.

l.

ell p=+aV~ +Z =-~

+t.

JI

(.

142.

cooll
;

142).

. n

. . :

202

..

7. =

Y<f

[. Vll

(<>).

n,
(. 143).

143.
1

= =, lim S 1 =

lim (-2')=0,

, .....

,_

n .

n .

z~ . ~ cmtpau
;
.

, rr

4.
1.

=,

, > 1,
=
1, __...+ ,

:>


, n ,
n

n .

n n

(.

144).


< 1,

4)

~st

203

= ,


ll ,

; ,

'f't
=+, =
= .
lnC
'Pt = - ii10,

llll

f-L,

mo,te

144.

cnttpa -

rr , , :li

r:t, , tg f-L =

1,;

t g !'- =~-...!..
ln - ln

(\)


11.

n,

..

.1

1J

yr

1.1.

145.

1'-t
1
n tg !'-! =

=
= 't "' !! , , =
- 45.
n n

7*

11 MD, n 11

Ji

204

[. v

U:rm

!1 OD
(. 145):

=OD=-1.'.=~=_!.._
~
a'f'lna
lna ,

S,. == r'=a'Ina=Ina ,

V ' -1- Sl = v~p-,-+-iil"~~a=

T=MD =

(2)

v 1+ In; ,

N=MC=VP'+S~=VP'+Ia '- V 1 +I'.


, , ,

ll:

V 1 + ln' ;

(3)

(' + a'In' )2
'+2''

"

, rr zrru
rr- .

(2)

(3),

uu u zuu

l!

n. l!
MD , ;
u (. 145).

( 1 ,

q>1)

(,,

q>0).

'f't

S=

4iJ

S VP'+p''dq>= S Va'+a'In'a dq>=


'1

f1

= Y+"iii'"O
(- ) = Y+"iii'"O
(,- ,)
ln
ln

S -~
-,
Ina

!! ,

(4)

S=

,- 1 ,

. .

205

?.f.i::::

4]

11 1111 11 11
, .
(4) 1 =, , , ,
:

s~
-
lna
--

(5)

, t! uull cupatt
tt ;

" .~.
n

..

n. s
, , n
n .

t-1

n,

~ , .
/lt, -
s , (5).
n

S=kR,

k=\

z.t

tt

(3)

(5).

cnupalt,

.
(. .

251),

ectt ~ MD
(. 145), u,
u , tttte, nn

n (.

145- n CD).

, n

n MDO = - 1-' n
,

CD.


n
n

f:t

n, .

n, n,
n. n, n n
- .
,

, .

< 1 --

nn (, 'f) n. p1 =Sn=p1na, 'f 1 ='f+y

206

U1!

145);

(.

-1PJ =a'1
n

-i,
.

p1 =Caft,

[. v

C=a-iJna.

, ...
~ , 2 ,

, -

- 2 In = 1,
.
, ,

a'f'

. -
it ;

=', . .

n, ,

lnC

Ift = -

n n

n , ,

..

146.

147.

n.

, . , n 1
k',

'f 1 =-'f; = p1=k'a",


n,

pa-

Ink3

- liiQ

n. , n

1 ( 1 ,

'f1) -

9,

(. 146). =

(,

.:;1' 'f=i+'f'-f'

'f)

4]

207

~+f-jL

~ q> , sid 1-1 = 2

2--.

atf'1,

p.=const.
, mo.tcu '/& t

p1 =slnp.-a 2

p1 =ca'fl,

, rt

<, <
(. 147).

9Toro

, n

, n

,
~

. ,
,

h ~

, - n .
,

n , ,

n- n

*). n

n ,

,
n , . .

2.

. n

-;;;.,, , ,

(. 148).

- n ,

11:

, ,

11:

'/\'

(')',

(')',

ON

08,

1,
11:

...

n . (;-)'=08

-, ,

, ,

, '=;
-,

ODC,

, . .

_r .

208

:I

[.

v11

,
, n . 148.
n
,
(. 149).
n

,
, nn
, n

l-1

J1

149.

8.

148.

a'f,

. , n, 1
n,

,
.-

, . .

..

2 -11-

, n
n . . 150

4]

209

fJ.

. ,

, n

!51;

- ;

150.

.
n,

. ,

151.

n 1 - , , + 0 1 1

0 1 ,

'+:=+,.

=
(!)

, ,

= ;;

= }"! ln+In' (, _

(1)

=
1

(2)

+ ln' ( 1 _
ln

')

'
1 '
'-=,-;, , 3,

. , .

pa-

(2)

r-

210

I!F.

[. Vll

, ,

152.

(,
n

haliotis splendes,

, , ~

!52).

153.

154.


, n

(,

153

154).

5]

211

(. .
,

4.

, l!

1936).

1638

.,

,
- .


, .
. ,

!!

spira mirabllis -

spira mirabllis

, ll>.

Eadem mutata resurgo 19 ,

ll

n, n (. .

, 1939, . 169).
,

11 ,

1.

!!
,
,

155.

(. 155).
(, ) ll .
,

212

il!

[. v

, n

: CJ.VI
<?n , t
, MN, , , ,

. ,

S,

n = S.

MD,

ME;""t sin ,
MD=t cos .
, , ,

tsina=S.

tcosa=T.
, :

tga=

-ts.

tga dy !.. , :
dx

S=a'!l'.

(1)

dx"

u ,

,,

il

< tcollllemy ,
u (1) no , :

dS

11.

d'y

dx=a dXi '

,,~=1+ (~). n
.

aV 1+ (t!l..)'
dx"

d'y = ..!._ .. 1

dx"

dy

dx =

d'y

dp
dx ' = , n

dp

(2)

1
dx =

V 1+

, : ln ( + 1 ') =
+ .
, n = = , =
.<

u, n

P+V1+p=e 0 ,

5]

UI

dy

dX

213

, :

=f( +-")+,.

, =;

= =, 1 =.
, n

=
_

"("+

-. ),

(3)

y=ach ~-

(4)

2. .
(4) tg.='=sh~,,
cos .=

Y1+tg'a

-=~1~=.1+sh'~

-v

'

chf

cos

(5)

.=.

, ,



. ,

(.

156),

1<

N,

cos L MPN =..!: , ,

LMPN= a,
LMKP= LMPN,
LMKP=o.,

r
.

156.

(5):

, ~

214

::!

[. v

ll

'= sh ~

y"=__l_ch ~

'

(1+sh' ~)f

R=

(l+y")'

"

'

(6)

achlla=a

__l_ch~

. .. ""
mo.l'e.
, ,

, :

N=y

'1 ~---
V .1--+Y''=ach 0 V 1 +sh' 0 =ach' 0

"

(6),

"

'

= 0 .
,

. .

u
!! . R N
, n , , ,

(, ), :

S=

f1

+y''dx=

ch

~dx=ash7=Vy'-a'.

MN

(7)

(.

156),

. !! ,

tt.

motcll

fl

~ .

(6)

(7)

, -

(8)

efl

l! n.

5)

,
, 1u.,

215

u, . .

nn

i ,

, :

= xs, ch ~dx=a'[s~]x'=

=a'sh~-a'sh~= :- -alfy:-a.

(.

= 1

(9)

= ,

157), QB=Vyl-a', OC=lfy:-a,

, 6
~~ 1 ,.
~ ~

~ . ,

S=

V 1 +" dx=

{1
sh:!.,
J ch ~ dx = sh ~-

= aS, . . , -

. ,
-

.,

a6cttcc,

6~

17 44

f:!

157.

, ,

216

Ul!m

(.

[ . Vll

!58).

n
. 1 ( 1 , 1 ) , (,, ,)- n ,

nn . n

y;=sh~

y:=sh~ .

nn

;;+

1 =,

sh~sh~+ 1 =0;

(10)

, (7), sh ~=~

sh~=~, reS1 S11 -

,.

__j

. 158.

( 10),
S 1S 0 =-a'. -

ma~e,

, z
z, . tt , ,

.
, ( 1) n

-'-+-'-=1,
ch 1 ~

:!.!..

(6) ,
_!_

+ _!_- _!_
.-

. t ,

3.

n.

n- ,

9r

1. n , 2S
~ h (.
159). (7)

5]

nn

217

ss-ht

(11)

=~

2. , 2S d.

Cor (7) S = V d' - '.

3. 2S,

2. (7)

4.

2.

S=asha.

un

h = ch.!!...- .

n ,

1
h = 2f

+ 41 Q3 + ...

n -

'5Ji.

"""

u
,

= !.._, - 1

-r-

,.

159.


cos .,

cos ~=. n-

r,

t= ,:.1a=arV 1 +tg~=aV1 +Y''=arch~=&Y


. . ;rt

rt, rt

un = ch ~
,

1
= ( 1 +! '

+ 411 0-, + ...) ;

218

it

[. v

h ,
(11)),
. '

+ 1'
20

, , ,

u. n
,

t cos = , t si a=qx,

**

nn

q- ,

2S.

, tg =

-j .

-j ,

' +- ~ .

, , ,

=( 0 +- 0 ).
,

4.

e*Jcos~l=t.

(1)

.

n

(1)

, ;


,
kta,
(, 160).

k-

5]

(1)

219

dy

tga=dX=tga,

i<

, , =

,
, , z

IUl\JJlUI
.

nponoprrofle

kar:.

160.

:rr.

,
_ n,

, = (2k

+ 1) ~

, n

dS

dX: =

---,

cos

dx
("4 + 20) .
S= f --x-=a1ntg

(2)

cos -

R=~

(3)

cos

(2)

(3)

, :

R=.;.<e"+e-a)
-

. I..
:

'(ZO

:,

: , 6 6:fl nfl .

(3) , ~ =

(1,

, R cos = ,

. . : :

220

il

[. v

t .

5.

nn

(1638),

n,

n 2- n. n
, n,

u ,
n. 1669 . n
n . n

nn ,

. .

6.
1.

ik.

TpaiCmpttca

n,

n VY'+Si=a, '+'(~)'=',

y;z;-_y;

sSiiit
cos' t d
f=
S.-----j---dy.
= S...:!!--
S
sln tdt, = ln tg -2 + cos t +.

t
=

=s!nt, =
t

SI

; n

t,

, , = .

, n

= ln tg
=

f + cos t,

(1)

slnt.

, -

(2)

(1 ).

< t < "


> ; n

t=

1!

t-+

-+- -+ ,

t-+"

-+ -+ ,

= =. ,
.

6]

221

"-1

yr

(0,

u -

. r .

t.

dx= cos' 1 dt dy = cos t dt, - tga;= ~ = tg t,


. .
.
S t
dX
, ;= t. , t
, ..

mpathpuce

. . .

(0, ), . . t = ~ , .=~; ,

(0,

) (.

161).

161.

.
,

S ydx= S

1ta'

cos! t

asit-.-di= -

Sl

2 '

, ~>, pattyc t>~

15

t>.

S y'dx="J sl't cos't t di= 1"'


3
'

V=1t

SI

,
..

..

paJCmpuc.

[.

i!R

v11

, (0, )
, t, ~

j V x'_+Ji'dt= ~ V( :; + ( cos t)'dt=

S=

=- l sl

t.

(3)

4"

S sln t ~081 1 dt =

&I

41ta,

, ,
.,

(1

+'')0

R =---.,--=

(1

+ tg' t)sin2 tcos t

ctg t.

(4)

n .


=,

r
.

162.

n NC
(. 162). CM=actgt=R , ,

. ,
!!
n . n. ,
n s
.
11 ,

(3)

( 4)

t.

6]
9,

223

R=a )fe'ff-1.
n . , n

= < 1

= -

R sin ,

(1),

= 'f' (1)

= + R cos ;

n:

X=alntgf,
-

I+tgf
2 tgf

=----

_:>.

. 1, n =-;. (0 +- ),
n .
UI,

, :
:

n n n
n n . ,

163, u -

163.

l! , n !! ,

,
n

n,

, h.

2.

n .


n -

, ....3__ = r =

= const

cos~

(.

164).

. , n

[ . v

,
.

, , .

8. .
. ,

17

, , ,

n
,

.
,

, ~

traho -

(. ). .
, ,
, . ,
-

164.

, . .

, n .

. , ~

,

J:t

, ~
1 . .

_ . n, ~

n~

n 3 .
, ,

tt,

6]

22/S

RN =.

n,

. .

> ,

(, n
).

. < ,
n

RN = const.

n,

1 R 1
INI=atgl,

=actgt,
R N
RN=-a'.


n n
un

(.

4.

165).

165.

(, )-

no

N-

,
( .

166).

'+ NC' =',

/>1

OC=OP-ND=x-a cosa=
dx

=x-adS=x- 8, ,
NC =

MD =- sln =

= -

dy

ifS=Y

'
- sc

166.

, n

0
( sc
' )2
x-so: )2 +~
=.

226

UR

'

[. v

; '

2 '

JfP'+p''

=, '!' =

Jf4a' -p'
Jr --
1 - dp, ,

'f'=-arcsi

L+ 4'-'.

h,

11

1! (.

!!

167).

. .
traktrix complicata

( ), !!,
11.

167.

11

!! !!.

!! 1 + ' (~)'=,
d'f'=

';-' dp.

p=acost,

'f'=t-tgt+C,

t = arccos ~,
'f'=arccos _f__

'-' +.

!!
. , , n
, !!

'f'= '-' -arccosi..,

arccos ~

= ~- arcsin f,

2 ,

'f'=-arcsl

L+ '-'.

7]

227

tt

.J<

tt (. 167).

pllca

<

mpattmp11co

patt

1.

.
( 420 . . .),

. nepon .

(2- 4- . .).
.
=

ft

, , AD,

168.

~ (. 168).
.

x= 0K = a-~t=a(1
y=MK=OKctg L NOB=a ( 1

--j.),

-4-)ctgi (1- ~).

~ ( 1 - )

11,

228

[. VII

TPAHCUBI0t.EHTHblE

=~ ,

(!)

y=~llcfgll

( , rr NOB).
(1) ,

y=xctg~ .

(2)

, ..

(1)

=~ , , ,

, = ~- r.p, , = ~ (-;-- ),

cos 11 ,

(3)

1)

(2),

1"tmxcgz-=
t ~
1"tm - - = -2 lrm
. cos ' =
~
.
1rmy=
-

- tg ;:
1t -

~ *) , ~;
~

2) ctg ;; = =,

3,

5, ... ,

3)

2,

4,

. .. ,

n, .
, , , -

=~ .
~

. 169.
,

.r ,

..

-";;;";;;+.
t,

n,

7]

229

=:!:!!.....
,
n
2, n n
,

. ,

169.

2"

""""2tl =

21ta, ,

f:1 n

2 . n 2>ta

h, f:1

no

i, . .

(. 170).
no

- n

AN

n~

COD.

nn

. n
,
; ,

170.

COD .

NK

230

- ~ ~+, ~,

[. v

r-

4a1 1n 2

ctg 2 dx =

--n- .

:
,

: rr rr, rr

*).

= sln ;: , =2 sin' Ja ,
u,

:u.

17

8.
,

17

= sin~.

(1)

171.

< = =.
< -

, n < =1t,

JJ,

tg <- < =

'1'= 2

(.

21t,

<,

1t,

... ,

171).

=-;,

21t:a

"Zil=p,

21ta, ,

ul!

2 . , 2,

*) . L r i , Spezielle algebraische und transcendente ebene Kur\'en,

1911,

11.

8]

231

, 18-19
, n
n. PQ
.

L.

- , =
AOQ = (. 172).
j_ AOQ.

j_ BOQ . . n
, , , , .. . ,
.
, PQ
,

D, . ..

2, "2i , 21 , ... , 2'1,

172.
..

Pt=~, pg=~, =~, ... , Pn=


cos 21

cos 2

cos

za

Pn-Ia

cos fn

, :

Pn

cos 2 cos 2 cos

(2)

21 ... cos 2-

n ,

sin ! =2 sfn fcos

f=2<J sln

.,;. cos

= 2n sin

i cos -;.-=...

in- cos ~ cos --f, ... cos in,


.

s -

(2) = ~~
. SI
:
2. ='f, .=~ sin. ,

s
'

, , ,

D, .

232

[r. V\1

n.

, tt

tt,

, u ... ,

otl .
u , n
n . n 1
2a'f', -
(. 173).

'f'

, n

, sin ff

= sin lf' , , ~


n
tt

. 173.

: -

.
1 ,

.... , u - mo,uu
. !-%,

yro11 j.1

- , ~

t
,

gf'-7-a

sin ~ .

-~- .

(~

cos ~- sin ~)

'1 si<f

~ cos~n

(.

sin ~

(3)

173),

MD =

=OM-OD=a sin~ -acOS'f',


~

'1 sin '1


sin '11-'11 COS<f

(4)

(3) (4), ,
; , 1
h .

' ,

, ,
,

nepeceuaem

,. . ,

: 11 : .
: 1 :
10 : .

9J

:I/\I

ua

1<,

mo!Cu

233

I<

mouut

~ ,

~& ..t

u, 1
n ,

, r<

r<;

11

>~

-r:

tl

"

>1.

r-rr1 {
no.rJc,

r< n
F

~r

r< , iM =
= 2 = S, S= const-
11

~r

/':,

r<

174).

( .

n:

= 2 sin '1'

174.

n n-

=S sin tp

.t

:..

, .. ocu,
U.m ll.llll *).

n ( 1883).

9_
.

. . .

n"

**)

; ., "
nn u = .
> 1, , n .

1
, .
- l . ,
1< n u. n n
u n n , n
- (. 1.! 5;_ n

1.

).

< 1, ,
, n

1911,

*)
.

11.

L i ,

n
u

Spezielle algebraische und

**) xriJ)O,- r.I,

t ~anscendent.e

ebene Kurven,

234

[11. v

URt .

(.

175,

).

= '

(0, 1);

n ~

J< n, . . JJr

= 1g0 n,
'f.
n, . .

r0 n

tt 0 G 1- G (.

176).

n
, 1<t1
uG, -
wpQJ.t. 15 tt

z
.

175.

176.

,
.m

..
.
J!, St
__'_1
-- n -~
0 q

Q n, n

1< .
.

S 1 = const,

.!., =

nQ

k, dy
= k dx = '.

!<n,

nt1 1 2 , :

U=

f'
XJ

a'dx=-da (a' -a")=S1 (y,-

1 );

( 1)

9]

235

'tJJ S

, !u,
.t , tl .
mllx ().

t< , :
y~-yf

1t

(2)

2 ---n
,

(1)

1 =-,

U=S1y 2,

..

, .t .,
t .


. .

.t

11

1t
yt
3 1tStys
(2) 1 = - , V= 2 ln ~ = 2 ,

tl't

1,

, { 6t /

.,
.

n f.t
tt,

1692 .,

.
tt,

f' +

S=

n0f.t

ln'

2 dx;

V 1 + I:.! a'l.x =

z, -

z.

S=-1-

z,J

ln

z'dz =

z~- 1

1 (
z- 1 ]''
1
21 na ln z+ 1 z, +lna(z,- z ,).

177.

u
(. 177);

, , CD j_ , OD=a' .
,
u

1 =-; n,

- 1, - 2,

= 1,
j_ , = ';
.

1, 2, 3,...

u ,

j_ ,

8 1 1 j_ 1 , 1 =- . ,

u,

236

tHHCUI!II1!HtH1! !!

2.

vtt

,
tt . n , prt

= _h- e -h':lx'J

v;;-

,
001 n
(.

178).

'=-

2h
v;;xe-h'-''
1

"=-

'

".

2h'
v;;(- 2h'x'+ l)e-h'x'.

n n =, "< ,

~
0

-+
1
- - 11 V2"

.;. )

ll

nr

N,(h ~' J;e)


N,(- 11 vl-2 . vh-)

"

178.

(,

~-6 .

.
, 0 - _ .

, ,

" , ,
6u 1 2 , ,
1 11 ,
, ll , ~
, , _

00
00.
, n, n:

= _y,t
h_

J e-h' x' dx = -y,t S -' dz, z = hx.


1-

- w

, " npaott , 1< 11il3t

, , l<y pc <.~x :,
\:)" i, =

(,

}17,

10]

237

- .
n , .

3.

.-.

1.

= ". ; [-}, U)~]

2.

( :
1! -

(0, 1)-

=.

179).
=

f\ 1 r n

. ;z
.

179.

180.

1;

? .

== (. 180).
3. x -r =)'.

(0, 1)

(1, 0).
181).

n = ,

== (.

10.

181.

(,

. .).
11

= _., sin (wt +), - , t - , k,


w, - ,

(1)
01t .
.

. .

238

[. Vll

n n

= Ae-kx =- Ae-kx.
, n

.1,

1<

sln (wx+aJ= 1.
n

+=",

x=(n1t-a)~.

(2)

.
,

182.

(2), , .;; (. 182).


.

y'=Ae-kx[w cos (wx+aJ-k sin (wx+aJ.

Vk'.+w', n:
y'=Ae--'Vw'+k' [,~ cos (wx+aJ- , r k
.~+~

' + k' =

cos q>

.~+~

sin

' + k' =

(+>]

s q>,

'= - V ' + k' [ cos q> cos ( +) - sin q> sin


, , '= Ae-kx
'
k' cos (wx ++ q>).

(wx +)],

10)

239

cos (wx+ .+ <)=,, wx +.+ < = ; ,


3

i , ... , (2n + 1) 1- , . . . ,

=[(2+1>1--.-<.

(3)

< , .

+ k')[ cos < sin (wx +.+ <) +


sin '? cos (wx +.+ <)] = Ae-kx (w' + k') sin (wx +.+ 2<).

"=- Ae-kx (w'

x=[n1t-a.-2<p]~.
n

(2)

( 4),

(4)
r

n ~

, ~.

, ,

, wx+ .= 1-, 3

1-, ___ ,(2 +

= Ae-kx =- Ae-kx.

sin (wx +.)= 1

, -

1) 1- _ ,

(5)

(5)

(3),

R = - sin (wx +.) n


= Ae-kx =- Ae-kx,

~ .
tt

~. n = - sin (wxn

..

+ a.),yn+t =

wxn+, - wxn = "


= 1sin (wx.., +.) 1

12!!..1 = e-k <-1'~+ 1 > =-;;;- = const,

Ae-'n+t sin (wx.., +.).


(3), 1 sin (wxn +.) 1=
n,

, .t

:~ 6 :~< zz: -

. ~, ~
. ,

. ~< /,

240

il

[. VII

ll ll
n .

yrooll w

n;

z (.

no

183).

ll,

183.

N,

- -

S=OP=OM sin(wt+a).
- - I<l!

wt +;= <;

n,
ll.

11.
1.

, ll -,

S = - s '1'
S

l\.

r~,

,
, ~ ll! .

,
,

t,

ll

184.

r,

(.

184).

!<

11]

241

ee:x=OS=OP-SP,y=MS=CP-CN;oOP='P=rt,
si

SP= MN = r

t,

r, CN = r cos t;

x=rt- r si 1,}
y=r-rcost.

t,

(l)

x=r arccos r--; - V2ry- '.

tt

2"r -
,
-

=,

21t,

41tr, ... ,

. tg = ~ =

. 1BS.

t)

r sin t
t
(n
n
=r-rcosl=ctg 2 =tg 2 - 2 , = 2 - 2 . -

, t =, = -;.; ,

, ,

.
h u t~

l-1.

185,

, ~-

NK,

f; , ,

, NMP=

-i,

"

moiCe i npolio
, .- .

t~

npocrol-1

..

242

[.

v11

R=4 s1

f.

(2)

. :

r +( 1-sintcos )' =

,
-, (' 1
N = V 1+' = ( 1 - cos t)

(2)

(3),

2 SI

t
2.

(3)

R = 2N,

. .

u!l
.t.

S=

,
:

t =,

(t),
1

JV dx'+ dy'= J2

s1n fdt =

4 ( 1 - cos

f )= 8 sln'f.

(4)

t=

2'1t', l<, aprctt


8, . . .

(2)

( 4)

t,

R' +<S- 4)'= 16'.


,
. rt, rt
u, . ,
, partyc
.

: = t + s1n t,
1'J = - r
r cos t. n ,

~ . 0 1 ( - r-re, - 2r), ,
, = 1 - 7t, ~=,- 2,
t tt - 1t, n "
1 0 1 1 x 1 =rt 1 -rsint1, y 1 =r-rcost1, . .
ll ,
, n
, 2r1 - ,

1t (.

186).

, ,
n :

J
2~

2t

= ydx='J (1- co~t)'dt =3"~'._

11]

243

6 V

V= "

y'dx = "''

ydS = 21tr

1 - cos t)' dt = 51t2r",

2~t

21tr

P=21t

J(
2~

21tr

~ (1- cos 1)2r sin ~ df = ~ "r.

61t"r

32 ;r-.
'

~ (91t2 - 16) 81t ( 1t ~ {

r2

("'

j- r),

186.

- ( 1t,
2.

, "

n 17

i r).

, n

, :

, , n
,

f:1 n,

244

(. Vlt

187).

(.

, ,

(t0 ) h
.

uJI

x = r ( t - sin t), y=r(!- cos t).


0 , - , . . ,
0 en .

N (t),


h,

h=y-y 0 = r ( ! - cos t ) - r ( ! - cos t 0 )=r(cos 10

v = ]12gii.

v=]/2gr(cost0 -cost) . ,

cos t).

'

187.

dS
=

v 2gr(cos t , - cos t).


~~--~----~

dS = 2r sin { dt;

, 2rsi ~dt

y 2gr(cost,

dT=

2rsin

Jf2gr ( cos 10

lo

dt

cos 1)

- ~n
-2 !...
g

d cos!...

-./ cos~...!..- cost2


2

' v

lo

cost)

, ="-./!...
. v g -

11]

245

r,

tfl,

. .

, , ,

, , pyrotl

N,

. .
,

u,

n nJ<

, ,
h t1 .

1 ,

n n .
,

r 0 =

ff

47t

u -

V~.

ezo

, ,

a.Atnu

my
(~r
).
,
rr

188.

, n
.

u, tt


1673 .,
0 ,
no

188.

.-

.
: ,
17 , . 1696 r.
:

N,

, ,

3.

.
,

u -

, , ,

246


n
,

[. v

d .

x=rt-dsint,}
y=r-d cos t.

(\)

<

d
r, <il r.
(. 189, ).

d>r,

~-----~

(. 189, ).
,

t;

n, ,


z ",
. , ,
n

, r ,

yr ~ *),

, UJ<.

( 1),

q.n

) .- r . . . 2;.

11]

247

u .
n

x=dcos8-rsin-e,}

(2)

y=d sin - r cos ..

n
;

yr

z =,

sin t, z = ctg }'of-

t:X, ~

cost_y-a sint_z-actgp.t
cos r

cos t,

- -----cosr--

= cos t - ctg 1'- cos"


t, }
cos 1
.

(3)

cos'

y=aslnt-actgl'- -cos-1 1.
(3)

ctg 1'

-. j

il

+ cos
cos'

cos~

(3)

= ctg 1'- tg 1

lt

1 = 1'-

(2),

tl u,
, u,

r
1
1

, , u

< 1'> 1'-

<
>

r il u
r , , u

utl.

4.

16


u
n ,


, . . . n

n,

" " .

. tl
j;t ,

u,

. .

1634 .

248

[. v

n , . n
n
.

1658

. n .

ns

r .

n,

h.

1673

. n

1696 .

n. ,

n 9

12.
1.

n; ,

n,

n 9, n n. n 9
.
,
n

n,

(. 190), n , n
n, ,

n,

).

n 9

12]

"

F
FK mpaemoputt

,
.

249

"

"

"

, ,

napaona

FA-
. 190.
F (, ) ,
" . FK,
F , , ,
" F. , "
" FA , "' :

=FN=FK si (90-)=FKcos "'

FK

-n,

, , ,

(1)

"

", L FCA = L DKQ =


, LEFK= 180 -2. N
" , L = "'

= LFKA=90 -;

F :

FK= sin(IS0'- 2)

si_n 2, KE=PE!ga=ptga,

, F= ~~g2: = 2 ~'

FK

(1),

= "L c~a'

=

cos

= ~~ , = ~ ~~

~ v=t=Y' , :~

'- ~ . "

ln~ +'-?) =1ne%-x +1.

250

[. v

, = =~- .

f,

n n

11

~<

1<m

, .

, r U,

(.

191).

F -

1<

FK

y=FN=FKsi

F.

LFKN=

dx
= FK cos ~=FK liS.

191.

(2)

1 -
F1 (x 1 ,y 1 ):y 1 =F1 N1 =F1 Ksi LF1KN1.
L F1KN1 = L FKN. ,

= F1K cos ~ =
(2)

FK+F1K=2a,

dx

F1K d8.

(3)

(3)

1 ='

FK, F1K, 1 ,

+'-0
'-2 dx
dS
-'

(4)

(4)

' -', u

1<

n ,

u.

, ~lu

J<r

12)

251

n.

y'dy
dx = c;:Vr;(a;;;,=""y5,#)('::f'==;"'')

, , u ,

2.

..

r.

f1

J<pott

J<. , 1<0, 1<,

l.:t

3.
, n,
,

, tt

~n

z.t.

R=f(S),

(5)

n r n

n,

n.

n,

R-

. , ,

R -

(5),

n,

, ,

y=f(x).
,

n ,

r n

R=kS,

n,

S'
R =+

y= k x;
n

=~+ ; R' = 2aS

= 2

. .

r.

252

[. v

13.

1. . ,
n
n. ,

n , R
,
nn

n,

n
R

nn,
n

n
.

f------'------"~I:r,)

R.

f.1,

192.

z
.

n ,

(. 192), n l n n t
n . , cor ,
:

==

ON+CM=R cos t+MD sin t,


y=MP=DN-DC=R sin t-MD cos t.

MD = AD = Rt,

= R cos t Rt sln t, }
y=Rsint-Rtcost.

,
n

l!

nn

Rt sin t
tg ~ = ~ = Rt cos 1 =!g l, ~ =l(.193),

n, n
. .

(!)

pattycy , .

n

,_- .

, ,

13]

253

R.=MD=Rt.

(2)

, ll l!
ll

ll .

n, ,
S , :

S= \ Vdx'+dy'=

SRtdt=

=~Rt'.

(2)

(3)

193.

t,

(3)

R~ =

2 RS.

-1 , .

, n ,
- ,
1

=~

J(xdy-ydx)=

=~) R't'dt=}R't' .

(4)


(2) (3), n

. .

=~ ~Rt'-Rt=}SR.

194.


ll

.
, n

1 -

= SR.= y ADAM.

. n,
n

OS

(.

194),

254

[. v

S = OS = NM = Rt, 'f' = t - ~.

n t, n = R ('f'

+ I),

, n ,

n ~ J<

cos

t,

t1,

z=

sin t,

x-acost
- sin t

st

z-

---acost

--

z =,

(cos t +

t sin t),

(sin

t - t cos t),

,
,

, n .
.

2.

. 1<

n- U

z
.

195.

1;1

nh , n,

/1.

nn

nh,

13]

195,

255

IJ i . :

x=OP=OB+CE+ED=R cos t+Rt sin t+lz cos t,


MD DP=MD + -AC=h sin t+R sin t-Rt cos t,

==

x=(R+h) cos t+ Rt sin t,


= <R+h) sin t - Rt cost.
:

1) h >-

h> R

<

; h
R.
h
R,
n

,
;

2) h <- <
;

h = - R;

196.

= Rt sin t, =- Rt cos t.
= 1 =- 1 , ~=tgt, ,

. , , 2
2
R'lf'A,
' = R'<p',

= R<p

, , ,

.
n .

.
,

196

256

14.

[. v

F(e,'JI)=O

(1)

( 1 , '1}1) , ,
N(x1,y1) (. 197).
(1).
,
N , n

N,

n r

n .

n-

IY7.

N, n .

rn n

,
,

N,

n , . . n n,

nn,

(1).

n
1732 .

n .

n , ,
N, .
N .
n N k.
, t1
N n dS, - dS1, ,
, dS = k dS,,

Vdx'+d.r'=k V de'+d"''

de

d'Jj

(2)

, .

, . .

dy

"1-= (-).

14]

257


(, 71) = n
, n ~ 11

(2),

dy d'y)
( , , liX' =.
n

, = '= =.
n n <n

F (, 71) = n
. ,


h 4

n, .

, ,

nn =

n .

71

1 <=, '71-= :~ (-), n <= "'=Y+


~
+ dX
(-),

(2)

~
dE = d'!j =(-) dx'
dx , -

--vdx'
+ dy' = k

(-)

d'y

JX' dx,

V1+ (IO'=k(a-x):;..

=k(a-x)

dp
dx'

dy

dX =

dx

VI + P' =

dp
.
k(a-x)- Jfl +''

JI,

ln(p+ V1

+ P')=ln C- ln(a-x),p + V1 +' = ---, .


(-)"

, , =
1

dy

dX..=p=O,

=" , , P+Vl+p'=(1-~)-; rll,

V 1 + '- =
,

1
Jfl+p'

(1-

~)
~. n

dy

p=dx = ?. [ (

--

1 - ) 1 - ( 1 - )1 .

n , :

x\1-( 1--J

al
1 li

(3)

258

[. Vll

= =, = k' ~ 1

y=;k[(~~~~+~ +(I-:i:i ]+k:~I;


,

k = 1,

1.

(3)

=~ [ ( 1~~)'-1 ( 1- ~) l+c.
, , =- ~ .

1.
2.

<

< ' ,
n

(3), .,

3.

'- ,

1tt

ak
4.=k>1 r=k'

- ;

; - k<1 -

- ,

n , .

d)
.

,
, ,

(.

198,

).

k> 1

198.

15]

(. 198, 6).
,

88)).

- i<potl: J<r n

,<,

(.

tt, , k
k = 2, . .

k,

259

k=1

u
J< n
r
n

t1

n lt

nn

11

199.

J<

J<

r- . , N - , 1 N1 -

(.
199). ,


n,

, , ,

MN

15.

M 1N 1

(. 220)

n
1- N 1<. Ji

.RN=c.

260

Um

[. v

r:t, -

(1)

=k=const.

R N ,
u u
3

_l_=k,

(l+y'')2 =_l_y(I+y''){
"
n
'

= ~ (1 +"),

' dy' n dy

= dy- , , l+v=
1
,
+Y"')=n
!-
In ,
In(l
2

y'dy'

' = (f)'"- 1

,
1

dy

= Y(f)'"- 1

k - , , n
,

n = h,

= 2k

h -

(2)

21i = k

21i- 2 = k,

n = 2k + 1 .
,

(2)

( n=- +!

y"m+Tdy

dx= ~~ -~-

V
1

ym-:t=i

tl

__,_.

+ , dx

n =

sin t,

+- + '

(+ I)um+ 1 du

==(+ !)) s!nm+ltdt,

y=Cs!nm+t.

(3)

15]

(3)

201

f'-

n = h, h - .
/{ " :
1) = =- cos q>, = sin q>- ;
2) =1 x=~(2t-sin2t),y=f(\-cos2t)

=-2=f(.-+-)- ;

3)

4) =-3 '=2(-)-.
, ,
: 1) t>ll ll t>,
+ 1 - , 2) z
llna,

+ 1 - , 3) t>plle 11n
.,
+ 1 -

4) t>, + 1 -
.

" S=(+1)

S slmtdt,

R =-(+ 1) slnm t. n
t,
S=-_!_

j' ,.

(+

dR

V [<~ I) ~-

tn

1-n

1) = = +/i ,

s-n+IJ
-n-1

n:

dR

V (~)2;:!:,'

-1


" (. . 154), ,

::~'~"'..J~'; ~:::~':::~::::" ::::~~:,~

262

Lt

ilt,

[. v

, -

~= const, .

1716

n , tl

cnoncro,

t<

u .
1880 r.
n
l::f.

16.

n,

n,

*)

~&, " t.
. .

f!

R=~! a=const,

Tal<

R =

dS

da

d. . ilS

=
S

(1)

S
, , dll. = dS'

OTI<Y

(2)
rJI n
)3

l<, ~
(2) n

(3)

'l'

dS =

cos r;.,

dy

dS =

s , :

S'
. S'
dx = cos ia dS, dy = s Za dS.
*)

~..)~- .

16)

263

cos

~dS, =

(4)

S =

= = .

,
, ,

n,

J<1,

1 (.

200).

gon

, =

cos

~dS,

.z

"'

S'

,=' sinz.dS.

, 1 (

Y2;w_

. 2.

v;;w, v;;;a).

n . S -

u, n

n ,

(-

v;;;a , - v;;;a).

1 ii ,
(. . 184).

u . ~
i.

1874

-n,

[. v

rPr

264

(5)
, ntt..
, "
(=\) (=- 1), -

, " =

~ ,

(. .

268).

"
, R 1
-

S1 -

" ,

;z

dR
R1= R dS
S, = R.

(5)
R1 =a'l.gtm- 1 , S1 =aSm, , S,

2m-1

R 1 = S,---
-

201.

(6)

(6)

=-1, -

R1 =-...!._S~ (. 201).

.
;,
, S , ,
(3)

a=f(S),

f(S),

(7)

, .

, ,
(7), .

a=k sin S.

(8)

16J

265

, q>u

(8)

S.

da
.iiS

= k cos S,

R1

= k cos S,

R=k secS.
,

202,

(9),

uu

::
.

:..

11) '

(9)

, ,

202.

k=i k=" k=21t.

Vlll

1.
1.

. tt tt

2eoJtempuec~&oo .

, ~r 1665 r.

.

"

z. J

..

, n

. n
.
n- n
, n,
J<

R ~

un, n,

l)

n-

sl

t!tl
u

2)

, .

n ;

I< :

dR

= dS

1,

tt~<

ptt

1< ..
1< n ;

, ,

3)

, ,

, n
n .

!]

267

(, )=,
n

(1)

<=x--J-p~; 1/=--1-*-

"'l-

(2)

tl ~;t, , ,

'f

(I0'+ ($)'
8

'f

'
'f

'/ f

.'

8=

'
!!.. ?!.

(2)

( 1)

-r

11 1

(1).

X='f'(t), y=<ji(t).

(3)

n-n

"'~ n

< = -.~+.~

"'i=Y+

-'

Xs+Y'. .-.

-... -

(4)

, , n,
=

cos t,

sin t,

<='-' cost,

2-2

1/=- -

t,

0-

. s

SI

t.

' )} + ('-
~ 1 )} =l,
( 2 -':!

i<J,

(.

123,

).

, :1

R= <p (S).

(5)

"

268

[. v

. ,

. .

. R S-
, R 1 S,-
. , , 1
,

dS1

= dR da = da
1

da

da 1

iiS = R., dS

1
= R;,

'1{ = ~,' , ,

( 1 =+~) ,

dR

R,=R tiS J
S,=R+c. .

- ,

(6 )

(5).
R

S,

(6)

R=S1,

(7)

S,dS,
R1'

S-

.,

R'

ii'+'= 1.

,
(6), :

dR

R 1 = R iiS

R = cos t

cos t

S=

sin t

as

----s = -

si

t.

sln t,

S1 =R=a cost.

n, ~+#=(-)', . ., ,

n.


, R 1 =,

, (7) :

S=

S,dS,=
R1

S,dS,=~

R=S,.

2'

!J

269

ss

R' = 2aS-

S1, n

f(.

<;~~, ~
ll. , n,

R'=~ aS'.
, , .
, ll
- .

- ,

, = ()- n t
,

.s

cos (90-)+ sin (90+<>) -=,

JI

<>+

sin

cos -'!'(<>)=0.

(8)

, - , +. ,
(8) ,

n nf!u

-
,

(8).

n, n
!! (9).

(8) ~.

'1''(<>)=0,

(9).

- ysin -

cos

j;t

(9)

(9)

(9)
(8),

(9)

, , n
ll,
nu

(9) ,
n n (9), n "
.

da

(8),

ll,

hl.\f n

1J8

. . Caenou

f'!

n .

270

[.

, , >~ =~ (.
, (8),

Vlll

193),

-xsin~+ ycos~ -~=,

(9),

cos ~-

sin ~-= ,

p=e'f'sin~, , , (J.=Const=c, =19,


q>=~-f' (. 145). , (8),
- sin :+ cos '1.- ce-~L =,
-

cos - stn - :-. =,

, ,

2. .
. ,
.

,

, n

...

n.


, n

203.

(10)

f(E, 11)=0
-

. ,
,
, ,

(,)- ,

(10)

(.

203).

N (E,1j)

n NM n n ,
N, NM

(-) ( 1 -attg) + (-11) (tg +~)=.

(1 1)

IJ

hl

271

n (11), ,
u .):

(11) no

l+ ('!i)'

-(x-<)tg+Y-"'1=~-

(12)

d;~

(11).
- "lj,

(12) rn -

1+ ( ~ )'

'- '

d; (tgT

X-;~COS ~

..L
1

d~ ) ,

(/

d"

'
y-"1j=COS

(d~)' ' d~
1 + d;
d'~

\ d;

(13)

tg-1 , J

d:i


N (, "1/)

(10)

(13),

(,)
.

<

"lj,

, n n
. f

( 13)

n , n

(x-<J'+<v-"'l)'=cos'

[1

+(~\'l'
. d; J

t/~Yj \ 'l

k!
,

( 1);

;1

MN,

MN=Rcos.
, , N
", , NC
N n n NM, n
N
, ,
n

3. .

' /,8

n~

272

..

{. V IIJ

n - N
NM
kR, R- J< N,

k- ; u
.
y=f(x).

!! N (, ) n (, ~)
, N, ( 1 , ~ 1 )- i
(. 204).

n
,

<+

~+

~.=1+''

,,=1+), '

n:

(14)

E=x-y(I+Y'>

), -_1-k
-k-

ji

'

~=Y+ l+.y'.

204.

(14).

,
!! .

"

=', n:

_(-4')

,,_

1+

~.=

1+2'('+)
2(1+>

3- n.

n = -

3,

. . ,

k =- 2 ,

n n. ,
t<ut <t< ~>~
. , .,
, .
n u
n

n.

= cos3 t, = sin:s t,


_ ( - .2)

,_

cos' t

+ 3 cos t '

--1+
---

~.

(-2) sin' I+

sin t

I +

6- .

~ , = 2 , , n

{l

=}

1]

.1~

ll,

, ,

t:J

k = - 1

=- 4;

273

SII

=- 2 , , n

2;

k = 2 ,

, n

4.

ll
!l

l,

-
1< h nh,
ll

(.

205).

~t

ero

, ~

,
, ,
,

205.

: = f(x), (, '1)
, (, )
h h.

l, +MB+S=l, S=SA,

ve + '~' +V<e- )' + <'1- )' - t - s.


, 1<
(,),

!!

(15)

!!

'1 - =' (-).


~

ll

( 15)

( 16)

(16)

'1

, , 1<
1 .

1/ 19

. .

274

[. v

n .
n MN= ON
N, n

ON.

, , n

f! n tl ,

yr

"t

-1, . . n ON
, , OMN,


, !l

OMN.

zt~ acm.Atll

.
, , h,

6. , :.
n

n n , n

, ,
n . n
1
,.

l - S.

1 zt

l::t ;
1

2.

~ - xsin~ - <p(~) = O.

(1)

, ();

--

n. n

n ..

cos

( 1)

(1) ~. n

- y sin ~- cos ~-<' (~)=0.

(2)

~ , n

( 1),

(1} (2). ,.
(2)
( 1) ( 1).

2]

JIh

(2),

275

KPIhi

n n, u .

cos a-xsina- [q>(a)+cJ =0,

(3)

n.

( 1)

(3), n
, . ~ 1
~ ~ ~ ~ 1
,

(1)

. . ,,

(3),

;
1 N .
, (3) ,
n q
(2), , ~
N ~ 1
~
.
, 11 11 11 1 11
tll 1. 1

....

, , .,

naparpae), , ,
...
n nn .
~ ~
.

!! , ~ n,

n,


u , u,
,
.
,

(4)
~

(-)'+ (-~)' .- '= ,

(5)

276

Vlll

~
~~

a!l

;;;+'-1 =0.

()

,
, (5)
, - ,

(6). , , ,
, - . ,
.
(6)
(5):

(-)'+(-~)'-'+ [~+~-IJ=o.

).

(7)

(7) ~. :

--~=0,

-~-~=0.

(8)

(5), (6) (8) , ~ ,


(5). ll
~ (8); :
'

=;;;+

'

~=b'+l."

(5) (6),

}
+ ('
+)' = -,.
('+ )' + (' +)' = l.

('+ )'

(9)

11'

a~.x!l

Ji, u,

,
.

8-

ll ,

x=(l + ~) ~/'-''
)., Jl '-

'

= (I+~) ya:~~~

(9):

). .
, n

- ,

2]

APAJIEHhiR

n,

277

206, n ~
npfl = n

> > ;

> -0 ;

n .

206,

ni<

b':J

>>

n < < l( ,

206,

'

~ ;

7i

n ~

tf)

: n
n,

uJ1

t! i<~

n,

n J<

n, - !<, r

( -

.~).

nJi

~1.

206.

, . ,

tt

n,

,
t1

t!,

R1

R
S1 -

S-

JJ. ,

(10)

l = const.
9

. .

278

IJ

n ,

dR,
R'dSt'

[. vt

II

(.

268),

(6)

dR
R dS =

RdR -(R+t)dR'-(R+l)dR '!._


dS dS, dS dS,'

(11)

(12)

(1 )

( 12)

S= -

cos

2 ,

t
2,

- -

R=

R1

S1

n, :

207.

l!

207.

n .
(11),

dS 1

=( 1 + ~) dS,, , R=~,
,,
S = S+ t J dct,
S = S + 2l1t,
,

dS 1 =dS + tdct

,
. . neptltempau
1
u. tt.
!, /m t z
..

3]

279

~I<

. , ,

MN M 1N 1 - ,
( . 208).

, . .

MN = dS.

, , ',

n 1 - ,

1 , tt NN 1
,

+ d
,
,
L DNN1 = d.
MM 1N 1N = MM 1DN
n DNN1;
u dU ,
n , DNN 1

MM 1DN-
n 1
t dS, dU = ldS
2 t'd.

d.

_~>~1'"'---~

V=l

SdS+}t' S d. -

S,

2";

V=tS+"t';

, ,

208.

itt !/

ll,

r!l

, t tcpu.J,t

. u. ..

3.
Kamatcaycmto

17

n n

.
. .

,
n h.

(!)
-
1<.

n,

280

-=.

[. Vlll

RJ

(1)

(o,l))

(.

209)

- + ( -1)) '{;! = . ,
, ~ , ,
,-

, r<

, 1 = 28-90, tg 1 = tg (28 - 90) = - 1 ;t~g: 0


d'
tg 8=- ~

!-(~)'

= - --d-~-

tg1 =

2~

(-)[1-

+
.

209.

('fJ)'J+

2( - 1))

d~

d; = .

(2)

r<

(2),

(2) ,
(2)
,

(2)

, :

( - )

(2)

(3)

d~

d; + ( - 1)) =

I+ (i )'

- ([';} .

(3)

2av

:
d~

d'

=- d'~ ;

(4)

d;

(4)

1)- .
( 1)

11 1j, J i<J.
(3), l!
,

)) n

.,

1.
, n tt

(~.

1))

3]

281

(, ) .

( 4)

11+(~)'

l=MP= V(x-e)'+(Y-"1)' =2~


d;'
,
JIt

'

=[1+ (~)']{

COS't

d'~

1,

[1 + ( ~)']'

d[i
1

! = 2 R cos 't.

, (. "!)- ,
, l<r
f!: , N
11 (. 209).
1<

"

7J 2 = 2~. n .

(4),

:
~(-2;)

_
-

=.

1<
j,

54' = (2- 9)',


n.

tl, :

dS= 2+,
2 '

S=-~
2.

(2+)'.
12

R=

.fv(-{;)+-1.
dR

282

[. Vl\1

, n

---= -3 cos

+.

6 ~

(. .

88).

u <= arccos -;;.1_ "}f2a1j- "'1'

=- (-~)'.

=<+ "}f2a11- Va11-11' ,

<

"'1

x=_!!_arccos - 2 -Vay-y9 ,

, m~ . m1
;,

ll

n u.

, ~

11

11 = ln ~- !!,

f- ( 2 + - 2) ,

, n =

n .

~,

n~

n1:.

4. l!j>;; ,
\ . . n . -

. .ecmo.At ..

mo'iJCU

J< ,

.,

. .. .
, ,

zeoempll

n h, .

j(ll,v)= ,

. .

(1)
, , n ( 1) "
. ll , n

210)
-vx+ny=O.

(, ) (.

. ....

(1)

(2)

(2)

=--ll+yll

v=---Y__
'+'

(3)

4]

OI:}PhJ,

hl,

n.

(ll, v) =

n,

ll=-E.
.

n ,

n.

(3)

283

V=-71

nn llX

+ vy + 1

(4)
=, . . n

- -71
1 =, (, 71) n, n
nn ' +'= 1. ,
, n n,

F (,71) =

, .
n (. .

~-

37)

(5)

-+

, nn n

(4)

(3)

(5)

( 1),

n.

f(x,y)=O

(6)

(, ). n n n (6)
, , roJ::t n
n

(7)
nn, nn nnn
J< J;t,
f .

(-)--(71-)

(6), (7)

(8)

riX=O.
,

(8)

n n (6).
Vl Vll n .
, ,
n

f.1- , . n , (. . 107);
n n
11 (.

70);

284

'=

[. v

),

n ,

(. 84);

(.

1<

(0,

133).

n,
1< n n
n;
(, ) ,
, 11

'= 2
+2(-)'+2 =0;

2 2 (-)+

'

n {ii

'

~ = 1

''+ ''=(' +')';


n

:!

(i'2- /i!

[. (-)+ ']'= ' (- )'- ''.

2.

.
, n n

1 (. 21 ) l<
tt- J tt

n,

n J<

, J< 1

11
n , J< ~

u 1 11,
-

210.

II.

, n

COS<p+

Si

'f

(q>)= 0.

(9)

<, :

- .x siq> +Y

3.

(9), (10)

COSq> -

p'('f) = O.

(10)

!'l

11 , Ji 1< ,

4]

285

n I< .

.
n

, -

n ,

f(x, )=
-
n

211)

(, ) (.

2.
(11)

(11)

(X- x)<IL +<-) <IL=o

(12)

'

!)

- 1<.

~< ,

P(i, 11) -

r,

(-} .}) - 1< . ,



,

+ 11

~+"fl'

- 2 - =0.

n ~

N,

(12)

'
~
= =

2(

'

<=

4.

<'+~'
r
t) .
iJX +
11

1j =

(i!!...)'
(i!l...)'
+

naparpa,

!)
( (
2x<JX+Yay
, r

'
+ (i!!...)'

tt

(13)

f
f)
2 ( + /

(f..)'

21 1.

(13)

(14)

(11).

u oo nmtPtecux

tt .

t1 tt ,
n mpaemopiliO utt .. i !m
nepe.r~teaemc ma1C, ttmo
Q. r ; <.

286

[. v

, , .,

= ~;-,

J.

~<

n
nn tl

tl

-xsin~+ycos~-/(~)=0,
. . n n

(15)

(15),

269).

n n (.

(15) , , , tt ~
tl (15) ; ,
(15) .
, n 1

~ + r , ,

-xsin(~ +r)+ ycos<~+r)- ~+r) =0.


(15)

sin r

(16)

(15),
(16)

= cos <~+r). /(~)- cos ~.~+ r).

sin r=sin <~+

r) /(.)- sin ~. ~+r).

- n
n ,
yoJJ

r.

. .
.

i-,

t1

=- sin ./(~)- cos ~t( ~~ I)


.

y=cos~t(~)-

212.

sin

~ t(~ +

2)
(1 7)

n = , n, /(~)= ON =
= sin f'=ke (. 212), k=sinf'=const. , (17)
n , = <
f1, n:

cos (+ 1') ke- sin (+ 1') ke+,

sin

' +'= (k' +

(+ 1') ke-

cos

( + 1') ke,

k'e'") . n

n ',

=,

5]

287

3 .IJ. ,
!

n ~ fi!=

' +'= ' .

n- .

n 4- n
;

n,

.
n ,u ,

yr ,

5.

n.

n.

n,

u.
, .

tt

, n

tt

tt

' u,

n , n,

S=<ji(R).

(1)

J<,

f.t

tt,

q>

tt

, -

dS

di=R,

R-

(!),

(2)

2'88

dS =/' () dp,

fr. v

1 = R
(1) dS=o/'(R)dR,

(2)

<=

d<p = ?'() dp,

o/'ip)dp;

(3)

( 1).
n
,

= ,

S-J
- (~)"

dR

(4)
-1

dS = ~ /

1< ~

v "- 1.

Bf:J.

(3)

dp

< = v (~)~~- -1 =z<J.,

=;

(5)

= (z'

+ 1);;:-,

<

dp

_!_ _,

(z'+ 1)"

2zdz,
'1'

= V: s +
2

z'

(5)

dz

= -;;.-arctg z.

n , :

=--,--.

(6)

cosli ~
11 tf ,

( 4).

, , : ~ = - 2 . = 1,
( 4) , (6)
= cos ; ,
; 1'- = 2 = 1, ( 4)

!r

(6)

=__; , n
cos 9

n .

5]

R=a

y,'!f;

u =lg<

-1,

u,

289

1<a11notl

(.

140).

. .

.
tt
.

<

/(),

<

R.

1 = f(R),

d1=f'(R)dR, 1< d1=~, S= S RJ'(R)dR;

JI .

n n~

Lo r i , Spezielle algebraische und transcendente ebene Kurven,


Leipzig, 1911.
2. . W i 1 i t n r, Spezielle ebene Kurven, Leipzig, 1908.
3. n , Leitfaden der wichtigen tcchnische Kurven, 1906.
1.

1, 11,

.'l :

1. G. S h f f s, Einihrung in die Theorie der Kurven in der Ebene und im


Raume, Leipzig, 1910.
2. . u t 1, Algebraische Kurven, Leipzig, 1911.

3.
4.

. , , .- .,
.

.-.,

1939.
, .

2,

1934.

5. . n. , , ., 1958.
6. . . , , .- ., 1949.
7. . , , ., 1951.
8. 0 . . R, . . R, . . ,
, . 1 2, . - ., 1.937.
9. . , , 3-ro , , 1911.
10. . , 19 , .- .,
1937.

11 t.n

(l coefi i:lt .



89
1

162

12

73

10, 196
!30-!34, !81
134

!4!
.
.

90

248
ll, 68, 262
162, 201, 211

22

( )

245

!40-!42, 289
80, 99, 107, 121 - 124, !50,

45

150

274, 279-282
281

89,
215

220, 247


r 230
229

56

227-230

12

262-264
) 168
196

5
(l

47

49
46
!!8 - 121
!09--!18
227

ll, 12
35
!67
!3
ll, 68, !04, 142, !85, 220, 224,
245, 248

12

72

36

9!
89-90

- - 11 45
- - 190
) 142

!4

11
) 202
> !34

256

12

227

129

!0, 68, 211


24
- -

59

20

!98-199
105- 106
100-!04
284

31
30
230- 233
KpaArep 9!, 99
236
- 237-240
- 243
- !67, 168, !80
- rr 234
- 230
- r 233-235
~- ()

292

(t)
- 124- 130

18

224
186-187
- 17
- 289
r

Q.!I

285- 287
186---187

\62
181 -188

il

91

190
104-106

86
179-181
25 1

-.: 286
n.6 191
n 181-188
274-279

220

211-220, 223, 250, 26\


n 218-

65-68,
224
207

76

\9\

10

\85

.".

256 ~ 259

218

11

\94

f/.

53

44, 73, \39

135- 140
150
179

\46r 177 130

144
186- 188
99
287-289
23
259-262
168-177

n- 237
17, 189-192

36, 51, 53
\\, 12
111
224
\3, 53, 9\
284-285
63, 282-2 84
- 133
- l! 128-130
- ~ 157
- II 284
- 107, 124
- 63, 70, 79, 84, 85, 284
- 194
- n 118
58
24
- 60
- 110 58- 59

\42

56-57
- - - - 63
- - - 62
- 175-177
- 265
- 109-121
- 23
-- 74~- 78
- 261
- - 97
- - - - 97-99
- - - 11 92-96
- - - 96-97
- 248-251
- 275
- n 23
77-78
- r 88- 89, 259, 282
\85, 262

99, 145, 147,

Jl n

179

53, 184-185

(n)

12
17

- 110 283
74

185
(-

87

155-162, \84
- 99, \44- 146
175

- 141

106
84-85

137

40
35
43
38

28

293

ll~t () 40
- 42
- 33

127
87, 90
264
225

fln

191
262
11, 68,

. 76, 86, 104, 107, 156

22
77, 129, 166-167

-
162-167

119-120

197-198, 227

263

202-211

246-247

116
68-73, 79, 88

75- 78

142

26
54

139
12, 160

266-270
269
252- 254, 268
- 194, 254-255
n 274
266-270
- 271-273

25, 53
61

62
2.6

11, 84, 185,


277

- 1bl9
- 189

13

12,

205, 2 11, 247

189

~
56
11rr

,PIJKa 55-57

=~ 200

21

167

26
24
24
U11 240-248, 261
- 246-247

200-201, 202
269

162

24

99, 106-108, 120, 136

21
~1

201
263

n 191
78-84, 88,
- 82-84

142

11, 159,
< 11, 104

30
- - 36, 61
73, 141
1t 196-202
- 150-155
192- 196
- 199-200

:t

133, 166-167

<: r

118-121, 245-247

73

tt 23,
220-225
- 225-227
- 226-227
52
129
88-89
- 76, 168
- 85-87, 168

no-

267

:,n

273-274

270-271
91, 215

ll

n.1

118-121
109-118

251