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1993 .


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9
(,
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24
(
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35


1830-
49
XIX . . . 91

107


111


121
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127 *


138

145
(
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172

185

(
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201
(
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213
XIX
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294


(
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308
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323

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326

345
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356
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368

( . . ) . . 376
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. . .



1.
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3. . . . .

1.
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3. Historiettes
X V I I
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380

389
391
394
396
399
402
406
409

412
414
416
420
4JJ5

428

430

439
. . (. ) . . . 441
Summary (M. )
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La Geste du prince Igor: Texte etabli, traduit et commente sous la direction


d'Henri Gregoirc de Roman Jakobson et de Marcs Szeftel. Annuaire de Plnstitut
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. . . . ., 1962. . 1. . 253.
4
De Malkiel M. R. L. L'idee de la gloire dans la tradition occidentale. Antiquite,
moyen age occidental, Castill. -
1952 . (Paris, libr. . Klincksieck).
5
Dictionnaire de l'ancien francais jusqu'au milieu du XlVe siecle, par A. Greimas.
Paris, 1969. P. 454.
6
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mit Obersetzung, Kommentar und Glossar / Ed. Kolsen. Halle, 1910. Bd. 1. S. 466).
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3
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Ibid. P. 16.
5
Ibid. P. 17.

140

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D. . Op. cit. P. 1819.

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Ibid. P. 26.
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lb
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(.: Bachelard G. La poetique de l'espace. Paris, 1957).
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. , ,
(171).
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17). , ,
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(.: . . , / /
. , 1817. . . 6. . 109110),
,
(. 172).
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1
. ., . . / /
. . . . 1984. . 43. 2. . 168172.
.

390

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. |' 1 . , 1973. . 1. . 89.



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. ., 1972. . 74; . .
. ., 1979. . 403).
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3

391


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8.

: . . . .; ., 1935. . 733.
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. . . ,
: , .
, ,
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( 10. II. . . ., 1956. . 576).
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>
Voltaire. Ouvrcs completes. De I'imprimerie de la Societe litteraire-typographiqne, 1785. T. *o. P. 208.
'"Ibid. T. 78. P. 123.
7
Ibid. T. 77. P. 473.
* . : . II. . [], 1946. . 414.
2
3

392

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jaloux comme un tigre (,

. . . .: 30 . ., 1962. . 26. . .
An. . . / . . . . ., 1915. . 1. . 73.
11
. . . . .: 16 . .; ., 1937. . 6. . 508.
12
. . . . 2. . 297.
13
. . ... ., 1965. . 122.

10

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393

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1979

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..) [ . . . . .: 3 . .; ., 1941. . 2. . 56).

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. le tigre (
. . .; ., 1927. . 3. . 108).
,
, : , , le tigre? ( . . 103).
,
, . . .

394



() .

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.
,
.
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1.
(...).
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, ,
2. . .
3.

: ,
.

.
, /,
4, ,
incroyables ()
,
, 5.
incroyables:
Savez-vous, dit l'incroyable, une histoi-e singu-ie-e qui vient d'a-iver au
theat-e Molie-e; c'est en ve-ite, chamant! Point, repond la donzelle; quelle
ect cette aventu-e sing-ie-e? Vous m'int-iguez. Vous connaissez la Dusadin. Eh bien! On zouait Figa-o. On en etait au second acte, le spectac-e etait
b-illant, cont-e -dinai-e etait attentif au zeu des acteurs; moi-meme, ze -is
de ma faib-esse! Z'ecoutais avec p-aisi-. Tout d'un coup des c-is d'enfant
pa-tent du fond d'une lose, on tou-ne les yeux de ce cote pou- fai-e cesser le
bruit; mais quelle est la su-p-ise gene-ale! La Dusa-din en t-avail d'enfarit!
Et ce n'etait aut-e cose que le petit poupon qui avait atti- nos -egards6.

1
. . . . / / XVIIIXIX . .; .,
1959. . 1. . 429.
2
. # . . . / /
. .; ., 1947. . 128.
3
. . . .; .,
1948. . 179.
4
. . . .
(., 1974): ; ;
. . (. . / / XVIII . .; ., 1940. . 2. . 165).
5
Lacour L. Grand Monde et salons politiques de Paris apres la terreur. Paris,
1861. P. 38.
6
Ibid. P. 39. , / /, z->-z s--s,
incroyables, .

395

,
, .
.
, , , ,
:
...- :
- !7
( )
( ),
incroyable.
1790 . :
(...)
8.
: ,
.
incroyable
.
1979

7
8

. . . . .: 3 . ., 1946. . 2. . 348.
. . . .: 2 . .; ., 1964. . 1. . 385.

396


1.
, .
, 1 . (
, !)
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. . :
Jo hymen Hymenee io,
Jo hymen Hymenaee!
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, XVIII . 1777 . .
. . . ,
,

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: 4 . / . . . . ., 1940.
. 4. . 1289.
2
. . . . .: 16 . .; ., 1937. . 13. . 262.

.

397

3 ; . .
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),
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.
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que diable t'emporte.
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3
Anekdoten Lebensgeschichte des Fursten Gregorius Grigoriewitsch Orlow.
Frankfurt; Leipzig, 1791. S. 69.
. , (
. . 36. . 1. . . 756/362). ,
, ,
. ,
.
. . . , ,
(.:
. XVIII . ., 1885. . 177186).
(
): Tchort tebe beri sawsem : Der T(eufe)l hole dich denn ganz
und gar.
, ,
: (?)
.
4
, , . .
, .
5
. . . .: 6 . .; ., 1957. . 6. . 250.

.

398

,
, , .
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(): ,
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XVIII XIX . .
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7. .

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6

, . .
. . / . . . . ., 1913. . 30.

. ,
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:
? (III, 1, 301).
*:
! :
!
:
(III, 1, 302).
: ? ! !
(III, 1, 303). ,
: , : ,
, . , . , , ,
, { .
,
/ / . , 1923. . 186).
7
. . . / /
. ., 1978. . 18; .: . . . .
/ / . . . ., 1976.
8
Eugene Onegin: A Novel in Verse by Aleksandr Pushkin / Translated from
the Russian with a Commentary by Vladimir Nabokov. N. V. l*.)t>4. Vol. 2:
Commentary. P. 35.

399


,
, (VI, 193).
, , ,
,
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
-,
.

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(VI, 475).
.

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9

. . . ., 1975. . 101 102.

400


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12
.: . / / Poetics. Poetyka.
. Warszawa, 1961.
11

401

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402

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'" . . . . ., 1898. . 2. . 219.


15
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16
:
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. . / . . . . ., 1913;
. . / / . 1913. 1. . 184
188; . . (1924. . 1/2. . 166168);
. . / /
. ., 1927. . 31/32; . . :
( ) / / : .
.; ., 1960. . 3.
17
. . . . . 127.

403

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. . 129.
.: , ,
( . . / / . . .
., 1974. . 2. . 141). ,
( . / / . 1869.
. 84. . . 82).
20
. XIX . / /
. ., 1941. . 398.
19

404

() 2 1 . ( )
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22
[. . ]. : , , ,
. ., 1868. . 2: . . 1923.
23
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( . . ., 1912. . 96).

405

( )
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Phantasmagorians, ,
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24

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. .
1979

24

: , ... ., 1828 (
).
25
.: . , . ., 1963. . 164 341342.
26
. . . ., 1912. . 1. . 158.

406





, , ,
.
XIX .
,
.
1789 . (...)

. (
)
1.
. XIX .
, ,
,
.

. . ,

2.
,
,
3. ,
,
,
.
4 , ,

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, .

. . . .; ., 1958. . 261.


XVIII , (
. 156158).
3
. . . ., 1905. . 1213.
. . :
, , , ,
, , , (. . . . 1.
. 40681. . 1).
4


. . . -
, 250-
(, 1962).
2

...

407


5.

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.
, 6 (.
, : ).
.

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7. ,
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: C'est lui qui sous main travailla I'esprit de Charlotte Corday et fit
de cette fille un second Ravaillac (XII, 166).
, ,
-
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.
,
, .
8 , , -9.

. 1821 .
( : Marat, Sand 10 ).
: , .
.
:
11. ,

. . . . ., 1934. . 441 ( . . .).


. . . . .: 16 . .; ., 1947. . 2. . 1. . 174.

.
7
/ / . . . . .: 6 . .; .,
1931. . 6. . 313.
8
. . > . ., 1960. . 132133.
9
.: 10 . - / / . . . .
-. , 1960. . 98. ( . , . . 3). . 312313.
10
. . . . . ., 1951. . 1.
. 308.
" . . 437.
6

408

. , . . , ,
, III IV
, 12 . ,
1823 1824 .
, ,

:

(?) (?) ,
(?) ,
.
: ...
(, I, 314)
,


.
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- .

( ), 13 .
, , ,
.
1966

12

. . / / . .,
1962. . 1. . 326.
13
: I
( ) (XII, 205).

409



,
1 .
.
1.
, ,
.
(
) ,
,
, ,
. ,
- ,
, .
-
. . :

, !2
.
.
:
La quale e'l quale, a voler dir lo vero,
Fu stabiliti per lo loco santo,
U'siede il successor del maggior Piero.
(Inf. II, 2224)

. :
, ,

3.

,
. -

1
.: . . / / . ., 1928.
. 37; . . / /
: . ., 1970;
. . / / Annali. Sezioneslava. 1970. 13;
. / / -
: (. 75- . . ). ., 1967;
. II gran' padre: ( ) / / . .
., 1977.
2
. . . . .: 16 . .; ., 1947. . 2. . 1. . 179.

.
3
. / . . . ., 1967. . 14.

410

,
.
,
, :

, , ,
4.
,
.
2. , /

, ,
:
se ben ti recordi e vedi lume,
vedrai te simigliante a quella inferma
che puo trovar posa in su le piume
ma con dar volta suo dolore schema.
(Purg. VI, 148151)
:
,
, ,
,
5.
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,
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,
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.

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; ; <...).
. , ,
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7 .

4
, . ,
.
. .() . (). ., 1791. . 106. (
.)
5
. . . 183.
6
. . 181. , : racconciasse il freno
(: )
, .
7
. . ., 1955. . 219.

411


. , ,
, , .
,
, I
(,
8) . I,
1834 . : de praporchique en lui et un peu du Pierre
le Grand (XII, 330)9 , ,
, ,
. ,
I . ,
, ,
, . . 1833 .:
,
.
.
3. ... , /
: caddi come corpo morto cade
(Inf. V, 142). ,

:
... ,

...
(. V, 121 123)
-
.
10.

.
1980

. :
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( . . 6768)
... , ,
, .
( . 192193)

:
(XII, 487). : ... (-) .
,
,
.
10
: . . . .; ., 1935. . 484.

412



1.
,
1824 .: Aurelius Victor.
, ,
. . , ,
, , :
,
1 .
. . 2 , . .
, 3 .
. .
. . 4 . , , ,
,
, .

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.

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.
1823 . . 1823 .
, .
,
...6

. , / / .
., 1926. . 11.
2
. . , . . . (., 1909. . 485).
3
. . . . 12.
4
. . / / :
. .; ., 1941. . 6. . 151 152; . .
/ / . . 162.
5
. . ., 1956. . 60. . 1. . 116.
6
. . . . .: 16 . .; ., 1937. . 6. . 24.

.

...

413

,
, ,
,
, ... (II, 1, 293)

:
. :
... ( 1823 .). XXIV
, ,
. ,
.
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,
1824 ., .
7

. . ., 1980. . 474475.

414

, ,
, . ,
, ,
. , ,
,
, , .
, , ,

, . ,
,
, .

2.
1822 . XVIII .,
- : En Russie le
gouvernement est un despotisme mitige par la strangulation (
, ) (XI, 17).
,
.
,
mot :
, (Le
gouvernement de France etait une monarchic absolue, tempere par des
chansons) 8 .
-
:
, ,
,
( : .,
, ,
, ,
, ).
,
.
: ,
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.
, 1830 .,
XVIII-ro (...) :
: ,
(XI, 282).
.
,
:
, . . ,
, .
: ? ,
, . ,
8
Chamfort.
.. P. 331.

Oeuvres Recueilles et publiees un de ses ami. L'an 3 de la Republique.

...

415

,
, , :
, ,
(XI, 171) :
, ? (XI, 504) 9 .
, ,
1795 ., ,
. , ,
, ,
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:
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, 11.
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12.

( , )
...
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... (XI, 52).

,
1820- .

9
.: . . - XVIII .
(, , ) / / . . 1928. . 2. . 548551.
, mot .
. . . ( , 1973).
' . . ., 1934. . 16/18. . 661, . 416.
.
11
Chamfort. Op. cit. . 4. P. 191.
12
Ibid. P. 309-310.

416

3. Historiettes
, ,
.
,
. . . (. . . . .)
Bon-mot*** 15 :
,
1 3 . , ,
, XVIIXVIII .
Historiettes
( ) .
1820- .
: ,
: , ()
;
:
, ,
,
, ,
, 14.

, . .
:
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() <?) (?) <?>,
, <?), <> <?) <) (II, 1, 318).
. :
,
.
1824 .

, :
.
, , , ,
.
.
,
. , .
13

. . . . ., 1974. . 1. . 368.
, . . ., 1974. . 244. . . , , , ,
. :
Mon rival, il est vrai, vous avez du merite;
Contre vous ma force est petite
Vous en faites peut-etre aussi trop peu d'etat:
David etait anisi meprise par Goliath.
{Tallemant de Reaux. Les historiettes memoires pour servir a L'histoire du XVII-e
siecle publies sur le manuscript inedit et autographe par Mr. Monmerique.
Bruxelles, 1835. T. 6. P. 275).
14

...

417

, , ,
- (XIII, 103).
() ,
, .
,
,
. ,
(
).
XVII . , ,
.
, , 15.
, .
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, ,
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,
. ,
(familieriser) ,
16. ,
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.
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17.
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,
19. :

15

(XII, 191).
16
Laharpe J. F. Lycee, ou Cours de Litterature. Paris, 1800. T. 7. P. 64.
17
Ibid. P. 141.
18
. . . . 161.
19
. . 155.
27 III

418

,
, ;
, , 20.
,
.
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,

(XIII, 179), .


.
:
(, )
1830- . X*VIII .

.
- ,
,
XIX . , ,
, , . 1803 .
. .
:

211
. . . . 159.
21
. . 155156.
22
. . , , .
23

. . . . 154.

., 1951. . 41.

...

419

, ,

.
,
.
, , !
, , !
!
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! , , :
24.

:
Henri IV, etent a Citeau, disait: Ah! que voici qui est Beau! Mon Dieu,
le bel endroit...!" Un gros maine, a toutes les louanges que le Roi donnait
a Leur maisen, disat toujours: Transeuntibus. Le roi prie garde, et lui
demanda ce qu'il voulait dire: ,,Je veux dire, Sire, que cela est Beau pour
les passants, et non pas pour ceux qui demeurent toujours" 25 .

, .
,
. , ,
. ,
,
... ,

.
1988

24

. . . . . ., 1967. . 205.
Tallemant de Reaux. Op. cit. . 6. P. 275. : IV, ,
: , . , !.."
, , :
(. . .). ,
. ,, , , ,
, ".
25

420


XVII
( )
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, :
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1.
2:
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), , , ,
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:
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. .

.
. .
, , -, XVII .
, XVIII ., , -,

, : , , ,
. . .
.

XVII .
, , ,
. . .

, , ,
.
.

.
,
. ,

,
. ,
,
.
1
. . . . .: 16 . .; ., 1948. . 7. . 112.

.
2
.: Jakobson R. Questions de poetique. Paris, 1973. P. 186.

421

...

,
XIX . .
,
. . . , .
,
,
:

:
, ,
3.
, ,
:
A la fin tous ces jeux, que l'Atheisme eleve
Conduisent tristement le Plaisant a la Greve4.
,
, , , , ,
. ,
. XVIII . :
, ,
, .
, 5 .
.
:
Avant qu'un tel dessein m'entre dans la pensee
On pourra voir la Seine a la Saint Jean glacee,
Arnauld a Charenton devenir Huguenot.
Saint-Sorlin Jansenist et Saint-Pavin bigot6.
: ,
, ,
- (...) - ,
, ; -,
, , ,
7 . ,
, .
. . , ,
,
(1813):

. / . . . . ., 1957. . 74.
Les oeuvres de M. Boileau. Despreaux avec des eclaircissemens historiques.
A Paris, MDCCXL. T. 1. P. 284.
5
Ibit. ( . 1662 .,
1674 .).
6
Ibid. P. 16. ,
, , -
, - .
7
Ibid. P. 17.
4

422

, , ,
,
(I, 9).
: 8. . . , ,
,
, - -:
Ainsi tel autrefois qu'on vit avec Faret
Charbonner de ses vers les murs d'un cabaret...9
,
, :
,
, 10.
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:
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1813 . ,
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,

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9
Les
oeuvres de
10

. . . ., 1960. . 99.
M. Boileau. . 1. P. 263.
. ., 1849. . 1. . 28.

423

...

, , , 11.
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,
.

- .
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. .
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.
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:
Celui qui dans les coeurs met le mal on le Bien
Laisse faire au destin sans se mesler de rien12 :
. . , ,
.
.
,
:

. , ,
:
Pour trouver le meilleur il faudroit bien choisir,
Ne crois point que les dieux si pleins de loisir13
. . , , ,
.
( )
. , XVI XVII .
:
Ne scay-tu pas que ce bas monde roule,
Jouet des dieux tout ainsi qu'une boule <...)?14
. .: ,
, ?

11

Voltaire. Oeuvres completes. Societe litterare typographique, 1795. T. 12.


P. 164165.
12
Oeuvres de Theophile / Ed. par Alleaume. Paris, 1856. T. 1. P. 216.
13
Ibid. P. 242.
14
. : Adam A. Theophile de Viau et la libre pensee francaise en 1620.
Geneve, 1966. P. 132.

424

, , ,
(
). :
,
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,
.
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,
1 5 ).
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, XV .,
?
, V XVI .
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,
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,
.
- .
,
XVIII . ,
Parnasse
satirique (1662),
.
, , .

15
.: . . . ., 1957.
. 315.

...

425



30 1826 . ,
: ,
1.
2.
: , ,
( :
, ), , ,
, 3.
,
, :
,
I. .
, , 1834 . . .

(XII, 3335),
, ,
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XII, 335).
,

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,
14 1825 .,
.
'
.
1826 . .
, .
.
,

1
. . . . .: 16 . .; ., 1937. . 13. . 298.

.
2
. . ||
. . . . .: 10 . 4- . ., 1978. . 7. . 462.
3
. . . ., 1974. . 1. . 416.
4
.

426

.
5.
,
(III, 219), , , ,
- , . ,
1818 .,
1820- . , ,
, , , . . 6.
.
,
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. 10 1826 . :
(. . .) , 13-
; . :
,
(XIII, 286). ,
, - 24
1774 ., 7. , 1834 ., ,
, : ;
. , , est un animal naturellement
faible et malade. ? (XV, 182)8.
,
, ;
, .
, -, ,
-, ,
.

5
Correspondance inedite de Ferdinand Giliani Conseilleur du Roi pendant
les annees 1765 a 1783 avec Mme d'Epinay, le baron d'Holbach, le baron de Grimm,
Diderot et autres personnages celebres de ce temps (...) Paris, 1818. T. 12.
6
: Correspondance de Galiani?
, ,
. : :
On ne craint ici la justice, mais on craint Tin justice ( . .
. . . ., 1866. . 251252).
7
: ,
. rfe
, , .
, ?
,
(Correspondance
inedite... . 2. . 302). . . ,
, : ,
(. . .; ., 1928. . 2. . 169).
,
1 1819 . , -
..., ,
.
8
Les femmes, :
Le marquis. Comment definissez-vous les femmes?
Le chevalier. Un animal naturellement faible et
malade.
(Correspondance inedite... T. 2. P. 335).
(: . ?
. , .)

...

427

, , 9, .
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10.
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, 15 1826 . ,
, .

9
10

. . . . . . 252.
. . 155.

11
Correspondance
12
Ibid. P. 129.
13

Ibid. P. 130.

inedite... . 1. . 128.

428



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?)
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. . . ., 1970. . 170.
2
. . 186.
3
. . 173.

...

429

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,
4 .
, , .

,
1825 ., .
: ...Dieu
est un maitre si bon et si juste, que, nous avons tousjours fait notre devoir sur
la terre, il ne s'informera pas si nous en sommes acquittes en habit rouge
ou en habit noir 5 .
, , ,
.
, -
, .


. ,
,
.
,
.
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.
.

: ( ) 1830- . XVIII .
.
, .
1985

. . ., 1892. . 384.
Oeuvres completes de L. Sterne, traduit de I'anglais par ur societe de gens
de lettres. Paris, 1825. T. 2. P. 163.
5

430



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.

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, (,
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2
. - . .,
1878. . 30.
3
. . , . .,
1903. . 1. . 326.
4
. . ., 1929. . 110.
5
, , , XX .
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432

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, , ,
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, *.
, (
. , 1910. . 9: . . .
. 260).
- : Cependant, mon cher <...)
malgre la haut estime que je professe pour le ,
j'avone que votre victoire n'est pas des plus victorieuses.
, -
, . (...) Voyez-vous, mon cher:
! , , ! Tout est bel et bon (...). On dit, le
est terrible pour le pillage [ . . . .: 14 . ., 1951. . 4.
. 190193).
6
/. . . . .-. [ 14 . JW.], 1938. . 3. . 199.
7
. . . . . 542.
8
. . . . .: 12 . ., 1902. . 10. . 21 ( .
. .). ,
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1818 . ,

...

433


XIX . ,
.
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). (...) ,
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, , . ,
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( . 1925. . 21.
. 252253).
9
. . . . .: 16 . .; ., 1948. . 8. . 1. . 69.

.
10
. . : ,
. ., 1846. . 2. . 280.
11
. . . . 28.
12
. . . .: 14 . ., 1951. . 2. . 268.
13
. . . . . / / / . . . ., 1948. . 10.
. 70.

434

, :
, (chauffe), (framboise
) . ,
, . , , : ,
. . . ;
- ,
14.

. ,

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15 .

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. (.:
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. .
, , , 16 ,
.
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en sus (.
: sus a I'ennemi !).
,
17:
, ! 18.
14

. . ., 1929. . .
, ,
( : )
:
. !
[: !, . . ]
, ( ),
?.. (V, 374)
, , .
,
.
15
.: . . () / / . 1978. 4. . 147
149.
16
. : 4 . ., 1967. . 2.
. 110.
17
. . . . .: [14 . .], 1952. . 12. . 119.
18
. . 5. . 89.

...

435

, , ,
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,
fausse , (
fosco ).
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:
20.
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.

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: ... , ,
, , - ! <...).
, des apelcins?21

XVIII . ( : des apelcins, ,
-: +
:
- : des oranges.
Modensprache
- XVIII .).
. XIX .
,
,
. ,

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. : , , ,
, .
. * . ,
.

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,
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.
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19
20
21

. . . . . 6. . 65.
. . 11. . 542.
. : XVIII . .; ., 1950. . 516.

436


. ,
,
.
XVIII XIX .
,
.
, , , XVIII .
. 22 , ,
1810- .
.
23 .
.
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! (VIII, 1, 151).

.
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.

22

. . ., 1888. . 179180.
. .
( .: , , .
., 1977) :

, . ,
. . ,
. , ,

(. . . 21), ,
1830 . ...

, , ,
. ,
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.
23

...

437

. ,
,
,
.
. .
, ,
(, . . , ,
, ; . . .)24.
.

, .
, , ,
25.
. , ,
. Galotte
(), XVIII .26
,
.
( lantuleru !).
- -,
,
.
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. , ,
(. . ), .
,
. :
,
,
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. , II
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,
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1789 . ,
. * 1790 .:
; ;
; (la bonne compagnie)
. * , *

24

. . :
,
(. . . 37). ,
, , .
25
.: Dinaux A. Les Societes Badines, Bachiques, chantauxes et litteraires:
Leur histoire et leur travaux. Paris, 1867. T. 12.
26
.: Segure P. de. Le royome de la rue Saint-Honore: Madame Geoffrin et sa
fille. Paris, 1897. P. 180181.

438

, * 27. *
.
, ,
,
.
,
, ,
, ,
,
. :
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:

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( ...).
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: row...28
,
. ( )
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,
.
1979

27

. . . .: 2 . .; ., 1964. . 1. . 379. :
- - ( ) ,
,
, 1790 .
.
28
.: ' ' (. 409410).



. 1950 .,
1990-.
:
, ,
,
XVIII XIX . ,
, ,
,
.
500 1500 .
.
,
, ,
.
,
, , ,
1.

. ,
.
, :
: .
:
, . ,
;
, 2.
, .
.
-
/ / . . . . -. , 1958. . 63;
/ / . . . . -.
, 1964. . 160. ( . . 1);
1
,
,
, .
2
,
, ,
:
. , . .

440

. ., 1970;
. . ., 1972;
. , 1973;
. , 1975;
. ., 1982;
. . : . ., 1983;
. ., 1987.
(. 1 ,
1970; . 2 , 1973) : .
. (., 1988)
.
,
, , ,
. .
,
,
: . . , . . ,
. . , . . , . . , . . ,
. . ,
,
1940- 1950- . .
.

, , ,
,
. .
. ,

,
, , , . .

3. . , . .
. . ,

.

: . . , . . , . . , . . ,
. . . .

. .
1949
1. . . -
: (. . . )
/ / . . -. 1949. 7. . 133147.
1950
2. - 80- XVIII :
. . . . / / : . . .,
1950. . 81 128.
3. Kangelane astub ellu: [. .: . . ., 1950]
/ / Ohtuleht. 1950. 15. juuni.
1951
4. . . -
: . . ... . .
. , 1951. 18 .
1952
5. [ ] / / . .
. . ., 1952. . 631632.
6. . . / / . ., .
150- . -: 18021952. , 1952. . 158192.
7. . N. Radistsevi (17491802) 150. surma-aastapaevaks / / Rahva
Haal. 1952. 24. sept.
8. Positiivse kangelase probleemist A. N. Radistsevi esteetikas / / Loo
ming. 1952. Nr. 9. Lk. 10381045.
9. Revolutsioonilis-demokraatliku motte rajaja Venemaal / / Rahva Haal.
1952. 16. aug.
10. Suur vene satiirik: D. N. Fonvizini 160. surma-aastapaevaks (1745
1792) / / Ibid. 1952. 12. dets.
11. Vedomosti Moskovskogo Gossudarstva ja XVIII. sajandi vene
ajakirjandus / / Looming. 1952. Nr. 12. Lk. 13791383.
* . . 19491990 . .:
70- . . . . , 1992. . 514565.
.
,
. ,
,
(. ...).

442
1953

12. Suur revolutsionaar-demokraat: [ 125- . .


] / / Rahva Haal. 1953. 24. juuli.
13. Tsernosevski ja tema ajastu vene demokraatlik kirjandus / / Looming.
1953. Nr. 7. Lk. 865881.
14. Uusi uurimusi Puskini, Lermontovi ja Gogoli kirjandusliku parandi
kohta / / Ibid. 1953. Nr. 2. Lk. 252254.
1954
15. / / . 1954. 28 .
; . . . .
16. A. S. Gribojedovi koht kirjanduses: kirjaniku hukkumise 125. aastapaeva puhul / / Looming. 1954. Nr. 2. Lk. 231241.
17. Vene kirjanikud ja Eesti: Eesti ja vene rahva kultuurisidemete sugava
uurimise eest / / Edasi. 1954. 28. dets. . . . .
1955
18. Tartu ulikooli professor A. S. Kaissarov / / Edasi. 1955. 15. jaan.
19. Uusi materjale dekabristide voitlusest balti aadli vastu: Dekabristide
ulestousu 130. aastapaevaks / / Ibid. 1955. 25. dets.
1956
20. . . ? / / .
. 1956. 3. . 165172.
21.
/ / . . .,
1956. . 60: -. [.] 2, . 1. . 323338.
1957
22. XIX
/ / Teaduslik sessioon, puhendatud Suure Sots. Oktoobrirevolutsiooni 40.-ndale aastapaevale: Ettekannete teesid. Tartu, 1957.
Lk. 2426. . . . .
23. . . / /
. . 1957. 2. . 165172.
24. [ ] / /
. . . ., 1957. . 4245,
426427.
25. (17891803) / / . .
. . -. 1957. . 51. . 122166. (. .. -).
1958
26. -
/ / . . . . -. 1958. . 63.
192 .
27. . . XVIII . / / .
. 67. . 194207. (. ).

443

28. * . . / /
XIXX . .; .,
1958. . 301305.
29. , . . / /
XVIII . .; ., 1958. . 3. . 460462.
30. . . : (
, XIX .) / / . . . .
-. 1958. . 65. . 1727. (. .. ,
; [.] 1).
31. . . / . ., .., .
. ., 1958. 327 .
32. / / . . , . 1958. . 14. . 3740.
33. . . / / XVIII .
.; ., 1958. . 3. . 511512.
34. / / . . 276308.
35. .
/ . . . / / . . . . -. 1958.
. 65. . 191203. (. . , ; [.] 1).
1959
36. . . / / . . 1959.
8. . 9799.
37. - ,
/ / . . . . -. 1959.
. 78. . 1992. (. . , ; [.] 2).
38. XVIII : [. . . . . ,
. . , . . .
] / / XVIII . .; ., 1959. . 4. . 456466.
39. , . . / / .
. 230256.
40. [. .:] . . , . -. . 6. . . / /
. . . . . 1959. . 18, 6. . 539
542. . . . .
41.
/ / . 1959. 21 .
42. Neue Materialien uber die Anfange der Beschaftigung mit Schiller
in der russischen Literatur / / Wissenschaftliche Zertschrift der Ernst
Moritz Arndt-Universitat Greifswald. 1958/59. Jg. 8. S. 419
434.
43. Hea algatus / / Edasi. 1959. 6. marts.
1960
44. XIX . . / /
. . 1960. 3. . 145150.
45. - : 1.
; 2. . .
; 3. -; 4.
; 5. ; 6. / / . . . . -.
1960. . 98. . 310314. (. . , ;
[.] 3).

444

46. / /
: . . .; ., 1960. . 3. .
131 173.
47. : [. .: . .
. ., 1959] / / . . 1960. 11. . 232235.
48. XVIII .
/ . . . / /
. . . . 1960. . 16. . 490505. .
. . .
49. / / . . . .
-. 1960. . 98. . 323. (. . ,
; [.] 3). . . . 3. . .
50. . . / / . . 24142.
51. / / XIX
: . . .; ., 1960. . 351.
1961
52. : [ 150-
. . ] / / . 1961.
6. . 1318.
53. - : 1.
A. ; 2. : ;
3. / / . . . . -.
1961. . 104. . 277284. (. . ,
; [.] 4).
54. . . / /
. . 1961. 3. . 153159.
55. . . / /
. 1961. 2. . 121 125.
56. . . / / . . . . -. 1961.
. 104. . 293295. (. . , ;
[.] 4). . . . .
57. , , : [ 250- . .
] / / . . 1961. 19 .
58. XIX / . ., ., . .
., 1961. 658 .
59. / /
XVIII : [. .]. .; ., 1961. . 158162.
60. :
. . ... - . . ., 1961. 31 .
61. 1800- 1810- / / ,
. . . -. 1961. . 104. . 357. (.
. , ; [.] 4).
62. XVIII / /
XVIII : [. .].
.; ., 1961. . 79106.
63. [. .:] . .
. , 1960 / / . . 1961. 5.
. 137139.
64. Suur vene revolutsiooniline demokraat: [ 150-
B. . ] / / Eesti Kommunist. 1961. Nr. 6. Lk. 1216.
. 52.

65. Oppigem keeli! / / Tartu Riiklik Olikool. 1961. 21. apr.

445
1962

66. XVIII
XIX / / . ., . 250-

67.
68.

69.
70.
71.
72.

73.
74.
75.
76.

77.
78.

.-. : 1712 VI 1962, 1618 1962 . , 1962.


. 7880.
/ / .
, 1962. . 320.
1830-
/ / . . . . -. 1962. . 119. . 377.
(. . , ; [.] 5).
(18191822) / /
. ., 1962. . 1. . 4566.
[ . ] / / IV . :
. ., 1962. . 1. . 276277.
[ ] / / . . 149150.

/ / . . 1- . , . , 1962.
. 92102.
, : [. . ] / / . .
1962. 25 .
/ / 1812 :
150- : . . ., 1962. . 215232.
/ / XVIII . .; ., 1962.
. 5. . 435439.
XVIII
XIX . / / XII : [. .].
.; ., 1962. . 330405.
A. I. Herzen / / Looming. 1962. Nr. 4. Lk. 625632. 78.
[Oppimisvoimalustest vene filoloogia osakonnas] / / Tartu Riiklik
Olikool. 1962. 20. apr.
1963

79. : [- . . -] / /
. . 1963. 18 .
80. :
( . . ) / /
, 1962. .; ., 1963. . 5257.
81. XVIII
/ / . . . . -. 1963. . 139.
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227. Die Struktur literarischer Texte. Munchen, 1972. 430 S.


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251. : (
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252. Die Struktur des kunstlerischen Textes. Frankfurt a. M., 1973.
470 S. CM. 194.
253. Different Cultures, Different Codes / / Times Literary Supplement.
1973. 12 Oct. P. 12131215.
254. Einige prinzipielle Schwierigkeiten bei der strukturellen Textbeschreibung / / Sprache im technischen Zeitalter. 1973. 48. S. 278
284. CM. Mb 166.
255. Funzione modellizzante dei concetti di fine e inizio / / II verri.
1973. 2. P. 2531. . 117.
256. II problema del segno e del sistema segnico nella tipologia della
cultura russa primo del XX secolo / / Ricerche semiotiche: Nuove
tendenze delle scienze umane nell' URSS. Torino, 1973. P. 40
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257. Kulturaszemiotika: (1970) / / Helikon. 1973. 23. Old.
375376. CM. 192.
258. La structure du texte artistique. Paris, 1973. 415 p. . 194.
259. Le probleme de la traduction poetique / / Change (Paris). 1973.
14. P. 1418. CM. 91.
260. L'illusione della realta / / Rassegna sovietica. 1973. 6 . P. 107119. CM. 248.
261. Mikula Seljaninovits; Nareznoi, V. .; Nikitin, Affanasi; Novikov, N. I.
/ / Eesti Noukogude Entsuklopeedia. Tallinn, 1973. Kd. 5.
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262. nacim nacelnim teskocama structuralnog opisa teksta / / Vidik.
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dejinam metodologie. Praha, 1973. S. 419437. . 145.
266. Semantika broja i tip kulture / / Vidik. 1973. 1415.
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267. Szoveg, modell, tipus. Budapest, 1973. 408 old. . 194,
193, 126, 133 .
268. Texte et hors-texte / / Change (Paris). 1973. 14. P. 32
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269. Theses on the Semiotic Study of Culture: (As Applied to the Slavic
Texts) / / Structure of Texts and Semiotics of Culture. The Hague;
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1974
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285. Analysis of a Poetic Text: The Structure of Poetry: [Excerpt] / / Soviet
Studies in Literature: A Journ. of Translations. 1974. Vol. 10, 2.
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286. Aufsatze zur Theorie und Methodologie der Literatur und Kultur.
Kronberg (Ts.), 1974. 452 S. . 195, 93, 207, 235, 249, 166,
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. 278.
Dwa teksty semiologiczne: [1] pojeciu przestrzeni geograficznej
w szedniowiecznych tekstach staroruskich; [2] redukcji i roswijaniu
systemow znakowych: (W sprawie Freudyzm i kulturologia semiotyczna) / / T e k s t y (Warszawa). 1974. 3 (15). S. 93113.
CM. Mb 100, 277.
Esimene uleliiduline: [O] I . .
] / Edasi. 1974. 14. marts. . 279.
Fabula w filmie / / Dialog (Warszawa). 1974. 4 (216).
S. 139146. CM. 248.
Luuletaja, teadlane, oppejoud: [. ] / / T a r t u Riiklik Olikool.
1974. 8 veebr.
Mit ime kultura / / Izraz. Kn. 35, br. I. S. 321. .
240.
Narracja filmowa / / Dialog (Warszawa). 1974. 3 (215).
b. 151 155. CM. 248.
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P. 7581. CM. 235.
Ogledi iz tipologije kulture / / Treci program: Radio Beograd.
Jesen, 1974. P. 439586. . JMb 193.
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87. CM. 244.
Polotski, Simeon; Prokopovits, F.; Puskin, A. S.; Radistsev, A. N. / /
Eesti Noukogude Entsuklopeedia. Tallinn, 1974. Kd. 6. Lk. 165,
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Vol. 10, 4 P. 8890. . 238.
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textes slaves) / / Semiotique (Paris). 1974/ 8184.
P. 125156. (Recherches i n t e r n a t i o n a l a la lumiere du marxisme).
CM. 251.
Zur Distinktion des linguistischen und des literaturwissenschaftlichen
Strukturbergriffs / / Formalismus, Strukturalismus Geschichte.
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1975
305. : [] / / . . -. 1975.
7 .
306. / / . . . .
-. 1975. . 369. . 126135. (. . ,
; [.] 26: ). . . . .
307. / / . . -. 1975. 19 .

457

308. : ( ) / / :
[. .]. ., 1975. . 2574.
309. / / . I . (III)
. . . XX .
, 1975. . 5363. . . . .
310. . .
/ / Russian Literature 1975. 9. P.
111 118.
311. / / . . . . -. 1975. . 369.
. 1953. (. . , ; [.] 26:
).
312. - / / .
1975. . 365. . 242. (. ; [.] 7).
313. : ( : ) / /
. I . (III) . . .
XX . , 1975. . 102103.
314. / / . . 1975. 2 .
. 206207.
315. / / . . -. 1975. 14 .
316. // . . . .
-. 1975. . 365. . 56. (. ;
[.] 7). .
317. : (, ) / /
: . . . ., 1975. . 4054.
318. : : ,
. , 1975. 109 .
319. XIX . " : (
,
) / ., . . . / / . . . . -. 1975. . 358. . 168
322. (. . , ; [.] 24:
). . . . .
320. XIX . / /
. . 365. . 120142. (. ;
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321. Die Analyse des poetischen Textes. Kronberg (Ts.), 1975. XIV,
203 S. CM. 223.
322. II concetto di testo / / Teoria della letteratura. Bologna, 1975.
P. 8687. CM. 194.
323. La ripetibilita al livello fonologico / / Ibid. P. 236241. .
194.
324. La struttura del testo poetico / / Ibid. P. 133139. . 194.
325. Mito Nome Cultura / / Lotman Jurij M., Uspenskij Boris A.
Semiotica e cultura. Milano; Napoli, 1975. P. 97131. .
240.
326. Myth Name Culture / / Soviet Studies in Literature: A Journ.
of Translations. 1975. Vol. 11, 23. P. 1746. .
240.
327. Notes on the Structure of a Literary Text / / Semiotica. 1975.
Vol. 15, 3. P. 199205. . 207.
328. modelujacym znaczeniu kohca i poczatku w przekazach
artystycznych: (Tezy) / / Semiotyka kultury. Warszawa, 1975.
S. 374379. CM. 117.

458

329. semiotysznym mechanizmie kultury / / Ibid. S. 177201.


. 208.
330. semiotyce pojec wstyd a strach w mechanizmie kultury:
(Tezy) / / Ibid. S. 202205. . 188.
331. Observations on the Structure of the Narrative Text / / The Soviet
Rev. 1975. Vol. 14, 2. P. 5965. 235.
332. On the Metalanguage of a Typological Description of Culture / /
Semiotica. 1975. Vol. 14, 2. P. 97123. . 148, 165.
333. Point of View in a Text / / New Literary History. 1975. Vol. 6, 2.
P. 339352. CM. 194.
334. Rolejev, K. F.; Sakulin, P. N.; Strukturaalne kirjandusteadus; Sumarokov, A. P., Sismarjov, V. F.; Zadonstsina; Zirmunski, V. M.;
Zukovski, V. A. / / Eesti Noukogude Entsuklopeedia. Tallinn, 1975.
Kd. 7. Lk. 12, 66, 287, 309, 391, 402, 417418, 419.
335. Semiotika filmu a problemy filmovej estetiky. Bratislava, 1975.
139 s. CM. 248.
336. Sul meccanismo semiotico della cultura / / Lotman Jurij M., Uspenskij
Boris A. Semiotica e cultura. Milano; Napoli, 1975. P. 5995.
CM. JMb 208.
337. Soduriks teeb soda / / Tartu Riiklik Olikool. 1975. 30. mai.
338. Tekst i funkcja / / Semiotyka kultury. Warszawa, 1975. S. 100
113. CM. 152.
339. Tesi sull' Arte come sistema secondario di modellizzazione / /
Lotman Jurij M., Uspenskij Boris A. Semiotica e cultura. Milano;
Napoli, 1975. P. 127. . 138.
340. The Discrete Text and Iconic Text: Some Remarks on the Structure
of Narrative / / New Literary History. 1975. Vol. 6, 2. P.
333338. CM. 235.
341. Theatre and Theatricality in the Order of Early Nineteenth Century
Culture / / Soviet Studies in Literature: A. Journ. of Translations.
1975. Vol. 11, 23. P. 155185. . 249.
342. Theses on the Semiotic Study of Culture: (As Applied to Slavic
Texts) / / Peter de Ridder Press Publications in Semiotics of Culture
[] 2. Lisse, 1975. 29 p.; The Tell-Tale Sign: A Survey of
Semiotics. Lisse, 1975. P. 5783. . 251.
343. Tipologia della cultura. Milano, 1975. 299 p. .
. . . . 193, 208, 240, 242, 117, 148, 100, 149, 133,
188, 249.
344. Zagadnienia przestrzeni artystycznej w prozie Gogola / / Semiotyka
kultury. Warszawa, 1975. S. 243295. . 149.

1976
345. XVIII . / /
: . . .
., 1976. . 292297.
346.
/ / : . .
80- . . . . ., 1976. . 125132.
347. / /
XVIIXIX : ( 150-
. . ). ., 1976. . 247267.
( . . (1975)).

459

348. ? / / . . 1976. 11.


. 6770.
349. , ... / / .
. 1976. 23. . 3639. . 308.
350. Analysis of the Poetic Text. Ann Arbor (Mich.), 1976. 309 p.
CM. 223.
351. Culture and Information / / Dispositio: Revista Hispanica de Semi6tica
Literaria. 1976. Vol. 1 , 3 . P. 213215. (Dept. of Romance
Lang., Univ. of Michigan). . 191.
352. Gogol' and the Correlation of the Culture of Humor with the
Comic and Serious in the Russian National Tradition / / Soviet
Studies in Literature: A Journ. of Translations. 1976. Vol. 12,
2. P. 4043; Semiotics and Structuralism: Readings from the
Soviet Union. White Plains; N. Y., 1976. P. 297300. .
271.
353. Kuidas koneleb kunst? / / Keel, mida me harime. Tallinn, 1976.
Lk. 157168.
354. La reduction et le deploiement des systemes semiotiques: (Introduction
au probleme: le freudisme et la culturologie semiotique) / / Travaux
sur les systemes de signes: Ecole de Tartu: Textes choisis et presentes
par J. M. Lotman et B. A. Ouspenski. Bruxelles, 1976. P. 4451.
CM. 277.
355. La semiotique des concepts de peur et honte dans le mecanisme
de la culture / / Ibid. P. 5457. . 188.
356. La signification modelisante des concepts de fin et de debut
dans les textes artistiques / / Ibid. P. 197201. . 117.
357. Mythe Norn Culture / / Ibid. P. 1839. . 240.
358. Myth Name Culture / / Semiotics and Structuralism: Readings
from the Soviet Union. White Plains; N. Y., 1976. P. 332.
CM. 240.
359. Olustikuruum esteetilise ansamblina / / Kunst. 1976. Nr. 2.
Lk. 3539. CM. Mb 282.
360. O. M. Freidenberg as a Student of Culture / / Soviet Studies' in
Literature: A Journ. of Translations. 1976. Vol. 12, 2. P.
311; Semiotics and Structuralism: Readings from the Soviet Union.
White Plains; N. Y., 1976. P. 257268. . 246.
361. On the Modeling Significance of the Concepts Beginning and
End in Artistic Texts / / Russian Poetics in Translation. 1976.
Vol. 3: General Semiotics. P. 711. . 117*
362. On the Reduction and Unfolding of Sign Systems: (The Problem
of Freudianism and Semiotic Culturology) / / Soviet Studies in
Literature: A Journ. of Translations. 1976. Vol. 12, 2.
P. 4452; Semiotics and Structuralism: Readings from the Soviet
Union. White Plains; N. Y., 1976. P. 301309. . 277.
363. Semiotika filma i problemi filmske estetike. Beograd, 1976.
103 s. CM. 248.
364. Semiotics of Cinema. Ann Arbor (Mich.), 1976. 106 p. .
248.
365. Struktura umetnickog teksta. Beograd, 1976. 398 s. .
194.
366. The Content and Structure of the Concept of Literature / / PTL:
A Journ. for Descriptive Poetics and Theory of Lit. 1976. 1.
P. 339356. CM. 245.

460

367. The Structure of Ideas in Pushkin's Poem Andzhelo / / Russian


Poetics in Translation. Colchester, 1976. Vol. 2: Poetry and
Prose. P. 6684. CM. 237.
368. Theater and Theatricality in the Order of Early Nineteenth Century
Culture / / Semiotics and Structuralism: Readings from the Soviet
Union. White Plains; N. Y., 1976. P. 3363; The Soviet Rev.
1975/1976. Vol. 16, 4. P. 5383. . 249.
369. Till kulturtypologins problem / / Tecken och tydning: Till konsternas
semiotik. Stockholm, 1976. P. 264273. . 126.
370. Tjutsev, F. I.; Tomasevski, B. V.; Trediakovski, V. K.; Turgenev,
vennad; Vassili Buslajev; Vene NFSV, Kirjandus (kuni 1917. a.);
Venevitinov, D. V.; Vengerov, S. A. / / Eesti Noukogude Entsuklopeedia. Tallinn, 1976. Kd. 8. Lk. 10, 22, 54, 130, 324, 367368,
376, 377.
371. Tre texter om konstens semiotik / / Tecken och tydning: Till konsternas
semiotik. Stockholm, 1976. P. 4459. . 91, 138, 194.
372. Un modele dynamique du systeme semiotique / / Travaux sur les
systemes de signes: Ecole de Tartu: Textes choisis et presentes par
J. M. Lotman et B. A. Ouspenski. Bruxelles, 1976. P. 7793.
CM. 272.
373. Wyktady z poetyki strukturalnej / / Wspotczesna teoria badafi literackich za granica: Antologia. Krakow, 1976. Z. 2. S. 161
176. CM. 91.
1977
374. / / . . . . -.
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[.] 28: ).
375. / /
XVIII . ., 1977. . 12: . .
. . 2939.
376." : [] / / . . . .
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; [.] 8).
377.
. ., 1977. 18 . (. , .
: , .). %
378. / / . . .
. - 1977. . 411. . 138150. (.
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379. : [. .:
. , . . .
., 1976] / / . . 1977. 3. . 148166. .
. . .
380. / / . 4. . 215217.
381. XVIII / / ,
. . . -. 1977. . 411. . 6569. (.
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382. [. .:] . . . . (17851803). , 1976 / /
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384.
385.
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. 336. (. . , ; [.] 28). .


. . .
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A ketfele kommunikacios modell a kultura rendszereben / / Jelkommunikacio-kultura. Budapest, 1977. Old. 143165. .
272.
A kultura szemiotikai mechanizmusa / / Ibid. Old. 173188.
CM. 208.
Die Rolle dualistischer Modelle in der Dynamik der russischen Kultur:
(Bis zum ende 18. Jahrhunderts) / / Poetica. 1977. Bd. 9, H. 1.
S. 140. CM. 383.
Filmenssemiotikochfilmestetiska fragor. Stockholm, 1977. 172 s.
CM. J\fe 248.
Filmszemiotika es filmesztetika. Budapest, 1977. 147 old.
CM. 248.
Kulttuuri on kiehtova merkkien jarjestelma / / Helsingin Sanomat.
1977. 8. toukokuuta.
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e di Linguistica: Universita di Urbino; Ser. A, 66). . 377.
Mitosz nev kultura / / Jel-kommunikacio-kultura. Budapest,
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Myth Name Culture / / Soviet Semiotics: An Anthology.
Baltimore; London, 1977. P. 233252. . 240.
Numerical Semantics and Cultural Types / / Ibid. P. 227231.
CM. 151.
modelujacym znaczniu konca i poczatku w przekazach artystycznych: (Tezy) / / Semiotyka kultury. Warszawa, 1977. S. 344
349. CM. 117.
semiotycznym mechanizmie kultury / / Ibid. S. 147170.
CM. 208.
semiotyce poj^c wstyd i strach w mechanizmie kultury: (Tezy)
/ / Ibid. S. 171 174. CM. 188.
Primary and Secondary Communication-Modelling Systems / / Soviet
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Probleme der Kinoasthetik: Einfuhrung in die Semiotik des Films.
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Readings in Soviet Semiotics: (Russian Texts). Ann Arbor (Mich.),
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Semiotique et esthetique du cinema. Paris, 1977. 188 p.
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Text and Function / / Soviet Semiotics: An Anthology. Baltimore;
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Text und Funktion / / Textsemiotik als Ideologiekritik. Frankfurt a
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407. The Dynamic Model of a Semiotic System / / Semiotica. 1977.


Vol. 21, 3/4. P. 193210. . Mb 272.
408. The Problem of Meaning in Secondary Modeling Sistems / / New Lite
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409. The Structure of the Artistic Text. Ann Arbor (Mich.), 1977.
300 p. (Michigan Slavic Contributions; 7). . 1 9 4 .
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413. Zur Distinktion das linguistischen und des literaturwissenschaftlichen
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1978
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. . 194.
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426. Estructura del texto artistico. Madrid, 1978. 364 p. . J\lb 194.
427. Innowacja i tradycja / / Punkt (Gdansk). 1978. 3. S. 101
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428. Kunst als Sprach-Generator... / / Asthetik: Materiaiien zu ihrer
Geschichte: Ein Lesebuch. Frankfurt a. M., 1978. S. 310314.
CM. 194.
429. Lalki w systemie kultury / / Teksty (Warszawa). 1978. JSl9 6
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463

430. Myth Name Culture / / Semiotica. 1978. Vol. 22, 3/4.


P. 211233. CM. J\fe 240.
431. Neue Aspekte bei der Erforschung der Kultur der Alten Rus /J Kunst
und Literatur. 1978. 1. S. 8190. ! 379.
432. On the Semiotic Mechanism of Culture / / New Literary History.
1978. Vol. 9, 2. P. 211232. . 208.
433. Que donne l'approche semiotique? / / Sciences sociales. 1978.
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434. Sulla poesia: testo e sistema / / Problemi: Periodico quadrimestrale
di cultura. 1978. 52. P. 132146. . 223.
435. Text and Function / / New Literary History. 1978. Vol. 9, 2.
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436. Theme and Plot: The Theme of Cards and the Card Game in Russian
Literature of the Nineteenth Century / / PTL: A Journ for Descriptive
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450. Despre continutul J structura notiunii de literatura artistica / /


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459. Ogranicavanje i razvijanje semiotickih sistema: (Uvod u problem:
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465. The Future for Structural Poetics / / Poetics. 1979. Vol. 8, 6.
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467. Typologia tekstow i typologia zwiazkow zewnatrztekstowych / /
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468. [ ]. Tokyo, 1979.
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474. Das Thema der Karten und des Kartenspiels in der russischen Literatur
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480. Nuovi aspetti nello studio della cultura delTantica Rus' / / Strumenti
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50. sunnipaevaks) / / Edasi. 1981. 7. okt.
505. Kunst als Sprache: Untersuchungen zum Zeichencharakter von Literatur und Kunst. Leipzig, 1981. 501 S. . 193, 138, 272,
278, 277, 245, 249, 248, 282, 100, 133, 206, 249, 121, 238, 170.
506. Lavasemiootika / / Kultuur ja Elu. 1981. 1. Lk. 5153;
Mb 2. Lk. 3440; 3. Lk. 5055. . 473.
507. Meninio teksto daugiaplaniskumas / / Estetine Kultura; 1: Menas ir
laisvalaikio kultura. Vilnius, 1981. S. 288299. . 194.
508. On the Language of Animated Cartoons / / Russian poetics in Transla
tion. 1981. Vol. 8: Film Theory and General Semiotics. P. 36
39. CM. 417.
509. Semiotica della scena / / Strumenti critici. 1981. 44. P. 1
29. CM. 473.
510. Sergei Issakov viiekumnene / / Sirp ja Vasar. 1981. 9. okt.
Lk. 6.
511. [ . , 1981.
186 . . .] . 248.
511 . [ XVIII ;
XVIII ] / / Annales de litterature
comparee: Hikaku Bungaku Nenshi (Tokyo). 1981. Vol. XVIII.
P. 8087. . . . 62, 136.

467


1982

512. / / : . . . .
. Budapest, 1982. . 715724. . 223.
513. / / . . . . -. 1982.
. 604. . 316. (. . , ;
: -
).
514. -
:
( ) / / . . .
. -. 1982. . 576. . 121. (.
; [.] 15: .
). . . . .
515. : [
] / / Filoloogiateadused Tartu Olikoolis:
(Konv. teesid...) = :
(. ...). Tartu, 1982. Lk. 7882.
516. / / : : 2 . .,
1982. . 2. . 5865. . 3. . , . . .
517. / /
, 1979. ., 1982. . 1527.
518. : [ . . , ] / /
. . . . -. 1982. . 576. . 39. (.
; [.] 15: .
).
519.
: ( . - ) / /
: [. .]. ., 198^.
. 236249. . . . .
520. / / : . . . . . Buda
pest, 1982. . 404408. . 223.
521. : ( . . ) / / . . -.
1982. 3 .
522. / /
: . . . . . Budapest, 1982. . 218
229. . 138.
523. - % IX .
, 1982. 208 . . . . .
524. A koznapi viselkedes poetikaja a XVIII szazdi orosz kulturaban / /
Helikon. 1982. 23. Old. 251265. . 381.
525. Die grafische Folge: Erzahlung und Gegenerzahlung / / Figura 3
Zyklen: Internationale Buchkunst-Ausstellung. Leipzig, 1982. Leip
zig, 1982. S. 1122.
526. Estructura del texto artistico. Madrid, 1982. 364 p. . 194.
527. II cervello il testo la cultura l'intelletto artificial / / Intersezioni. 1982. 1. P. 516. . 493.
528. !: (A. S. Puskini loomingus esinevast
valjendist) / / Edasi. 1982. 13. veebr. . 446.
529. Kultur und Text als Sinngeneratoren / / Zeitschrift fur Semiotik.
1982. Bd. 4, 1/2. S. 123133. . 547.
530. La semiotica della scena / / Rassegna sovietica. 1982. Vol. 33,
2. P. 324. CM. 473.

468

531. Lermontovi entsuklopeedia ja kirjanduslike personaalentsuklopeedijate probleeme: [. .: . ., 1981] / /


Keel ja Kirjandis. 1982. 12. Lk. 662666. .
. . .
532. Linguaggio teatrale e pittura / / Alfabeta (Milano). 1982. 32.
P. 1516. . JMb 445.
533. Noorte Haale lugejate kusimustele vastab TRO valiskirjanduse
professor filoloogiadoktor Juri Lotman / / Noorte Haal. 1982.
28. veebr.
534. Pildijada: jutustus ja jutustuse eitus / / Sirp ja Vasar. 1982.
1. okt. Lk. 8; 7. okt. Lk. 16. . 525.
535. Sur deux modeles de communication dans le systeme de la culture / /
Linguistique et poetique. Moscou, 1982. P. 205224. . 242.
536. The Text and the Structure of Its Audience / / New Literary History:
A Journ. of Theory and Interpretation. 1982. Vol. 14, 1.
P. 8187. CM. 384.
537. Vene kirjandus: Opik IX kl. Tallinn, 1982. 164 lk.

1983
538. : :
. 2- . ., 1983. 255 . . 488.
539. / / . . . . -. 1983. .
635. . 1530. (. ; [.] 16:
).
540. / / . . 645. . 130137.
(. . , :':
).
541. / / . . 1983. 9. . 3134. .
. .
542. : (
) / /
: - . ,
29 . 6 . 1983 .: . . . ., 1983. . 212
214.
543. - : 1. :
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35. (. . , : :
).
544. - : 2.
: ( ) / / .
. 3541. . 3. . .
545. : (
) / / . . 646. . 92113. (. . : :
).
546. ,
/ /
: - . , 29 . 6 .
1983 .: . . . ., 1983. . 214215.
547. / /
. ., 1983. . 2330. . 529.

469

548. -
IX / / . . . . 1983. 1. .
710.
549. , / / . .
. . . 1983. . 42, 3. . 253262.
550. . . : .:
. 2- . ., 1983. 416 . . 472.
551. / /
: . . . , 1983. . 6681.
552. : / / . .
. . 1983. 3. . 1216.
553. Der Einfluss im kulturellen Feld / / Wiener Slawistischer Aim.
1983. Bd. 12. S. 519.
554. I monumenti letterari russi del XVIII secolo: alcuni problemi di
redazione dei testi / / Rassegna sovietica. 1983. Vol. 34, 3.
P. 2137. CM. Mb 494.
555. Moni sona Roman Jakobsonist / / Keel ja Kirjandus. 1983. 4.
Lk. 188190.
556. Semiotyka filmu. Warszawa, 1983. 208 s. . 248.
1984
557. !: [.- .
60- . ] / / Wiener Slawistischer Aim. 1984.
Bd. 14. S. 1316.
558. . . / . .,
, ., ., . ., 1984. 717 .
. . . , . . .
559. : , -
IX . , 1984. 135 . . . . .
560. / / . . . . -. 1984. . 641.
. 523. (. ; [.] 17:
).
561. : [
] / / Studia Russica. Budapest, 1984. 7. Old.
129139.
562. / / . . . . -. 1984. . 664.
. 3. (. ; [.] 18:
: ).
563. . . / /
. ,
1984. . 6673. . 149.
564. / / . .
. . -. 1984. . 664. . 3045. (.
; [.] 18: :
).
565. SVD: / / :
(. , 1982 .) , 1984.
. 4678. . . . .
566. Bachtin sein Erbe und aktuelle Probleme der Semiotik / / Roman
und Gesellschaft: Internationales Michail-Bachtin-Colloquium.
Jena, 1984. S. 3240.
567. Da Rousseau a Tolstoj: Saggi sulla cultura russa. Bologna, 1984.
345 p. CM. 136, 249, 308, 67, 68.

470

568. Dialogo degli emisferi cerebrali / / Alfabeta (Milano). 1984.


59. P. 2123. CM. 541.
569. El t e x t o e n e l t e x t o / / C r i t e r i o s (Habana). 19831984. 512.
P. 99116. CM. 499.
570. Hinge kasvatamine: (Oppimise, opetamise ning kasvatusprotsessi
seosest koolis) / / Rahva Haal. 1984. 29. aug.
571. Jurij Mihailovics Lotman: [] / / Petofi Nepe. 1984.
16. okt. Old. 3.
572. Kultuur ja organism / / Teooria ja mudelid eluteaduses. Tartu, 1984.
Lk. 215220.
573. Kuvasarja: kertomus ja vastakertomus: (J. Arrakin ja F. Goyan
kuvasarjoista) / / Taide. 1984. 4. P. 5459. . 525,
534.
574. La raffigurazione degli elementi naturali nella letteratura / / Autografo: Quadrimestrale de Centro di Ricerca sulla Tradizione Manoscritta du Autori Contemporanei, Universita di Pavia. Pavia, 1984.
P. 916. CM. 544.
575. Mensch, Dingwelt und Raum: Gedanken zur Ausstellung Das
Stilleben und sein Gegenstand. Dresden, 1983 / / Dresdener Kunstblatter. 1984. 2. S. 5762. Zusam. mit Klaus Stadtke.
576. Semiotika filmu a problemy filmovej estetiky. 2. vyd. Bratislava,
1984. 90 s. CM. JMb 248.
577. Semiotyka sceny / / Dialog (Warszawa). 1984. S. 87103.
CM. 473.
578. Struktura tekstu artystycznego. Warszawa, 1984. 452 s. .
194.
579. Sulla preistoria delle idee semiotiche contemporanee: II concetto di
testo nel Discorso su Dante di Mandel'stam / / Autografo: Quadri
mestrale del Centro di Ricerca sulla Tradizione Manoscritta di
Autori Contemporanei, Universita di Pavia. Pavia, 1984. P.
36. CM. 515.
580. Tjutcev e Dante / / Ibid. P. 69. . 543.
581. The Semiotics of Russian Culture. Ann Arbor, 1984. 341 p.
(Michigan Slavic Contributions; 1 1 ) . . . . .
. 383, 379, 519, 308, 249, 311, 441, 381.
582. Oigus biograafiale: Teksti ja autori isiksuse tupoloogilisest suhestatusest / / Looming. 1984. 12. Lk. 16841692. .
586, 622.
583. [ ] / / Russian Avantgard. Tokyo, 1984.
P. 3758. . . . 416.
584. [- . ] / /
Ibid. . 178191. . . . 223.
585. [ ] / / Ibid.
. 148167. . . . 347.
1985
586. : [. .: . .
. 2- . ., 1984] / / . 1985. 2. . 228
236.
587.
XVIII . / /
. ., 1985. . 222
230.

471

588. : (
? / / . . . .
-. 1985. . 698. . 7375. (. -.
: :
).
589. : ,
: [. .: . . 1836
: ( ). ., 1984] / / .
1985. 3. . 9099.
590. : ( ) / / . . 1985. 6. . 29.
590 . / / .
. . . . 1985. . 44, 2. . 170171.
591. : [800
] / / . . , . 1985. 5. .
6263. . 537.
592. / / Wiener Slawistischer
Aim. 1985. Bd. 16. S. 59.
593. / /
. ., 1985. . 522.
594. - IX .
2- . , 1985. 208 . . . . .
. 523.
595. Binary Models in the Dynamics of Russian Culture: (To the End of the
Eighteenth Century) / / The Semiotics of Russian Cultural History:
Essays by Yurii M. Lotman, Lidiia la. Ginsburg, Boris A. Uspenskii.
Ithaca; N. Y.; London, 1985. P. 3066. . 383.
596. Concerning Khlestakov / / Ibid. P : 150187. . 311.
597. Die kunstlerische Natur in den russischen Volksbilderbogen / / Lubok:
Der russische Volksbilderbogen: (Katalog des Munchner Stadtmuseumus). Munchen, 1985. S. 2134. . 347.
598. Dwa teksty semiotyce / / Odra (Wroclaw). 1985. 11.
P. 5861.
599. Filmikunsti koht kultuurimehhanismis / / Teater. Muusika. Kino.
1985. 7. Lk. 1928. . 378.
600. testo e la storia: L' Evgenij Onegin di Puskin. Bologna,
1985. 179 p. CM. 318.
601. Kultura kao kolektivno pamcenje / / Gradina (Nis). 1985.
4. S. 1214. CM. 377.
602. La semiosfera: L'asimmetria e il dialogo nelle strutture pensanti.
Venezia, 1985. 311 p. . 560, 579, 539, 545, 549, 514, 586,
492, 564, 499, 441, 517.
603. La struttura del testo poetico. Milano, 1985. 361 p. . 194.
604. Mozg tekst kultura sztuczny intelekt / / Przekazy i opinie
(Warszawa). 1985. 1/2 (39/40). S. 722. . 493.
605. Retoryka; Tekst w tekscie / / Literatura na Swiecie (Warszawa).
1985. 3. S. 300343. . 496, 499.
606. Romani Turgenjeva u sizejnom prostory ruskog romana / / Gradina
(Nis). 1985. 4. S. 511. . 628.
607. Sull' Ode scelta da Oiobbe di Lomonosov / / Rassegna sovietica.
1985. Vol. 36, 3. P. 316. CM. 549.
608. Suurtukivaelasena suures sojas / / Tartu Riiklik Olikool. 1985.
7. mai.

472

609. The Decembrist in Daily Life: (Everyday Behavior as a HistoricalPsychological Category) / / The Semiotics of Russian Cultural History:
Essays by Yurii M. Lotman, Lidiia la. Ginsburg, Boris A. Uspenskii.
Ithaca; N. Y.; London, 1985. P. 95149. . 308.
610. The Poetics of Everyday Behaviour in Eighteenth-Century Russian
Culture / / Ibid. P. 6794. . 381.
611. Tonjanovi romaanist Puskin / / Tonjanov, J. Puskin. Tallinn,
1985. Lk. 456462.
612. Zum Aufbau der Theorie der Kulturwechselwirkung: (Semantischer
Aspekt) / / Proceedings of the X-th Congress of the International
Comparative Literature Association, New York 1982. N. Y.; London,
1985. Vol. I: General Problems of Literary History. P. 1620.
CM. 545.
613. Ober biographische Literatur / / Kunst und Literatur. 1985.
Bd. 3, 5. S. 603612. CM. 586.

1986
614. - / / :
. , 1986. . 192207.
615. / / : .
. ., 1986. . 12. . 124151. . . . .
616. : 1.
; 2. / /
. . . . -. 1986. . 720. . 2543.
(. ; [.] 19:
).
617. / /
: . . . , 1986. . 2433.
618. / / . 1986. 28 .
619. [ ] / / . .
1986. 11 . . 5.
620.
/ / IV - ,
1985 . ., 1986. . 4856.
621. / / . . . . -.
1986. . 736. . 104108. (
: Linguistica).
622. - : (
) / / . .
. . -. 1986. . 683. . 106121. (. .
, : :
: ).
623.
XVIII / / . . : . .
., . 275- . . (28
29 . 1986 .) , 1986. . 36.
624. / / : (
. (1984)). ., 1986. . 614. ([ 84]; . 17).
625. : / / ,
. . . -. 1986. . 720. . 36. (.

626.
627.

628.

629.

630.
631.

632.
633.
634.

635.
636.

637.

638.
639.
640.

641.
642.
643.
644.

473

; [.] 19:
).
/ / . . . .
. . , 1986. . 193204.
: ( 80- ) / /
. . . . -. 1986. . 735. . 36.
( .; [.] 7: .
XX ).
XIX
/ / Annales Instituti Philologiae Slavicae Universitatis
Debreceniensis de Ludovico Kossuth Nominatae. 1986. Vol. 23.
P. 524.
/ / :
: . . IX . ., , .
1986 . , 1986. . 7677.
, , : ( . . ) / / .
. . 1986. 7. . 6973.
: , / / (). 1986. 2. . 182190.
. 589.
/ / ().
1986. 1. . 1527. . 549.
Aleksandr Sergejevits Puskin. Tallinn, 1986. 206 Ik. .
488.
Das Problem der Kulturvermittlung als ihr typologisches Charakteristikum von Kultur / / Semiotika Sovietica: Sowjetiche Arbeiten der
Moskauer und Tartuer Schule zu sekundaren modellbildenden Zeichensystemen (19621973). Aachen, 1986. Bd. 2. S. 839851.
(Aachener Studien zur Semiotik und Kommunikationsforschung; Bd.
5. 15.2). CM. 212.
Das Problem des poetischen Sujets / / Ibid. Bd. 1. S. 479483.
CM. 223.
Die kunstlerische Natur der russischen Volksbilderbogen / / Jahrbuch
fur Volkskunde: N. F. 9. Wurzburg et al., 1986. S. 3455.
CM. 347.
Die modellbindende Bedeutung der Begriffe Anfang und Ende in
kunstlerischen Texten / / Semiotica Sovietica... Bd. 2. S. 829834.
CM. 117.
II concetto di Mosca Terza Roma nell' ideologia di Pietro I / /
Europa Orientalis. 1986. Vol. 5. P. 481494. . 519.
Kirjandusest, selle vaesusest ja rikkusest, kirjandusohkkonnast ja
andekaist lugejaist / / Sirp ja Vasar. 1986. 28. marts. Lk. 6.
Lecciones de poetica estructural: (Introduction) / / Textos contextos:
Una ojeada en la teoria literaria mundial. Habana, 1986. P. 141
156. CM. 91.
Los estudios literarios deben ser una ciencia / / Ibid. P. 7386.
CM. 128.
Mythos Name Kultur / / Semiotica Sovietica... Bd. 2.
S. 881907. CM. 240.
Problemy komparatystyki semiotycznej / / Problemy wiedzy kulturze.
Wroclaw, 1986. S. 516. . 545.
Sergei Paradzanovi ja Dodo Abasidze filmist Surami kindluse
legend / / Teater. Muusika. Kino. 1986. 12. Lk. 4347.
CM. 662.

474

645. Thesen zur semiotischen Erforschung der Kultur: (In Anwendung


auf slawische Texte) / / Semiotica Sovietica... Bd. 1. S. 85115.
CM. 251.
646. Vene kirjandus: Opik IX kl. 2. tr. Tallinn, 1986. 167 Ik.
CM. 537.
647. Vorschlage zum Programm der IV. Sommer-Schule uber sekundare
modellbildende Systeme / / Semiotica Sovietica... Bd. 1. S. 81
84. CM. 191.
648. Zum semiotischen Mechanismus der Kultur / / Ibid. Bd. 2. S.
853880. CM. 208.
649. Zur Semiotik der Begriffe Scham und Angst im Mechanismus
der Kultur / / Ibid. S. 835838. . 188.
650. Zwei Gedicht-Analysen / / Ibid. Bd. 1. S. 429455. . 145.
651. Zwei Kommunikationsmodelle im System der Kultur / / Ibid. Bd. 2.
S . 909930. CM. . 242.

1987
652. : [. .: . .
. . : , ... 1855.
., 1985] / / . 1987. 6. . 247250.
653. : ( . ) / /
. . . . -. 1987. . 781. . 3452.
(. . , : :
).
654. . / . . ., 1987. . 191209,
214228. . . . . .
655. : ( 150- . . ) / /
(). 1987. 3 .; 5 .
656. In memoriam: [. . ] / / . . . . -.
1987. . 746. . 146147. (. ;
[.] 20: ).
657. : : [ .
] / / . . 1987. 7 . . 3.
658. / /
: . . . ., 1314 . 1987 .
, 1987. . 8995.
659. = On the Contemporary Concept
of the Text / / Livstegn: Proceedings of the first symposium Semiotics
in Theory and Practice, 23 Oct. 1986, Bergen (Norway): Norwegian
Association for Semiotic Studies. 1987. 3. P. 155163.
CM. 621.
660. / /
. ., 1987. . 311.
661. : [ . . .
. 150- . . ] / /
(). 1987. 14 .
662. : [ .
. . ] / / .
1987. 5. . 6367.
663. / /
: . . . ., 1314 .
1987 . , 1987. . 37.

475

664. XIX / / ,
. . . -. 1987. . 746. . 102114. (.
; [.] 20:
). . 628.
665. / / .
. 1216.
666. ,
: [] / / (). 1987. 1.
. 2426.
667. : [ . ] / / ().
1987. 23 .
668.
XVIII / / . . . . -.
1987. . 746. . 8594. (. ;
[.] 20: ). .
. . , . . , . . , . . ,
. . , . . .
669. 1999 : ? / / . 1987. 1. .
5664.
670. : / / ().
1987. 14 .
671. XX = Semiotics and
Culture in the Second Half of the Twentieth Century / / Livstegn:
Proceedings of the first symposium Semiotics in Theory and Practice,
23 Oct. 1986, Bergen (Norway): Norwegian Association for Semiotic
Studies. 1987. 3. P. 711.
672. / / . . . . -. 1987.
. 754. . 1021. (. . ; [.] 21:
).
673. . ., 1987. 336 .
674. Alcune considerazioni sulla tipologia delle culture / / Uomo e Cultura:
Rivista di studi antropologici (Palermo). 1986/1987. 3740.
P. 316. CM. 660.
675. Architecture in the Context of Culture =
/ / , 1987: .
[,] 1987. . 615.
676. Che cos'e un testo? / / Lettera international. 1987. 12. P. 37.
677. Geeniuse kavatsused: [150. aastat Puskini surmast] / / Sirp ja Vasar.
1987. 6. veebr. Lk. 4. . 655.
678. Kutse dialoogile / / Bahtin M. Valitud rood. Tallinn, 1987. Lk.
514.
679. Le mot et la langue dans la culture du Siecle des Lumieres / / Septieme Congres International des Lumieres. Budapest, 26 juillet
2 aout 1987. Budapest, 1987. P. 255262.
680. Les grandes idees des lumieres / / Debut et fin des lumieres en
Hongrie, en Europe Centrale et en Europe Orientale: Actes du
Sixieme Colloque de Matrafured, 2025 oct. 1984. Budapest;
Paris, 1987. P. 155166.
681. Midajatta, midavotta?: [Intervjuu] / / E d a s i . 1987. 31. dets.
682. Motete habi ja hirm kultuurisemiootikast / / Edasi. 1987.
31. jaan. CM. 188.
683. Puskin. Budapest, 1987. 397 old. . 488.
684. Puskin. Praha, 1987. 485 s. . 488, 472, 318.

476

685. Semiotyka sceny / / W kregy socjologii teatru na swiecie. Wroclaw


et al., 1987. S. 334357. . 473.
686. Tartu kui kultuurimark / / Meie Tartu. Tallinn, 1987. Lk. 5154.
687. Tartu Mo sike xue pai: [- ] / / Dushu
(Reading Monthly). 1987. 3. P. 137142. .
. . . . .
688. Vaga uhiskondlik, vaga vajalik raamat: Professor Juri Lotman
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Lk. 7; 9.
689. [ ;
; ].
Tokyo, 1987. 257 . . . . 248, 417.
1988
690. : . . : .
. ., 1988. 351 . . 318, 67, 620, 517, 308, 593,
441, 149, 311, 664.
691. . . : 100 : ( .
. ) / / (). 1988. 2 . .
707.
692. ... / / . . . . 1988. 2 .
. 39. . . . .
693. ...: ( . . .
) / / . . . . 1988. 5. . 4352.
694. / / . 1988. 1 .
695. (1830 .) / /
: . , 1988.
. 2949.
696. / / . . . . -.
1988. . 831. . 35. (. ; [.] 22:
: ). .
697. / / : . .
. - , 818 . 1988 .
, 1988. . 36. . 621.
698. / / . 1988. 5. . 14.
699. / / . .
. ., 1988. . 4. . 316. %
700.
/ / . ., 1988.
. 378393.
701.

XIX / / . . 1988. 4. . 8895.
702. / / :
. . . - , 818
. 1988 . , 1988. . 610.
703. ...: [ . ]
/ / . . 1988. 4 (59). . 4243.
704. / / :
: . . . ., 1988. . 437
443.
705. / / . 1988. 1. . 93
98. . 384.

477

706. / / ,
. . . -. 1988. . 831. . 97116. (.
; [.] 22: : ).
707. 1000 / / . 1988.
6. . 105108.
708. Biografia literacka w kontekscie historii kultury: (Z zagadnien typologicznych relacji pomi^dzy tekstem a osobowoscia autora) / / Kwart a h Aim. Studenckiej Rady Literackiej. 1988. 5/6. S. 139
159. CM. 622.
709. Gesprach mit Juri Lotman uber den Film / / Kunst und Literatur:
Sowjetwissenschaften. 1988. Jahr. 36, H. 2. S. 192198.
CM. 666.
710. Informazione e giudizio: i compiti del recensore / / L'Indice dei libri
del mese. 1988. 8. P. 2526.
711. Kulturgeschichte zukunftsorientiert: (Interview mit T. Men'sikova
fur Sovetskaja Kul'tura, 17. 5. 1987) / / Gesellschaftswissenschaften:
Zeitschrift der Sektion Gesellschaftswissenschaften der Akademie
der Wissenschaften der UdSSR. 1988. Bd. 3. S. 167174.
CM. 657.
712. L'historie de la culture: cheminement vers le futur / / Sciences sociales
(Moscou). 1988. 2 (72). P. 155161; Ciencias sociais.
1988. 2. P. 151 157. . . 657.
713. Megjegyzesek a muveszi terrol / / Kultura es kozosseg. 1988.
1. Old. 6278. CM. 616.
714. Mitosz nev kultura / / Ibid. Old. 319. . 240.
715. Natural Environment and Information / / Lectures in Theoretical
Biology. Tallinn, 1988. P. 4547.
716. The Structure of Eugene Onegin / / Russian Views of Pushkin's
Eugene Onegin. Bloomington, 1988. P. 91 114. . 121.
717. The Transformation of the Tradition Generated by Onegin in the
Subsequent History of the Russian Novel / / Ibid. P. 169177.
CM. 628.
718. Zur Rolle der zufalling Faktoren in literarischer Evolution / / Semio
tics of Culture. Proceedings of the 25th Symposium of the Tartu
Moscow School of Semiotics, Imatra, Finland, 27th29th July 1987.
Helsinki, 1988. P. 139150. . 727.
1989
719. / / : . . .,
1989. . 633.
720. / / . . . .

, 1517 . 1989 . , 1989. . 39.
721. / / . . ., 1989. . 468481.
722. : : .
- / / . . 1989. 2. . 317.
723. [ .: ] / / : 1830:
. ., 1989. . 27, 241, 439. .
488.
724.
/ / Studia Russica Helsingiensia et Tartuensia: .
. . . XX . Helsinki, 1989. . 129146.
(Slavica Helsingiensia; 6). . 620.

478

725. ? / / (). 1989. 14 .


726. - / / Wiener Slawistischer
Aim. 1989. Bd. 23. S. 187197.
727. / / . 1989.
5. . 2730.
728. / / ,
. . -. 1989. . 855. . 3948. (.
; [.] 23:
). . 718.
729.
/ / . ., 1989. . 227236.
730. / / : 9 . ., 1989.
. 6. . 321338.
731. / / :
: Le Siecle des Lumieres: Russie: France: (
. . (1987)). M., 1989. . 618. ([
87]; . 20).
732. , , : [ ,
] / / . . 1989. 6. . 1718.
733. : [ 90 ] / /
(). 1989. 28 .
734. Alexander Puschkin. Leipzig, 1989. 419 S. . 488.
735. La novita della leggenda / / Rassegna sovietica. 1989. Vol. 40,
2. P. 5763. CM. 662.
736. Merkkien maailma: Kirjoitelmia semiotiikasta. Helsinki, 1989.
298 p. CM. 248, 417, 473, 497, 308, 586, 622, 496.
737. Semiotiken och historievetenskapen / / Dialoger. 1989. 11 12.
P. 3861.
738. Vastab Juri Lotman: [Intervjuu] / / Teater. Muusika. Kino. 1989.
5. Lk. 514.
739. Vene kirjandus: Opik XI kl. Tallinn, 1989. 192 lk: .
3. . , . . .
740. Ober die Semiosphare / / Studia Russica Helsingiensia et Tartuensia:
. . . . XX . Helsinki, 1989. S. 724.
(Slavica Helsingiensia; 6 ) . . 560.

1990
741. / / .
19641989: . . , 1990. . 37.
742. / /
. , 1990. . 58. .
193.
743. : ( .
) / / . . . -. 1990. .
883. . 170187. (. . , :
: ). . . . .
744. , / / . 1990. 23 .
745. ...: [ ] / / : .
, 1990. . 335336.

479

746.
I 8 1826 / / : . .
, 1990. . 4143.
747. / / Alma Mater (). 1990. 2 (4).
. 23.
748. / / Rev. des
Etudes Slaves (Paris). 1990. Vol. 62, N 12. P. 283289.
749. . . / / . . .
-. 1990. . 897. . 171 174. (. . ,
: : :
: Studia Russica Helsingiensia
et Tartuensia; 2). . 3. . .
750. / / : .
. , 1990.
. 34.
751. / / . 1990. 21 .
752.
/ /
: [. .]. ., 1990. . 5568.
753. / / : .
. , 1990. .
108141.
754. / /
: : .
Budapest, 1990. . 137144. . 249.
755. . . - / / :
. , 1990. . 5259.
756. : [] / / Alma Mater: . .
() 1990. 2. . 3; . 1990. 15 .
. 12.
757. - X .
3- . , 1990. 208 . . . . .
. 523.
758. , :
. . . . / / Alma Mater. 1990.
3. . 1.
759. ?: [ . ] / /
. 1990. 1. . 2.
760. : . * 1990. 536 .
. 223, 208, 167, 212, 100, 133, 117, 188, 189, 239, 472, 193, 381,
514, 249, 492.
761. Aleksandr Puszkin. Warszawa, 1990. 218 S. . 488.
762. Iluze autenticnosti a autenticnost iluze / / Drozda M. Narotivni masky
ruske pr6zy: Od Puskina k Belemu. Praha, 1990. S. 915;
Ceska literatura. 1990. 4. S. 347351.
763. Klio am Scheiderweg / / Kopfbahnof Leipzig, 1990. S. 135147.
(Aim. 2 : Das falsche Dasein: Sowjetische Kultur im Umbruch).
CM. 698.
764. Puskin: Vita di Aleksandr Sergeevic Puskin. Padova, 1990. VII'
XX; 226 p. CM. 488.
765. Sechs Fragen zur semiotischen Analyse von Kultur: [Gesprach mit
Roland Posner] / / Zeitschrift fur Semiotik. 1990. Bd. 12, 4.
S. 375380.

480

766. Semiotique de la culture Russe. Etudes sur 1'histoire. Lausanne,


1990. 516 p. . . . . . 383, 379, 519,
308, 490, 249, 311, 441, 381.
767. Struktura umeleckeho textu. Bratislava, 1990. 373 s. .
194.
768. Universe of the Mind: A Semiotic Theory of Culture. London; N. Y.,
1990. 288 p.
769. Za najvyznamnejsie... / / Slovenske pohl'ady. 1990. V. 106,
N 4: Semiotika: vysledky a problemy. S. 116118.
770. Ober die Semiosphare / / Zeitschrift fur Semiotik. 1990. Bd. 12,
N 4. S. 287305. . JSIb 560.
1991
771. / / . -.
1991. 12 . . 89.
772. / / . . . . .
, 2224 1991 . , 1991. . 713.
773. / /

, 19581990: . . , 1991. .
8992. . 741.
774. *
/ / . 1991. 7. . 2936. .
346.
775. - / / .
1991. 9. . 4151.
776. / / (). 1991. 8 .
65 (889). . 1.
777.
: ( )
/ / . 1991. 6. . 2937. . 519.
778. XVIII / /
. 1991. 11. . 1625; 12. . 2228. .
381.
779.
/ / . 1991. 10. . 2940. . 804.
780. / / .
1991. 5. . 2944. . 564.
781. / / .
1991. 8. . 4651. . 282.
782. [Ann Maltsi 50. sunnipaevaks] / / Universitas Tartuensis. 1991.
6. dets. 36.
783. Filmikeel ja filmisemiootika probleemid / / Teater. Muusika. Kino.
1991. 6. Lk. 1316.
784. Proposition relative au projet d'un Dictionnaire des symboles au
siecles des Lumieres" / / Neohelicon: Acta comporationes litterarum
universarum (BudapestAmsterdam). 1991. T. 18, 1. P.
2530.

* . :
. .

481

785. Semiotics and the Historical Sciences / / Dialogue and Technology:


Art and Knowledge. London et al., 1991. P. 165180. (The
Springer Series of Artificial Intelligence and Society).
786. St. Peterburg: Die Symbolik der Stadt und ihre Dechiffrierung / /
Europas Kulturzeitung: Lettre International. 1991. 15.
S. 3235. CM. 564.
787. Technological Progress as a Problem in the Study of Culture / / Poetics
Today. 1991. Vol. 12, : 4. P. 781800. . 706.
788. [ ]. Koreaone Academy of Lite
rature, 1991. 462 p. . . 194.
1992
789. - / / . 1992. 3. . 5359.
. 614.
790. / /
. 1992. 4. . 5259. . 490.
791. / / Alma Mater (). 1992.
1 (6).
792. : 3 . , 1992. . 1:
. 479 . . 560, 493, 421, 539, 240,
242, 272, 660, 545, 728, 497, 152, 499, 384, 396, 420, 672, 592, 245, 731,
249, 239, 381, 249, 249, 308, 311, 622, 416, 277, 148, 100, 149, 616,
698.
793. : 3 . . 2:
XVIII XIX . , 1992.
478 . . 564, 587, 549, 169, 34, 375, 103, 114, 701, 699, 31, 654,
37, 317, 186, 320, 67, 237, 617, 517, 695.
794. ?:
/ / Alma Mater (). 1992. 3 (8).
. 45.
795.
: ( ) / / . -. 1992. 5
(3752). . 9.
796. . ., 1992. 270 .
797. : ( ) / / S t u d i a
Russica Helsingiensia et Tartuensia; 3: . . . .
Helsinki, 1992. . 723. (Slavica Helsingiensia; 11)
798. / / . . . -. 1992. . 936.
. 522. (. ; [] 25:
).
799. : / /
. . 7991.
800. / / . 1992. 6.
. 2136. . . . . . 208.
801. : [ . . ] / / Alma
Mater (). 1992. 2(7). . 2.
802. / / . . . -. 1992. . 936.
. 34. (. ; [.] 25: ).
803. / / . . 151 153. .
3. . .
804.
/ / . . . -. 1992. . 882. . 5871.
(. ; [] 24: : : ).

482

805. / / . 1992. 5. . 4244.


. . . . . 195.
806. ... / / . 1992. 4 .
. 1.
807. Animafilmide keelest / / Teater. Muusika. Kino. 1992. 4.
Lk. 7274. CM. 417.
808. Juhuslike faktorite osast kirjanduslikus evolutsioonis / / Looming.
1992. 4. Lk. 549554. . 728.
809. Meie ees on vaid uks valik: kas elada ohtlikus maaiimas voi elada
vanglas: [Intervjuu Toomas H. Liiviga] / / Puhapaevaleht (Tallinn).
1992. 19. sept. 197 (29). Lk. 23.
810. Semiosfaarist / / Akadeemia. 1992. 10. Lk. 20192043.
CM. 560.
811. Svet nas moze prekvapit': Styri otazky literarnemu teoretikovi
J. M. Lotmanovi / / Literarny tyzdennik (Bratislava). 1992.
11 aprila. 16. S. 2.
812. Tehniline progress kui kultuurilooline probleem / Keel ja Kirjandus.
1992. 2. Lk. 6570; JSfb 3. Lk. 136143. . 706.
813. Vestlus vabamuurlusest valgustuse valguses / / Akadeemia. 1992.
2. Lk. 227241.
. . .

Summary
The three-volume collection of selected articles by Yuri Mikhaylovich Lotman contains studies of semiotics and the theory of culture,
the typology of Russian culture, the theory and history of art, the
structure of the artistic text, and the theory and history of Russian
literature. Together with monographs published separately the
present collection gives a sufficiently comprehensive idea of the
principal directions and scientific results of the author's work. The
articles included in the present publication were written in the
1950s1980s and are presented without alterations which, allows
one to judge of the evolution of the scholar's views.
The first volume contains articles dedicated to the problems of
general semiotics, the semiotics of culture, the typology of culture
and the semiotics of the artistic text. Semiotic problems are examined
on the basis of a wide range of texts relating to different types of
culture. At the same time culture is regarded as a super-complex
dynamic system. The author concentrates his attention on the
contradictions of cultural processes and the collision of the different
forces immanent in culture, in the conflicts between which the contradictory unity of culture is formed.
The analysis is based mainly on the material of Russian culture
but it is examined in the general context of European and world
cultural processes. The concept of semiosphere is introduced which
serves as the basis for a model of the dynamic unity of culture.
This unity represents a system characterised by the complex unity
of its components, which join in numerous intersections of spatialtemporal relations, and, at the same time, by the increasing individualisation of those components. One of the principal conclusions
from studies in the field of the semiotics of culture is precisely that
the formation of unified macrosystems and unified structures at all
their levels does not standardise their components but, on the contrary, increases the degree of their originality. The direction of the
processes of development at their different levels lies in their transformation, not into mutually exchangeable and similar parts
(although the said tendency also occurs, particularly at the lower
levels), but into functionally different and mutually indispensable
organisms. The latter repeat analogous processes of the conflict
of mutual interchangeability and functional interdependence at
higher levels.
Such a model of the interaction of the general space of culture
and its components is in greater detail examined on the material of
art. This is not accidental. Art and its role in the general mechanism

484

Summary

of culture demonstrate the more complicated aspects of the problem


in a more graphic manner more easily accessible to our powers of
observation. The assumption that it is not the more simple and
static, but, on the contrary, the more complicated and dynamic
objects that must serve as the factual basis for the elaboration of
the general principles of description of semiotic systems from the
viewpoint of the classical paradigm of the methodology of science
seems paradoxical yet is justified in the sphere of the humanities.
The more simple structures and elementary principles of organisation appear in the capacity, not of the initial, but the derivativesimplified, reduced, effacedcomponents. The simple, "starting"
models are not as a rule perceived by us in direct observation:
usually researchers designate thus either the purely speculative
constructions whose degree of reality is always problematic or the
result of secondary processes of the simplification of the complicatedsomething analogous to the structural simplicity of parasites.
The reason for simplification lies in phenomena being comprised
in a more general system. All the objects we perceive as real in the
sphere of nature as well as in the domain of culture can be regarded
as a sort of "parasites", i. e. the outcome of secondary simplifications
resultant from being comprised in more complex structural units
and the exchange of functions that inevitably accompanies it. The
latter allows the object to reduce to a minimum or even entirely eliminate some of its mechanisms owing to the transmission of their
functions (biologically, in the process of symbiosis) to the objects
interacting with them. Thus, separate "independent" organisms as
if acquire the functions of the organs of a higher-level organism.
When we deal with an object of study like culture, the distinction
between the horizontal (intra-level) and the vertical (inter-level)
links may fade. It makes the construction of simple models considerably more difficult; however, the difficulty itself is of great value
for science since it fixes the attention of the researchers on the objects
and phenomena which in less complicated cases run the risk of going
unnoticed. It concerns in particular singular phenomena and incidental factors.
*
What is potential, is real, but it can become an object of scientific
investigation only in the process of its realisation. The usual investigational approach is the examination of only the realised potentialities. The comparative-structural method allows to shift the analysis into the realm of the potentialities which failed to materialise
in one or another area of the dynamic whole; yet unrealised possibilities are also of the essence of reality even if they are fated to
remain in a state of latent possibility. A loaded but undischarged gun
is not functionally identical with an unloaded one. This principle
is particularly important in the typological approach to culture. The
history of world culture comprises not only the used and exhausted
material of events and facts but also the entire paradigm of possibilities. Interaction with other systems leads to the formation of a
hierarchy of possibilities: many of them which appear equally

Summary

485

probable in the immanent analysis become unlikely as a result of


their interaction with the possibilities of the connected system and
almost improbable when the whole is considered. However, when
one is inside some kind of space (cultural, for example) fully determined knowledge of further developments is in principle impossible.
Absolutely trustworthy prediction is possible only in those fields
in relation to which the researcher occupies an external position:
one can unerringly "foretell" the past, i. e. the time one cannot
influence, but not the future which may depend on our behaviour
(including predictions).
Thus, the chronological evolutionary chain may uncoil along the
synchronous structure while the latter may evolve into a chronological sequence. The difference between the typologist and the
historian of culture (with a sufficiently extensive scope of material)
is, at a higher level, the different viewpoints of a third who turns
their models into the subject of his metadescription.
The second volume is wholly devoted to the questions of the
history of Russian literature. The articles are presented in chronological order and they embrace the focal points of Russian literature
from Trediakovsky till the Pushkin era.
A number of problem articles concentrated on the more significant
names of the literary process are devoted to 18th-century literature.
The article that opens the volume, "The Symbolism of St. Petersburg
and the Problems of the Semiotics of the City", is devoted to the key
problem of St. Petersburg as the fundamental symbol of the Russian
history and culture the roots of which go back to the epoch of
Peter I. St. Petersburg as a unique phenomenon of world culture is
bound up with not only an entire epoch in Russian history but also
the notion of the "abolition of history" and "establishment" in its
place of an "artificial" principle called upon to replace Tradition
with Reason, which is the basis of the Petrine period.
The article devoted to Trediakovsky's Voyage to the Isle of Love
tackles the problem of the interaction of cultural traditions in the
first half of the 18th century. It analyses this work both as a sort
of literary utopia which, however, spiritually pursues the Petrine
epoch, as well as a hierarchical reformatory aim. When creating
this work Trediakovsky expected it not only to affect the thoughts
of the readers but also actively influence the transformation of
life itself.
In the "Ode Selected from Job", which started a whole tradition
of translations and interpretations of this Biblical text in Russian
literature, Lomonosov denied man the right to set his interests
against those of the State. From the viewpoint of the subsequent
progress of history such an opinion might be interpreted as lying
outside the humanistic tradition which in world literature was
connected with the Biblical character of the protesting Job. However,
it is impossible to capture the meaning of this poem historically
objectively unless one takes into account the heroic-optimistic
enthusiasm which seized the apologists of Europeanisation of Russia

486

Summary

in the early 18th century. The voice of the Most High from the pen
wielded by Lomonosov is the optimistic, convinced voice of progress
in the process of creating a New World. It is distinctly associated
with the Petrine ideal and the Enlightenment idea of creating a
new, reasonable, powerful and victorious state in general.
These optimistic illusions were fraught with the tragic disappointments which subsequently befell both Trediakovsky and Lomonosov.
The "notion" of heroic statehood expressed by Lomonosov and
Trediakovsky had considerably paled by the end of the 18th century.
Its place was taken by the idea of heroic humanism. Nature as the
embodiment of the natural rights of man became the judge whose
sentence on the State, social structures and even scientific progress
was considered final and not subject to appeal. Now, it was no
longer the sovereign-philosopher and the scientist-theorist who were
the bearers of the author's ideal but the simple, natural, "savage"
man, the common man, or even one "deprived of reason" but not
deprived of "natural feeling". It became a conscious theoretical
programme in connection with the development of Russian Rousseauism. Nowhere in Europe, not even in the native land of the
thinker of Geneva, did his ideas spread so widely or exercise such
a prolonged influence as in Russia. Young Leo Tolstoy used to
wear Rousseau's portrait on his breast next to the cross, while
Dostoyevsky, who in his youth had experienced a passionate
enthusiasm for Rousseauism, would indulge in polemics with those
ideas not as with paradoxes long since relegated to history but
with the same quick temper and injustice the author of The Brothers
Karamazov was in the habit of coming down on his live opponents.
The article "Rousseau and Russian Culture of the 18th and Early
19th Centuries" examines the reasons for the longevity of Rousseau's
ideas in Russian culture and their organic place in its development.
A widespread shortcoming in the interpretation of the relation
between Russian literature and European culture of the Enlightenment lies in the latter being regarded as a whole. Voltaire, Montesquieu and Rousseau are often brought into studies as figures devoid
of evolution and mutual contradictions. At the same time the fact
that the figures active in Russian culture of the 18th century knew
European and particularly French Enlightenment neither by hearsay
nor at second hand is being overrated. Mably, an unconventional
and exceptionally original figure of that epoch, stood by himself
through both his critical attitude towards property and the deepest
pessimism which coloured his view of the future of mankind. He
considered communism the unavoidable but disastrous concluding
stage on the road of mankind from the initial, but irreversibly lost,
plentiful opportunities to the final destruction. Mably was not
accorded the appreciation he deserved by his contemporaries and
researchers. All the more interesting is the profound correspondence
between the ideas of the two philosophers brought to light in the
article "Radishchev and Mably".
The name of one of the greatest figures of Russian culture, the

Summary

487

prosaist, poet and historian Nikolay Mikhaylovich Karamzin is


invariably mentioned in any of the scholarly or popular publications
devoted to Russian culture of the period from the end of the 18th
century to Pushkin. As a result, the idea of the comprehensibility
and "cultural exhaustion" of Karamzin's role in the history of
Russian thought arose and, through numerous repetitions, acquired
the authority of truth. To read, after Solovyov and Klyuchevsky,
the history written by Karamzin as not only a literary but also a
scholarly monument seemed to be just as strange as to open Poor
Liza after Dostoyevsky. Having survived the time of furious attacks
and ardent raptures, Karamzin as if moved to the position of a
generally recognised classic who no longer stirred anybody. One
of the unexpected features of the as yet unsettled, perpetually changing culture of our time was the revival of Karamzin as a widely-read
author. This is a fact that deserves intent attention. The solution
lies not only in the zigzags of present-day culture but also in the
complexity of Karamzin's heritage now and then overlooked by
contemporaries who regarded the works of the writer-historian
through the prism of the topics of the day.
The articles published in the second volume of the present collection played a certain role in the revision of the traditional evaluations
of Karamzin. The earliest of them were written at a time when even
Karamzin's name was preferably not mentioned too often by careful
editors.
The author's selection of study material for publication was
noticeably governed by two nonequivalent criteria. On the one hand,
attention was paid to key problems and names which no researcher
can pass by, on the other, light fell on forgotten names, historical
figures not appreciated according to their deserts, and problems
either never posed in those days or undeservedly disregarded.
From the last point of view the work devoted to M. A. DmitriyevMamonov deserves attention.
A member of an ancient family, one of the most wealthy men in
Russia, a distinguished veteran of the Napoleonic wars who spent
his million-strong fortune on fitting out a magnificently equipped
cavalry regiment, a favourite of fortune, an idol of the Moscow
ladies, a man who combined bravery in the field with varied scientific
knowledge, Dmitriyev-Mamonov stepped early on the road which
confidently predicted for him all the blessings which a noble family,
wealth, charming appearance, Herculean strength and personal
favour of the emperor could bestow on a young and brilliantly
educated courtier in those times. Mamonov sacrificed all this first
to the idea of defending Fatherland against Napoleon's invasion
and then to the fanatic belief in the Utopia of an ideal future. The
latter brought him into the ranks of freemasons where he immediately, despite his youth, came to occupy one of the leading places.
The article published in the present collection was, as a matter of
fact, the first study of Mamonov's fate in all its tragic completeness.
The peculiarity of the author's approach lies in examining Mamonov's

488

Summary

human fate and his place as a historical personality in the involved


contradictions of the Decembrist movement in their unity.
The articles united by the common subject of Pushkin's works
are characterised by the attention paid to the little-studied or as
yet unposed problems of Pushkin's work. The common feature of
these articles is the endeavour of the author to take as his point of
departure (and often the title of the article as well) an exclusively
concrete problem. However, the author's method is based on the
endeavour to realise that the understanding of an unfinished fragment, unwritten idea, insignificant detail and, sometimes, even
a single word in Pushkin's work requires a summary analysis,
an examination of Pushkin's creation in full. To the above tasks
are dedicated a number of articles included in the second volume
of the present collection such as "The Dedication in Poltava",
"The Queen of Spades and the Theme of Cards and the Card Game
in Russian Literature of Early 19th Century", "The Idea of the Poem
on the Last Day of Pompeii", and "An Attempt at Reconstructing
the Pushkinian Subject of Christ".
The article "The Problem of the East and the West in Creation
of Late Lermontov" opened the third volume of the present collection
determines the peculiar position of late Lermontov in the complicated
issue of East and West that had considerably been aggravated by
the forties. The investigative literature mentioned the importance for
late Lermontov of the problem which at that time divided the entire
Russian literature into two camps: the attitude towards the West
European and the eastern (sometimes in its Caucasian variant)
culture. This subject which Lermontov touched upon in his poems
as well as ballads was initially interpreted by him in a romantic
way. The East was perceived as the "land of wild freedom", while
the West either was regarded through the prism of Rousseauistic
criticism or else it acquired a Russian tinge in the tradition of
Pushkin's southern poems.
A review of the romantic cliches which had enveloped the entire
work of Lermontov by the end of the thirties acquired a peculiar
shade of meaning in this context. It is shown that*in the complicated
intersection of the arising Russian westernism and the romantic
cult of the East Lermontov occupied a particularly original third
position which, failing to find immediate continuation in those years,
further on inevitably led to the position held by Leo Tolstoy as was
noted already by Eichenbaum. This raises the question of the sources
of the "Tolstoyan direction" in Russian literature. Such formulation
of the question was unexpected enough in its time: study of literature
of that epoch distinguished only between two trends in the Russian
literature of the forties and fifties: the Gogol and the Pushkin ones.
Lermontov was regarded as a deeply solitary figure almost as if
torn out of the fabric of the Russian literary tradition (whicn found
confirmation in the numerous self characterisations of Lermontov).
Lermontov's connection with the Tolstoyan trend enabled to show
his work in a deep organic literary perspective.

Summary

489

Included in Dead Souls as a kind of insert, The Story of Captain


Kopeykin is usually interpreted in the vein of "Gogol and the natural
school" since its hero, Captain Kopeykin, traditionally was in a
somewhat artificial manner approximated to the "humble man" of
the natural school and early Dostoyevsky. Breaking this tradition,
the article "Pushkin and The Story of Captain Kopeykin" gives
quite a different interpretation of this mysterious insert in Dead
Souls. In the first place the factual basis of Gogol's idea is established: it is directly linked with Fyodor Orlov. Orlov, a dashing cavalryman who had lost a leg in the battle under Bautzen, and his
hussars, nearly all of whom fell in that battle, saved the retreating
Russian army who was in an exceptionally difficult situation from
utter defeat; the same "third" Orlov who very seldom is recalled
as Pushkin's partner in billiards in Kishinev, later on continued
to live an exceptional fate in its genuine Orlovian extravagance.
Despite next to nothing being known about his biography and a
considerable part of documents having been destroyed, the author
managed to establish that the one-legged cavalryman (his other
leg was wooden), a friend and boon companion of Pushkin's, after
having passed through a long array of events which finally led
him to the very bottom of the underworld, became a robber who
would attack rich country estates and rob their rich owners. Like
Schiller's hero once, he never hurt the poor and the peasants. This
Russian Karl Moor apparently fell into the hands of the police in
the end. At any rate there were in the archives his brother Alexey's
petitions to Nikolay I, destroyed by now. Comparison with the fate
of the real prototype allows to uncover also the literary singularity
of this inserted episode in Dead Souls which upon verification turns
out to be organically linked with the very basis of the Gogolian
idea polemic in its attitude towards Romanticism. The study makes
it possible to reveal a hitherto unremarked twist in the character
of Chichikov.
The article "The Topical Space of the 19th-century Russian
Novel" is an attempt at a concise study of the 19%th-century Russian
novel as an integral historico-literary phenomenon and, what is
more, in the definite sense of a uniform text. Such a view is particularly characteristic of an outside observer. It is significant that for
Tolstoy and Turgenev their artistic principles expressed in the
structure of the novels they created seemed deeply inimical, so
incompatible that they were convinced it would be impossible to
elucidate on their basis some kind of common scheme. While the
attention of their contemporary Russian readers was caught not
only by their polemics and personal enmity but also by the deep fundamental difference of the two creative worlds, the western reader
perceived the specific Russian character of both writers as a kind
of unity of idea and art. The fact that the ethical and, even more
widely, philosophical positions in general of the two writers were
opposite to the point of being incompatible retreated to the second
plane for the reader who was amazed by the fact alone that he

490

Summary

encountered polemics on philosophical problems in the genre of


the novel. The point of view of the western reader was not unfounded.
Considering the critical reviews of Russian novels by West European
reviewers we are face to face with a quite interesting dialogue of
cultures. As always in a dialogue, the question here is not reduced
to limited access to information or difficulties in understanding a
text of an alien national origin. Whereas in the Middle Ages the
literature of the European West represented an indisputable unity,
it split distinctly into nationally original streams from the Renaissance to the Enlightenment. Beginning with the epoch of Romanticism the mechanism of a new merging of different trends into a
unified European culture has been functioning. This process is at
present becoming one of the dominating tendencies of world
literature. The article "On the Question of the Historical Meaning
of the Pronouncements of Foreigners on Russia" is connected with
these problems.
A number of articles in the third volume are dedicated to the
untraditional aspects of the role of old Russian tradition in the
formation of the Russian Romanticism with particular attention
being paid to Gogol. The question is not the interest in mediaeval
literature common for the epoch of Romanticism, nor the discovery
of some direct quotes from the literature of the epoch of The Lay
of Igor's Campaign in Gogol's work, but an analysis of the deepgoing links between the literature of the Kjevan period and some
original features of the consciousness of Gogol the historian. In
Gogol's writings we encounter a curious feature. Being a professional historian, taking interest in the trends of historical studies,
pretending to the role of a university lecturer, Gogol, however,
was highly original in his consciousness of history. The positivistic
study of history was alien to him, but then he was deeply imbued
with the mediaeval idea of it being not the result but the source,
not the "endings" but the "beginnings" of events that play the
definitive role in a historical event. In order to evaluate one or
another historical fact one has to include it in a chain of analogous
events focussing the attention on the thing that is its originator.
Thus a mediaeval chronicler, describing the crimes of his contemporaries, regarded it for example as a repetition of Cain's sin. An event
has not consequences but initial models which keep recurring in
their continuous life further on. In Gogol's A Terrible Revenge
it is expressed in a mythological idea, the true perpetrator of a
crime is he who perpetrated it first. Once done, an evil thing does
not end but keeps growing. Correspondingly modern history too
is a continuing growth of the initial events.
Thus Gogol the historian sees history as if in its mirror reflection.
Ancient events have not been disrupted, they are continuing. The
past is always the future. With this is connected the often cited
but too superficially interpreted opinion Gogol expressed in a letter
to N. Yazykov: "Beat the present in the past!" Here, the "present"
of Gogol is for him always the future ready to step on the stage.

Summary

491

These ideas Gogol expresses figuratively in A Terrible Revenge,


in the depiction of the reflection of mountains in water, where the
top turns out to be simultaneously the bottom. Gogol's historical
thought rests on the idea of the past being reflected in the future.
One of the principles of analysis applied in a number of articles
in the third volume of the present collection is the displaying of the
exactness of our understanding of the semantic meaning of one
or another work.
Each culture has certain words expressing its meaning. Language
is one of the most stable phenomena of culture. Thus, the vocabulary
of the Kievan works has to a considerable extent been retained till
our days. Encountering in the 12th14th-century texts words
like 'honour' (chest') and 'glory' (slava), we assume that semantic
commentary is superfluous here since we know these words well
and use them widely in our everyday speech. However, it very
often happens that we run into the situation where a word, while
retaining its grammatical and lexical shape, has decisively changed
its semantic content through centuries. Thus, for the contemporary
man, the words chest' and slava are synonyms. The third volume
of the present collection contains articles showing that in the
hierarchy of values obtaining in the Kievan Rusa world of
chivalrous ethicsthe words chest' and slava not only were not
synonyms but, quite the contrary, entered into an opposition fraught
with meaning. One having slava no longer had need of acquiring
chest' for himself, and vice versa. A negative character could gain
slava but lose chest' in the process. The articles aim at a semantic
analysis of The Lay of Igor's Campaign, incidentally touching upon
the question of the authenticity of the monument since the meaning
of the words chest' and slava, while natural for the author of The Lay
of Igor's Campaign, was not only unknown but also absolutely
incomprehensible for a person of the 18th19th centuries.
The problem of meaning is always a problem of translation.
Above we touched upon the question how notions of the early
mediaeval period can or cannot be translated into the language
of the romantic epoch. The article "On the Question of the Historical
Meaning of the Pronouncements of Foreigners on Russia" is dedicated to a closely-related question. As on other occasions it underlines
the fact that for a historian studying original sources from the
point of view of semantic translatability or untranslatability of
different cultures, the mistakes in the reading of one or another
meaning or structural element of one culture in the process of its
reception by another present extremely interesting material on
which we see for ourselves the complexity of translating the monuments of one culture into the semantic space of another.
In the article "Two Spoken Narratives by Bunin (on the Question
of Bunin and Dostoyevsky)", Bunin's attitude towards the Russian
literary tradition is analysed, particularly his attitude towards
Gogol and Dostoyevsky. In contradistinction to many studies on
related subjects, the author invests the notion 'tradition' not with

492

Summary

an idea of a natural, painless transition of literature from one great


writer to another, but with the idea of conflicts, struggle and
subjective enmity of one or another writer to his more direct and
immediate forerunners. Thus, Bunin did not tire of stressing his
succession to Turgenev while demonstratively rejecting Gogol and
Dostoyevsky. Bunin managed to take in the more trusting students
of his writings who willingly fell into the trap set by the writer.
Bunin's literary genealogy invented by himself is not an objective
document but a continuation of his artistic creation and should be
interpreted as such. It is an object of analysis, not of confidential
quoting. The article attempts to fathom the conflicting dialogue
which served as the basis of Bunin's pronouncements on his great
predecessors.
The article "Blok and Popular Urban Culture" analyses Blok's
attitude towards urban folklore. The culture engendered by the
modern city, representing a complex amalgam of popular tradition
and traditional folkloric aesthetics, was regarded by Blok as a
system of mirrors: in the mirror of urban folklore the new aspect
of the people was reflected. Blok was simultaneously attracted
and repelled by this dialogue between the world of tramps, whose
road into literature had been opened by Gorky, and the symbolistic
romanticism of the world of the Lady Beautiful. The conflicting
dialogue between the sublimely beautiful and the base, coarse and
even vulgar, like any dialogue, creates a space of common language.
These opposing worlds are reflected in one another. The way of
life it gives rise to is for Blok beautiful and awful, universally
catastrophic ("unheard of changes, unprecedented mutinies") and
farcically comicaland even vulgar. The article analyses the
poetics of the "volumetric contrastiveness" which at one and the
same time led Blok into an artistic world utterly new to him and
advanced literary principles heralding paths for new art which
were only outlined then but now have become manifest.
The article written in collaboration with Zara Grigoryevna
Mints, "'Man of Nature' in Russian Literature of the 19th Century
and the Gypsy Theme in Blok" follows the long way of Russian
literature from the "ideal savages" of Rousseau and the Russian
Rousseauists, through Pushkin's "Robbers" and "Gypsies", and the
folklorism of the specific literary tradition of Apollon Grigoryev
to the Gypsy theme in Blok. In The Living Corpse by Leo Tolstoy
Fedya Protasov, intoxicated with the Gypsies' singing, exclaims,
"This is the tenth century, the steppe, not freedom but liberty.".
The meaning of this somewhat enigmatic phrase lies in the opposition
of the notion of "freedom", encompassing the ideas of constitution,
parliamentarism, Europeanism and other ideals of the liberal
intelligentsia, to the anarchical "wild liberty" (after Pushkin)
direct immersion in the natural life. Ideals of this type absorbed an
extensive circle of the progressive Russian intelligentsia of the late
19th century. They included also the Tolstoyan adoption of the
"simple life". A peculiar, programmatic expression of those ideas

Summary

493

was the painting Leo Tolstoy Ploughing by Repin. The painting did
not conform to reality. According to the authoritative testimony of the
peasants who had observed the great author tackling agricultural
labour, Tolstoy was a poor ploughman and the genuine peasants
who helped him regarded it as one of the expressions of eccentricity
of the upper class and this sphere of his activity made them laugh.
It did not make Chekhov go into raptures either, notwithstanding
his deep love for Tolstoy, because he knew only too well the genuine
peasant's life. He, the author of The Village, could not be surprised
with a heroised depiction of peasant labour. For Blok who, in one
of the questionnaires he had filled in at the beginning of the revolution, attached himself to the party of anarchists and in precisely
that vein interpreted Tolstoy's works in that period, the whole
range of ideas of a nomadic, steppe-linked, "wild" life, of a non-city
everyday existenceeverything he associated with the subject of
Gypsiesrepresented a breakthrough to the path leading to genuine
freedom. In the poem The Clown Harlequin rushes into the free
distance but it is followed by the author's remark that the prospect
turned out to have been painted onto paper and Harlequin, having
made a hole in it, fell into emptiness. The Gypsy subject in Blok
was at one and the same time the distance which turned out to be
painted onto paper and the hole into black emptiness which opened
to Blok in the last days of his life.
Two articles have been written together with Mikhail Yuryevich
Lotman: "On Chapter Ten of Eugen Onegin" and "Between the
Thing and the Emptiness (Observations on the Poetics of Joseph
Brodsky's Collection Urania)'1. Another article included in the third
volume of the collection, "Echoes to the Concept of Moscow as the
Third Rome in the Ideology of Peter I", was written in collaboration
with B. A. Uspensky.
The second part of the third volume is dedicated to articles on
the theory and semiotics of other forms of art. The range of the
subjects touched upon is very wide: it embraces semiotic aspects
of the analysis of the cinema, the language of theatre and the
aesthetics of the artistic ensemble.
A work of art placed in the context of an art exhibition or a
museum hall, on the one hand, or immersed in the space of everyday
life natural for it, on the other hand, are fundamentally different
phenomena. The space of a museum, multi-volume complete works
etc. represent artificial formations. Artistic text in this context is
torn apart from its "normal", "natural" surroundings and
introduced into an artificial space actually entirely alien to it.
A picture is painted not for hanging in a museum next to other
pictures. Its natural environment is everyday life where it is in the
neighbourhood of other everyday things, of people, where it is
immersed in life. So, for example, museum rules and the objectively
well-founded striving to preserve valuable works forbid us to touch
an antique statue or, for example, to begin stamping one's feet in
time with music at a concert, while there can be nothing more

494

Summary

natural than to move while examining an immovable statue. The


movement of the observer compensates for the immobility of the
object and creates an entirely new artistic effectthe effect of
accord in which the strings of everyday life and those of the artistic
reconstruction of the same life are vibrating simultaneously. A picture hanging in a room is involved in dialogue with real life, while
in a museum it will always be sentenced to monologue.
Similar problems arise also in those cases when the partners
in dialogue are not works of art and everyday reality, but works
of different kinds of art speaking different languages. One listening
to speech in his native language may not notice how strong the
singing intonations in it are but no sooner does he see the same
texts in absolutely different linguistic contexts than the intonation
becomes manifest. Thus, a duet of two violins underlines the specific
character of the violin less than does a duet of the violin and cello.
This need of art to coexist with alien languages has not by far been
studied sufficiently yet. The habit of taking in music in the philharmonic hall or painting in a museum, i. e. each kind of art in an
artificial context unnatural for it, makes many elements of the
artistic whole simply elusive for us. The practice of the Renaissance,
when music was naturally combined with the garden art, a statue
with a park, a garden with dancing, created that polyphony which
we are entirely deprived of nowadays.
The third volume of the collection also contains articles of a
theoretical bias written in the last few years and touching upon
scholarly problems the actuality of which became evident in the
1980s. They represent as if theoretical considerations in which the
author attempts to sum up the previous editions of his works.
He would define them as preliminary conclusions, drafts of assumptions, on the basis of which, perhaps, some final conclusions can
be arrived at in future. Short notes of different years complete
the third volume.
In conclusion, one might be reminded of a talk Napoleon had
with Cortalis, a distinguished lawyer of his time. Entrusting
Cortalis with the task of writing a code for hi^ empire, Napoleon
set forth for the benefit of the famous lawyer the principles of his
politics. "I understand, Sire," replied Cortalis, "one must write briefly and clearly." "You understand nothing," retorted the emperor,
"write briefly and obscurely." The present writer was guided by the
same principle. The objective of the summary is not to take the place
of the articles but to arouse interest in them, and for this purpose
it is essential to stick to the viewpoint of Napoleon, not Cortalis.
Translated from the Russian by K. Toomel

. .
: 3 . . 3. :
, 1993. 480 .
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