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Student Motivation

By Linda Hillard


The overall purpose of both articles is to provide results on student-teacher involvement

as it relates to their social, behavioral, emotional, and academic neednd how this relationship makes a profound effect on the
student's involvement in the classroom. The article "Teacher
E! _
9erceptions ogmdent Meds andmplications forExositivdqgehaviorghpports," gives detailed
accounts of teacher/student responses, results, study limitations, and suggestions for future
research. This article will provide a variety of diverse teacher responses as it relates to their level
of teaching experiencnd their responses differ in regards to the school implementing the school-wide positive behavior supports
program (SWPBS). In the article "Motivation in the
classroom: Reciprocal effects of teacher behavior and student engagement," a joint effort on the
part of the teacher and students is greatly needed in order to achieve effective results. The
articles provides concrete data, experiments, and theoretical issues pertaining to student
motivation techniques and classroom management strategies to effectively apply to the student's
learning environment. The articles are intended to rovide research for teachers, parents, faculty
. , _ 73 scholars, and administrators. ( @n l
. _ ,7 scholars, and administrators. C @n l
Student motivation is crucial in the Way students learn and is valued by both educators
and parents. When students are motivated to learn they are eager to learn, enthusiastic,
engrossed, inquisitive, and concerned. These students make up a high number of achievers that
feel good about themselves, absorb more, and are eager to advance to a higher level of schooling, such as college (Skinner, E. A.,
Belmont, M. J. (1993). According to Skinner (1993), students
intrinsic motivation declines from preschool thru\high school which causes them to feel progressively more estranged from
learning\. nle'esearch has attributed psychological and social
circumstances of motivation as contributing factors that influence learning. According to
Feuerborn,(2012), the participants of the survey stated student-teacher relationships, assisting


students with social skills, and implementing behavioral systems are key components to student
motivation. This is more effective by creating more natural opportunities for implicit social and emotional learning (Feuerbom,
L., Chinn, D. (2012). Four basic strategies are mentioned in
promoting student motivation: attention focusing, relevance, confidence building, and satisfaction. Engaged students show
behavioral and emotional components. They show positive emotions and effort. Disaffection students lack the enthusiasm to
learn, They shy away from challenges and are withdrawn from opportunities to learn (Skinner, E. A., Behnont, M. J.
When students are involved in a school-wide positive behavior supports (SWPBS), it encourages positive social,
emotional, and behavioral growth in all students. It is a way to motivate positive behavior by outlining clear expectations,
implement consequences, teaching and encouraging expectations, collaboration of problem solving techniques, and effectively
examine behavior support plans (F euerbom, L., Chinn, D. (2012). A study which includes a total of 69 teachers was conducted
(40 experienced teachers, 12 less experienced teachers, and 16 preservice teachers),to acquire a better understanding of the
perceptions and practices of teachers by analyzing the way they view student needs and how teachers are addressing these needs.
They were given four profiles of fourth grade students which consisted of a variety of social, emotional, and behavior
circumstances. Teachers read the profiles as if the students were
new students in their classroom. Teacher's answered prompt questions such as; "what is needed to help determine the students
needs." After all the information was gathered, the teachers collaborated together with their findings (Feuerborn, L., Chinn, D.
(2012). According to the model of motivation as mentioned in the article "Motivation in the classroom," structure,
autonomy support, and involvement vary in regards to the high or low dimensions in which they


are applied. F or example, a teacher can be highly structured with a combination of high or low
autonomy support (Skinner, E. A., Belmont, M. J. (1993).
The findings of the study which involved the 69 teachers noted the more experience teachers relied on their previous
experiences on diverse behaviors while some stated they would not hold the students previous record against them. The most
important element that was gained through this study was establishing positive student-teacher relationships. This is most
effective from the beginning of the school year. 67% of teachers who participated in the study noted how important it is to know
how the family structure is at home because this may impact how much Y@
baggage the student is around with them. If the student is experiencing problems at home, they may or may not be motivated to
come to school to learn (Feuerborn, L., Chinn, D. (2012). The perception of teacher involvement was of the highest reported by
students. The correlation
between how the teacher responds in the classroom has tremendous influence of student
engagement due to teacher engagement. Teachers that set clear expectations, conditional limit
setting, and involvement are more likely to produce happier, more involved, motivated students. W0 .1 .- . _
According to the article, students who are low engagement will receive less teacher support Skinner, E. A., Belmont, M. J.
(1993). To better understand the goal for teachers to support students motivation, then it is crucial to find out what are the factors
that influence teachers
One theoretical issue to expand on is the mindset of the teacher has to change in order to produce more positive results
in regards to student motivation. F or example, if a students level of motivation is high, than more than likely it will get higher. If
the students motivation s low,
The s mdf/ni may #0# then depending on
their classroom experience) it may get lower; Eo-the-peint @JF-they just den t care
or it can get turned around by teachers determined to upli standards that promote structure,


autonomy, motivation, and involvement. Another interesting theory is just because teachers are
meeting the students basic needs does not mean their psychological needs should be ignored
( Skinner, E. A., Belmont, M. J. (1993). As mentioned in the article, the Way teachers respond
and act toward students is a direct reflection on the way students react to teachers. Students feel a
sense of competence and self-determination Skinner, E. A., Belmont, M. J. (1993).
I have had the pleasure of being assigned to a school that implemented a school wide
behavior progrd from my observations it appears to be working ne. It focuses on negative
and positive behavior and supplies students with self-efficacy and clear expectations of following rules and procedures. I agree
with the article " Teacherrceptions otisjudent@eds and @nplications for @sitive Qhaviormportsf that if the teachers do not
have prior
knowledge/training in the program or not enough training, their past experiences is what they are
relying on. The school wide behavior programs are designed with incentives and rewards that
motivate students to do well. It gives them expectations and something to work toward. As stated in the article "Theihnme
is@emendousl}@rnportant tofhow student'ehaves inchool, but @pme aipertainQXtenarrbeidone in thelassroom." Some
students behaviors are learned from
other students in the classroom, negative and positive. I remember when my son was six years
old he had a rst year teacher in his classroom. My son had never had temper tantrums until he
was in that classroom. I didn't believe the teacher until I witnessed it myself. This behavior was
obviously something he had picked up from other students in the classroom. If I had to guess,
(uu r ' * l V _ she probably didn't set
the tone of the classroom the rst week of class. Sometimes teachers get
in one classroorii. This is why it is important to engage, motivate, and build positive self-esteem.


l. Feuerbom, L., Chinn, D. (2012). Teacher perceptions of student needs and implications for
positive behavior supports. Behavioral Disorders, 37(4), 219-231. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1
146476563 ?accountid=1 4961
2. Skinner, E. A., Belmont, M. J. (1993). Motivation in the classroom: Reciprocal effects of
teacher behavior and student engagement.. Journal Of Educational Psychology, 85(4), 571.