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To investigate the adventurer class causing unrest and

uprisings across Munster and how it led to the Desmond
Discuss and explain the reasons for and against the
Desmond Rebellion

Learning Outcomes

Homework to be completed for Friday

Thursday at Lunch time, I will be in computer room for
students who want to complete their homework

Correcting Last Weeks homework


McCarthys and Fitzgeralds were large Gaelic Irish

families in Munster that owned and controlled a lot of the
The head of the Fitzgerald family was known as the Earl
of Desmond.
Why was he known as the Earl?

Munster Plantation

Henry VIII Surrender and Regrant

Mary Tudor Laois-Offaly Plantation
Queen Elizabeth I Munster Plantation

English Monarchs

Queen Elizabeth

She wanted to spread the power of the crown more

forcefully across Ireland
Proposed the appointment of a President in Munster to
impose Englishness.
What things would have constituted Englishness?

Queen Elizabeth

The Queen also promoted the attainment of land


This was achieved through the adventurer class who

received taxes off Irish tenants - patents
Most famous adventurer was Richard Boyle
Generate finance for the English monarch

Richard Boyle

Richard Boyle

Boyle was an important figure in the continuing English

colonisation of Ireland in the 16th and 17th centuries, as
he acquired large tracts of land in plantations in Munster.
Earl of Cork
Owned Lismore Castle
Controlled and owned the town of Bandon

Richard Boyle

Boyle has been described as the "first colonial

Historian R. F. Foster, in his Modern Ireland calls him an
'epitome of Elizabethan adventurer-colonist in Ireland'

By the time of his death in 1643, he was one of the

wealthiest men in the known world.

Boyles Legacy

This desire to get as much land as possible (Boyle)

angered the Fitzgerald's
In 1569, the growing religious unease led to the first
Desmond Rebellion.

The Fitzgeralds went to seek help with Catholic monarchs

across Europe fight back against the English


How could the Counter Reformation affect the Earl of

Desmond and his relationship with Queen Elizabeth 1?

Counter Reformation

The Pope sent 600 troops to Smerwick Harbour (Kerry)

in 1580
The English surrounded the soldiers as they landed.
They surrendered and were massacred by Lord Deputy

Desmond Rebellions

The Earl of Desmond was caught and killed by Loyal

Gaelic Irish
Who or what were the Loyal Gaelic Irish?

What would they do with the Earls lands?

Earl of Desmond

Lands confiscated in 1586

Rebellion was over and Munster in ruins

30,000 ppl killed

Results of the Desmond


Why did the Desmond Rebellion start?

What main countries across Europe were Catholic?
What monarch ordered the Laois-Offaly Plantation?
What does Surrender and Regrant mean?
Name a British figure that was part of the Adventurer
What was the Oath of Supremacy
What year was the Munster Plantation


Adventurer Class Richard Boyle causing unrest

Earl of Desmond and the Pope fighting against the
Surrender and Regrant
Loyal Gaelic Irish

Recap Yesterdays Lesson

Was Desmond right to rebel against Queen Elizabeth

Ovidijus No I do not think the earl of Desmond was
right to rebel against Queen Elizabeth and the English
because he should have known that he would die out of
his richness

Website Comments

Anointed Yes I think the Earl of Desmond was right to

rebel against queen Elizabeth and the English because he
stood for what he believed in. He believed that Ireland
should be a republic and not used for a base.
Jason I think the earl of Desmond was right to stand up
for what he believes in , IRELAND SHOULDNT BE A
BASE ,we should be independent :) I think ..

Website Comments

You are Queen Elizabeth. You have just confiscated the Earl of
Desmonds lands. How would you establish an effective
plantation in Munster?

In Groups, share ideas with your peers about the best plan of
Take into consideration the unrest of the Gaelic Irish.
Each Group One writing down the ideas, two sharers and one

Group Work

Queen Elizabeth wanted to learn from the mistakes of the

Laois-Offaly Plantation.
Get more English settlers
Do not rent land to the Gaelic Irish
Settlers be able to defend themselves create small

How did the Munster

Plantation work

The estates given to the English settlers were larger in

size. The estates were divided into plots of 4,000 to
12,000 acres.
Remember, at this time, 1580s Munster, the area of Cork
did not contain towns or villages but small agricultural
based settlements.
These estates helped to establish new towns Killarney,
Lismore, Youghal, Mallow and Bandon

How did the Munster

Plantation work

These English settlers in Munster were ordered to bring

English tenants to ensure the spread of Englishness (Language,
customs and religion).

What is a landlord?
What is a tenant?
The planters that employed English tenants and upholed
Englishness were known as Undertakers.
They undertook (promised) to uphold the Crowns wishes.


Elizabeth feared the Spanish

Did not want the Spanish to use Ireland as a base to
attack England
Therefore, the Undertakers (landlords in Munster) were
encouraged to defend themselves by setting up small
armies to defend their lands

Using Ireland as a Base

Remove all Gaelic Irish from the land

Bring from England approx 100 English tenants, servants
and craftmens to help form settlements
Provide equipment for cavalry and infantry
Pay tax to the Crown

Role of the Undertaker

Out of a proposed 20,000 settlers, only between five to

six thousand came to Munster.
This meant that land had to be rented to the ?????????

Problems Munster

Because the expected number of settlers did not arrive, the

Undertakers could not form armies.
Therefore they could defend themselves from attacks by the
Gaelic Irish looking to get their land back
These undertakers feared for their lives, left their estates to be
managed by someone else.
They became known as absentees. Remember absenteeism and
the Reformation.
As a result, the Gaelic Irish started to reclaim their lands,
making the Munster Plantation a failure.


Give three reasons why the English started the

Give three reasons why the Irish resisted the Plantations.

Write down answers in your copies.

In Pairs


Formation of New Towns Lismore and Bandon

Became important centres of trade and economy
Rural settlements slowly transforming to an urban setting
Sir Walter Raleigh and the potato
Some protestants stayed they remained in the towns
where English laws and customs still practiced.

Results of the Plantations

Multiple Plantations - Learning from the mistakes of the

past link to the purpose of doing History
Gaelic Irish vs Protestant English

Aim trying to create Protestant Irish