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1. :
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XIX .
1880-

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,
.
1908 () 1911 ()
. , [6].
, , , . , , ,
, , .
1919-1921 . - , , 1924-1925 .
, . 30- 20 [6].
30- , 1936
() : -
. 1938 . .
, , .
-
.
, ,
- , .

10

, , .
- ()
.. ,

.. 1950 . -1.
MW1 (MeridianWeiser). .
, , . -1 , ,
. 50- . (3 -2, W2B), .
.
.
, , ,
( 500-600 ), ,
,
.


1956 . ( ),
10 .
. . .
1957 .
1 ( 2).

11

2
.
, ,
. ,
, .
1957 . MW4. 1958 .
-1 (Kreiseltheodolit),
-2, MW10, MW7, MW50, MW77 TK-4, TK-5.
60- .
, 1963 . 1. 1967 . 2,
. , 2
.

: 1970 . 4 1975 .
, (, ) .


, ,
. 1959 .
( ) ( -1, 2).
,
60- . Gi-B1, Gi-C1, Gi-C2 Gi-B2.
Gi-B21,
, 1978 . Gi-B2, Gi-B3.

12

, 1963 .

, R1.
R2.
, GirolitII
- .
1973 . -10 (Meridiankreisel). ,

. 1974 . NSK (NorthSuchenKreisel), . .
-. ,
25''.
5''; , .
, 60- . PIM, .
MiniPIM. GAK1
ARK1 ARC2 60- Wild. 1975 . (Gymo)
Gi-B1, .
80- .
-1 4, () ,
, , .
,
, 4. -

13


, . 4
-1 .
GT UGT
, , ,
.

, , , , , , .
:
; ; .
,

.
2-3' - ,
. c 3-10''
50 .
(GPS) , GPS. . , , .
, -

14

. .

,

.
.
SOKKIA GP1,
( c), . c ( = 20") 75.
DMT, , GYROMAT-2000 .
, DMT
GYROMAT-3000 ,
.
GYROMAT-3000, GYROMAT-2000, . GMT (GeoMessTechnik) , - WilhelmHeger " " GYROMAX [6].

15

6. :
U
U . 2.
U .

. 2

( )
: , ..
,
, ( , )
, . 3.
, .
:
= arctan

= arctan

cos sin
cos cos

(6-1)

16

:
.

().

N
$%&
= $%&

sin' (

= $%&

cos' (
E

. 3:
N-, E-


, , . 4,
!" ( !" . 6). !" # , .
- , (6-2):

17


arctan

= arctan

:
-

$%&
$%&

= arctan

sin' +
cos' +

#(

#(

(6-2)

- , , .. , . 0, ,.
, # ,
. # :

= arctan

(6-3)

!"


$%&

= $%&

sin' +

#(

= $%&

cos' +

#(

E
. 4. .

18


. 5.

$%&

= $%& sin

= $%& cos

1~
/~

+ arctan

. 5. .

. 6. .

19


, ,

.
, . ,
.
.

20

7.
. 7.
. ,
, . [2].

. 7: .1-, 2-, 3-, 4-.


, , , . , -

21


, . , .

,
.

( )
( ),
.

234- , ,
.
,
, , 5 .
6 7 8 - , 9: , !: .

;6 7 8 - , 9 .

;678- ,
9, ! ,
. 9.

22


!H

FD

F: 9 H

G:D

D
:

!H
H

G:

=:

F:

. 8.

FD
GD

9 H

=H, =
I

. 9.

, . 8 . 9.
( (7-1)),
<9!=.

>@
+ A
>9
>B
+ @
>!

B
A

B
A

= C@

= CB

(7-1)

D
:

D
F: = F cos + G sin
G: = F sin + G cos

23

1
1
1
1
J + M: FN + OP1 + P/ QFD + R OS1 + S/ Q 'J: + M: T: ( D UV F
2
2
2
2
1
1
D
+ 'T + M: ( D G + OP1 + P/ Q D G + C G
2
2
1
T: + M: J:
D
+ C
= J + M: D T +
2
2

1
1
1
1
J + M: GN + OP1 + P/ QGD + R OS1 + S/ Q 'J: + M: T: ( D U V G
2
2
2
2
1
1
'T + M: ( D FD + OP1 + P/ Q D F + C G
2
2
1
T: + M: J:
= J + M: D + T +
D
+ C
2
2

(7-2)

-J, M, T .

-J: , M: , T: .
-

-F, G . 8.

-C ,
.
-P1 , P/ .

-S1 , S/ .

- C , C - ,
.


,
.

24


C = 0, C = 0,
= 0,
= 0 . -

1
OP + P/ Q
2 1
1
S = OS1 + S/ Q
2
1
Y: = 'J: + M: T: (
2
P=

(7-3)

1
'S Y: D U (F + P D G + C G = 0
2
1
'S Y: D U (G P D F C F = 0
2

(7-4)
(7-5)

F = 0, G = 0

, .
(, ) .

, F, G , (7-2).
,
D , .
9, ! (7-4) (7-5)

'S Y: D U (F, 'S Y: D U (G

25

.
, , :

'S Y: D U ( = 0

(7-6)

.
( , ),
,
,
(7-4) (7-5).

, .
. P . C ,
, . , (7-4) (7-5).

. . ,
F, G
, .

26

( ) ( ).
, F, G .
, .
(7-2) (7-3)
:

1
J + M: FN + PFD + ZS Y:
2
1
+ C G
2
1
= J + M:
2
1
J + M: GN + PGD + ZS Y:
2
1
C F
2
1
= J + M:
2

D U [F + 'T + M: ( D GD + P D G
D 'T + M: Y: ( D

+ C

D + 'T + M: Y: ( D

+ C

D U [G 'T + M: ( D FD P D F

(7-7)

'T + M: Y: ( D = \T + T: ] D ^, -

:
U

1
J_ = J + M:
2
^ = 'T + M: ( D
S` = S Y: D U
1
Sa = C + P D
2

J_ FN + PFD + ^GD + S` F + Sa G = A D ^
J_ GN + PGD ^FD + S` G Sa F = J D + ^

+ Md
+C

(7-8)

27

C. = C# + g C_ 'h( + g C 'h( + g5 g C 'hU (


C. = C# g C_ 'h( + g C 'h( g g5 C 'hU (

(7-9)

C# , C# - , -

.
g , g , g5 .
C_ 'h(, C 'h(, C 'hU ( , , h.

,
, :
h.
'h, hU ( - h.

, -

F, G , k ,
F, G . k , ,
, , ,
.

'h, hU (

, -

g , () , g, . , g2 .

28

. 10 , , (7-9):

'g( =
'g( =

F
p G + g
n
G
#
+ p G + g
n

F
;
n
= p G;
=
+

_
_

+g

G
n
= p G

+ g g5

+ g g5

(g)

F, G

'h, hU (

(g)
F, G

. 10. [1].

29

, ,
..
, . .
, .
, .. ,
,
, . .

- ,
, .

30

-6

8.
-6
-6 .

-6


^
200

0,02
30






240 480

./
./

4,70,7
1
30
6

2,50,125
1920019,2
70

9520
306

(/)/
(/)/

0,05%
0,5%

/
/

0,05%

31

-6

J: , M:
T:
J, M
T

5.8 10vw
7.3 10vw

.
.

3.47 10vU
6.63 10vU

.
.

300


3
/



0,02
/

0,056
/
,

0,02
/

0,05
/
,

0,03
(/)/hU

0,05
(/)/hU

50,5
/



0,018
/

0,075
/

4800,3


10

32

-6

-6:

^ D , T :

^ = T. D T =

^
200 .
=
= 6.63 10vU .
D 480 2 ,

3D -6 SolidWorks, :

J=M

T
= 3.47 10vU .
1.9

2'C+B1 ( 2C 6.63*10-2 .
D=
=
=2.21*10-4 ./
T
T
300c

S1 Y:

U
D

200 .
S1
= 0 Y: =
=
= 2.2 10vw . . U
U
U
D

U
3016U

2Y: = 2J: T: 0.75J: J:

2Y:
= 5.8 10vw . . U
0.75

3D :

T: = 1.25J: = 7.3 10vw . . U

33

-6

9. --6
,
, . ,
. < < .
:
1. .
2. .
3. : , , , , . , , , .
,
4. : , .
.
5. .
6. .

34

-6

. .

- 5% ( ) 35 .. .
.

35

-6

1 , . 11 -6.
1: -6, . 11.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

X Y








36

-6

. 11. -6

37

-6

-6

. 12 --6, SolidWorks 2012.

. 12. --6

. 13 ,
Solidworks , -6.
, . 14 . 15
--6.
: , -6 .

38

-6

. 13 -6

39

-6

. 14 -6
.

. 15 -6

40

10.


(7-8) ( J_ J) -

'J& U + P& + S` (F + '^& + Sa (G = ^


'J& U + P& + S` (G '^& + Sa (F = ^
= F + G, =

J&

J&

+ C

+ C

, C = C + C

's('J& U + 'P ^(& + S` Sa ( = 's('As + ^( + C '&(

, ,
:

'&( =

C '&(
= J& + ^
'&(

C '&( = 's('As + ^(

, :

C'&( = C '&( + C '&( = C '&( + C '&( + C '&(

,
.

'&( =

'& (
1
= U
C '&( J& + 'P ^(& + S` Sa

.
:

JU + 'P ^( + S` Sa = 0

41

, ,
, :

: =

U =

P
2J

P + 2^
2J

, , ,
.
- D , D .. D

, ,
:

'&( =

C '&(
^
= J &
'& (
J

'&( =

1/J
'&(
=
C'&( &'& (

, , .
, .

, 's( = d 's( + j 's( .


C '&( = Md 's( + M 's( ,

q , . U , U ,
1, 2
1, 2. ,

42

M: , MU , Md , M .
:

C: '&( = C '&(, CU '&( = C '&(

, . ,
.
. , ,
.

K's(, W's(- , ;
W 's( - ;

W 's( - .

M's(, ,
U M's( , .
M ,
. , M :

C = J D + ^

C = J D ^

C = J D + ^

43

, M
, . A
D, AD , :

C ^

, , AD . W 's( = U 's(/U 's( -

,
. W , :

'&( =

k - .

&


. 16 . 17.

44

1
^

1
J& + P

/ '&(

1 '&(

1
&

1
J& + P

. 16.

FD

'(


'(

FD
:

+1

'(

'(

+1

/ '&(
F

1
&

\1 +

1
&

1 '&(

1
^

1
^

1
^

1 '&(

. 17. ,

45

'J& U + P& + S` (F + O^& + Sa + / QG = ^ J& + C


'J& U + P& + S` (G '^& + Sa + 1 (F = ^ J& + C

F =

^
^

J&
J&

+C
+C

^& + Sa + /

'J& U + P& + S` (

= 'J& U + P& + S` (C + OJ&Sa + J&/ ^P& ^S` Q

O^& + Sa + / QC 'JU & + ^U & + JP& U + JS` & + ^Sa


+ ^/ (

'J& U + P& + S` ( ^ J& + C

G =
'^& + Sa + 1 ( ^ J& + C
= 'J& U + P& + S` (C 'J&Sa + J&1 ^P& ^S` (
+ '^& + Sa + 1 (C 'JU & + ^U & + JP& U + JS` & + ^Sa
+ ^1 (

'J& U + P& + S` (
^& + Sa + /

'^& + Sa + 1 ( 'J& U + P& + S` (


= 'J& U + P& + S` (U + '^& + Sa (U + 1 / + '^ + Sa ('1 + / (

:
F OJ&Sa + J&/ ^P& ^S` Q 'JU & + ^ U & + JP& U + JS` & + ^Sa + ^/ (
F=
=
'J& U + P& + S` (U + '^& + Sa (U + 1 / + '^ + Sa ('1 + / (

G=

'J& U + P& + S` (C O^& + Sa + / QC


'J& U + P& + S` (U + '^& + Sa (U + 1 / + '^ + Sa ('1 + / (

G 'J&Sa + J&1 ^P& ^S` ( 'JU & + ^ U & + JP& U + JS` & + ^Sa + ^1 (
=
'J& U + P& + S` (U + '^& + Sa (U + 1 / + '^ + Sa ('1 + / (

'J& U + P& + S` (C + '^& + Sa + 1 (C


+
'J& U + P& + S` (U + '^& + Sa (U + 1 / + '^ + Sa ('1 + / (

Md = 0, M = 0

46

F=
G=

, :

F OJ&Sa + J&/ ^P& ^S` Q 'JU & + ^ U & + JP& U + JS` & + ^Sa + ^/ (
=
'J& U + P& + S` (U + '^& + Sa (U + 1 / + '^ + Sa ('1 + / (

G 'J&Sa + J&1 ^P& ^S` ( 'JU & + ^ U & + JP& U + JS` & + ^Sa + ^1 (
=
'J& U + P& + S` (U + '^& + Sa (U + 1 / + '^ + Sa ('1 + / (

W = W = W = ':-( ,

F=

K k , K k

G=

S`U + Sa U + U
S`U

+ Sa U + U

S`

S`

F=

G=

+ 'Sa + (

+ ' Sa + (

(10-1)

(10-2)

, H

lim F

lim G

1
=
^

/
=
^

JU & + ^ U & + JP& U + JS` & + ^Sa + ^/

U
U
U
'J& + P& + S` ( + '^& + Sa ( + 1 / + '^ + Sa ('1 + / (
^

47

'J& U

=
=

+ P& + S`

'J& U

(U

+ P& + S`

J&Sa + J&/ ^P& ^S`

U
+ '^& + Sa ( + 1 / + '^ + Sa ('1 + / (
^

(U

J&Sa + J&1 ^P& ^S`

U
+ '^& + Sa ( + 1 / + '^ + Sa ('1 + / (
^

JU & + ^ U & + JP& U + JS` & + ^Sa + ^1

'J& U + P& + S` (U + '^& + Sa (U + 1 / + '^ + Sa ('1 + / (


^
lim

lim

lim

lim

^Sa + ^

1
U
U
+ Sa + ^

S`U

^Sa + ^

1
U
U
+ Sa + ^

S`U
S`U
S`U

^S`
S`

U
U
+ Sa + ^
^S`
S`

U
U
^

+ Sa +

(10-1) (10-2) ,
,
K.

K, :

F, G 1H 3 10v > ( ).

, ..

7 10vw >/&

:
@

=2

1.4 10v >/&

48

` =

1.4 10v 200


=
94 .
3 10v

:
, .. = .
:

.
.
. .

, -

k , k = :

JU & + ^ U & + ^/
1
= U

=
J & + ^ U & U + 2^&1 / + 1 /
^

J&/
1
= U

=
J & + ^U & U + 2^&1 / + 1 /
^
=

/
J&1

=
JU & + ^ U & U + 2^&1 / + 1 /
^
U

1 + +

1+

1+

/
J & + ^ & + ^1
= U

=
U
U
J & + ^ & + 2^&1 / + 1 /
^
U

\1 + + ]

+ \]

\1 +

1+

+\ ]

+\ ]

+\ ]

49

MATLABR2008.
. 18 , ,
.

Mxi

WxiIn
Step

To Workspace4
Alpha

1
s
To Workspace3

WetaOut

Integrator 2

Alpha
Saturation 2

To Workspace

A.s+D

1/H

Transfer Fcn 4

Gain 3

Scope 7

Scope 2

K
T^2.s2 +2*Ts+1

Gain 1

Transfer Fcn 5

K
T^2.s2 +2*Ts+1

Transfer Fcn 3

To Workspace1
Saturation 1
Beta

Transfer Fcn 1 Gain 2

Integrator 1
1
s

Beta

Gain 4

1
A.s+D

1/H

WxiOut
To Workspace 2

Scope 1
0

Meta

Step 1
To Workspace5
WetaIn

. 18. , .

- . 19.
. 19 , , 90 14 ,
5 .

50


Magnitude
50
0

Magnitude dB

Open Loop ( / )

X: 13.14
Y: -14.87

Closed Loop ( / )

-50
-100
-150
-200
-250
-1
10

10

10

10

10

10

Hz

Phase
0
Phase Open Loop ( / )

Phase Closed Loop ( / )

-90

Degrees

-180
-270
-360

-1

10

10

10

10

10

10

Hz

. 19. .
Magnitude
50

out / in

X: 6.644
Y: -3.047

out / in

-50

Magnitude dB

-100

-150
X: 960
Y: -162.7

-200

-250

-300

-350

-400
-1
10

10

10

10

10

10

Hz

. 20.-

51


Magnitude
0

/ in
/ in
-50

Magnitude dB

-100

-150

-200

-250

-300
-1
10

10

10

10

10

10

Hz

. 21.-


= 30 = 0, # = 0:
`

sin 30 3.6 10vw >/&$,

-6

Rotor Angles

x 10

-0.5

-1
Angle (radians)

. 22
.
, 0.2 ,

20%, 1.

sin 30 6.3 10vw >/&$

X: 0.5081
Y: -1.454e-006

-1.5
X: 0.1388
Y: -1.506e-006

-2
X: 0.7892
Y: -2.519e-006

-2.5
X: 0.2293
Y: -2.613e-006

-3
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4
0.5
0.6
Time (seconds)

0.7

0.8

0.9

. 22. , .

52

. 23 . 24
. , , 0.2 20%.
-5

Output signal (Rotation Speed)

x 10

Rotation Speed (radian/second)

3.5

out

in

2.5

1.5

0.5

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
0.6
Time (seconds)

0.7

0.8

0.9

. 23. 2
-5

Output signal (Rotation Speed)

x 10

Rotation Speed (radian/second

out
in

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5
0.6
Time (seconds)

0.7

0.8

0.9

. 24. 3

53

11.

-
:
.
.
.
.
.

, ..
1 2 (12) 2 1 (11). U1 U2, R1 R2 ,
.


, , 2 (2),
,
. A1 2 .

. 25 .

54

. 25.- 1- 2- 3 4- 5- 6-/ 7- 8- 9- 10- 11- 12- .


R-


(3)
180 .
, , :

55

1.
U1 U2, # , # .

2.
180 + , 180.
3.
U1 U2, :# , :# .

4.

:#

:#

:#

:#

= tan'

, :
, .
180 + .
.
:
:

0: , , : - ,
, .
1: 9: , !: , =: .

2: 9U , !U , =U 1
FU 9: .

3: , , I ,
, I .
56

. 26,
(3) (0)
: = ( ) FU , G ( ,
).

=U

FU

, =:

, :
9: , 9U

=0

, !U

= &g

= $%&

FU
!:
, :

. 26.


,
.
:

C: - 0 1.

CU - 1 2.
C - 2 3.
C: , CU , C .

57

T: = C: T#
cos : sin :
C: = sin : cos :
0
0

TU = CU T:
1
0
CU = 0 cos FU
0 sin FU

0
0
1

0
sin FU
cos FU

T = C TU
cos G 0 sin G
1
0
C = 0
sin G 0 cos G

0 3 :

Cq = C CU C:

1
0
CU C: = 0 cos FU
0 sin FU

cos :
= cos FU sin :
sin : sin FU

Cq = C CU C:
cos G
0

=
sin G

0
1
0

0
cos :
sin FU sin :
cos FU
0
sin :
cos FU cos :
sin FU cos :

sin G
cos :
0 cos FU sin :
sin : sin FU
cos G

cos G cos : sin G sin : sin FU


cos FU sin :
=
sin G cos : + cos G sin : sin FU

sin :
cos :
0

0
sin FU
cos FU

0
0
1

sin :
cos FU cos :
sin FU cos :

cos G sin : + sin G sin FU cos :


cos FU cos :
sin G sin : cos G sin FU cos :

0
sin FU
cos FU

sin G cos FU
sin FU

cos G cos FU

58

= Cq

sin G sin : sin FU ( sin G cos FU


cos FU sin : + sin FU
=

'sin G cos : + cos G sin : sin FU ( + cos G cos FU


'cos G sin : + sin G sin FU cos : (
cos FU cos :
+

+ 'sin G sin : cos G sin FU cos : (

'cos G cos :

= 0,

= $%& ,

= &g , : =

$%& 'cos G sin + sin G sin FU cos ( &g sin G cos FU


$%& cos FU cos + &g sin FU
=

5
$%& 'sin G sin cos G sin FU cos ( + &g cos G cos FU

FU , G

=R

$%& sin
$%& cos

G &g
V
+ FU &g

, FU , G :

#

= $%& sin

= $%& cos


:#

= $%& sin

G &g

+ FU &g
+ G &g

59

:#

= $%& cos

:#

:#

sin
cos

cos

sin

2 sin'
2 cos'
cos

:#

:#

= g

= arctan

+ 2FU &g

:#

:#

( 2G g
sin
=
cos
( + 2FU g

sin cos
cos + sin sin

sin
cos

2G &g

= 2 $%& cos
#

FU &g

= 2 $%& sin
#

cos
+ sin

sin
G g
=
+ FU g
cos

G g
sin
=
cos
+ FU g

cos cos G g cos


= sin cos + sin sin + FU g sin

= G g cos

FU g sin

= tan

= tan

'G cos

'G cos

+ FU sin

+ FU sin

(11-1)

(11-1) ,
, ,
90, tan . ,
, .. FU = G = 0.

60

,
, .. .
:

2 cos sin 2G3 sin


2 cos cos + 2F2 sin

cos sin G3 sin


cos cos + F2 sin
cos sin

'cos

sin' + (
cos' + (

sin cos + sin cos


cos cos sin sin

sin + cos
cos sin

cos cos sin2 G3 sin cos + G3 sin sin


= cos sin cos + cos cos2 + F2 sin sin
+ F2 sin cos

+ FU sin
=

cos

G sin

sin ( = G sin

cos

G sin cos + FU sin sin


cos + FU sin cos G sin sin
G cos + FU sin
= tan
1 + FU tan cos G tan
= tan

G cos + FU sin
1 + FU tan cos G tan

FU sin

sin

sin

sin

(11-2)

:
,
, ..
.
, (11-1) , . (11-1) , .

61


:
#

= $%& sin

+ :

= $%& cos

, 180 :
180

180

= $%& sin' + 180 + ( = $%& ' sin cos cos sin (


= $%& ' sin cos (

= $%& cos' + 180 + ( = $%& ' cos cos + sin sin (


= $%& ' cos + sin (

0
0

180

'2 tan

= tan' + ( =
180

180

180

tan + tan
1 tan tan

= $%& '2 sin

= $%& '2 cos

+ cos (

sin (

'2 tan + (
tan +
=
'2 tan ( 1 tan

2 tanU

+ tan ( = '2 tan

+ tanU

+ 2 tan

+ (
(11-3)

.
.
:

, .
1.

62

:
:
0

= $%& sin

+
2

= $%& cos

+
3

- (), ,

- , ,

, 180,

:
:#
:#
#

= $%& sin

= $%& cos

:#

:#

2 $%& sin

O $%& cos

2 $%& cos

= Otan

+
2

+
3

= 2 $%& sin

= 2 $%& cos
:#

:#

+ $%& tan

$%&

= tan' + (

$%& cos

sin

tan +
1 tan

tan

sin

cos

tan

$%& sin

cos

sin

(11-4)

63

:
(11-4) ( ).
:
:
0

180
180

= $%& sin

G3 &g +

= $%& cos

+ F2 &g +

= $%& sin' + 180 + ( + G3 &g +


= $%& sin $%& cos + G3 &g +

= $%& cos' + 180 + ( F2 &g +


= $%& cos + $%& sin F2 &g +

0
0

180

2 $%& sin + $%& cos


2 $%& cos $%& sin

\2 $%& cos

+ tan
tan

$%& G &g cos

$%& + FU &g cos

+ 2FU &g 2

tan +
1 tan

+ $%& cos

2G &g 2

Q]

$%& sin

+ 2FU &g 2

Q]

+ $%& cos

O2 $%& cos

2 $%& + 2FU &g cos

= tan' + (

2G3 &g 2
+ 2F2 &g 2

O2 $%& sin

$%& 2G &g cos

180

$%& sin

= \2 $%& sin
=

cos
cos

cos

cos

2G &g 2

2FU &g sin

2G &g sin

FU &g sin

G &g sin

sin

sin

sin

sin

(11-5)

64

(11-5) , . :
#

2
2
2
2

$%&
$%&
$%&
$%&

sinO

cosO

sin

cos
tan

:#

:#

= tan

(11-6)

sin + $%& cos 2G3 &g 2


= tan
cos $%& sin + 2F2 &g 2
sinO Q + $%& cosO Q 2G3 &g 2
cosO Q $%& sinO Q + 2F2 &g 2

Q + 2 cosO

Q sinO
2

cos

1 + tan

Q G3 tan

2 sin

+ 2 +

2 tan

Q + F2 tan

+ 2 cos

+ sin

tan
2

sin
2

cos
2

cos

cos

+ F2 tan

1
+ cos RG3 tan

1
+ 2 + cos RF2 tan

+ sin
2

FU tan

= tan

G3 tan

tan

1 + tan2 = 1 + tan2 +
F2 tan
2
cos
=

cos

cos

cos

= tan

cos

V
cos

cos

cos

= tan

= tan

1
cos

G3 tan

G tan

cos

cos

(11-7)

U , , , .
(11-7) , :

= + sin
2

tan

cos

cos

tan

cos

(11-8)

65

, U , .

(11-8) ,
:
.
.
.
, U , .
.
180.

(11-5), (11-8) , (11-6)


. , ,
.

66

:
. 27
. ,
. , ' sin cos (

( (11-4)).

Error by =60 degree


6
5

= =0.001 deg/hour

= =0.002 deg/hour
= =0.004 deg/hour

Error by mintues

3
2
1
0
-1

. 27.
(
(11-8)).
= , FU = 0, G = 0.

= = 0,001/.

= = 0,002/.

= = 0,004/.

-2
-3
-4
-5
-6
0

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

(Degrees)

. 28

,
= 40. .

67


Error by =40 degree
4

==0.001 deg/hour

==0.002 deg/hour
==0.004 deg/hour

Error by mintues

2
1
0
-1

. 28.
(
(11-8)).
= , = , = .

/.
2 = 3 = ,

2 =
/.
3 = ,

/.
2 = 3 = ,

-2
-3
-4
0

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

(Degrees)

. 29 .
:
U

.
0,1, .
Error by
1

. 29.
( (11-8)).
FU = 0, G = 0.

= 0/.
= 0/.

0.8
0.6

Error by mintues

0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1
-2

-1.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

1.5

. 30
FU . , , G , ,
(minutes)

68

= 50. FU , G 0,1.
Error by
2.5

2=0 min

Error by mintues

2=0.5 min

1.5

2=1 min

2=2 min

0.5
0
-0.5

. 30.
=
( (11-8)).
= 0, G = 0.

= 0/.

= 0/.

-1
-1.5
-2
-2.5
0

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

(Degrees)

. 31
. , ,
:

tan

(11-5).

, tan

FU , G
Error by

Error by mintues

-1

. 31. (
(11-8)).
= 0, FU = 0, G = 0.

= 0,002/.
= 0/.

-2

=0 deg
=30 deg
=45 deg
=60 deg
=90 deg

-3

-4

-5

-6

10

20

30

40
50
degrees

60

70

80

90

69

. 32
FU = 0.1.
Error by

. 32. (
(11-8)).
= 0, FU = 0.1, G = 0.

= 0,002/.

3 = /.

2
1
0
Error by mintues

-1
-2

=0 deg
=30 deg
=45 deg
=60 deg
=90 deg

-3
-4
-5
-6

10

20

30

40
50
degrees

60

70

80

90

. 33
, .

Error by

. 33. (
(11-8)).
= 2H , FU = 0.1, G = 0.

= 0,002/.
= 0/.

Error by mintues

1
0
-1

=0 deg
=30 deg
=45 deg
=60 deg
=90 deg

-2
-3
-4
-5

10

20

30

40
50
degrees

60

70

80

90

. 34

FU = 0,1H , G = 0,1H , = 0.1 (..


0,1H ).
. , -

70

2 , 0,003/.
Error by =60

= =0.001 deg/hour
= =0.002 deg/hour

Error by mintues

= =0.003 deg/hour
= =0.004 deg/hour

. 34.

( -

(11-8)).

= , FU = 0,1H , G = 0,1H , = 0.1.

= = 0,001/.

= = 0,002/

= = 0,003/ .

= = 0,004/.

-1

-2

-3
0

45

90

135

180

225

270

315

360

(Degrees)

:
1.
180,
( 0,1). ,
.
20.
2. -
.
3.
FU , G 'tan sin ( 'tan $%& ( . , ..
0,1.
4. 0,003 / (
60), 2, .

71

0,1 . . .

@ = h sin FU

FU

. 35. .

. 35 FU

@ = h FU FU = 0.1H = 3 10vw > @ 3 10vw h

10vw h .
:

, , . FU , G , :

sin FU = FU ,
sin G = G ,

cos FU = 1

cos G = 1

72


$%&, &g:

sin F F

F
+
3!

FU
cos F = 1
+
2

FU , G .
:
FU
1H

3 10v

FU U
>
2
4.5 10v

20H

6 10v

1.8 10vw

10H
30H
1

FU >

3 10v
9 10v
0.017

4 10v
4 10vw

1.5 10v

FU
>
6
4.5 10v:U
3.6 10v

4.5 10v

1.2 10v
8 10v

< 0.01H

1
U

~1H

~4H

~0,1H
~0,5H

2. , .

, ~2.
cos &g
0,1H ,
. 2 FU = 20H ,
4H .

:
.
.

73

', (, , ,
.
, . 36.

>: , >U , > - .


.
9 - .
= - ,
.

>: , 20 ' ( ! ' 9, =(:


: '>: (

: '>: (

>:
>:
= arctan
+ cos 60
1.5

= arctan

20H >: = 1.5 tan

= 0.1

>: < 1

0,009

. 36

74

: '>U, (

U O>U, Q

= arctan

= arctan

U O>U, Q

>U, cos 60
>U,
= arctan 0.333
+ cos 60

>U, cos 30
>U,
= arctan 0.577
+ cos 60

20H >U, =

= 0.1

1
tan
0.577

>U, < 1

0,01

,
20 .

75

12.

. 37 , :
1. : :
1. .
2. :
3 .
3. : , ,
, .
4. .
5. .
6. .
2. :
(. 38).
1. : , ..
.
2. ,
, .
3. :
:
a)
- .
b)
180 .
c)
.
d)
.
e)
, .

76

4. :
180 . , .
5. .

,
.

. 37. . 1- 2- 3- 4 5- 6-.

77

. 38. ( ), 1-, 2- 3-, 4- -6, 5-,


6-, 7- .

. 39 1-, 2- 3- , 4- , 5--6, 6- 7- .

78

. 40 , .
3.

. 40. ( ). .

79

3. .

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

-6

()

,
, . 41.
( . 41),
, .. .
3 . , ( ). , 5
180, .

80

,
.

. 41. . 1- 2- 3 4- 5- .

. 42. .

. 43. .


- , . , , .

81


:
2,5-3. ( ).
: 20, 17, 35.
10 .
2-3 .
.
:
1. ,
. --6
10 ,
.
2. ,
. , , , , ,
.
3.
, .
4. ,

1 .
5. , :
a. .
b. .

82

. 44 ,
SolidWorks. , . 45 . 46 .

. 44. .

83

. 45. .

84

. 46

85

,
.
.

.
-6 . -6- .
-6 .
, .

.
- ,
+ ,.

,
180 .

86

13.

1. .., .., ..
. .: , 1988. 264.
2. .., .., .. .
.:, 2005. 103.
3. .., .. .//.- .: . 1999.-.1. . 8592.
4. .., .. .//.- .: .
1999.-.1. . 40-49.
5. ..

. .: , 1997. 188.
6. .., .., Wilhelm Heger - : . . 2010. -.URL.
http://internetgeo.ru/uploads/journals/geoprofile0410/gyroscope.pdf
.
( 03.03.2012).

87