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2001

24 729
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54 (075.4)

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, 2001 576 .

ISBN 5-8212-0276-0

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24 729
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ISBN 5-8212-0276-0
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kuzmenko@educ.chem.msu.ru kuzmenko@phys.chem.msu.ru
vadim@educ.chem.msu.ru

2001 .

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171-90-1
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6. 7.22 . 26
( 19.6%, 1.15). 32 1.25 /.
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171-90-2
1. .
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171-903
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6. 29.12 100
( 39.2%)
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171-90-4
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6. 29.12
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7. 15.52
68 2.5 /.
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-90-1
1. 2.5 10 .
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7. 2.88 489 (
298 101.3 ). 54
99 (IV) 27 .
1.8 0.97 473 101.3 .

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-90-2
1. 3.9 10 .
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7. 1.8
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-90-3
1. 3 10 .
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-90-4
1. 3.5 10 .
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7. 2.96
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171-91-1
1. ? .
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3.
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4.
494.2 , 19.7 ( 101.3 27 ). , , (IV),
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277.0 /, .
5.
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6. 3.2 , (
+1 +2),
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39.2%- . 48.5%.
2.5 ,
44.9%. .
22
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1.27 ,
55.5 .
.

171-91-2
1. ? .
2. ,
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3.
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441.7 , 14.% ( 102 33 ). , , (IV),
393.5 /, 241.8 /
166.4 /, .
5.
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, , , . 23

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6. 1.76 , MeS (
+2 +3),
.
29.4%- . 34.5%.
2.9 ,
23.0%. .
7. , , ,
0.94 ,
281.7 . .

171-91-3
1. ?
.
2. (II)
(II). .
.
3. , ,
1.5. , ,
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4.
235.9 , 10.0 ( 104.1 40 ). , , (IV),
24

393.5 /, 241.8 /
484.2 /, .
5.
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- ,
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6. 1.6 , Me2S ( +1 +2),
. 29.2%- .
40.9%. 1.71 , 27.6%. .
7. , , , 1.0. ,
66.8 .
.

171-91-4
1. ? .
2. , ( )
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3. ,
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25

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4.
410.9 , 12.2 ( 105 35.3 ). , , (IV),
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486.6 /, .
5.
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,
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6. 4.4 , MeS (
+2 +3),
.
37.8%- .
41.7%. 8.08 ,
34.7%. .
7. , ,
,

1.0 , 248.5 . .

26

- 9
1.
? 0.01%.
2. (III) .
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3.
F H S ?
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4. :
CH=C-C=CH-CH 3
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5.
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6. , 178.6 ( 39.2%,
1.4) 20.4 , 450 ( 33.8%)
27

.
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7. , , , (II)
( 400 0C), (V) ,
.
0.192 ,
, , 0.144 0.088 .
23.4 , 17 0C
103 . ( ..)
, , 0.068 .

-91-2
1. ?
5.1% 2.1%, .
2.
(II). , , .
3.
Cl?
.
4. :
3C=CC=CH2
CH3
) ;
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28

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400 0C), (V) , .
0.384 ,
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50.9 ,
27 0C 98 .
( ..)
, , 0.136 .

-91-3
1.
?
2.6%.
2. . ,
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3.
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29

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4. :
CH=C-CH-CH=CH 2
CH3

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6. , 89.3 ( 39.2%, 1.4) 20.6 (III), 225
( 33.8%) . , .
7. , , , (II)
( 400 0C), (V) ,
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0.208 ,
, , 0.162 0.088 . 23.3 , 19 0C
104 . ( ..)
30

, , 0.070 .

-91-4
1. ?
27.6% 47.2%, .
2. (IV).
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3.
HHN?
.
4. :
CH=CCH 2 -C=CH 2
CH 3
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5.
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6. , 71.4 ( 39.2%, 31

1.4) 14 , 150 ( 33.8%)


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7. , ,
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400 0C), (V) , .
0.416 ,
, , 0.324 0.176 .
53.8 ,
25 0C 92 .
( ..)
, , 0.140 .

171-92-1
1.
(II)?
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2. , .
.
3. , 2-. .
4. , ,
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5.
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32

6. 48 , 46.7% 53.3%
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18.1 . , ,
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174 /, (III) 824 /, (IV)
297 /, 1675 /?
7. 36 7.36 100%-
. 4.66 ,
12.1
(IV) ( . .). ( ) ,
150 200 90%-
( 0.82 /) .

171-92-2
1.
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2. , . .
3. 10, 3-. .
4. , , ?
.
5.
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2-1115

33

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6. 48 , 80.0% 20.0%
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18.1 . , ,
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79 /, (II) 165 /, (IV)
297 /, 1675 /?
7. 23
6.4
.
2.33 ,
9.41
(IV) ( . .). ( ) ,
200 80%- 150
( 0.79 /)
.

171-92-3
1.
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2. , . .
3. 712, 2,3-. .
4. , , ?
.

5.
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) -2;
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6. 35.2 , 63.6% 36.4%
, , 15.4 . , ,
,
:
101 /, (1) 824 /, (IV)
297 /, 1675 /?
7. 6.9
36.8 100%-
. 2.33 ,
1.57
(IV) ( . .). ( ) ,
100 200 90%-
( 0.82 /) .

171-92-4
1.
? .
2. ,
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3. C 8 Hu, 2,2-. .
2*

35

4. , , *'
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.
5.
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.
6. 57.6 , 66.7% 33.3%
, ,
15.4 . , , , : 53 /,
(II) 165 /, (IV) 297 /,
1675 /?
7. 9 28.8 100%-
.
4.66 ,
2.02
(IV) ( . .).
( ) , 200 80%- ( 1.07 /) 150 .

-92-1
1. K+ : ) 3\ ) 2/; ) 4.?? .
2. .

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36

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3. ,
(IV), ,
.
.
4. , :
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6. 25.9 555 (III) 0.1. ,
, (III)
(II). , .
7. 41 ,
, , .
11.95 (). 40% . .
37

-92-2
1. Ca 2+
: a) 3s; ) 2d\ ) 4? .
2. .

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3. ,
(IV), (I), . .
4. , :
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5.
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6. 18.2 230
(III) 0.1.
, , (III) (II). , .
38

7. 98 ,
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66.4 . 40% .
.

-92-3
1. AI31"
: ) 2\ ) 1 \ ) 3d? .
2. .
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3. ,
(IV), , . .
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39

6. 18.9 455 (III) 0.1. ,


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(II). , .
7. 49 ,
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25.3 . 40% .
.

-92-4
1. Mg2+
: a) 2s\ ) 3/; ) 4<. .
2. ,
.
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.
3. ,
(IV), , . .
4. , :
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40

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6. 13.2 300
(III) 0.112. ,
, (III)
(II).
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7. 82 ,
, , .
46.2 . 60% .
.

-93-1
1. , ,
. ,
?
2. : , -1.
? , .
3. , , , , :
+ + H2O
>
A+ HCI
>+...
41

C+ HCt+.
A - J U +...
.
4. , ( ):
) BaCO 3 + Na 2 CO 3 + H2O;
) Cu 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + P 2 O 5 + NO;
) K2CO3 + C2H6?
.
5. 0.69 0.64
,
50 . .
, .
6. , . (IV) 60%,
. .

-93-2
1. , ,
. ,
?
2. : , .
? , .
3. , , , , :
+ O2

+ H2O - U +
42

+ Cu

> +...

+ Cu _ u a + . . .
.
4. , ( ):
) K 2 H P O 4 + N H 3 + H 2 O;
) Fe + AI 2 O 3 + N 0 ;
) C 6 H 5 CH 3 + HBr?
.
5. 0.69 0.80
,
50 . .
, .
6. (II) ,
. 60%,
. .

-93-3
1. , ,
. ,
?
2. : , .
? ,
.
3. , , , , :
+ 2
>
43

+ H2O S +
A + H 2 O + SO 2
> +...
> +...
.
4. , ( ):
) NaH 2 PO 4 + Na 2 HPO 4 + H 2 O;
) Ba 3 N 2 + BaO + BaH 2 ;
) C 6 H 5 COOK + MnO 2 + KOH + H 2 O?
.
5. 1.17 0.64 , 50 . .
, .
6. , .

60%, .
.

-93-4
1. , ,
. ,
?
2. : , -2. ?
, .
3. , , , , :
A + O2
> +...
44

I
+
> +...
A + Br 2
> +...
+ H 2 SO 4 t l t o m i )> +...
.
4. , ( ):
) K 2 HPO 4 + CaHPO 4 + H 2 O;
) MgO + ZnO + SO 2 ;
) CO 2 + HCI?
.
5. 1.17 0.80 , 50 . .
, .
6. ,
. 60%,
. .

171-93-1
1. 0.2 M 33 H+ 0.05 .
33, , .
2. , . ? .
3. : , , ;
,
. ,
. , 45

. ,
, .
4. , :
. . _ HQ . Ca(OH)
CO2 .
2
5
MnO2

-=-+
=-t () 0-20
H2O

.
()

5. , ( ):
) AI(OH) 3 + KBr + SO 2 ;
) CaBr 2 + HBr;
) + MgBr 2 ?
.
6. 1.5 14.4
10%- ( 1.11 /).
, , , 50 . , .
, .
7.
115 0C 98 19.75
21.6 . .
1.7%- ( 1.01 /), , , 2.218.

171-93-2

1. HF 2.0 1 . 8%. HF?


46

2. , -1 -1. ? .
3. : , , ; ,
. ,
. , . ,
, .
4. , :
Ca

t
H2O ^ Ca(OH)2
E
5. , ( ):
) Cr(OH) 3 + NH 4 NO 3 + CO 2 ;
) Ca(OH) 2 + H 2 O;
) 1,2- + MgBr 2 ?
.
6. 1.5 11.5
20%- ( 1.22 /).
, , , - *
50 . , .
, .
7.
125 0C 91.3 29.0
28.8 . .
1.7%- ( 1.01 /), , , 2.166.
47

171-93-3
1. 716 0C Hl 0.016,
Hl 3 10"4. .
2. , .

? .
3. :
, , ;
, .
, . ,
. , , .
4. , :
HCl

KOH

MnO2 *

400

' ()

800

H2O

- +E -
-3

5. , ( ):
) AI(OH) 3 + CaSO 4 + SO 2 ;
) BaSO 4 + H 2 SO 4 + H 2 O;
) + ZnBr2?
.
6. (III) 2.0 20.55
10%- ( 1.09 /).
, , , 50 . , .
, .
48

7.
135 0C 95 25.0
25.2 . .
1.7%- ( 1.01 /), , , 1.829.

171-93-4
1. 25 ,
1 . H+
, 1.8-10"5. .
2. , .

? .
3. : , , ; , . ,
. , . , , .
4. , :
t
Pt, H2
_ Pt, O2
(NH4)2Cr2O7()
t
t
Pt1O2
t

O2

,.NaOH
-

_
E
()

5. , ( ):
) Fe(OH) 3 + Ca(NO3)2 + SO 2 ;
) CaSO 4 + H 2 SO 4 + H2O;
49

) 1,2- + MgBr2?
.
6. (III) 2.0 16.54
20%- ( 1.185 /).
, , , 50 . , .
, .
7.
145 0C 96.5 18.0
18.0 . .
1.7%- ( 1.01 /), . , 1.757.

-93-1
1.
II 3- .
2. MgS04-7H 2 0 100 5%- ( 1.03 /), 10%- ?
3.
.
4. , :

H2O , t ,. HNQ3O ) _ Zn + HCI
CaC2

P i ^

*
5. - ,
- , , ,
. , ,
, . ,
. .
50

6. , ( ):
) Fe(OH) 3 ;
) K O O C - C O O K

+ MnQ2 + KOH + H2O;

) -1 + CuBr?
.
7. 8.7 , . ,
,
9.85 . , 4.00 .
.

-93-2
1.
I 2- .
2. Na2SO4-IOH2O 100 8%- ( 1.07 /), 16%- ?
% 3.
.

4. , :
CaC 2
F

H 2 O^

[Ag(NH3)2JOH

* D

H2O[A9(NH3)2PH _
*-
Hg2+
HCI
C 2 H 5 OH

'

H+

5. - , - ',
- .

, 51

, . . .
6. , ( ):
) Cr(OH) 3 ;
) - + MnO 2 + KOH + H 2 O;
) + CuCI?
.
7. 11.36 , . , ,
15.76 .
, 3.84 . .

-93-3
1.
IV 4- .
2. Na2CO3-IOH2O 100 7%-
( 1.07 /), 14%- ?
3. .
4. , :
CaCO3

( )

' >

>D

0 )

'

| ( }

5. - , - , .
,
, ,
. .
.
52

6. , ( ):
) FeCI 2 + KCI + S;
) C 6 H 5 COOK + K 2 CO 3 + MnO 2 + KOH + H 2 O;
) -1 + AgBr?
.
7. 32.9 , . , ,
27.58 .
, 6.72 . .

-93-4
1.
II 1- .
2. 1 2 -6 2 0 100 10%- ( 1.08 /), 20%- ?
3. .
4. , :
H2O ^ [ C U ( N H 3 ) 2 ] C I >
HBr > f
C a Q (.), TK
5. - , - , . ,

. . .
6. , ( ):
53

) FeCI 2 +1 2 + HCI;
) K H C O 3 + C O 2 + MnO 2 + H 2 O;
) C2H2 + Ag2SO4?
.
7. 19.8 , . , ,
11.82 .
, 2.88 . .

171-94-1
1. .
2. CO 2
SO 2 . .
3.
CuO. .
4. ,
:
C r

- ^ x

N a 2 C

, X2

< " > , X3

K 0 H

'

c l 2

>

X4

.
5. ,
:
CH3-C=CH

H2O1 H+

H 2 , Ni

HBr

*-

Hg
1) C O 2

2) H +

NH31H2O

Mg

HCI

CI2lP(Kp)

J^ G

54

!
6. (II) , 20%
(IV).
,
(IV) . .
7. 5.01
.
7.68 . 4- , .

171-94-2
1. .
2. CuO
. .
3.
PbS. .
4. ,
:
HCI v
Cb w
Na2SO3 v
HI v

re
Ai
X2

X4
.
5. ,
:
Mg

CT2

C2H6

1. C H 2 O

Ag(NH3)2QH

HCI

>

2 +

CUO

- D
Cl2, P

> Q

NH3lH2Q

>


.
6. , 5% .
,
55

,
!
.
i
7. 22.95
.
36.3 . 4- , .

171-94-3
1. .
2. ZnO
AI 2 O 3 . .
3.
Ag 2 CO 3 . .
4. ,
:
/-, ./-Ni Cu V 1<-) V K2S V
HN03(oio V
LzUUI2
> Ai
> A2
> A3
> 4
.
5. ,
:
C3H8

Br 2

Mg

I-CH2O

2. H t

K 2 Cr 2 O 7
H2SO4

C2H5OH
NaOH
CH3I

" F H2O* G

.
D

PCI5

6. , 25%
. , .
.
56

7. 4.06
.
5.84 . 4- , .

-94-1
1. .
2. ,
C3H7NO2.
?
3. , , 7.69% Ag, 23.08% N, 46.15% , 23.08% ( ). , .
4. ,
:
Cu2O

H2SO4(KOHM)

Xi
BaCI2

X4
NaOH(p-p)
X3
.

X2

5. ,
(
):
a) BaCl 2 + ;
QAI(OH) 3 -I-NaHCO 3 ;
) 1,2- + H 2 ?
.
6. 5%- ()
, 7%. ,
57

. (
) .
.
7. , -1
2.74 1.12 /,

224 (..). ,
( ..).

-94-2
1. .
2. ,
C4H8O. ?
3. , , 9.09% Cu, 18.18% N, 63.64% , 9.09% ( ). , .
4. ,
:
. to

.
5. ,
(
):
) BaBr2 + LiOH;
) AI(OH)3 + NaHSO 3 ;
) 1--2- + H 2 ?
.
58

6. 7%- (II)
, 10%. ,
. (
) .
.
7. , -2
2.22 1.14 /,
224 (..). ,
( ..).

-94-3
1. .
2. ,
482. ?
3. , , 3.226% Cr, 9.677% N, 48.39% , 38.71% H ( ).
, .
4. ,
:
- *
HCI
.,
FeS
. Xi
tKt
X4
H2SO4(KOHM)
s;,
BaCI2
Y
A3 *
A2
.

59

5. ,
( '
):
) LiCI + ;
) AI(OH) 3 + NaHS + H 2 O;
) 1,4- + H2?
.
6. 10%- (1)
, 13%. ,
. (
) .
.
7. , -1

5.48 1.12 /,
448 (..).
,
( ..).

-94-4
1. .
2. ,
C4H10O. ?
3. , , 6.25% , 12.5% N, 56.25% , 25.0% ( ). ,
.

4. ,
:
Cr(OH)3

2 0

'

. X1
H2S04(pa36)

X4
_ SO2, H2SO4
A
t '
' 3
.

A2

5. ,
(
):
) KCI + Ba(OH)2;
) AI(OH)3 + CH3COOK + H2O;
) + H2?
.
6. 10%- (II)
, 14%. ,
. (
) .
.
7. , -2
5.09 1.10 /,

336 (..). ,
( ..).

-!'-'"

'

-94-1

1.
.
2. ,
,
.
61

3. 3-
. .
4. ,
:
Cr 2 S 3
> X1
> KfCr(OH)4]
X2
> BaCrO 4
. .
5. ,
(
):
) HPO 3 + N2O5;
) K2SO4 + Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + H2O;
) -2 + KBr + H2O?
.
6. , 100 18.25%- , 100
16%- , .
2 .
, ,
.
7. 1
46.0 K2CO3,
66.7 KHCO3, 116.0 MnO2 .
?
.

-94-2
1.
.
2. ,
,
.
3. 4-
. .

62

4. ,
:
FeS
> X1 > Fe 2 O 3
> X2
> FeS
. .
5. ,
(
):
) HPO 3 + H 2 S 2 O 7 ;
) S + K2SO4 + Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + H2O;
) + KCI + H2O?
.
6. , 100 18.25%- , 100
16%- , .
3.94 .
, ,
.
7. 0.04 6.4
, 11.04 K2CO3, 20.88 MnO2, 2.24 KOH .
?
.

-94-3
1.
.
2. ,
,
.

3. 3-
() . .
4. ,
:
63

KMnO4 X1
> MnCI2
X2
> MnO2
. .
5. ,
(
):
) HPO 3 + CI2O7;
) KNO 3 + Cr(NO 3 ) 3 + H2O;
) 2--2 + KCI + H2O?
.
6. , 100 18.25%- , 100
16%- , .
1.68 .
, , .
7. 0.1 4.48
(..) , 36.24 MnSO4, 20.88 K2SO4 . ?
.

-94-4
1.
.
2. ,
,
.
3. 3-
- . .
4. ,
:
Cu 2 S
> X1
> CuO
> X2
> (CH3COO)2Cu
. .
64

5. ,
(
):
) HPO 3 + C 2 H 4 ;
) I2 + K 2 SO 4 + Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + H2O;
) 2- + KBr + H 2 O?
.
6. , 100 18.25%- , 100
16%- , .
2.32 .
, ,
.
7. 0.06
9.96 (K 2 C 2 O 4 ), 13.92 MnO2, 2.24 KOH .
?
.

-95-1
1. , 10
N. -
?
2. , .
3. ,
: HNO3,
NaOH, Cl2. .
4. 4.48 (..) 53 16%- ( 1.18).
, .
3-1115

65

5. ,
:
CH2Br-CH2Br

*nuA
C2H5OH

^20 .
Hg2+J +

_ 2H2O _ H2SO4

""
KCN

HBr ^

.
6. (II) , 10% . ?
7. CgH9O2N
CsH12NCI.

C7H4KO4N. FeBr 3 . . .

-95-2
1. , 11
N. -
?
2. , .
3. ,
: Ca(NO3)2,
, HCI. .
4. 3.36 (..) 50.4 23%- ( 1.21).
,
.
66

5. ,
:
CH3-C-CH3
J
R

CH3L 1

N^NH2
C2H5OH
H2O
H2, Ni
. . 2+ ..+ " '

.
6. (II) , 1.5 . ?
7. CeH9O2N CeHi1N.

C7H5O4N. FeBr 3 . .
.

-95-3
1. , 10
N. -
?
2. , (IV).
3. ,
:
CH 3 COOH, , AICI3. .
4. 4.48 (..) -
57.4 20%- ( 1.22).
,
.
3*

67

5. ,
:
_ u CH3CH=CH2. Br2, hv
KOH

H3PO4
"
- C2H5OH
q
H2, Ni
97FT
20

_ Br2
KMnO4
n

*
M- H2SO4 "
Fe

.
6. (II) (III)
, 9% .
?
7. C3HgO2N
CgH12NCI.

CeH5O6N. FeBr 3 . .
.

-95-4
1. , 11
N. -
?
2. , .
3. ,
: HI, NaOH,
AgNO3. .
4. 3.36 (..) 47 20%-. ( 1.19).
68

, .
5. ,
:

CH 2 =CH 2
H3PO4
H2SO4
to

Br2Jiv

K2Cr2Orit
H2SO4

KOH
H2O

_
'

Br2p
Fe

.
6. (II) , 10% . ?
7. C3HgO2N
C3H12NCI.

C7H4KO4N. FeBr 3 .
. .

-95-1

I
1. : ? .
2. :
) NaCl + Mn(NO3)2;
) NH2OH + HCI?
, .
3. : , , .
? .

69

4. ,
:
Fe(OH)3
* X1

X2

FeS

.
5. :
) Kl HNO2;
) CH2=CH-CH2-CH2OH HBr;
) NaH 2 PO 4 NaOH.
.
6. , 8.00 , 8.00 (I),
. 45
29.2%- . 40%-
, , .
7. 8.8 20% -2
50 8 M .
, .
.

-95-2
1. : -1 -2? .
2. :
) FeSO 4 + MgCI2;
) NH3 + BF3?
, .
3.
: , -1, 70

I
.
? .
4. ,
:
Ag2O
-X1

I I

2-
.

Ag2S

5. :
) K2S HNO2;
) CH 2 =OH-CH=O KMnO4;
) CH 3 COOH CaCO 3 .
.
6. , 6.00 , 6.00 , . 50
10%- . 45%-
, , .
7. 19.1 20%- 75 8 M . , . .

-95-3
1. : ? .
2. :
) CuBr2 + Ca(NO 3 ) 2 ;
) CH3NH2 + BF3?
, .
71

3. : ,
-1, . ? .
4. ,
:
CuS
-X1

I I

X2 .

Cu(OH)2

5. :
) H 2 S H2O2;
) C6H5CH(CH3)2 Br2;
) HF NaHCO3.
.
6. , 4.40 , 4.40 (II),
. 32
14.6%- . 40%-
, , .
7. 20.4 20%- 125 4 M . , .
.

-95-4
1. : 4-? .
2. :
) CaCI2 + CH3COOK;
) N 2 H 4 + HCI?
, .
72

3.
: , , .
? .
4. ,
:
KAIO2

AI(OH)3
.
5. :
) Hl H2O2;
) C6H5-CH=CH2 KMnO4;
) HCI Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 .
.
6. , 12.0 , 12.0 (III),
. 50
20%- . 10%-
, , .
7. 16.5 20%- -1 62.5 8 M . , .
.

-96-1
1. ,
. .
2. ,
_
S2CI2.
73

3. 4-
, . .
4. ,
( ):
,X1.
Ca(HCO3)2
'X;
.
5. ,
:
CH3

Br 2 Cl )
FeBr3
H N O 3 O )
H 2 S O 44

KMnO4

H2SO4

Z n / H C I ()

D
.

H N O 3 O )

H2SO4

(C2H5)2NH
H2O

FH .
6. , 1.23 ,
35 2 /. .
7. ,
. , , .
, . .
, . .

74

-96-2
1.
,
. .
2. ,

CuCI.
3. 4-
, . .
4. ,
( ):
Xi.
MgO

Mg(HSO3)2 =
Xa"
.

5. ,
:
CH3

-4 2

H N O 3 C )

|)

H2SO4

A I / N a O H ()

KMnO4

HBr ()

H2SO4

AgF

-E

-F

FH .
6. , 2.48 ,
45 2 /. .
7. ,
. , , .
75

. , ,
,
. , .
.

-96-3
1. ,
.
.
2. ,

SCI2.
3. 4-
, . .
4. ,
( ):
X,
Ba(H2PO4)2 < 7

BaO
X2

.
5. ,
:
9H(CHjj2
H N 0 3 ( 1 )
H2SO4
A I / N a O H ()

HBr ()
- E

K2Cr2O7

H2SO4

CH3COOAg
"-F

FH .

76

6. ,
1.94 ,
44 2.5 /.
.
7. ,
. (IV),
, . . .
, . .

-96-4
1. ,
.
.
2. ,

CrCI2.
3. 4-
, . .
4. ,
( ):

.
5. ,
:
C2H5

-42

Ji

CI 2 O )

Aia3

KMnO4

H2SO4

HNO 3 O )

H2SO4

77

H N O g d )

Zn/ ()
D
.

(C2H5)2NH

F n .
)

6. , 4.54 ,
55 3 /. .
7. ,
. (IV),
, . , .
,
,
" . , . .

-96-1
1.
.
, I .
2. HBr, NaF,
, AICI3?
.
3. NF3 : r(N-F) = 0.137 , /-(F-F) =
= 0.213 . ,
: .

4. ,
:
Cu 2 O - + X 1 - + CuSO 4 X 2 > CuCI 2 - X 3 - * Cu 2 O
.
_ 5. . .
6. 5.40 4.50 200 0C.
43.7 . .
7. 0.375 ( ) 50 0.1 M
NaOH.
.
, ,
, . .

-96-2
1.
(2-) . , 12
.
2. Zn, Fe, Cu, Au?
.
3. Bl 3 : r(B1)=0.210 , /-(I-I)=
=0.364 . ,
. .
79

4. ,
:
Ag > X 1
AgNO 3
X 2 -[Ag(NH 3 ) 2 JOH
X3 - A g
.
5. (1,3,5-) .
.
6. 4.20 5.70 210 0C.
28.2 . .
7. 0.563 ( ) 75 0.1 M
NaOH.
.
, ,
,
. .

-96-3
1.
. , 16 .
2. H2SO3, HI, Na 2 S,
KCI?
.
3. NCI3 : r(N-CI) = 0.176 ,
(1Cl) = 0.283 . ,
. .

80

4. ,
:
Cr - > X 1 - + Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3
X 2 - > K 2 Cr 2 O 7 - X 3
Cr
.
5. (
- ) . .
6. 8.40 7.40 220 0C.
44.3 . .
7. 1.14 ( ) 152 0.1 M
NaOH.
. , , ,
. .

-96-4
1.
.
, 11 .
2. CuO, ZnO, Cu, Zn? .
3. AICI3 : r(AI-CI) = 0.206 ,
(1-1) = 0.357 . ,
. .
4. ,
:
Mn X1 Mn(NO3)2 2 -> K2MnO4 X3 Mn
.
81

5. ( ) . .
6. 9.60 8.70 230 0C.
40.8 . =
.
7. 0.855 ( ) 114 0.1 M NaOH.
.
, ,
, . .

-97-1
1. ,
) , ) .
2. () .
.
3. (I) . , ( ), .
4. ,
:
X1 - C r ( N O 3 ) 3

/
K2CrO4

X2

/
X 3 - - KtCr(OH)4]

X1 - X3.
82

5. :

2+20

,
( ) ,
. - ( ). .
, .
6. 200 5.0%-
12.7 .
1.12 (..).
.
7. , X 96.43%.
Y, 46.00%.
X Y. X b Y h X.

-97-2
1. , ) , ) .
2. () . .
3. (I) . , ( ), .
83

4. ,
:
X1 - C u ( N O 3 ) 2
/
\
Cu
X2

X 3 - Cu2O

X1 - X3.
5. :
4-

C n H 2 n-iOCI

,
( ) ,
. - ( ). .
, .
6. 200 10.6%-
16.5 .
2.24 (..).

.
7. , X 96.43%.
Y, 59.09%.
X Y. XBYH X.

84

-97-3
1. ,
) , ) .
2. () 1 . .
3.
(III) . , ( ),
.
4. ,
:

X1 Mn(CH3COO)2

/
\

\X
2
/

MnO2

X3X MnBr2
X1 - X3.
5. :
Cn-iH2n-llK02

-8. .
X / JL-^r- -6
-

,
( ) ,
. - ( ). .
, .
6. 150 19.8%- 23.7
. 2.24 (IV) (..).
85


.
7. , X 96.43%.
Y, 70.17%.
X Y. X b Y h X.

-97-4
1. , ) , ) .
2. _ () 1- .
.
3.
(III) . ,
( ), .
4. ,
:
X1 FeCl2

\X
2
/

Fe2(SO4)3

- Fe3O4

X1 - X3.
5. :
CnH2nNKO2

CnH2n+2CIN02
86

,
( ) ,
. - ( ). .
, .
6. 400 5.0%- 18.9
. 2.24 (IV) (..). .
7. ,
X 96.43%.

Y, 80.00%. X Y. X B Y H X.

-97-1
1. --2-

(IV).
2. 2658 /,
2- 2651 /. ,
400 0C? .
3. ,

(II). .
4.
C 5 H 5 ON C 5 Hi 1 ON, -

C 5 H 6 O 2 N 2 .
87

-1,2 ,
C7H9O2N,
C7HeO2NK. , , E
CsH4ONBr. .
5. , (
):
) CH 3 COONa + CH3CHO;
) (CH3)2CO + NaBr + CO2;
) H 2 SO 4 + NaCI;
) NaH 2 PO 4 + NaNO3?
.
6. ,
.
336 (..) ,
0.96 .
.
7. 20.0 -1 62.5
4 M . , . 46.2%.
.

-97-2
1. 3--2,4-
(IV).
2. 2--1 3140 /,
2--2 3134 /.
, 2--2 88

400 0C? .
3. ,

(II). .
4.
CeH7ON
C6H7NCIa- C6H13ON,
C6H4O2NK. CeH10O2NCI,
E CeH9O2N. .
5. , (
):
) HCOOK + CH3CH2CH=O;
) CH3CH=O + NaCI + CO 2 ;
) HNO3 + KCI;
) Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 + CaCI2?
.
6. ,
.
448 (..) ,

2.48 .
.
7. 20.0 -2
50.0 5 M .
, .
59.3%. .

89

-97-3
1. 2----

(IV).
2. -2 2578 /, -1,3 2542 /. ,
-2 300 ?
.
3. ,
(II). .
4.
C8H7O2N C5H11ON, CsH4O2NK.
, C 6 H 6 O 2 NNa,
, , C6H6O2NBr. E C7H14O2NCI.

E .
5. , (
):
) CH3COOK + CH3CH=O;
) CH 3 -CO-C 2 H 5 + NaBr + CO2;
) Na 2 SO 4 + KCI;
) NaHCO 3 + NaBr?
.
6. ,
.
672 (..) ,
4.78 .
90

.
7. 20.0 40.0
6 M .
, . 45.6%.
.

-97-4
1. 3,5- (IV).
2. -1 1887 /,
-2 1872 /.
, -2 450 ?
.
3. ,

(III). .
4. ^
O 5 H 6 N 2 C7HgON2CI,
C 7 H 8 ON 2 .
C5H6N2Br4,

C 5 H 4 N 2 Br 2 .
E C 5 Hi 2 N 2 . E .

'

5. , (
):
) C2H5COOK + CH3CH2CH=O;
) CH3CH2CH=O + KCI + CO2;
91

) NaNO 3 + NaBr;

) Ca(HSO3)2 + CaCi2?

.
6. , . 784 (..)
,
1.92 .
.
7. 20.0
60.0 6 M .
, .
58.7%. .

-98-1
1. ,
.
2. , :
P0
P"3 - > P 3 - P +5
P+5
3.
(III) .
4. ,
:
C10H12
> C3H6O2
> C 3 HsOCI
> 1 2 0 2 .

.
5. , :

92

F
.
6. , , .
+ = 2 . . ( %),
, , 3:2:1 .
7. 10.7
30.8 CO 2 , 8.1 H2O 1.4 N2.
227 0C
138.5 9.0 .
3.21 1.25
227 0C 99.7 . .

-98-2
1. ,
, .
2. , :
N 3 > N0 -> N+2 > N+4 -> N+3
3.
(II) .
4. ,
:
C8Hu
> C3H6O2 C 3 H 5 O 2 C I
> C3H10O2N2.

.
93

5. , :
+ CH 3 COOH

CH3COOH

If

- +D
I

CH3COOH + E

KMnO 4 + H 2 SO 4

.
6. , , .
2 = + . . ( %),
, , 4:3:1 .
7. 8.1 22.0
CO2, 6.3 H2O 1.4 N2.
127 0C
101.3 1.64 . 3.24 1.25
227 0C 133.0 .

.

-98-3
1. ,
.
2. , :
Cr +2 - Cr +3

Cr +3 - > Cr + * - Cr +6

3. (II)
.
4. ,
:
C 6 H 1 1 Br
94

C6H1O

> C6H10O4

> C6H14O4.


.
5. , :
+D

,
-

I r^
+

I
D

E ()

.
6. , , .
+ = 2 4.5
. .
( %), ,
, 2:3:1 .
7. 9.3
26.4 CO 2 , 6.3 H2O 1.4 N2.
227 0 C
166.2 7.5 .
4.65 1.50
227 0C 138.5 . .

-98-4
1. ,

, .
2. , :
Fe +2 -> Fe +3 -4 Fe +3
Fe 0
Fe +2
3.
(II) .
95

4. ,
:

C5Hi0O

> C5H8

> C5H8O4

> C9H16O4.


.
5. , :
H2O1 Ht

NaOH (H2O)

- - D - E - F (i

.
6. , , .
2 = + 3.5
. .
( %), ,
, 4:2:1 .
7. 9.5 26.4
CO2, 8.1 H2O 1.4 N2.
150
140.6 1.25 . 1.9 626
150 112.4 .

.

-98-1
1. FeCI3
AgNO3? .
2. (SE):
, , . .
SE .
96

3. 2 ,
. T1 T2
.

Ti T2I
4. ,
:

X
X Y. ,
.
5. , :
+

> S +

> +

>

+2

6. 2.33
18.7 8.4%- (
1.07 /), - 9.72
. .
7. ,
4.8 , 100 10%-
, .
?

-98-2
1. - HNO 2 Pb(NO 3 ) 2 ?
.
2.
4-1115

97

(An): , , .
. AN ,
3. 1.5 ,
. Tx
T2 .

Ti T2?
4. ,
:

Br
X Y.
.
5. , :
P"3
> Cf1
> N"3
Cu +2
6.
1.82
18.9 6.0%- ( 1.06 /), - 8.64 .
.
7. ,
8.1 , 120
8.0%- , .
?

98

-98-3
1. - H 2 S Na 2 SO 3 ? .
2. (SE):
, , . . SE .
3. 3 ,
. T1 T2
.

T1 2?
4. ,
:

X Y.
.
5. , :
Cu+1

>S +4

Na+1

> Fe +3

6.
2.70 18.4
11.2%- ( 1.09 /),
- 8.64 . .
7. ,
12.4 , 100
12%- , .
?
4*

99

-98-4

1. -
CuCI2? .
2. (A n ): , , (). .
AN .
3. 3 ,
. Ti T2
.

Ti T2I
4. ,
:
X
X
Y

X
X Y.
.
5. , :
Fe + 2 -> Mn+4

Br"1

> N+5

6.
2.38 13.8
8%- ( 1.09 /),
- 8.64 . .
7. ,
6.0 , 120 8.0%-
, .
100

-99-1
1.
.
2. XY4,
18 . .
3. - , :

Cr2S3

X -> Cr2O3

Y -> K3ICr(OH)6]

XHY.
4.
1 M , Ag+
6-IO'6 /.
I M NH3: AgCI ( = 1.8 IO10), Agl ( = 2.3-10 ' 6 ),
Ag 3 PO 4 ( = 1.8-IO'18)? .
5. :

C7H4Br2O3 <
C14H10O4

H2O1H+

NaOH

Br 2

Ci4H6Br4O4 <

> C7H4Na2O3

C2H5I

C 14 HioO 4

> C 11 H 14 O 3


( ) .
6. , (I)
1:2:5 ( ).
96%- ( 1.5 /),
80 , , (..).
( I V ) . .
7. 12.0
CO 2 ( 20 0C ), 24.4 16.6 (-1,4-) 'Ol

. .

-99-2
1. .
2. XY3,
10 . .
3. - , :
Fe > X > Fe(OH) 3 - Y -> Fe(OH) 3
XHY.
4. 1 M
, Ag+ 4-IO"12 /. 1 M Na 2 S 2 O 3 : AgCI ( = 1.8-IO10), AgCN ( =
= 7.0-IO"15), Ag2S ( = 7.2-IO"50)? .
5. :
CH3Br

C 9 H 10 O 3 <

KOH

C7H4K2O3 <
HNO3

C 14 H 10 O 4

H2O, H+

C 14 H 10 O 4
> C 14 H 8 N 2 O 8
> C 7 H 5 NO 5

( ) .
6. , (II) 4:2:1 ( ). 96%- ( 1.84 /),
70.4 ,
, (..).
7.
17.1 CO 2 ( 25 0C ), 24.4
49.8 (-1,2-)
102

. .

-99-3
1. .
2. XY2,
10 . .
3. - , :
- H 3 PO 4
X
P -> Y
H 3 PO 4
XHY.
4. 1 M
, Cu+
9-IO"10 /.
1 M NH3: Oul ( = 1.1 IO12), CuCN ( = 3.2-"20),
Cu 2 S ( = 2.3 IO"48)? .
5. :
H2O1H+

C 7 H 4 Br 2 O 3 <
NaOH

Br 2

Ci3HsBrsO3 <

Ci3HioO3

CH3I

Ci 3 H 10 O 3
> C 7 H 4 Na 2 O 3
> C 9 H 10 O 3

( ) .
6. , (II) 1:2:3 ( ).
96%- ( 1.5 /),
30.4 ,
, (..). (IV).
7. 18.0
CO2 ( 20 0C ), 18.3 103

24.9 (-1,4-) .
.

-99-4
1.

.
2. XY,
12 . .
3. - , :
KNO2 -> X -> NO2
Y -> Ba(NO3)2
XHY.
4. 1 M
, Cu 2+
8-IO"12 /.
1 M NH3: CuO2O4 (=2.910 8), Cu(OH)2 (=5.6 1020),
CuS OlP=M-IO;36)? .
5. :
C3H7Br

Ci 3 HieO 3 <
HNO3

KOH

C7H4K2O3

Ci 3 H 10 O 3

H2O, H+

C 13 H 10 O 3
> C 13 H 8 N 2 O 7
> C 7 H 5 NO 5

( ) .
6. , (I) 5:2:1 ( ). 96%- ( 1.84 /),
44.8 ,
, (..).
7.
22.6 CO2 ( 17 0C ), 18.3
104

41.5 (-1,2-)
. .

-99-1
1.
38.2 ( )?
2. , :
) ;
) ;
) ;
) .
3. 1999 18-
-2--3--1- .
,
.
4.
^ ^ Ki K2, . ,
, /, .
5. (..), 40%, 100
9.8%- 9 ,
, , ?
6. :
COOH
1-:
21
2NaOH
)
HNO,(ra6)
t^HioO

.
H2O
H2SO4

O2N
v
( ) .
7. 3.75 1.35 , .
105

3 .64 (..). ,
277 ,
244 . .

-99-2
1. , D2O?
2. , :
) ;
) ;
) ;
) .
3. 1999 18-
-2--3--1- .
, .
4. (VI) 1.0 400 0C
20 , 37.9 .

(VI): 2S0 3 5 2S0 2 + O2.
5. (II)
( ..), 60% , 200 4.9%- ,
, ?
6. :
NaOH
Cfe
Nai

CsH7O2Na
*Av

... ^ L

(3~22""0

( ) .
106

7. 3.75 1.50 , .
3.70 (..).
,
327 0C, 272.6 .
.

-99-3
1. ,
.
2. , :
) ;
) ;
) ;
) .
3. 1999 18-
-2--3--1- .
, .
4. (CioHi7OH) 0.106 230 0C. 7.5
14
230 0C .
. ?
5.
5.1 . (IV) 90 5.7%- .
.
102 /.

107

6. :
C8H8O2

3(

HNOj

Ziv

H2SO4

()

COOH

( ) .
7. 3.75 1.50 , .
3.70 (..). ,
327 0C, 266 .
.

-99-4
1. , , .
2. , :
) ;
) ;
) ;
)
3. 1999 18-
-2--3--1- .

.
4. A ^ B
0.8. 5 10 .
108

. ?
5.
23.1 . (IV) 201 8.5%- . .
178 /.
6. :

7. 3.75 2.34 , . 3.70


(..).
, 227 0C,
277 .
.

-2000-1
1. ,
.
2. ,
.
, .
3. 0.1 /.
? .
4. -
109

: 3d5
3d6 4'3d 10
.

3d9.

5. ,
:
C 3 H 8 O -> C 3 H 6 O -> C 3 H 6 O 2
C3H5O2Br -> C3H7O2N
- C 5 H 10 O 3 N 2 -> C 3 H 6 O 2 NNa.

.
6. 5.0%- .

, ; .
100 1.0 (20 0C, ) ;
(). ,
.
7. ,
, , 13.1%
. 0.95 ( 16.5 0C
-) 320 4%- '.
.

-2000-2
1. , .
2. ,
.
, .
3. 0.05 /. ? .
110

v 4. -
: 3d5 - 3d6 3s23p6 > 3s23p4.
.

5. ,
:

C9H12O - C9H9O2K C9H10O2 -> C9H9O2CI C9Hi1O2N ->


-> C1iH14O3N2 C9H10O2NNa.

.
6. 7.0%- .
,
;
. 100 1.5 (22 0C,
) ;
(). , .
7. ,
, - , 78.5%
. 1.21 ( 22 0C
) 400 4%- .
.

-2000-3
1. ,

.
2.
, .
, .

111

3.
0.05 /.
? .
4. -
: 3d6
3d5 4s23d 1045 4s23d 1046. .
5. ,
:

O7H8O - C7H7Br -> C8H7N C8H8O2 >


C8H7OCI -> C8H6OCI2 -> C10H12O3.


.
6. 7.0%- .

, ; ,
. 100 1.0 (18 0C,
) ;
(). , .
7. ,
, - , 11.6%
. 0.73 ( 24 0C ) 240 4%- .
.

-2000-4

'
.
"1
1. , .
2.
, , .
112

, .
3.
0.1 /.
? .
4. -
: 3d* - 3d3 3s23p5 - 3s23p6.
.
5. ,
:

C9H11CI > C9H12O > C9H10 -> 242 ->


-> C2H3OOI -> C9H10O2 -> C7H7ONa.

.
6. 6.0%- .
,
;
, . 100
1.5 (20 0C, ) ;
().
, .
7. ,
, , 9.09%
. 1.45 ( 22 0C
) 600 4%- .

-2000-4
1.

(AE).

2. , .
3. //?-4--3-1 , .
4. ,
:
C3H8O
- C3H9O2N
- C 3 H 5 O 2 Br- - C3H8O2NBr

.
5. , 1.03 /
90 263 .
6. :
?
I ^
?

BaCO3 ^ ?

?
Fe(NO3)2 ^

J
?

, -.
.
7. 6.7
9.8 (II) 7.2 .
, 1.1 .

.

114

-2000-2
1. (SN).
2. (III) , .
3. -4--5-1 , .
4. ,
:

C2H6O -

C4H10 -> -> C4H10O -> -> C3H5O2K


.
5. , (IV)
1.72 / 95 253 .
6. :
?

, -.
.
7. 18.0

32.4 .
(IV) , . .

-2000-4
1.
(SE).

2. () , .
3. -4---1 , .
4. ,
:
C4H7Br

C 4 H 6 - C 4 H 10 O -> -> C3H5O2K



.
5. ,
3.14 / 110 253 .
6. :
?
I ^
?

MnSO4 ?

?
Br2

I
?

, - -.
.
7. 18.0
X 39.2 (II) 28.8 .
X ,
(IV). X
.

116

-2000-4
1.
2. , .
3. -5----1 , .
4. ,
:
C 7 H 16 - - C7H5O2K

C 9 H 10 O 2 ->
C4H6

.
5. , 0.832 /
120 243 .
6. :

, - -.
.
7. 18.0
, 25.9 .
(IV) ,
.
.

117

-90-1
1. .
2- . ,
.
2. 4- ,
. ( , , , , ).
3. .

? , .
4. ,
, .
, .
.
, ? ,
, .
5.
:
) ;
) (II) ;
) () .
, , . , , .
6. , 4.52 ,
. 118

34.9 ( 20.4%, 1.20).


.
18
1.67 /.
( ..), .
7. 2.75 1.53 , 3.36 ( ..). ,
227 0C 306 . 5- .

-90-2
1. .
4- .
,
.

2. 4- ,
(III). ( , , , , ).
3.
.
?
, .
4. , , ^
, , .
,
.
, ?
, ,
.
119

5.
:
) ;
) ( (II)) ;
) -1 .
, , . , , .
6. (II) , 0.38 , 6.4 (II).
28.3 (
9.8%, 1.06).
40
0.5 /.
( ..).
7. 2.75 1.29 , 3.36 ( ..). ,
227 0C 294.6 .
5- .

-90-3
1. .
2,4,6 .
, .
2. 4- ,
(II). ( , , , , ).
3. . ? , .
120

:
, ,
, , , . ,
? , , .
5.
:
) ;
) ( (II)) ;
) () .
, , . , , .
6. , 2.46 ,
. 15
( 39.2%,
1.33). .
21
1.9 /.
( ..),
.
7. 2.75 1.32 ,
3.36 ( ..).
, 227 0 C
306 .
5- .

-90-4
1. .
4--2 . ,
.
121

2. 4- ,
. (
, , , , ).
3.
.
?
, .
4. , , .

, . , ? ,
, .
5.
:
) ;
) (II) ;
) -1 .
, , . , , .
6. (IV) (IV), 1.52 ,
33.9 ( 21.4%, 1.18). . 15.4
1.3 /. ( ..).
7. 2.75 1.53
, 3.36 ( ..). ,
227 0C
305.96 .
5- .
122

-91-1

1. ,
.
2. : , , , . , .
3. ,
(II)
: ) ,
; ) , .
4. ,
. ,
(IV).
, , .
, . , .
5.
:
) ;
) (II) (IV);
) .
, , ( ,
, ). , ,
.
6. 13.32 ()
38 25%-
( 1.18). 40.2
12%- ( 1.06). 10.8 . .
123

7. , 50.4 ,
25%- . ,
,
26.2%.
.

-91-2
1. ,
(I) .
2.
: , -2,
, . , .
3. ,
(I)
: ) ,
; ) , .
4. .
. . (II) ,
.
, . , .
5.
:
iy
) ;
) (I) (IV);
) .
, , , ( ,
, ). 124

, ,
.
6. 12.76 ()
19 25%- ( 1.18).
27.8 5%- ( 1.05).
10.24
, 75% ( ). .
7. (II), 8 (III),
24.5%- .
. .
13.6%
. .

-91-3
1. ,
(II) .
2.
: , , , . , .
3. ,
(II)
: ) ,
; ) , .
4. ,
, ,
.

-2, , .
125

6 -

"

'^.---"*"-

3 .
, . , .
5.
:
) ;
) ( (II)) (IV);
) -1 (II).
, , ( ,
, ). , ,
.
6. 17.56 30.1 20%-
( 1.14) .
11.2 .
. ,
, 53.3%
( ).
7. , 60
, 36.5%-
. 0 .
. 27.2% .
.

-91-4
1. ,
(IV) .
2.
: (III), , ,
(). ,,
.
126

3 ,
(II)
: ) ,
; ) , .
4. ( ) ( ) 300 0 C
10 ( , , ).
,
,
(IV).
, . , .
5.
:
) ;
) (I) (IV);
) .
, , . ( ,
, ). , ,
.
6. 42.6 50 12.0%- .

2:1, 3.698%. .
7. (II), 80% 6.4 , 20%- .
0 . . 0 0C 25.0%
. .
127
I

-95-1
1. ( ), 2-.
2. 20 0C 27 , 40 0C 3 . 55 ?
3. , (II),
. ?
4. C5H10Os , ,
2-.
. 2- .
5.
:
) ;
) ;
) (II).
, , ( , , ..). , ,
.
6. , 40 , (II)
, 25.4 16.02%-
( 1.18), 1.60 . ( /) (II) , ( ..),
2.5
40 .
-128

7. 1:2
300 400 0C ,
.

20%.
.

-92-2
1. (
B6), 2--4,5-3-.
2.
18 0 C 1.5 , 38 0 C
10 .
53 ?
3. , (IV),
.
?
4. C 6 H 12 O 6 , - .
, 2-.
.
2- .
5.
:
) ;
) ;
) (III).
, , ( , , ..). , ,
.
5-1115

129

6. , 40 ,
, 26.0 9.54%-
( 0.96),
1.02 .
( /) ,
( ..), 3.2
40 .
7. 3:1
8 227 0C ,
.
5%. .

-93-1
1. , 2,4--5-.
2.
. ,
.
3. ,
, , (IV) .
, . .
4. ,
:
3CI2
H2O
CH3OH
H2O
C6H5-CH3

> ->-

H
KOH
5. , ( ):
) LiNO 3 + NH 4 NO 3 ;
) CuSO 4 + NO 2 + H 2 O;
130

) H2N-CH2-CH2-COOK + KCI + H2O?


.
6, KAI(SO4)2-HH2O
500 6%- , ? ( ..), .
7. , 293 / 14.3%
, , .
0.472 18
0.222 M .
0.666 14.7 1.6%-
( 1.022 /).
.

-93-2
1. , 4-. -f
2.
. , - "?
.
3.
,
. ,
. .
4. ,
:

;J
J

5*

'
CCI4

KOH (40%, )

131

5. , ( ):
) BaBr 2 + NH 4 Br;
) I 2 + KNO 3 + NO + H 2 O;
) -2-- + KCI + H2O ?
NH2
.
6. KCr(SO 4 ) 2 -12 2 0 1000 5%- ,
? (
..),
.
7. , 279 / 15%
, , .
0.528 '
11.88 2.43%- ( 1.01).
0.444
15 0.267 M . .

-94-1
1. , IV
.
2. . .
3.
(2-) .
4. ,
:
AI(OH)3 - S - X2
AICI3 + X, <

Pb(NO3)2 .
3,2
H2S
X3

AI(OH)3
O2
X2
^ X4

AI(OH)3

. .
132

5. , ( ):
a) Fe(NO 3 ) 3 + NO + HCI + H 2 O;
) Cu 2 S + NH 4 CI + NH 3 ;
) C 6 H 5 O N a + CH 3 COONa + H 2 O?
.
6. 30 , , 10
,
0.945.
.
7. 6.84 40 14%- .
8.64 .
( %).

-94-2
1. , V
.
2.
. .
3.
(3-).
4. ,
:
AI(OH)3 - - X2
AI2(SO4)3 + Xi

s02

Br2 + H2O^ ^

X3 - ^ l - AI2(SO4)3
|2(304)

. .
5. , ( ):
133

) Fe(NO 3 ) 3 + N 0 + S + H 2 O;
) Agl + NH4I + H2O;
) C6H5OK + HCOOK + H2O?
.
6. 30 , , 20
,
1.814. .
7. 7.4 70 8%- .
6.48 .
( %).

-95-1
1.
.
2. ,
.
3. , () (1,3) . .
4. , 3-.
- .
5. :

X2*

MgO

, . .
6. 200 16 %- ?00
29.8 %- ,<; 134

. , - 5.61%.
, ,
, .
7. (IV) ,
1.000/ 101.3
150 ( R=8.314 /(-)).


(IV). .
.

-95-2
1.
(III) .
2. , (IV).
3. , -1,2 (). .
4. , 3-. - .
5. ?

, . 1 1

.
1

135

6. 200 28.2 %- 200


23.4%- . , - 11.07%.
, ,
, .
7. (IV) ,
1.000/ 114.8
200 ( R=8.314 /(-)).


(IV). .
.

-95-3
1.
()
.
2. ,
(III).
3. , 3,3,3 3- .
.
4. , 4-. - .
5. :
BaSO3

X2*
136

X,

BaS

, . .
6. 235 20%- 150
20.8%- . , - 9.2%. , ,
, .
7.
(IV)
, 1.000/ 113.3
200 0 C (
R = 8.314 /()).

(IV). .
.

-95-4
1.
.
2. ,
(III).
3. , 1,2 (1,4-) . .
4. , 2-. - .

137

5. :

AI2(SO4)3

Xi

, . .
6. 150 16%- 180
19.5%- . , - 5.16%.
, ,
, .
7.
(IV)
, 1.000 / 102.7
150 0 C (
R = 8.314 /(-)).

(IV). .
.

-96-1
1.
? .
2. ,
CI+5 - Cl 1 ) ; ) .
3. CeHi2O5Br2 ,
.
, .
138

4. ,
:
CH3COOH

5. ,
(
):
) Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + SO 2 + HCI + H 2 O;
) MnO 2 + K 2 HPO 4 + KH 2 PO 4 ;
) [Zn(OH)J 2 CO 3 + NaNO 3 + CO 2 ;
) + KCI?
.
6. 28.44
27.16 . (..)
36.5% ( 1.18 /).
?
7.
. ,
1.368 ,
2.638 .
, .

-96-2
1. ? .
2. ,
Cr +6
> Cr +3 ) ; ) .
.>* . I

139

3. C6H12O5CI2 ,
.
, .
4. ,
:
C2H5OH

N54 /

CH3COOH

CH3COOC2H5

5. ,
(
):
) Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + SO 2 + HCI + H 2 O;
) MnO 2 + K 3 PO 4 + K 2 HPO 4 + H 2 O;
) [Cu(OH)I 2 CO 3 + Na 2 SO 4 + CO 2 ;
) + ?
.
6. 22.12
21.16 . (..)
36.5% ( 1.18 /).
?
7.
. ,
1.368 ,
. 1.824 .
, .

140

-96-3
1. ?
.
2. ,
Cl - Cl"1 ) ; ) .
+1

3. C 6 H 1 2 O 5 Br 2 ,
.
, .
4. ,
:
CH3CHCI2

C2H2

5. ,
(
):
) CuSO 4 + SO 2 + HCI + H 2 O;
) Cr(OH) 3 + K 3 PO 4 + K 2 HPO 4 + H 2 O;
) [Zn(OH)J 2 CO 3 + KCI + CO 2 ;
) + NaCI?
.
6. 14.22
12.94 . (..)

36.5%- ( 1.18 /).
?
7.
. , 1.368 , 141

2.345 . , .

-96-4
1. ? .
2. ,
Fe +2 > Fe +3 ) ; ) .
3. C5HioO4CI2 ,
.
, .
4. ,
:
H2NCH2COOH

Br

H3NCH2COOCH2C6H5

5. ,
(
):
) MgSO 4 + SO 2 + Br2 + H 2 O;
) Cr(OH) 3 + K 2 HPO 4 + KH 2 PO 4 ;
) [Cu(OH)J 2 CO 3 + KNO 3 + CO 2 ;
: ) + ?
.
6. 11.06
10.42 . (..)

142

36.5%- ( 1.18 /).


?
7.
. ,
2.368 ,
2.906 .
, .

-97-1
1.
? .
2. , . , .
3. -1:
) ;
) .
4. :
) ;
) ;
) (II).
.
5. ,
:
C 7 H 8 -> C 7 H 7 NO 2 - C7H10NCI -> C 7 H 10 N 2 O 3 -> C7H9N.
:
6. 3.2 , Me 2 S (
+1 +2), '
. 39.2%- .
48.5%. 143

2.5 ,
44.9%. .
7. , ,
3:1. (V)
27.72%. , , (I) ,
.
.

-97-2
1.
? .
2. , . , .
3. :
) ;
) .
4. :
) ;
) ;
) (II).
.
5. ,
:
C 8 H 1 0 - > C 8 H 9 NO 2 - C 8 H 8 CINO 2
C 8 H 7 NO 2 - > C 7 H 5 NO 4 .
.
144

6. 1.76 , MeS (
+2 +3),
. 29.4%- .
34.5%. 2.9 ,
23.0%. .
7. , ,
2:1.

27.27%. , ,
, . .

-97-3
1.
? .
2. , . ,
.
3. -2:
) ;
) .
4. :
) ;
) ;
) (II).
.
145

5. ,
:
C 7 H 1 4 -> C 7 H 8 -> C 7 H 5 KO 2 -> C 7 H 5 NO 4 - C 7 H 8 N 2 O 4 .
.
6. 1.6 , Me2S ( +1 +2),
. 29.2%- .
40.9%. 1.71 , 27.6%. .
7. , , 1:3.
(V) 25.80%. ,
,
(I) ,
.
.

-97-4
1.
? .
2. ,
. ,
.
3. :
) ;
) .
4. :
) ;
) ;
146

) (III).
.
5. ,
:
C 8 H 1 8 C8H1O > C 8 H 6 O 4 > C 8 H 4 CI 2 O 2 C 10 H 10 O 4 .
.
6.4.4 , Me 2 S ( +1 +3),
. 37.8%- .
53.6%. 4.44 , 23.0%. .
7. , , 1:2.

26.17%. , ,
, . .

-98-1
1. , ) ; )
.
2.
0.1 / , ,
1.3% 11.1%. .
.
* ' 147

3. ,
:

"3 -> "1 -> "1

C+1

.
4. ,
:

FeSO4 -> X - Fe(NO3)3 :


) -;
) -
;
) -
.
5. ( ), :

C3H8O -> C3H6O2 -> C3H5CIO

C3H5O2Na

C6H12O2.

.
6. 25.9 555 10% (III). , ,
(III)
(II). ,
.
7. 7.38 5.40 .
6.48 .

.

148

-98-2
1. , ) ; )
.
2.
0.2 / , , 8.0% 40.7%.
.
.
3. ,
:

-2

C0

C0

C+2

.
4. ,
:

FeCI2 -> X

Fe2O3.

:
) -;
) -
;
) -
.
5. ( ), :

C3H6O2

C3H5O2CI

C3H6O3 -> C3H4O2 -> C3H6O3.

.
6. 18.2 230 10%-
(III).
, , (III)
149

(II). ,
.
7. 9.54 7.20 .
6.48 .

.

-98-3
1. -
.
2. /-
0.1 / , , 2.5% 22.9%.
.
.
3. ,
:

C0 - C+2 - C+2 C+3


.
4. ,
:

Cu(NO3)2 -> X -> CuSO4.


:
) -;
) -
;
' mc^
) -
.
:

i ! .if :: I :

150

5. ( ), :

C7H8 -> C7H5O2K

C7H5O4N

C6H5O2N

C6H7N.

.
6. 15.9 333.5
20%- (III). , ,
(III) (II). ,
.
7. 6.15 4.50 .
5.40 .

.

-98-4
1. -
.
2. 0.1 / , , 1.1% 3.6%.
.
.
3. ,
:
..::, - '.'.
"2
"3
"1
"1
.

151

4. ,
:

CuSO4 - X -> Cu(NO3)2.


:
) -;
) -
;
) -
.
5. ( ), :

C4H5Na -> C4H6 -> C4H8O

C3H6O2 -> C4H11O2N.

.
6. 16.9 435.5
20%- (III). , ,
(III)
(II). ,
.
7. 7.80 5.40 .
6.48 .

.

99-1
1. ,
129 , 65%.
2. 300 2 + D
.
3 . 152

, (O0 (
Y = 2.5)?
3. , (
):
) BaSO 4 + (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ;
) FeCI 2 + I 2 + HCI;
) CH 3 COOK + MnO 2 .
.
4. 504 10%- 17.2 (IV) 101.5 27.
.
5.

0.2.
.
6. :
C 7 H 6 KNO 2
C 7 H 8 CINO 2
C 7 H 5 NO 4 - C 7 H 4 N 2 O 6 - C 9 H 8 N 2 O 6

( ) . .
7. 8.7%
. 9.66
; 9.015 . .

-99-2
1. ,
80 , 75%.
2. , 60 , 90 ,
153

.
, ,
50 /.

3. , ( ):
) C a H P O 4 I + Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 + H 2 O;
) B a S O 4 I + H 2 SO 4 + H 2 O;
) M n O 2 I + K 2 CO 3 + KHCO 3 + H 2 O.
.
4.
76 .
400 8%- . .
-95 /.
5. 7.3

2.24 (..) .
.
6. :
C4H6O5
C 4 H 5 NO 3 < - C 3 H 4 O 3 - > C 3 H 4 O 4
C5H8O4

( ) . .
7. , 293 / 14.35%
, .
0.472 18
0.222 M .
0.666 14.7 1.6%-
( 1.022 /).
.

' 154

-95-1
1. , 109 , 75%.
2. 300 2 +
D (0. 325 ( = 2.5).
, 0?
3. , ( ):
) S r S O 3 I + K 2 SO 3 + H 2 O;
) Ba(OH) 2 + H 2 O;
) C 6 H 5 COOK + M n O 2 I + KOH + H 2 O.
.
4. 250 19.6%- 20 100.1 28.
.
5.
9.5. .
6. :
C 9 H 1 0 O 4 < - C 9 H 9 NO 2
C8H8O2 - > C8H6O4 - C10H10O4

( ) . .
7. X, 17.1 11.6
( ), ,
,
(IV). X .
-155

-99-4
1. , 64.5 -,
85%.
^
2. 81.5 /, 50 /.
,
60?
3. , (
):
) Li 2 CO 3 + Na 2 CO 3 + (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 ;
) CuCI 2 + FeCI 2 ;
) CH 3 COOK + MnO 2 I + KOH + H 2 O.
.
4.
168 .
635.2 14.1%- . . ^
210 /.
5. 9.12
0.896 (..) . 3
.
6. :
C 8 H 1 1 NO 3
C 8 H 9 NO 3 < C 8 H 6 O 2 > 8 0 2 > C 8 H 8 Br 2

( ) . - ^
.
7. X . 0.630
, ( ).
1.37 . .
156

2.50 .
X , .

-2000-1
1. - -,
? ?
2. .
3. 2.0
10 .

60 20 0C?
4. ( 2-
, ) .
.
5. -
(III) ( ).
.
6. :
C7H16 -> C7H8
C7H7O2N -> C7H5O4N
-> C6H5O2N
C 6 H 7 N - > C 6 H 9 O 4 NS.

. .
7.
5.1 . 75 5.7%- .
.
-102 /.
8. :
Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2
H 3 PO 4

CaHPO 4
P - > PH 3
Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 - > Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 .
157

9. 840 (
0.50 /) 25.0 . , . 1.52 .
.
10. 9.00 80.0 5.0%- , -
.
. 40%- KOH
21.0 ?

-2000-2
1. ,
(I) (
44)?
2. .
3. 3.0
10 .

25 55 0C?
4.
(3,4-) .
.
5. -
(II) ( ). .
6. :
C 3 H 7 OCI - > C 3 H 5 OCI
C3H6O2 -> C3H4O - >
C3H5O4K
C 3 H 4 O 2 Br 2 - > C 4 H 6 O 2 Br 2 .

. .
158

7.
63.0 .
375.7 6.4%-
. .
-210 /.
8. :
SrCO 3 - > Sr(HCO 3 ) 2 - SrCO 3 - > Sr(NO 3 ) 2
SrSO 3
SrSO 4
SrS.
9. 786 (
0.70 /) 70.1 .
, .
4.0 . .
10.
,
,

( H 2 N C H ( C H 2 C O O H ) C O O H ) . . ,
3.36 (..). 60 2.5 /.
1.35 . .

-92-1
1.
, -2-
.
2. 20 36 , 40
4 . 65 ?
3. , (IV),
.
?
4. C5H1OO4 , ,
2-.
. 2- .
5.
:
) ();
) ;
) (I).
, , ( , , ..). , ,
.
6. , 50 , (III)
, 21.0 11.93%-
( 0.95), 160

1.52 .
( /) (III) , ( ..),
2.4 50 .
7. (II) 1:4 10 327 , .

10%.
(II)

-92-2
1. (
B4), 2--5-4---.
2.
18 2.25 , 38 15 . 63 ?
3. , (II),
(IV). ?
4. 5105 ,
,
2---.
. 2-- .
5.
:
) ;
) ;
) (II).
6-1115

161

, , ( , , ..). , ,
.
6. , 50 ,
, 34.5 16.8%-
( 1.16), 0.80 .
( /) , ( ..),
0.8 50
.
7.
1:5 250 225 , . 25%.
.

-93-1
1. , 4--2.
2.
. ,
.
3. ,
. .
, . .

162

4. ,
:
KMnO4,t

C 6 H 5 CH(CH 3 ) 2 - >
H2SO4

HNOa(l )
H2SO4

>

Fe+HCI

>

(.)

>

5. , ( ):
) MgSO 4 + (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ;
) S + KNO 3 + N O + H 2 O;
) --- + KCI + H2O?
NH2
.
6. KAI(SO 4 ) 2 -12 2 0 1000 5%- ,
? (
..),
.
7. , 307 / 13.7%
, , . 0.480 11.2
0.536 M .
0.708 15.7 2.1%-
( 1.02 /). .

-93-2
1. , 6--4.
2.
. , .
6*

163

3.
,
.
, . ,
. .
4. ,
:
Br2

CH3CH=CH2

CCl 4

NaOH.t

>

H2O1I

Hg2t1H+

H2ZNi

>

5. , ( ):
) Cal 2 + NH4I;
) PbSO 4 + NO2 + H2O;
) C H 3 S - C H 2 - C H - C O O K + KCI + H 2 O ?

NH2
.
6. KCr(SO4)2-1220 500 6%- ,
? (
..),
.
7. , 369 / 11.4%
, , . 0.624 9.43
2.33%- ( 1.02).
0.888
17.2 0.465 M . .

-98-2
1. , VI
.
2.
. .
3.
(2--2-) .
4. , ,
:
Cr(OH)3

X2 - - Cr(OH)3

CO2-!^ X

Cr(NO3)3 + X1
- X

- ^

Cr(OH)3

. .
5. *, ( ):
) AI(NO 3 ) 3 + N O + S + H 2 O;
) Cu 2 S + NH 4 HS + H 2 O;
) -1 + CH3OH + NaBr?
.
6. 35 , ,
25 , 1.942.
.
7. 14.38
160 7%- .

6.48 .

( %).

165

-98-2
1. , VII .
2.
. .
3.
(3-).
4. ,
:
Fe(OH)3
FeCI3 + X1

S (

SO2 (0

4 x
3

- ^

^ FeCI3
X

-^Fec

. .
5. , ( ):
) Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + SO 2 + HCI + H 2 O;
) NiS + (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 + NH 3 ;
) + C 2 H 5 OH + KBr?
.
6. 40 , , 20
,
0.871.
.
7. 14.8
140 8%- .

12.96 .

( %).
)

166

-95-1
1. , .
2. : FeSO 4 , Cu, HNO3 (
) Br2 ( ). - ,
.,
3. ,
:
KMnO4

C 6 H 5 CH 3

H2SO4

HNO3

>

H2SO4

C2H5OH

>

H+

Fe+HCI

>

>D

4. ,
, : ) ;
) ; ) ; ) 4
; ) . .
5. :
KH2PO4

->,

X2 <
KCI
, . .
6. , -2 5.29 ( 20
1 ).
68.83 35%- . . .
7. 1 ,
9, 350 ,
20%. % .
-167

, 1
, 10?

-95-2
1. ,
.
2. : , (), HNO3 Cu 2 O.
- , .
3. ,
:
C2H5CI

C6H6

AICI3

Cl2, hv

>

KOH

>

C2H5OH

KMnO4

>

H2O

>D

4. ,
, : )
(II); ) ;
) ; ) 3 ; ) .
.
5. :
CaC 2

X2 <

> Xi

Ca(CH3COO)2

, . .
6. , 3- -2
6.01 ( 20
1 ).
76.04 36%- . 3-
. .
168

7. 1 ,
15, 320 ,
25%. % .
, 1
, 16?

-95-3
1. ,
.
2. : Hl ( ), KCIO3, ZnS
Fe. -
, .
3. ,
:
HCI11

-2

KMnO4

>
AICI 3

-2

>
H2SO4

D
H+

4. ,
, : ) ;
) ; )
; ) 3 ; ) .
.
5. :
Cu2O

X2 <

^X1

CuSO 4

, . .
6. , 3- 4.81 ( 20 0 C
1 ). 169

62.26
34%- . 3- . .
7. 1 , 14, 300 0C, 25%.
% .
,
1
, 16?

-95-4
1. , .
2. : Ca 3 P 2 , HBr ( ),
H 2 SO 4 Cl2 ( ). - ,
.
3. ,
:
Br 2

-1,3

2NaOH

>
40

H 2 , Pt

>
H2O

K M n O 4 ()

>

>D
H2SO4

4. ,
, : ) ; )
; ) ; ) 4 ; ) . .
5. :
AI2S3

X2 <
170

>,

AICI3

, . .
6. , 4- 2--2
5.77 ( 20 1 ).

64.12 37%- .
4- . .
7. 1 , 11, 350 , 15%.
% .
,
1
, 12?

-96-1
1. 1.165 / 1 20 . .
2.
. .
3. %. , -
? .
4. , -, 1-4-
.
. ? .

171

5. ,
:
AgCl

Ag2O

Ag

10

AgNO3

12

[Ag(NH3)2IOH

[Ag(NH3)2I2SO4-

1C3H3Ag

Ag2SO4
7

6. , 0.543
, , ,
; 3.05 . . ?
7. 3.63 ,
19.28% ,
1.55 . .

-96-2
1. 1.800 / 1 25 0C. .
2. (II). .
3.
%.
, - ? .
4. , -, 1-4-
.
172

.
? .
5. ,
:
1
CuCl 7
CuCI

Cu"

12

CuSO 4

Cu(NO 3 ) 2

10

[Cu(NH 3 ) 2 JCI

CuO < -

C 3 H 3 Cu

6. , 0.543
, , ,
.
4.57 . .

?
7. 1.655 , 21.15% , 0.775 .
.

-96-3
1. 3.019 /
1 50 0C. .
2. . .
3.
%.
, -
? .
173

4. , 4- . , -, 1-4-
.
.
? .
5: ,
:
1
Mn(NO3)2.
KMnO
2

>

Mn(OH)2

MnCl2-

12

KMnO4

MnO2

11
Mn

MnSO4

6. , 0.543
, , ,
.
1.524 . .

?
7. 4.83 , 8.70% , 2.325 . .

-96-4
1. 2.343 /
1 60 . .
2. . .
174

3.
%.
, - ? .
4. , 4- . , -, 1-4-
.
. ? .
5. ,
:
'
1
KCrO 2 > K CrO
2

2
Cr 2 O 3 < -

Cr(OH) 3

10

12

K 3 (Cr(OH) 6 )

K 2 Cr 2 O 7

11
CrCIv

Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3

6. , 0.735
, , ,
. 6.10 . .

?
7. 6.14 , 13.68% , 3.10 .
.

175

-98-2
1. () () ,
.
2. 1.5 /. 1.7-IO"5.
3. (IV) ,
5.0%. .
4. ,
. , .
.
5. ,
( ):
1

Ba(CIO3)2

KCIO
BaCI,

6.
63.5%
. .
7.

2--2-

(C 2 H 5 ) 2 CBr-CO-NH-CO-NH 2 .
176

-3, () .
.

-97-2
1. () () , .
2. 1.5 /.
0.44.
3. ,
5.0%. .
4. , . ', .
.
5. ,
( ):

Na2SO4-*

Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3

6.
38.2%
. .
177

7. 4- C2H5O-C6H4-NH-CO-CH3.
, . .

-97-3
1. () () (II) ,
.
2. 1.5 /.
1.5.
3. ,
6.0%. .
4. , . ,

. .
5. ,
( ):
1
NO,

HNO 1 -

12
NH4NO3-

NH4NO2

HNOo

10

NHo

NoO

6.
91.8%
. .
178

7. 2---

(CH3)2CH-CHBr-CO-NH-CO-NH2. 2--1, () . .

-97-4
1. ()
() , .
2. 1.5 /.
2.9.
3. ,
2.0%. .
4. , -1. ,

. .
5. ,
( ):
Ca3(PO4)2*
1
K3PO4

Mg3P2

* PH3
179

6.
55.6%
. .
7. 3-
NCsH 4 -CO-N(C 2 H 5 ) 2 . , . .

-98-1
1. - .
2. ( ):

, .
3.

. D
. D F. - F
.
4. ,
:
Fe(NO 3 ) 2
>X
> FeCI3.
:
) -;
) -
;
) -
.
180

5. ,
AgaCioH12N5OeP. . .
6. 50 10 .
, .
35.3 . , , 28.6% .
7. 4.06
.
5.84 . 4- , .

-98-2
1. .
2. :

, , .
3.
.

D .
. - .
181

4. ,
:

FeBr3

>X

> FeSO4.

:
) -;
) -
;
) -
.
5. , (II)
CuC9H12NaO7P. . .
6. 80 20 .
, .
41.5 . , , 58.7% .
7. 22.95
.
17.4
. 4- , .

-98-3
1. - .
2.
:

182

, .
3.
.
D
, . -
.
4. ,
:
Cu 2 O
>X
> CuCI2.
:
) -;
) -
;
) -
.
5. , ()
PbC1OHi2N5OaP. . .
6. 40 (II)
10 . , .
24.3 . , , 38.5% .
7. 5.01
.

3.90 .
4- ,
.
183

-98-2
1.
.
2. :


. , , .
3.
.

D . D
. -
.
4. ,
:
K2Cr2O7
>X
> CrCl3 :
) -;
) -
;
) -
.
5. ,
ZnCgHnN 2 O 9 P. . .
6. 60 10 .
184

, .
35.4 . , , 34.2% .
7. 12.67
.
10.08
. 4- , .

-99-1
1.
, .
2. 76 /. 27 0C
W1.

3.3810 4 . .
3. :
CeHe

> C3HgBrj > C6He *


C 8 H 5 Na
C 8 H 6 -> C 8 H 8 O

( ) . .
4. , ( ):
) AI(OH)3 + NaNO 3 + SO 2 ;
) ZnO + N2 + Ag;
) 3,3- + CaBr 2 ?
.
185

5. ,
:
) Cu(OH)2 Mg(OH)2;
) Ag Au;
) C6H5OH C2H5OH.
6. 100 8%-
. 10 100
0.3 /.
10 ?
7.
, 224 (..). 0.910 .

.,

-99-2
1. ,

.
2. 320 + 2 D
0.
2.5 .
, W0 ( - 2.0)?
3. :
C 3 H 6 ^ C3HsO2 > C3H6CI2 > C 3 H 6 ^ C3H7Br >
-> C 5 H 10 O 2
C 2 H 3 O 2 Na + C 3 H 8 O

( ) . .
186

4. , ( ):
) Cr(OH) 3 + BaSO 4 + SO 2 ;
) Sr3N2 + SrO + SrH 2 ;
) 1,2- + MgCI2?
.
5. ,
:
) Zn(OH) 2 AI(OH) 3 ;
) CO2 SO 2 ;
) C6H5OH CH3COOH.
6. 100 5%-
. 5 100
0.1 /. 10 ?
7.
, 336 (..) . 1.30 .

.

-99-3
1. ,

.
2. 300 + 2 > D 0. 273 ( = 2.5).
,
?
187

3. :
C 3 H 6 CI 2 -^ C3H4 -> C 3 H 6 O -> C4H7ON -> C 4 H 8 O 3
-> C 4 H 6 O 2 -> C4H6O2Br2

( ) . .
4. , ( ):
) Fe(OH) 2 + KNO 3 + .SO2;
) Li2O + Li3N + Cu;
) 3,3- + CuCI?
.
5. ,
:
) Ag2O Cu 2 O;
) N0;
) H 3 PO 4 CH3COOH.
6. 100 5%-
. 10
120 0.1 /.

15 ?
7.
, 1.30 . 168 (..).

.

188

-98-4
1.
, .
2. 80 /,
53 /.
,
20?
3. :
C 7 H 6 CI 2 - C 7 H 6 O - > C 7 H 9 NO 2 - > C 7 H 6 O 2
C 7 H 5 NO 4
- > C 7 H 8 NO 2 CI - > C 7 H 6 NO 2 Na

( ) . .
4. , ( ):
) FeBr 2 + N a B r + S;
) Li2O + N 2 + Fe 2 O 3 ;
) + K2CO3?
.
5. ,
:
) Cu 2 O Ag 2 O;
) CO 2 NO 2 ;
) BaSO 4 BaSO 3 .
6. 100 5%-

.
10 120 0.1 /. 15 ?
189

7.
, 1.43 . 168 (..).

.

-2000-3
1. 14C (3-. .
2. .
3. 2.5
10 .

20 40 0C?
4. ( 2- ) . .
5. . .
6. :
714 > C 7 H 8 > C 7 H 6 O 2 > C6H6 >
C6H4O4N2
C6H8N2
C6H10N2Br2.

. .
7.
28.5 .
284.7 5.9%- . .
-95 /.
190

8. :
Cr - > CrCI 2 Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 - CrCI 3 - >
K 2 CrO 4
K 2 Cr 2 O 7 - > K 2 CrO 4 .
9. 861 (
0.65 /) 70.0 .
, .
4.56 .
.
10. 6.00 12.0 11.1%- ,
-
.
. 40%- KOH
14.0 ?

-2000-4
1. ,
.
2. .
3. 4.0
10 .

80 50 0C?
4.
(3,4,5- ).
.
5. .
.
6. :
C 8 H 18
C8H10 -> C8H9O2N
C8H8O2NCI
-> C8H7O2N -> C8H9O4N -> C8H7O2Br2N.
191


. .
7.
8.1 .
147 10%-
. . -108 /.
8. :
Cu 2 O - > CuCI - > CuSO 4 - > CuO -
- > Cu(NO 3 ) 2
Cu(OH) 2
Cu 2 O.
9. 857 (
0.70 /) 62.3 . , .
8.0 .
.
10. , , (H 2 NCH(CH 2 COOH)COOH)
. . , 6.72 (..).
200 3.0 /.

5.4 .
.

-90-1
1. 2- . ( , , , , ).
2. 0 2 () + () <* 2() - 72.6 (II)? .
3. .
? , .
4.
, . ,
,
.
, ? ,
, .
5.
:
) (IV) ;
) (I) ;
) .
, , . , , .
6. , 2.59 , 17.1 (
19.6%, 1.17).
4
5 /.
7-1115

193

( ..),
.
7. ( ..) 14 , , - ?

-90-2
1. 2- .
(
, , , , ).
2. F e 2 O 3 ( T B ) + 2() 2 F e ( T B ) + 2 0() - 89.6
? .
3. .
? , .
4. , , ,
, . ,
? , , .
5.
:
) ;
) ;
) -1,3 .
, , . , , .
6. 3.88 78 ( tO%,
194

1.09). .
13.3
1.5 /. ( ..),
.
7. 25%-
( 1.23) 15
, , ?

-90-3
1. 2- . ( , , , , ).
2. ()+ 2() " ) + 74.9 ? .
3. .
? , .
4.
, .
. , ? , ,
.
5.
:
) ;
) (III);
) -1,2 () .
, , . 7

195

, , .
6. , 2.88
(II) , 17.7
( 12%, 1.13). 15 0.67 /.

( ..).
7. 5%- ( 1.6)
5.4 -1, -1,3 -2?

-90-4
1. 2- -1,3.
(
, , , , ).
2. 2() + () < H 2 S(r) + 20.9
? .
3. .
? , .
4. .
, , . ,
. ,
? , ,
.

196

5.
:
) ;
) ;
) -1 (II).
, , . , , .
6. (II) (III), 3.76 ,
37.4 ( 14.6%, 1.07). 16
1.25 /.
( ..), .
7. , 20% ( ) , 30 , , -- ?
'

-91-1
1. , .
2. (II) ? .
3. - ,
. , .
4. Pb(NO3)2,
.
.

197

5.
:
) ;
) ;
) .
, , ( ,
, ). , ,
.
6. (II) 1:3 101.5 320 , . , 320 0C 81.2 ,
, .
(II) .
7.
,
5.18 .
7.21 10%- ( 1.11). , , 90 . .

-91-2
1. , .
2. ?

.
3. - ,
. , .
< : . 198

4. Fe(NOa)3,
.
.
5.
:
) ;
) ;
) .
, , ( ,
, ). , ,
.
6. 1:5
10.13 450 ,
. , 450 0 C 8.78 ,
, .
.
7. 10 ,
, 2.59 . ,
. , 4.7 . .

-91-3
1. , .
2. ?
.
3. - , -
. , .
199

4. Zn(NOs)2,
.
.
5.
:
) ;
) ;
) .
, , ( ,
, ). , ,
.
6. (IV)
1:1 304 427 ,
(VI) , 427 0C 266 ,
, . (VI)
(IV) (VI).
7. 50 , ,
, 49.7 17%-
( 1.08). 99.1 .
.

-91-4
1. ,
.
2. ?
.
3. - , - . ,
.
200

4. Cu(NO3)2,
.
.
5.
:
) ;
) ;
) .
, , ( ,
, ). , ,
.
6.
1:4 150 223,
.
, 223 0C 78 ,
, .
.
7. 150 , , , , 38.85 , .
,
29.79 . .

-92-1
1.
6.6 (IV),
8.0 (IV).
? .
2. ,
\s22s22pb. .
201

3. 203TI
TI.
Ar(TI) = 204.38 %
.
205

4.
(2-)
- .
.
5.
:
) ;
) ;
) 1 - .
, , ( , , ..). , ,
.
6. 400 8%- (II) ,
20.5 . , , , .
7. ,
, 0.5, 0.6.

.

-92-2
1. 3.4 , 3.4 .
? .
2. ,

Is2Is2Ip6Is1Ip6.
202

.
3. '91Ir
1r.
AXIr) = 192.22 %
.
,9J

4. (2-) - .
.
5.
:
) (111);
) ;
) 1--2- .
, , ( , , ..). , ,
.
6. 470 8%- (II) ,
19.6 . , , , .
7. , ,
2.6,
3.1.
.

-92-3
1. 4.5 ,
5.1 .
? .
203

2. ,
IJ2
Xs1Is2Ipe. .
3. 185Re
Re.
Ar(Re) = 186.21 %
.
187

4.
(2-) - .
.
5.
:
) (III);
) ;
) 2- .
, , ( , , ..). , ,
.
6. 500 6.5%- (II)
,
24.4 . , , , .
7. ,
(II) , 0.5,
0.625.
(II)
.

204

-98-4
1. 12.15 ,
12.8 . ? .
2. ,

ls22s22p63s23p64s23dw4p6. .
3. 69Ga
Ga.
Ar(Ga) = 69.72 %
.
71

4. (2-) - .
.
5.
:
) (II);
) ;
) 2--2- .
, , ( , , ..). , ,
.
6. 400 8.5%- , 25 .
,
, ,
.
7. ,
,
205

0.2,
0.25.
.

-93-1
1. , ,
2 (
).
.
2. 3- (III). ( , , ).
3. .
?
3-4- ,
.
4. , ,
, . (II),
, .
, . , .
5.
:
) ;
) (II) ;
) .
, , ( ,
, ). , ,
.

206

6. , 2.36 ,
14.2 ( 90%,
1.48). 40 2.5 /.
( ..), .
7.
18 2.24 (..), .
.

-93-2
1. , ,
2 (
).
.
2. 3-
(III). ( , , ).
3. (II)
.
? 3-4- , .
4.
, . ..
, . , .
5.
:
) ;
) ( (H)) ;
) .
, , ( ,
, ). 207

, ,
.
6. 1.26 35 ( 19.6%,
1.14). 28.6
1.4 /. ( ..),
.
7. 11.7
1.12 (..), . .

-93-3
1. , ,
3 (
).
.
2. 3- (II).
( , , )
3.
.
? 3-4-
, .
4. .
, ,
.
2
, .
, . , .
5.
:
) (IV);
208

) (II) ;
) -1 .
, , ( - ,
, ). , ,
.
6. , 3.54 ,
23.9 ( 31.5%, 1.17). 14.3 1.4 /.
( ..),
.
7.
43.2 4.48 (..), . .

-93-4
1. , ,
3 (
).
.
2. 3-
(III). ( , , ).
3. .
? 3-4- ,
.
4. .
,

; , . 1.5 , .
209

, . , .
5.
:
) (IV);
) ( (II)) ;
) -1 .
, , ( ,
, ). , ,
.
6. , 2.51 , 30.7 (
19.6%, 1.14).
25
2.4 /.
( ..), .
7. 13.5 1.12 (..),
. .

-93-1
1. , C 3 H 9 N .
2. 2 ,
.
3. ,
(IV) .
4. , :
, t
-+

210

HNO3
H2SO4

F e + 1()

5. , ( ):
) CuSO 4 + SO 2 + H2O;
) KCI + P 2 O 5 ;
) CH 3 -CHBr-CH 3 + HBr?
.
6. 4.48 (..) 53 16%- ( 1.18).
, .
7. X
, 57.5%
,
. X. ,
.

-93-2
1. , C 4 H 10 O.
2. 2 ,
.
3. ,
(II) .
4. , :
CH3CH2CH2OH ^ g

()

^ g

H2O ^ _
2 +

211

5. , ( ):
) Mg(NO3)2 + N2 + H2O;
) KNO 2 + CO 2 ;
) CH 3 CH 2 NO 2 + H2O?
.
6. 3.36 (..) 50.4 23%- ( 1.21).
,
.
7. X
, 75.8%
, .
X. ,
.

-93-3
1. , C 4 HnN.
2. 2 ,
.
3. ,
(IV) .
4. , :
C2H2

Hg^ , H

212

K2Cr2O7 .
H2SO4

H2, Ni

H2SO4,

5. , ( ):
) Ag 2 SO 4 + SO 2 + H2O;
) P 2 O 5 + N0;
) C6H5OH2CI + HCI?
.
6. 4.48 (..) 57.4 20%- ( 1.22).
,
.
7. X
, 60.6%
, .
X. ,
.

-93-4
1. , C 3 H 8 O.
2. 2 ,
.
3. ,
.
4. , :
CH3CH2CH2OH
-

KOH _
H2O

4Q2C>

AI2O3

4
00

* 1 "'

CCI4

213
I

5. ( , ( ):
) Zn(NO3)2 + N2O + H2O;
) SO 3 + N0;
) 2- + HCI?
.
6. 3.36 (..) 47 20%- ( 1.19).
, .
7. X
, 73.4%
,
. X. ,
.

-94-1
1. .
2. -2.
(
, , , , ).
3. Fe, Ca Cu. ?
4. ,
,
:
CH4 -> CH3CI - C2H6

214

C2H5CI

C2H4

5. ,
, -:
) Fe(NO 3 ) 3 + NaOH ->...
) Cu 2 S + O 2 -4...
) CH3CH=CH2 + KMnO4 + H2O ->...
6. 28.44
27.16 . (..)

36.5%- ( 1.18 /).
?
7. 20.8
100 2.5 M .
90.9 13.5%-
(II) ( 1.1 /).
.

-94-2
1. .
2. 2- .
(
, , , , ).
3. Al, Ca Ag. ?
4. ,
,
:
C2H4

C2H4Br2 -> C2H2

CH3CHO

C2H5OH

5. ,
, -:
a) AICI3 + KOH -...
215

) F e S 2 + O 2 - * . . .
- :
) C 6 H 5 CH 3 + KMnO 4 + H 2 SO 4

v.

6. 22.12
21.16 . (..)

36.5%- ( 1,18 /).
?
7. 25
65.37 20%-
( 1.22).
50 1 M . .

-94-3
1. .
2. 2- .
(
, , , , ).
3. Fe, Zn Cu. ?
4. ,
,
:
C2H2
C 6 H 6 -> C 6 H 5 NO 2
C 6 H 5 NH 3 CI
C 6 H 5 NH 2
5. ,
, -:
.
) Fe(NO 3 ) 2 + Ca(OH) 2
) PH 3 + O 2 - > . . .
) CH 3 CH=CH 2 + Cl 2 () ->...
6. 14.22
12.94 . (..)

216

36.5%- ( 1.18 /).


?

7. 13.4
66.67 2.5 M .
60.6 13.5%-
(II) ( 1.1 /).
.

-94-4
1. .
2. 2- .
( , , , , ).
3. Pb, Al Ag. ?
4. ,
,
:
C 2 H 5 O H - > C 2 H 4 > C 2 H 4 CI 2 > C 2 H 2 > C 6 H 6
5. ,
, -:
) Mg(NO 3 ) 2 + Ba(OH) 2
) CuS + O 2
) C 2 H 4 (OH) 2 + Cu(OH) 2 (. -)
6. 11.06
10.42 . ( .)

36.5%- ( 1.18 /).
?
7. ,
3.04 17.96 4 (II).
217

8 2.5 M . .

-95-1
1. .
2.
, 51 0.52 /, 95 0.41 /. (H).
3. :
) ;
)
4. :

FeS -> H2S

SO2 -> NaHSO3

BaSO3

BaSO4

.
5. (KMnO4, H2SO4) 40
. ,
5 , , .
6. 40 , , 20
,
0.871.
.
7. 9 28.8 100%-
.
4.66 ,
2.02
(IV) (..). ( ) ,
200 80%- (218

1.07 /) 150
.

-95-2
1. .
2.
CO2 + H2 = + H2O, 80
0.24 /,
2 07 0.28 /.
3. :
) (1) ;
)
4. :

Ca3(PO4)2 - P -> P2O5 - H3PO4


Ca(H2PO4)2 -> CaHPO4 - Ca3(PO4)2
.
5. (KMnO4, H 2 SO 4 ) 28 -1 . ,
5 , ,
.
6. 30 , , 20
,
1.814. .
7. 6.9 36.8 100%-
. 2.33 , 1.57
(IV) (..).
( ) , 100 200
90%- ( 0.82 /) .
219

-98-4
1. .
2.
(II) , 30
()
0.32 /, 65 0.11 /.
3. :
) 4- ;
) (II) (III)
4. :
Fe

FeCI 2
Fe(OH) 2
Fe(OH) 3
Fe(NO 3 ) 3 - Fe 2 O 3 - > Fe
.
5. (K2Cr2O7, H 2 SO 4 ) 9.8 3--3 . ,
5 , , .
6. 35 , ,
25 , 1.942. .
7. 36
7.36 100%- .
4.66 ,
12.1
(IV) (..). ( ) ,
200 90%- (
0.82 /) 150 .

220

-98-4
1. - .
2.
, 30 0.25 /, 95
0.64 /.
3. :
) ;
)
4.0 :
Al - > AICI 3
AI(OH) 3
KAIO 2 - > KfAI(OH) 4 ]
.

AI(OH) 3

5. (KMnO4, H2SO4) 14 2- . ,
5 , , .
6. 30 , , 10
,
0.945.
.
7. 23
6.4 100%- .
2.33 ,
9.41
(IV) (..). ( ) ,
200 80%- 150
( 0.79 /)
.

221

-96-1
1.
N2 + 2
?

2NH3 + 92 -

2. :
N 2 O, Ag 2 O, K 2 O, SO 2 , P 2 O 3 , ZnO? ?
3. Fe, Cu, Au.
4. :
N2O3 + NaOH
C 6 H 6 + CH 3 CH=CH 2 >
H 2 O 2 + K 2 Cr 2 O 7 + H 2 SO 4 - >
. - - .
5. 28.6 ,
. 3.6 ( 20 0C 1 ). , 33.1 .
.
6. ,
. .
7. , 30 ,
1200 0C. . 1.9 .
.

-96-1
1.
N2 + 5 2NH3
?
2. :
, CuO, CaO, SiO2, P2Os, AI2O3? ?
3. Zn, Ag, Pt.
4. :
N2O5 + NaOH ->
C 6 H 6 + CH 2 =CH 2 >
H 2 O 2 + KMnO 4 + H 2 SO 4
. - - .
5. 24 ,
. 3.7 ( 30 0C 1 ). , 16.05 .
.
6. ,
. .
7. 39.2
1000 0C.
.
2.4 .
.

-96-1
1. , H 2
Cl 2 ?
.
2. Zn Al
AI 2 O 3 ZnO. .
3. 1 0.5 M BaCI 2 1
0.2 M K 2 CrO 4 . , BaCrO 4 , , (
).
4. , ( ):
) C 6 H 5 ONa + C H 3 C O O N a + H 2 O;
) CH 4 + Na 2 CO 3 ;
) CH 3 OCH 3 + NaCI;
) CuSO 4 + SO 2 + H 2 O?
.
5. ,
:
H2O

CaC 2

H2O, Hg2+

>

>

H 2 ZNi

HBr

>

>D

CH2O

>

6. 6 25 1.4 . .

7. 30 , ,
20 , 1.814. .

-96-1
1. , H2
O 2 ?
.
2. Cu AL 5 2 0 . .

AI2O3 C U S O 4

3. 1 0.25 M BaCI 2 1 0.5 M


Na 2 SO 4 . , BaSO 4
, ,
( ).
4. , ( ):
) C 6 H 5 OK + HCOOK + H 2 O;
) C 2 H 6 + Na 2 CO 3 ;
) C2H5OC2H5 + KCI;
) Cu(NO3)2 + NO + H2O?
.
5. ,
:
H2O

CaC 2

, 600 0 C

3CI 2 ,ftv

>

ZH2O

> D-> E

CH3OH

6. 7.4 30 0.6 .
.
7. 30 , , 10
,
0.945.
.

8-1115

225

-98-4
1. ,
O 2 ?
.
2. Cu Fe FeCI3 CuSO 4 5 2 0. .
3. 0.5 0.5 M MgCI2 0.5
0.2 M K3PO4. , Mg3(PO4)2 , ,
( ).
4. , ( ):
) C2H5OH + CH 3 COONa + H2O;
) CH 3 COCH 3 + CaCO 3 ;
) C 2 H 5 OC 2 H 5 + H2O;
) Cu(NO3)2 + NO2 + H 2 O?
.
5. ,
:
H2O

AI4C3

Cl2,IiV

>

Mg,

>

1)

>

1 2 ,()

>D

H2O

>E

>

2) H C I

6. 8.8 50 2
(II) . .
7. 35 , ,
25 , 1.942.
.

226

-96-1
1. , N2
O 2 ?
.
2. Z n Fe FeCI 3 ZnO. .
3. 1 0.5 M BaCI 2 1
0.2 M AgNO 3 . , AgCI , , (
).
4. , ( ):
) C H 3 O H + H C O O N a + H 2 O;
) C 3 H 8 + Na 2 CO 3 ;
) CH 3 CO(NH 2 ) + NH 4 Ct;
) KAIO2 + CO 2 ?
.
5. ,
:
t
H2O
ISOOC
2
H2O
/Nt
H2SO4(Kohu)
AI 4 C 3
>
>
>
>0
E
>
6. 7.4 40 1
. .
7. 40 , , 20
,
0.871.
.

8*

227

-98-4
1. .
2. ,
(III). .
3. ,
:
NaCI -> HCI -> X
KCIO3
.
4. , :
C2H6

Cl2 (1 )

H2O
H 2 SO 4

KMnO4

H 2 SO 4

A - D .
5.
. ,
. .
6. 13.5 1.12
(..) , .
.
7. 50 2 /.
1.22 / 45.5 8%-
1.10 /. . , .

229

-98-4
1.
.
2. ,
(II).
.
3. ,
:
FeS
SO 2
X
NaHSO 4
.
. 4. , , :
Br2 (1 )

C3H8

CuO110

5% NaOH

H2O

KMnO4
H 2 SO 4

A - D .
5.
. ,
. .
6. 43.2 4.48
(..) , .
.
7. 50 3 /
' 1.30 / 35.7 17 %- 1.12 /.
. , .

229

-98-4
1. .
f
2. ,
(III).
.
J
3. ,
:
SiO2 -> Si -> X
BaSiO 3
.

4. , :
C3H8i

Cl2 (2 )

H2O

Ht, Hg2+

. KOH

'

K 2 Cr 2 O 7

H2SO4

A - D .

5.
. ,
. .
6. 11.7 1.12 (..) ,
.

.
7. 40 2 /
1.08 / 23.1 16%- 1.30 /.
. , .

231

-98-4
1. .
2. ,
(IH). .
3. ,
:
4

MnO2 -> MnCI2 - X -> Mn(NO3)2


.

4. , :
C6H6

CH3Cl (1 )

AICI3

H2O
K 2 CO 3

Cl2 (1 )

K 2 Cr 2 O 7
H 2 SO 4

A - D .
5.
. ,
. .
6. 18 2.24
(..) , .
.
7. 100 2 /
' 1.10 / 33.3 47%-
1.2 /. . , .

231

-99-1
1. ,
2. RMgX, . ,
31.4 1-,
48.8 %.
3. Pb(NOa)2,
.
.
4. :
C4He > C4HgCI2 > C4Hg > C 4 H 8 >
> C4HtoO2 > C 4 H 8 Br 2 > C 4 H 6


. .
5. , :
Cl2

KCIO3 -> KCIO4 - KCI

KH2PO4 -> Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2

P4

6. , 1:3,
. 19.9 , , , 2.33 .
.
7. Na 2 S 2 O 3 SH2O 34.43%- ,
0, 1OO 70.0%-
( = 1.65 /), 70, , 50 (
to = 62.92%) 30.0
Na 2 S 2 0 3 -2H 2 0?

232

-99-2
1. . .
2. ,
C3H7NO2.
?
3. Zn(NO3)2,
.
.
4. :

C6Hm ~> C6H6 > > C7H5O2K >


C7H5NO4 C7H4NO4Na -> C9H9NO4

. .
5. , :
CI2-Ca0CI2-CaC03->Ca0->CaC2->Ca(0H)2-Ca(HS03)2
6. , 1:2, .
20.10 ,
,
, 4.66 .
.
7. 1 2 -6 2 0 29.53%- ,
0, 100 50.0%-
(0 = 1.48 /), 80, , 50 (
= 46.5%) 20.0 1 2 -4 2 0?

- 233

-99-3
1. ,
. .
2. RMgX, . ,
55.2 , 64.1 %.
3. Fe(NOa)3,
.
.
4. :
CgHgBr-> CeH-I0O > CeHe >
- > C 8 H 1 0 O - > C 8 H 6 O - > C 7 H 6 O 2 + CO 2 T

. .
5. , :
K 2 MnO 4 -> Cl 2 -> FeCI 3
FeCI 2 - Fe(NO 3 ) 3 - NO 2
HNO 3
6. ,
2:1, .
12.22 ,
, , 4.66 .
.
7. MgS0 4 -7H 2 0 23.11%- ,
10, 100 35.76%- ( = 1.398 /), 80,
, 50 (
= 33.42%) 10.0
MgS0 4 -6H 2 0?
234

-99-4
1.
( ,
), 56 80 .
2. , , 6.25 .% , 12.5% N, 56.25% H 25.0% .
.
3. Cu(NOa)2,
.
.
4. :
CaC 2
C2H2
C2H4O
C2H6O
> C 4 H 6 > C 4 H 6 Br 2 C 4 H 6 O 2

. .
5. , :
H2O2
Fe(OH) 3 - > Fe 2 O 3 - Fe
- > FeCI 2 - > Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 - > BaSO 4
6. , 1:1, .
6.11 ,
,
, 2.33 .
.
7. Mn(NO 3 ) 2 6 2 0 50.5%- , 0, 100 76.8%- ( = 1.72 /), 35.5,
, 30 (
= 67.58%) 40.0
Mn(NO 3 ) 2 SH 2 O?
235

-2000-1
1. .
2. 8 6 .
3. , , . .
4. 0.8 8.0 . ?
5. ,
:
A + Br2 * ** C3H8O2 ** D

Il
Il
-^C3H2O4Na2C2H5OCCH2COC2H5
.
6.
145 0C 96.5 18.0
18 . .
1.7%- ( 1.01 /), , , 1.757.
7. ,
, , , 38.4 8.8 (IV) 6.8 .

-2000-2
1. .
2. 14 5 .
236

3. , ,
(IV) . .
4. 4.0 17.8 . ?
5. ,
:
+ Br2 C 2 H 6 O D
C 2 H 3 O 2 Na C H 3 C O O C 2 H 5
.
6.
115 0C 98.0 19.75 21.6 .
.
1.7%- ( 1.01 /),

, , 2.218.
7. ,
, , , 62.2 17.6
(IV) 10.2 .

-2000-3
1. .
2. 12 5 .
3. , ,
. .
4. 9.6 22.8 . ?
237

5. ,
:
A+HBr*- *- 4 10 D
D

C4H9Cl ( C H 3 ) 3 C O H

.
6.
125 0C 91.3 29.0
28.8 . .
1.7%- ( 1.01 /), , , 2.166.
7. ,
, , , 82.5 22.0 (IV) 17.0 .

-2000-4
*

1. .
2. 18 4 .
3. , , (IV) (II). .
4. 5.6 88.9 . ?
5. ,
:
+ Na

* CH 4

D C6H6 C 6 H 5 N O 2
.
238

, 6.
135 0C 95.0 25.0
25.2 . .
1.7%- ( 1.01 /), , , 1.829.
7. ,
, (II)
, , 111.9 39.6
(IV) 15.3 .

-96-1
1.
,
200 /. .
2. (II) 25 0 C, IIP(Fe(OH) 2 ) = 1 .O lO 1 5
.
3. ,
:
MgSO 4 -> X 1 - Mgl 2 - > X 2
.

Mg(OH) 2

4. :
-1, -2, , ? ,
.
5. ,
:
H2O, Hg2t

C6H5-C=CH
H2O, H t

HNO3, H2SO4

> X1
HBr

HON, K C N

> X2

- X3

N a O H (), C 2 H 5 O H

X3
> 4
> 5
> 6

.
6. (II) , 20%
(IV).
,
(IV) . .

240

7. ,
293 / 14.3%
, , .
0.472 18
0.222 M HCI. 0.666 14.7 1.6%-
NaOH ( 1.022 /). . .

-96-2
1.
,
120 /. .
2. (III) 25 0C, nP(Fe(OH)3) = 3.8-1038
.
3. ,
:

Mn(NO3)2 -> X1 -> MnO - X2 -> MnSO4


.
4.
2- , , 2-, ? , .
5. ,
:

HBr

X1
HBr ()

N a O H (), C 2 H 5 O H

> X2
NaHCO3

;> X3
CH3I

X3> 4
>5
->6

.
6. , 5% .
,
241

.
.

7. , 279 / 15%
, , . 0.528 11.88
2.43%- ( 1.01).
0.444 15
0.267 M . . .

-96-3
1.
,
100 /. .
2. (III) 25 0C, (()3) = 6.7-10'31
.
3. ,
:
Cu(NO3)2
X1
CuCI2 -> X2
.

Cu(OH)2

4. :
2--2, , , ? , .
5. ,
:
3CI 2 , h\

C 6 H 5 CH 3
HNO3, H2SO4

NaOH, H2O

X1

HCI

> X2
Fe + H C I

> X3

N a O H ()

X3
>4
> X5
> X6

.
242

6. ,
25% .
300 0C ,
.
.
7. , 307 / 13.7%
, , .
0.480
11.2 0.536 M .
0.708 15.7
2.1%- ( 1.02 /). . .

-96-4
1. (), 100 /. -,
.
2. (II) 25 0C, (()2) = 2.210"?
.
3. ,
:

Cr(NO3)3 -X t

CrCI3

X2 -> CrSO4

.
4. : , , , 2,3--1,3? ,
.

243

5. ,
:
HNO3, H2SO4

6525
H2SO4,1

Br 2 , Av

> X1
KMnO4, H 2 O

, H2O

> X2

> 3

Cu(OH)2, N a O H

X3
>4
>5
>6

.
6. , 10%
. 300 0C
, .
.
7. , 369 / 11.4%
, , .
0.624
9.43 2.33%- ( 1.02).
0.888 17.2 0.465 M . . .

-97-1
1.
.

C3HEO,

2. , , , 74% . 1.55 /3.


3. ,
:
AI(NO3)3

X1

AI(OH)3 - > X2

244

AI2O3

4. , 2--4- ; ,
-> Xt -> X2 -> 2--4- .
, .
5.
:
,
) FeCI 3 + Na 2 SiO 3 + H 2 O
) PBr 3 + Cl 2 + H 2 O
) C H 3 C H 2 O H + KMnO 4 + H 2 SO 4 - >
6. 250 ( 0.2 /) ( 0.3 /). . nP(LiF) = 1.5-10"3 2/2.
7.
, , . .
3.36
(..). 150 ( 3.0 /).
2.7 .
.

-97-2
1.
C 3 H 6 O 2 , .
2. , , , 68% . 7.19 /3.
3. ,
:
Zn(NO 3 ) 2
X1 -> Zn(OH) 2 -> X2
ZnO
.
245

4. ,
3- :
() X1
X2 > 3- .
, .
5.
:

) AICI3 + K2SO3 + H2O


) PBr3 + HNO3

) CH3CH=O + KMnO4 + H2SO4 ->


6. 250 (
0.004 /) ( 0.004 /).
. nP(BaS0 3 ) = 8.0-IO 8 2/2.
7. , , .
.
1.68 (..).
30 (
2.5 /). 0.675 .
.

-97-3
1.
C3H7O2N, .
2. , , , 74% . 1.74 /3.
3. ,
:

CrCI3

X1

Cr(OH)3

.
246

X2

Cr2O3

4. ,
2- () :
Xi > X2 > .
, .
5.
:

) Fe2(SO4)3 + Na2CO3 + H2O ->


)

PBr 3 +

H 2 SO 4 (KOHU) - >

) CH3CH2OH + K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4


6. 100 ( 0.03 /) (
0.04 /). .
(0 4 ) =
= 3.7-10"5 2/2.
7.
, , .
. 3.36
(..). 20 ( 2.5 /).
0.90 . .

-97-4
1.
C7H8O, .
2. , , ,
68% .
0.97 /3.

-.247

3. ,
:
;>
;
CuCI 2
X1 - Cu(OH) 2
.

X2 -> CuO

4. , '
3- :
> Xi
X2 >
3- .
, .
5.
:
) AI 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + Na 2 SiO 3 + H 2 O
) Pl 3 + Br2 + H 2 O
) C H 3 C H = O + K 2 Cr 2 O 7 + H 2 SO 4
,
6. 250 ( 0.4 /) ( 0.6 /).
. H P ( C S C I O 4 ) = 4.0- IO"3 2/2.
7.
, , .
. 1.68
(..). 30
( 2.5 /).
1.35 ,
18.0 . .

-98-1
1. ,
:
) Na 2 CO 3 + CaCO 3 + SiO 2
) C H 2 = C H C r - * ?
.
248

;:tf>. 2. , , .
+ = 2 5
. .
3.
, ().

? .
4. ,
:
-

KCI\

HCI
5

. .
5. , ( ):
) H 3 PO 4 + HCI + HBr;
) H 2 N C H 2 C O O N a + CH 3 CH(NH 2 )COONa + H 2 O?
.
.
6. 1.5
23.7 .

23.9 .
. ,
1- 2.0 /
, 2-.
1- ,
40%. .
7.
- 5 2 0 (Mr = 200) 80 0C , 40 0C 0.5 - 2 0?
AB: 80 80 0C, 40 40 0C.
249

-98-4
1.
:
) Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + H 3 PO 4 ->
) C 6 H 5 NO 2 + H 2 ->?
.
2. , , .
2 = + 4 .
.
3.
, 2- -3. ? .
4. ,
:
K2S
\4

H2S
6 /
5
4 A - B
. .
5. ,
(
):
) H 3 PO 4 + HCI + Br 2 ;
) HOCH 2 CH(NH 2 )COONa + CH 3 CH(NH 2 )COONa + H 2 O?
.
.
6. 2.4
37.8 .

38.2 .
. ,
1- 2.0 /
, 2-.
250

1- ,
37.5%. .
7.
CD TH2O (Mr = 250) 70 0C , 30 0C 0.5 CD-6H 2 0?
CD: 70 70 0C, 20 30 0C.

-98-3

1.
:
) Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + H 2 SO 4
) C 6 H 6 + C 3 H 6 ->?
.
2. 3 , , .
+ = 2 4.5 . .
3.
, -3. ? .
4. ,
:

NaBr
\ 44

HBr
6
5
/
A-H-B
. .
5. ,
(
):
a) H 2 SO 4 + HCI + Br2;
251

6) HSCH2CH{NH2)COOK + (CH3)2CHCH(NH2)COOK + H2O?


.
.
6. 1.6
16.8 .

17.2 .
. ,
1- 4.0 /
, 2-.
1- ,
37.5%. .
7.
EF-8H 2 0 (Mr = 300) 90 0C , 40 0C 0.5 EF-4H 2 0?
EF: 60 90 0C, 20 40 0C.

-98-4
1.
:
) AI2O3
) C6H5OH + H2CO ->?
.
2. , , .
2 = + 3.5
. .
3.
, -1 .
? .

252

'4. ,
:

Kl

Hl

. .
5. , ( ):

) H2SO4 + HCI + HBr;


) C6H5CH2CH(NH2)COOK + CH3CH(NH2)COOK + H2O?
.
.
6. 1.8
19.0 .

19.4 .
. ,
1- 4.0 /
, 2-.
1- ,
38.9%. .
7.
KL-IOH2O (Mr = 400) 90 0C , 40 0C 0.5 KL-6H20?
KL: 90 90 0C, 60 40 0C.
XR

-99-1
1.
(0 3 ),
0.013 /.
253

2.
- . .
3.
:
) ;
) (II) (IV).
, , ( , , ).
, , .
4. : NaCI, Zn, Cu, Au.
?
.
5. ,
, :

1 , ,.
+

'

'

TF

(,

6. 9.8
(HPO 3 ) n H 2 O
1.71 . (
) .
7.
26.34
27.96 . ( 250 0C, 2 ) ,
.
, .

254

-98-4
1.
IlP(BaSO 4 ),
3.03 IO 3 /.
2.
- .
.
3.
:
) ;
) (II) .
, , ( , , ).
, , .
4. : CuSO 4 , Al, Hg, Au.
? .
5. ,
, :

+
6. 26.70 H 4 P 2 O 7
(HPO3)n H2O
2.454 . (
) .

"
.
7.
32.00
34.16 . ( 250 0C, 2 ) ,
.
255

iifc"
, .

-99-3
1.
nP(HgS),
8.6 IO 21 /.
2.
- . .
3.
:
) -2 ;
) (II).
, , ( , , ).
, , .
4. : BaCI2, Zn, Fe, Ag.
? .
5. ,
, :
"

6. 19.60
(HPO 3 ) n H 2 O
3.456 . (
) .
256

7.
23.82
25.44 . ( 250 0C, 2 ) ,
.
, .

-99-4
1.
ITP(PbS),
2.24 IO12 /.
2.
- .
.
3.
:
) 1--4- ;
) .
, , ( , , ).
, , .
4. : NaHCO3, Zn, Mg, Pt.
? .
5. ,
, :

()

6. 44.5 H 4 P 2 O 7 (HPO3)n H2O 9-1115

257

4.32 . ( ) .
7.
35.36
37.52 . ( 250 0C, 2 ) ,
.
, .

-2000-1
1.
209TI -? .
2. 20 0C 27 , 40 0C
3 .
55 0C?
3. MgSO4 TH2O
100 5.0%- ( 1.03 /), 10%- ?
4. ,
:
CuBr2 - X1 - X2 -> CuBr2.
. :
) - ;
) - -.
5. ,
:
HCI

C2H6O
2NH3

Na

>

Br 2

>

NaOH

KMnO4

> >
I

C2H5OH

H2SO4

Cl 2

>

>

H2SO4

E
>
>3
- 3 .
258

6. , 1.23 ,
35 2.0 /.
.
7. 30.8
.
;
20.0 ( 37 0C, 128.8 ). .

-2000-2
1. - 213 Po? .
2.
18 0C 1.5 , 38 0C
10 .
53 0C?
3. Na2SO4-IOH2O
100 8.0%- ( 1.07 /), 16%- ?
4. ,
:
Mg(NO3)2 -> X1
X2
Mg(NO3)2.
. :
) - ;
) - -.
5. ,
:
Br 2

C8H8

H2O

KMnO4

H2SO4

9*

>

ROH

Ag(NH3)2OH

>

HBr

>

2HCI

>

>

NaOH

>

HNO3

->3
H2SO4

259

- 3 .
6. , 2.48 ,
45 ^. /.
.
7.
29.5
.
;
45.2 ( 77 0C,
128.7 ).
.

-2000-3
1. (3- 13C? .
2. 20 0C 36 , 40 0C
4 . 65 0C?
3. Na2CO3- IOH2O
100 7.0%- ( 1.07 /), 14%- ?
4. ,
:
FeS -> X1 -> X2 - FeS.
. :
) - ;
) - -.
5. ,
:

260

H2O

C3H4

H2

A
Hg2+

Fe, HCI

HCI

>
Ni

. C6H5CH3

>

KMnO4

>
AICI 3

>
H2SO4

HNO3

>
H2SO4

3NaOH

E
->
>3
- 3 .
6. , 1.94 ,
44 2.5 /.
.
7. 20%- -1, .
; 28.8 ( 37 0C 107.3 ).

-2000-4
1. - 230Th? .
2.
18 0C 2.25 , 38 0C 15 . 63 0C?
3. 12-620
100 10%- (
1.08 /), 20%- ?
4. ,
:
ZnO -> X1 -> X2 -> ZnO.
. :
) - ;
) - -.
261

5. ,
:
HBr

C4H6

NaOH

>

H2

H2O

2NH3

H2SO4

>
Ni

KMnO4

>
I

H2SO4

Cl 2

>

>

C2H5OH

>

H+

>3

- 3 .
6. , 4.54 ,
55 3.0 /
.
7. 20.9%- , .

;
43.9 ( 67 0C 128.7 ).

-90-1
1.
, ?
.
2. 3- (III).
( , , , , ).
3. .
?
, .
4. , , .
? .
5.
:
) (IV);
) ;
) .
, , . , , .
6. , 2.36 ,
14.2 ( 90%,
1.48). 40 2.5 /.
( ..), .
263

7. 18
2.24 (..), . .

1-90-2
1.
, ? .
2. 3-
(III). ( , , , , ).
3. (II)
.
?
, .
4. , ,
.
? .
5.
:
) ;
) ;
) .
, , . , , .
6. 1.26 35 ( 19.6%,
1.14). 28.6
1.4 /. 264

( ..),
.
7. 80 177.8 10%-
( 1.08).
33.1 . ( %) .

-90-3
1.
, ?
.
2. 3- (II). ( , , , , ).
3.
.
?
, .
4. , ,
.
? .
5.
:
) ;
) (IV) ;
) .
, , . , , .
265

6. , 3.54 ,
23.9 ( 31.5%, 1.17). 14.3 1,4 /.
( ..),
.
7.
0.92 .
. 1.98 . .

-90-4
1.
, ?
.
2. 3-
(III). ( , , , , ).
3. .
?
, .
4. , , .
? .
5.
:
) ;
) ;
) .
266

, , . , , .
6. , 2.51 , 30.7 (
19.6%, 1.14). 25 2.4 /. ( ..),
.
7. 10.19 ,

0.224 . ( ,)

-91-1
1. 24Na 15 . 48
. ? .
2. , (II) .
3. 3- ,
. ( , , ).
4. , 3:1,
,
, . , .
, .
267

5.
:
) (VI);
) ;
) -1 .
, , ( ,
, ). , ,
.
6. , 31.0
, ,
200 8.4%- .
, ?
7. 44 12.5%- ( 1.09) 2.68 .

16.6 0.61 /.

( ..),
.

-91-2
1. ' " C s 29.7 . 274 . ? .
2. , .
3. 3- ,
. ( , , ).
4. 3:1,
268

.
.
, . ,
.
5.
:
) (VI);
) ;
) -2 .
, , ( ,
, ). , ,
.
6. 25 8%- 25
8%- .
. .
7. , 3.04 , 4 (II). 28.3
9.8%- ( 1.06). 16 1.25 /.
( ..), .

-91-3
1. 209 Pb 3.3 . 418
. ? .
2. , .
269

3. 3- ,
(III). (
, , ).
4.
, . (II),
- .
,
, .
, . , .
5.
:
) (V);
) ;
) -1 .
, , ( ,
, ). , ,
.
6. , 468 ,
.
. 708
. .
7. 9.7
100 2 /.
20.8 16%-
(II) ( 1.2).

(IV) ( ..), , .

270

-98-4
1. 59 Fe 45 . 118
.
?
.
2. , .
3. 3- ,
(III). ( , , ).
4.

, , , .

. ,
. ,
.
5.
:
) (V);
) ;
) -2 .
, , ( ,
, ). , ,
.
6. 200 , 18.8
, (II),
47.8 .
.
7. , 1.66 , (II), 19
271

8%- (II) ( 1.05). ,


17 0.59 /.

( ..), .

-92-1
1. : a) H3O+; ) NH3?
2. 232Th -.

-. ? .
3. ?
.
4. 760.1 /,
722.1 /. ?
5.
:
) ;
) ;
) .
, , ( , , ..). , ,
.
6.
20%-

272

. ( % ), ,
24%.
7.
, .
14. , 3-
.

-92-2
1. : a) N H / ; ) AIH3?
2. 14N , , ,
-. ? .
3. 1,1-? .
4.
103.3 /,
105.6 /.
?
5.
:
) ;
) ;
) .
, , ( , , ..). , ,
.
273

6.
25%-

. ( % ), ,
26%.
7. : 85.714% 14.286% H . 1.5 2.5.
,
3- .

-92-3
1. : a) AIH4"; ) PH3?
2. 214Bi -.
P. ? .
3. ? .
4. 286.2 /,
333.9 /.
?
5.
:
) (111);
) ;
) .
, , ( , 274

, ..). , ,
.
6.
40%- . ( % ), ,
34%.
7.
, .
2.8.
,
3- .

-92-4
1. -^
: ) 4 + ; ) H 2 S?
2. 27AI
, -.

? '
.
3. ? .
4.
229.1 /, 212.3 /.
?
275

5.
:
) ;
) ( );
) .
, , ( , , ..). , ,
.
6.
60%- . ( % ),
' ,
43%.
7. : 85.714% 14.286% H . 2.1 3.5.
,
3- .

-93-1
1. ( 0.8)
..
2. : , . ?
, .
3.
,
:

276

4. , :
CaCfe =

S
^

A - ^ . B ^
^

5. , , :
) Cul + HN0 3 (pa36)->
) FeS 2 + O 2
) H 2 O 2 + KMnO4 + H 2 SO 4 ->
6. 2 40%- ( 1.43) . ,
. 0.8 .
.
7.

3.78 . 5.56 .

4- ,
.

-93-2
1. (
0.8) ..
2. : , -1, . ? , .
277

3.
,
:
CHBr-CH-CH-COOH ?
4. , -,
:
NA

ZNCO 3 -

H(P-PT

- *

5. , , :
) Cu 2 S + 03() ->
) Fe 3 O 4 + Al ->
) KNO2 + KMnO 4 + H2O -
6. (IV) .
, . 23.3 . (IV)
( 27 I )?
7. 3.34
.
5.12 . -,
4- , .

-93-3
1. , : 25% CH4, 25% CO2, 50% H2.
2. :
, . ?
, .
278

3. , .
. . , .
.
4. , :
_ u , 600 HN03(1 ) _
2
H2SO4*
GFe+HCI(H36^ D

NaOHit

Br2 ^
1

5. , , :
) AuCI 3 + H 2 O 2 - >
) C 6 H 5 C H 2 O H + KMnO 4 + H 2 O - >
) K 2 Cr 2 O 7 + Fe + H 2 SO 4 -
6. , , 2.055% .
5- , -.
7. ,

12.2 . ,
75.39%.

-93-4
1. ,
: 25% , 70% N2, 5% CO2.
2. :
, . ?
, .
279

3.
, * . . , .
.
4. , :

t, Ni^

2(1 )^

NaOH(M36L

t,

Br2

5. , , :
) Ag2O + H2O2 ->
) C 6 H 5 C 2 H 5 + KMnO4 + H2O ->
) K2Cr2O7 + FeSO 4 + H 2 SO 4 ->
6. , , 3.135% .
5- , -.
7. ,

14.0 . ,
77.17%.

-94-1
1.
C3H9N.
2. :
FeO + H2SO4(K0HU)
3. , :
H2SO4(KOHU)

NaBr
280

()

C2H4

>

H 2 O, Hg 2 + , H '

>

>D

4. : -1, -2, . ? , .
5. ,
(
):
) CH3NH2 + KNO3 + H2O;
) + CO 2 + NH3 + H2O;
) 2,3- + Nal?
.
6. , 60 , .
463 15%- .
.
7. 85% . , , 6.5
.
, .

-94-2
1.
C 3 H 8 O.
2. :
Fe(NO3)2 + HNO3
3. , :
t

Cu(NO3)2

, t

>

H 2 SO 4 (KOHU)

>

H2S

>

>D

4. : , , . ?
, .
281

5. ,
(
):
) NH3 + KCI + H2O;
) K2CrO4 + Cr 2 O 3 + O 2 ;
) + Nal?
.
6. , 33.1
, 140 8%- . .
7. 15.2
24 (II). 86.4 . .

-95-1
1. 4-.
2.
(III), 46.19% .
3. . .
4. ,
:
HCI

Cl 2

Fe
) X1
>2
.

Na2SO3

>3

Hl

>4

5. , ( ):
) I2 + KCI + H2O;
) + Nal;
) ?
282

. .
6. , 19.2 (I),
400 0.25 M
( 1.0 /).
.
7. , 20% ( ) , 20 ,
2-, 2--2- 1--22-?

-95-2
1. 3-.
2. (II),
65.98% .
3. . .
4. ,
:
HCI

HNO3

NH3, H 2 O

Cr
>Xi
>2
.

O3, KOH

>3

JX 4

5. , ( ):
) S + KCI + H 2 O;
) + NaBr;
) + HCI?
.
6. , 9.6 (
(II)), 600 0.2 M
( 1.0 /). .
283

7. , 20% ( ) , 20 ,
4--2, 1--2--2 ?

-95-3
1. ,
.
2.
(II), 62.63% .
3. 4-
. .
4. ,
:
HCI

Na2CO3

()

Cr 2 S 3
> X1
> X2
.

, Cl 2

> X3

> X4

5. , ( ):
) PbBr 2 + Br2 + H 2 O;
) + NaCI;
) 3- ?
.
6. , 8.8 (II),
500 0.15 M
( 1.0 /).
.
7. , 2 ,
,
2 , . . .

284

-98-4
1. ,
.
2. (II),
66.90% .
3. 3-
. .
4. ,
:
Cu

NH3(P-P)

K2S

CuCI2
X1
> X2
.

HNO 3 (KOHU)

> X3

> X4

5. , ( ):
) S + FeSO 4 + H 2 SO 4 ;
) + NaBr;
) 3-?
.
6. , 11.6 ( (II)), 200 0.18 M ( 1.0 /).

.
7. , 1.4 ,
,
3 , . . .

285

-96
1. K+ : ) 3\ ) 2/; ) 4s? .
2. , : , , , . .
3. :
) KHSO3 + KMnO4 + H2O
) Cul + HNO3
.
4. , .
5. :

X2*

Fe(NO3)2

, (
). .
6. () 13.32 38 25%-
( 1.18). 40.2 12%- (
1.06). 10-. 8 . .
7. , 89.3
( 39.2%,
1.4) 20.6 (III), 225
( 33.8%)
.
, .
286

-96
1. 18.
.
2. ,
18.8 5.6%- .
3. , , , , :
+ + H2O
>,
A + HCI
>+...
I
+ HCI
> +...,

> +...

4. ,
- , :
) SO2 + HN03(KOHU.)
>
) C 6 H 5 - C H = C H 2 + KMnO 4 + H 2 SO 4
>
) P 2 S 3 + K 2 Cr 2 O 7 + H 2 SO 4
>
5. : 85.714% 14.286% H . 2.0 2.5.
,
3- .
6. ,
:
Br 2 , hv

C2H6

Mg

> Xi
4OO 0 C

X4

1 . C O 2 , 2 . HBr

> X2

CaCO3

> X3 -

) X4

K2Cr2O7, H2SO4

>5

>6 + 7

.
7. , 40 , (II)
, 25.4 16.02%-
( 1.18), 1.60 287

. ( /) (II) , ( ..),
2.5
40 .

-96
1.
.
2. ,
.
3.
C 6 H 10 , 3-.
.
4. ,
:
Zn(NO3)2
> X1
> Zn(OH)2
.

> X2

> ZnO

5. ,
:
CH3CH=CH2

C6H6

Br 2 , hv

> X1
H3PO4

KOH

> X2
C2H6OH

H 2 , Ni

> X3
t

Br 2

> X4
Fe

KMnO4

> 5

> X6

H2SO4

X1 X6 .
6. 8.44 (II)
(II)
. ' 22.5
( 11.2%, 1.11).
16 0.625 /. ( ..), .
7. X
, 57.55%
288

,
. X. .

-96
1. ,
.
2. (II)
. .
3. ,
,
.
4. :

Ca3(PO4)2 -> P -> P2O5 H3PO4 Ca(H2PO4)2


-> CaHPO4 Ca3(PO4)2
.
5. ,
:
(.)

CH2Br-CH2Br

C2H5OH

20(.)

X3

H2O

> X1

Hg 2 + , H +

H2SO4

HCN

> X2

KCN

> X3

HBr

>4>5>6
H+

X1 - X6 .
6. 4.48 (..) 57.4 20%- ( 1.22).
,
.
10-1115

289

7. 19.1 20%- 75 8 M . , . .

-97-1
1. .
2. ,
.
3. 20 600 0C. 435 .
.
4. ,
:
KCIO4

KCI

Cl2

KCIO -> HCIO

HCI -> AuCI3.

5. ,
:
> > D > .
, .
6. 20 0C (II) 17% 1.19 /3. () 2.28 /3, 20 0C
1.00 /3.
? .
7. X . 0.630
, ( ).
1.37 . .
2.50 .
X , .
290

I
-97-2
1. .
2. ,
(III).
3. 30
800 0C. 420 .
.
4. ,
:
NH4NO3

NH3

NO - NO2

NH4NO2 -> NH4NO3

N2O.

5. ,
:
-> D > .
, .
6. 10 0C (II) 17.2% 1.18 /3.
() 1.90 /3, 10 0C
1.00 /3.
? .
7. X . 1.62
,
( ). 3.18 . . 6.00 .
X
, .

-97-3
1. .
2. ,
.
10*

291

3.
120 0G.
196 . .
4. ,
:
Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 -> P -> PH 3 -> H 3 PO 4 - Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2
Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 -> CaHPO 4 .

5. ,
:
-> -
D - .
, .
6. 0C
6.55% 1.07 /3. () 1.46 /3, 0C
1.00 /3.
? .
7. X . 1.68
,
( ). 3.18 . . 6.00 .
X
, .

-97-4
1. .
2. ,
.
3. (VI)
30 600 0C.
290 . (VI).
292

: 4. ,
:

FeS -> H2S

SO2 -> NaHSO3 -> BaSO3

BaSO4-^ BaS.

5. ,
:
> D > .
, .
6. 20 0C (II) 15.2% 1.22 /3.
() 3.68 /3, 20 0C
1.00 /3.
? .
7. X . 1.11
,
( ). 2-21 . . 4.00 .
X
, .

-97-1
1. -5--2---1 .
2. , . , .
3.
: , , . , .
, . .
4. ,
.
.
293

5. - ,
- ,
, . ,

,
. , ,
0.72 6.99 .
6. 48.1 10.4%- ( 1.04 /) 1.12 (. .).
, 15 . ,
.
7. . -1 2.74
1.12 /, 224 (..). ,
,
. .

1-97-2
1. -5--5--3--1 .
2. ,
. , .
3.
: , , .
, .
, . .
294

4. ,
.
.
5. - , - ,
- , ,
.
, , , .
. , , 1.35 2.55 .
6. 47.2 11.1%- ( 1.06 /) 3.36 (. .). , 15 .
,
.
7. , -2

2.22 1.14 /,

224 (. .). , ,
.

-97-3
1. -5--2----2 .
2. , . ,
.
3. : , , . ,
. 295

, .
.
4. ,
.
5. - ,
- ,
.
,
. , .
- ,
, 672 (..) 1.335
.
6. 23.4 9.36%- ( 1.07 /) 672
(. .).
,. 15 .
,
.
7. , -1 5.09
1.10 /, 336 (..). ,
,
.

-97-4
1. -5--2----1 .
2. , . , .
296

3. : , , . , .
, .

.
4. ,
.
5. - , - , ,
,
.

. -
, , 1.32
336 (..) .
6. 28.0 5 %-
( 1.05 /) 336 (. .). , 15 . ,
.
7. , -1 5.48
1.12 /, 448 (..). ,
,
.

SN-97-1
1.
.
297

2.
(III) .
.
3. , , 37.0% .
4. (
):
AgF - > B - > C - > D C H 3 C O O A g
.
5. ,
:
C2H5OH

CH3COOC2H5

6. , 5.6 (..)
, 19.9,
20%- 160 . .
7. X
, 73.4%
,
. X. .

SN-97-2
1.
.
298

I
2. (V)
. .
3. (II),
, 37.5% .
4. (
):
Cu 2 O >->>D->E-> CuO
.
5. ,
:
CH 3 COOH

CH 3 COCH 3

6. , 4.48 (..)
, 11.75, 14%- 360 . .
7. X
, 57.5%
, *
. -X. .

YA-97-1
1.
.
2.
.
.
299

3. , ,
48% .
4. (
):

CuSO4 ---->. D-E-> CuSO4


.
5. ,
:
C H 3 C H C I ;'2

6. , 31.0
, ,
300 1.5 M .
?
7. CgHl1NOa
CgH9Br2NOs,

C9H9NNa2O3, C9H12CINO3.
.

YA-97-2
1. .
2.
. .
3. , ,
59.5% .
300

4. (
):
FeO A - > B - C - D - > E > FeO
.
5. ,
:
H2NCH2COOH

Br" H 3 N C H 2 C O O C H 2 C 6 H 5

6. , 46.5
, ,
400 2 M .
?
7. , ,
. ,
CgH10Br2O,
CgH12O3.
.

-98-1
1. ? .
2. 4 (III),
- , .
. .
3. ,

S2CI2.
301

4. ,
:
f
0
+4
+6
+6
+6
+6
2
S
S
S -> S
S - S -> S"
5. ,
:
C 5 H 8 -> C 5 H 10 O -> C 5 H 8 O
C 5 H 9 O 4 SNa
.
6. CaCI2-GH2O 47.0
25.0%- Na 2 CO 8 ( = 1.08 /), , Na 2 CO 8 .0%?
7. 7.3
( 14.6%,
1.08) 6.3 ,
28.28%. , .

-98-2
1. ? .
2. 4 (II),
- ,
. .
3. ,
'
CuCI.
4. ,
:
P0
F3
P"3
+5
+5
+5 _> P 0
5. ,
:
C 4 H 10 O - C 4 H 8 O
302

C5H9ON - C5H13O3N

.
6. AgNO3 100.0 5.5 M
HCI ( = 1.10 /), ,
.0%?
7. 14.6 ( 12%,
1.2) 11.1 , 20.72%.
, .

-98-3
1. ? .
2. 4 (II),
- , . .
3. ,

SCI2.
4. ,
:
C0

"1 -> "1 - "2

~1

C +3

C +4

5. ,
:
C4HgO > C4H8Br2O > C4H7Br3 > C 4 H 10 O 3
.
6. 2.2 M HCI ( = 1.04 /)
200.0 8%- AgNO3, , 5.0%?
7.
12.5 32.8 303

( 20%,
1.22). 25
2 /.
(..), .

-98-4
1. ? .
2. 4 (III),
- ,
. .
3. ,

CrCI 2 .
4. ,

Si 0

Si +4 - > Si 0 - > Si"4 - > Si"4

Si +4

Si +4

5. ,
:
C3H4O2
C 3 H 3 CIO
C 4 H 6 O 2 - > C 4 H 6 O 2 Br 2
.
6. 1 2 -2 2 0 100.0
40.0%- H 2 SO 4 ( = 1.30 /), , .0%?
7.
15.52 68
2.5 /. 45.4 (II) (
13.5%. 1.1) .

(IV) ( ..), , .
304

-98-4
1. - ?
.
2. , ,
(IV), , .
.
3. 9.9
33.9 . ,
, .
4. , , ,
(IV) .
, , . .
5. A-E,
, :
NaOH
HCI
()
CH 3 COONa
>
()
>

tc

, 130

[Ag(NH3)2JOH
> D

>E

NaOH
6. 20 0.5 M ( 1.10) 30 5% . .
7.
12.17. .

305

-98-4
1. ? .
2. , , (IV),
, . .
3. 26.4
90.4 . ,
, .
4. - , - ,
.
, , , .
, , . 4
.
5. A-E,
:
/

(CH 3 COO) 2 Ca

Na2O2

HCI

> ()

>

CH3COOH

6. 40 0.25 M
( 1.15) 40 1.5% . .
7. , 84.21% .
.

306

-98-4
1. ?
.
2. , (II),
, , .

.
3. 14
46 . ,
, .
4.
, . , , . .
5. A-E,
:
KOH

C6H5COOK

HBr

>
I

()

> ()

, 130"

>
NaOH

CI2lH2O

>D

>E

6. 30 0.15 M
( 1.12) 30 5% . .
7.
, 93.5% .
.

307

-98-4
1. ?
.
2. , , -1, -2, (1) .
.
3. 15.6
63.6 . ,
, .
4. - , - , .

, . , , . .
5. A-E,
. :
/0C
HCOOH
Ca
(C2H5COO)2Ba
>
> ()
>
H2O

[Ag(NH 3 ) 2 JOH

> D(ra3)

>E

6. 50 0.4 M
( 1.2) 30 5% . .
7. , 83.72% .
.

308

-96
1. 2--4--2,3.
2.
.
.
3. 3 , , D. A + B = C - H D B 1 .
.
4. :
, 80

Hl

Cl 2
>
A - C .

Fe

>

5. , : (II), , , .
6. ( ) .
.
7. 1.84 . 0.86 .

. . ( ).

NE-98
1. CsH8O,
.
2. (II)
.
.
309

3. no 2 , , D. A + B = C + DB 0.5
. .
4. :
Na 2 SO 4
NaBr
X - > NaHSO 4 .
X .
5. ,
:
C 7 H 1 4 -> C 7 H 8 -> C 7 H 5 KO 2 -> C 7 H 5 NO 4 > C 7 H 8 N 2 O 4 .
.
6.
.
3.61 20 cC .
9.72 . , .
3.2%- ?
7. , (II).
?

.

SN-98-1
1.
C 4 H 8 O.
2. (11,111)
. .
3. , 49.4% .
4.
( B - E ):
:

310

C2H5CI -A>BCD->E C2H5CI


.
5. , :

FeCI2, NaOH, HNO3, AI2O3.


6. 4.53 . . 3.62 .

. . ( ).
7. 2,3--2,3,
? .
>

SN-98-2
1. .
2. (, III)
. .
3. , 48.5% .
4.
( , , E ):

C2H4CI2 - > A - B - > C - > D - > E - > C2H4CI2


.
5. , : FeO,

BaCO3, H2SO4(K0B), AI2O3.


6. 1.84 . 0.86 .
:

311


. . ( ).
7. 3- , ?

.

TV-98
1. .
.
2. (III)
.
?
.
3.
, -1 .
? .
4. ( ) (II),
, , .
. ? ?
5. ,
(
):
) H 2 S O 4 + HCI + HBR;
) C 6 H 5 C H 2 C H ( N H 2 ) C O O K + C H 3 C H ( N H 2 ) C O O K + H 2 O ?

.
.
6. 1.8
19.0 .

:

312

^ 19.4 .
. ,
1- - 4.0 /
, 2-.
1- ,
38.9%. .
7.
KL-IOH2O (MR = 400) 90 0C , 40 0C 0.5 KL-6H20?
KL: 90 90 0C, 60 40 0C.

-99-1
!.
.
2.
. .
3. ? .
4. , :
Cl2 -KCIO 3 -> O 2 -> P 2 O 5 -> H3PO4
Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 - CaHPO 4
5. ,
:
) Zn(OH)2 Mg(OH)2
) Al Au
)
6. (II), 8
(III),
24.5%- .
0C. . 13.6 % .
.
:

313

7. 9.54 7.20 ( ).
6.48 .
.

-99-2
1.
.
2. ,
.
3.
? .
4. , :
Br2 -> KBr

AgBr -> Ag

NO2 -> HNO3 - NO

5. ,
:
) Cr(OH)2 Cr(OH) 3
) Fe Cu
)
6. , 60 ,
36.5%- .
0C. .
27.2 % . .
7. 6.15 4.50 ( ).
:

314

5.40 .
.

-99-3
1. .
2. , , .
3.
? .
4. , :
O 2 -> O 3 -> I2 - Pl 3 - Hl -> Oal2 -> CaCO 3
5. ,
:
) Fe(OH) 3 Cr(OH)3
) HBr SO 2
)
6. (II), 80% 6.4 , 20 %- . 0C.
.
25.0 % . .
7. 7.80 5.40 ( ).
6.48 .
.

315

-99-4
1. .
2. , ,
.
3.
? .
4. , :
N2 NO > NO2 -> NaNO 3 -> NH3

AI(OH)3 -> NaAIO2

5. ,
:
) KOH Ba(OH)2
) NH3 SO 2
)
6. , 50.4 ,
25%- .
0C. ,
26.2%.
.
7. 7.38 5.40 ( ).
6.48 .
.

-99-1
1. , .
316

2. ,
6- (-) . ,
. ?
3.
, :
HCI

SO 2

Cr 2 S 3

> -| >

4. , ( ):

) Cr2O3 + N2 + H2O;
) K 2 SO 4 + KCI;
) C 2 H 5 OC 2 H 5 + KCI;

) Cu(NO3)2 + NO + H2O?
.
5. ,
:
H2O

CaC2

, 6 0 0 0 C

>

CH3Br/FeBr3

H2O

3CI 2 , Ztv

>

>D

CH3OH

>E

> F.

6. 14.38
160 7%- .

6.48 .

( %).
7. 100 20%- X . Y 40%- NaOH. X .
,
Y 7 1 M , .
:

317

-99-2
1. , .
2. - ,
-1,6- () . , .
?
3.
, :
Cl2

Fe

Cu

>Xi

> 2

4. , ( ):
) LiCI + ;
) CH 4 + Na 2 CO 3 ;
) K 2 CO 3 + CO 2 + Cr 2 O 3 ;
) Cu(NO3)2 + NO2 + H2O?
.
5. ,
:
H2O

AI 4 C 3

Cl 2 ,

fiv

>
Cl 2 , ()

Mg,

>

1 .CO2, 2.HCI

>

>D

H2O

>E

> F.

6. 22.2
168 10%- .

21.6 .

( %).
7. 100 10%- X . -318

Y 20%- . X Y. ,
10 0.21 M
, .

-99-3
1. , .
2.
.
, .
?
3.
, :
HNO3

CuS

H2S

> X1

> X2

4. , ( ):
) Cu 2 S + NH4CI + NH3;
) Br2 + H2O;
) CH 3 CHO + Cu + H2O;
) KAIO2+ CO 2 ?
.
5. ,
:
H2O

AI4C3

1500 0C

->

2HCI

H2O

>

H2/Ni

H2SO40^4J

> D-> E

* F.

6. 6.84
40 14%- . 8.64 .

( %).
:

319

7. 100 15%- X . Y 25%- LiOH. Y. ,


Y 8 1 M , -<? .

-99-4
1. , .
2. - ,
-1,4 () . , . ?
3.
, :
HNO3

FeO

Ni

X1

> X2

4. , ( ):
) CaCO 3 + BaCO 3 + H2O;
) Cr + KAIO2 + AI2O3;
) CH3COOH + Cu 2 O + H2O;
) KCI + N2 + H2O?
.
5. ,
:
H2O

H2O1 Hg2+

CaC 2

>

'Cu(OH)2, /

>

CH3ONa

320

PCIs

>

O2

>E

> F + G.

> D

6. 14.8
140 8%- . 12.96 .

( %).
7. 100 25%- X . Y 40%-
Ba(OH)2. X Y.
, Y 7 1 M , .

-99-1
1. , 8 .
2. , ,
2 (
).
.
3.
,
:
CHBr-CH=CH-COOH
4. ,
:
CuCI2

00

) X1

NH

* " ,->X
X22

11-1115

K2S

->

HNOS(KOHM)

X4

5. ,
:
C 6 H 8 N 2 O 2 - C6H5NO 4- C6H7NO -> C6H10NO2CI -> C 8 H 9 NO 2 .

.
6. 1.5 14.4
10%- ( 1.11 /).
, , , 50 . , .
, .
7. 13.4
66.67 2.5 M .
60.6 13.5%-
(H) ( 1.1 /). .
-99-2
1. , 7 .
2. , ,
2 (
).
.
3.
,
:
BrCH=CH-COOH

322

4. ,
:
Hl
_
HCI w
Cb W Na2SO3 V
V

> X-J

> X2

A3

> X4

.
5. ,
:
'C 7 H 5 NO 4
C 7 H 7 NO f - C 7 H 9 NO - C7H9NCI2 - C7H9N2CIO3.

.
6. 1.5 11.5
20%- ( 1.22 /).
, , , 50 . , .
, .
7. 20.8
100 2.5 M .
90.9 13.5%-
(II) ( 1.1 /). .

-99
!. 5-.
2. (II).
65.98% .
3. . .
4. ,
:
HCI

HNO3

NH3, H 2 O

Cr
>2
.
11*

O3. KOH

>3

>4
323

5. , ( ):
) S + KCI + H2O;
) + NaBr;
) + HCI?
. .
6. , 9.6 (
(II)), 600 0.2 M ( 1.0 /).
.
7. (..), 20% ( )
, 20 , 4--2, I --2--2 ?

SN-99-1
1. , .
2. (II) ? .
3. - ,
. , .
4. ()2,
.
.
5.
:
) ;
) ;
:

324

) .
, , ( ,
, ). , ,
.
6. (II) 1:3 101.5 320 0 C, . , 320 0 C 81.2 ,
, .
(II) .
7.
,
5.18 .
7.21 10%- ( 1.11). , , 90 . .

SN-99-2
1. , .
2. ?

.
3. - ,
. , .
4. Fe(NO3)3,
.
.
:

325

5.
:
) ;
) ;
) .
, , ( ,
, ). -*
, ,
.
6. 1:5
10.13 450 ,
. , 450 0 C 8.78 ,
, .
.
7. 10 ,
, 2.59 .
, . , 4.7 .
.

4-99
1. . ?
2. - , - . ,
.
3. 3 ,
C n H 2n , .
.

326

4. ,
:

C7H8O -> C7H7ONa -> C8H10O -> C8H8Br2O


.
5.
:
) ;
) ;
) .

, (
, , ).
6. , 19.2 (I),
400 0.25 M
( 1.0 /).
.
7. 50 , , ,
40 , 1.631.
2.083.
.

1-2000-1
1. , .
2.
. 0.1 /
6.8 IO22 . .
3.
145 0C, 2:1. 49.
:

327

?
.
4.
:
) ;
) ;

) Na2CO3 + H2O + NO2


; , .
5. ,
:
HCl

,<

D E

C
t

' % D
H

F - + L
I, Fe2O.,

.
6. 6.0 36.8 100%-
. 2.33 , 1.57 (IV) ..
( ) , 100 200
90%- ( 0.82 /) .
7.
64.7% 54.8% . : 40% , 6.67%
53.3% .
; .

328

02000-2
1. , .
2.
. 0.1 /
6.2'22 . .
3.
150 0C,
2:1:1. 80. ?
.
4.
:
) ;
) :
) K2CO3 + Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + H2O
; , .
5. ,
:
NH1

C 2 H 5 OH

A - V

O2

O2

-,

*
Cu

D E - M + L

20000C

.
6. 9.0
28.8 100%- . 4.66 , 2.02
(IV) .. ( ) , 329

200 80%-
( 1.07 /) 150 ( 0.79 /)
.
7. 22.72 12.8
, 7.04 (IV) 2.88 .
, .

..

, ,


171-90-1
6. 67.6% 12-220, 32.4% NaCI; 0.896 Cl2.
7. ; 23.15 .

171-90-2
1. , .
, ,
.
H H O

H Cl C1 C 2 C 3
\ I
C-C-C

1 2
1 4
4
4
H Cl O-H . .
+1 -2 -1 +3 0 -3
.

Ba H P
ga/Q\p_Q

2
1 5
2
L
. .
+2 +1 +5 -2
H
Ba-O , .
2. ) -1:
CH3-CH2-CH=CH2 + H2O

4'

CH3-CH2-CH-CH3

.
) :
CH3-C-CH2-CH3 + H2
6

'

'

CH3-CH-CH2-CH3
6

331

) 2- :
CH3-CH2-CH-CH3 + H2O
C H 3 - C H 2 - C H - C H 3 + HCI
6\

3. SO 2 CO 2 ,
(H2SOe ).
:
C a O + SO 2 = CaSO 3 ,
NaOH + SO 2 = NaHSO 3 ,
CaO + CO 2 = CaCO 3 l
NaOH + CO 2 = NaHCO 3 .

, SO 2 -
, a CO 2 .
2H 2 S + SO 2 = 3S + 2 2 0 (SO 2 ),
5 S 0 2 + 2 K M n 0 4 + 2 2 0 = K 2 SO 4 + 2 M n S 0 4 + 2 H 2 S 0 4
(SO 2 ),
t"
CO 2 + C = 2 0 (CO2 ).
4. C6H6, C6H5NO2, C6H5NH2.
C6H6 +

HNO 3 (KOHU)

H 2 SO 4 (KOHU) I

52

+ H2O ,

C 6 H 5 NO 2 + 21 + 2 0 + 4 2 0 = C 6 H 5 NH 2 + 2[1() 4 ].
M,(C6H5NH2)/M,(C3H8) = 93/44 = 2.1 - 2 .
5. ) :
NH3 + H2SO4 = NH4HSO41
2NH3 + H2SO4 = (NH4)2SO4.
) .

BaCO3 = BaO + CO2T1


.
:
:

332

+ 4AI = + + 21203,
t
+ 8AI = + AI4C3 + 21203.
,
, :
t

+ 2AI = + AI2O3,
t
BaO + AI 2 O 3 = Ba(AIO 2 ) 2 ,
BaO + = BaC2 + COt.
) :
2C 6 H 5 ONa + SO 2 + H 2 O = 2 C 6 H 5 O H i + Na 2 SO 3 .

C 6 H 5 O N a + SO 2 + H 2 O = C 6 H 5 O H i + NaHSO 3
6. :
2 C u S 0 4 + 2 2 0 = 2Cu + 2 H 2 S 0 4 + O 2 T,
(1)
2 H g S 0 4 + 2 H 2 O = 2Hg + 2 H 2 S 0 4 + O 2 T.
(2)
NaOH H 2 SO 4 :
2NaOH + H2SO4 = Na 2 SO 4 + 2 2 0.
(3)
NaOH :
NaOH + HCI = NaCI + H2O.
(4)
: V(NaOH) = p-V-JM = 22.5-1.11-0.112/40 = 0.07 ; V(HCI) = c-V = 0.625-0.016 = 0.01
. (4) 0.01 NaOH, ,
(3) 0.06 NaOH 0.03 H2SO4.
X CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 HgSO4.
:
= m(CuS0 4 -5H 2 0) + /U(HgSO4) = 250- + 297- = 8.44.
(5)
(1) (2) + H2SO4:
X + = 0.03.
(6)
(5) (6), :
X=0.01=v(CuS0 4 -5H 2 0); m(CuS0 4 -5H 2 0)=0.01-250=2.5 .
= 0.02 = V(HgSO 4 ); W(HgSO 4 ) = 0.02-297 = 5.94 .
:

333

:
Co(CuSO4-SH2O) = 2.5/8.44-100% = 29.6%.
Co(HgSO4) = 5.94/8.44-100% = 70.4%.
, 0.01 HCI1
0.01-22.4 = 0.224 HCI.
. 29.6% CuS0 4 -5H 2 0, 70.4% HgSO 4 ; 0.224 HCI.
7. :
H2NCHCONHCHCOOH + 2NaOH =

=H2NCHCOONa + H2NCHCOONa + H2O


R1
20.72% Na, , 23/0.2072 = 111,
11.1/111 =0.1 . , ( R1, R 2 )
: M(R) = 111 - M(H2N) - M(CH) - M(COONa) = 111 - 16 - 13 - 67 = 15. CH3.
.
0.1 , 14.6/0.1 =
= 146. : 146-M(H 2 N)-28-M(CONH)-M(CH)-M(COOH)=146-16-28-43-I3-45=l,
.
, , ,
, . 2 :
1) H2N-CH(CH 3 )-CONH-CH 2 -COOH
().
2) H 2 N-CH 2 -CONH-CH(CH 3 )-COOH
().
. .

171-90-3
6. 19% NH 4 H 2 PO 4 , 21.8% (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 .
7. 29.6% HCOOC 2 H 5 , 70.4% CH 3 COOC 2 H 5 ; 1.12 NH3.

334

171-90-4
6.19% NH 4 HSO 4 , 21.8% (NH4)2SO4.
7. 61.9% HCOOCH 3 , 38.1% CH 3 COOCH 3 ; 1.12 CO 2 .

-90-1
1. 2.54'5 = 61.8 . .
6. 62.2% KNO3, 37.8% KCfO3; 1.12 O 2 .
7. 8 C 3 H 4 O 2 , 1 (
, CH 2 =CH-COOH).

-90-2
1. 3,9 3 : 5 = 117.1 .
- 6. 5L8% CuO, 48.2% PbO, 0.896 .
7, 9 C 3 H 6 O 3 , 2 (, 3 -()-).

-90-3
1. 3 5 - 46.8 .
6.40.4% Zn, 59.6% Cu, 1.12 NO2.
7. 8 C 3 H 4 O 4 , 2 (, - 2 -).

-90-4
1. , \\ T1 V2 T2 :
V2=Vf7fW'0,
335

. =3.5,
T1=SO, 2=85, :
V2 = V,-3.5^ = 982,6^,.
. 982.6 .
2. 1) 4FeS 2 + I l O 2 = 2 Fe 2 O 3 + 8 S 0 2 T ( ),
2) Cu + 2 2 0 4 () L CuSO 4 + SO 2 T + 2 2 0,
3) Na 2 SO 3 + 2HCI = 2NaCI + H 2 O + SO 2 T (),
4) S + 2H2S04(KOHU) = 3 S 0 2 T + 2 2 0.
3. , KH Kl, , , :
2KI(p.p) + Cl2 = 2KCI + I2,
() + Cl2 = KCI + HCI.
. ,
KH :
KH +.H 2 O = KOH + H2T.
4. --1, CH 2 =CH-CH 2 -NH 2 ,
.
4C 3 H 5 NH 2 + 1 9 0 2 = 120 2 + 14 2 0 + 2N2.
,
,
CH 2 =CH-CH 2 -NH 2 + 1(.)
[CH 2 =CH-CH 2 -NH 3 I + Cr
( ). HCI
,
[CH 2 =CH-CH 2 -NH 3 J + Cr + HCI
[CI-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH 2 -NH 3 ] + Cr
( HCI ).
, 3-
KMnO4
3CH 2 =CH-CH 2 NH 2 + 2KMn0 4 + 4 2 0 ->
3CH 2 0H-CH0H-CH 2 NH 2 + 2Mn0 2 + 20
(
).
:

336

5. ) FeCb , .
2(CH 3 ) 3 N + FeCI 3 + 2 2 0 = Fe(OH) 2 CI + 2[(CH 3 ) 3 NH]CI,
3(CH 3 ) 3 N + FeCI 3 + 3 H 2 0 = Fe(OH) 3 4 + 3[(CH 3 ) 3 NH]CI.
) (III) :
, ..
PBr3 + 3H 2 0 = H 3 PO 3 + .
( (HBr), KMnO4 Mn 2+ ):
8PBr 3 + 6KMn0 4 + 8 2 0 = 4Mn(H 2 P0 4 ) 2 + 7Br 2 + 6KBr + 2 2
PBr3 KMnO 4 :
2PBr 3 + 2 K M n 0 4 L 2POBr 3 + K 2 MnO 4 + MnO 2 .
) :
C H 3 C H 2 O H Ci2 , [ C H 3 - C H C I - O H ]
> C H 3 - C H O Ci2 t
> CICH2-CHO
>...
> C I 3 C - C H O (+HCI).
.
6. CuO :
+ 2NH 3 = + N 2 + 2 0,
(1)
CuO + H 2 = + H 2 O.
(2)
.
, Cu CuO. , CuO ,
HCI (
):
CuO + 2HCI = CuCI 2 + H 2 O.
HCI :
KHCO 3 + HCI = KCI + CO 2 T + H 2 O.

(3)
(4)
:

337

: V(HCI)=/=7.7-1.040.137/36.5
=0.03 ; v(KHC03)=cV=0.6250.016=0.01 . (4)
0.01 HCI, , CuO (3) 0.03 - 0.01 = 0.02 HCI. , 0.01
CuO; CuO 3.2/80 = 0.04 :
(1) (2) 0.03 CuO.
X NH3 H2. -
(1) (2) 3/2-X+Y
CuO:
3/2-+ Y= 0.03.

(5)

0.56 ..,
X+ Y = 0.56/22.4 = 0.025.

(6)

(5) (6), :
= 0.01 = V(NH3); m(NH3) = 0.01 17 = 0.17 ;
Y= 0.015 = V(H2); m(H2) = 0.015 2 = 0.03 .
= w(NH3) + (H 2 ) = 0.17 + 0.03 =
= 0.2 . : W(NH3) = 0.17/0.2-100% =
= 85%; CO(H2) = 0.03/0.2-100% = 15%.
(4), V(CO2) = V(KHCO3) = 0.01 .
V(CO2) = 0.01-22.4 = 0.224 .
. 85% NH3, 15% H2; 0.224 CO 2 .
7.

1.85

V=

PV/RT

=101.3-0.97/(8.31-473)=0.025 , .. ()=1.85/0.025=

= 74.
55.5 99 CO 2 , ,
99/44=2.25 , .., 2.25 12=27 . 40.5 H 2 O ,
2-40.5/18=4.5 , .. 4.5 .
55.5 , (55.5-27-4.5) = 24
, 24/16 = 1.5 .
,
C2l25/1.54 5/1.5O-J ,5/1.5 = C 3 H 6 O 2 ,
Mr = 74, .
;

'338

2.96 (2.96/74 = 0.04 )


101.3 0.489/(8.31-298) =
= 0.02 H2. , , ..
235- + Ba
0.04

> Ba(C 3 H 5 0-0-) 2 + H2 T

0.02

. 2 , ,
, ..
:
H3C-CH-CH=O
2);
I
1)
CH 3 -CH 2 -COOH

HO-CH 2 -C=O
3)
HO-CH 2 -CH 2 -CH=O
4
>

5)

7.,

H3C-C-CH2

6)
>

H 2 C-CH-OH
I l
O-CH 2

HO-CH 2 -CH-CH 2
W

8)

CH 2 =CH-CH 2 -O-OH

.
. 9 C 3 H 6 O 2 , ( I ).

171-91-1
3. - CH4, - C 2 H 2 , - C6H6.
4. 22.3% C 2 H 5 OH, 77.7% O 2 .
!

6. CUS0 4 -5H 2 0.

7. 42.8 ; 29.9% CaC2. 70.1% CaCO3.

339

171-91-2
3. - AI4C3, - CH4, - CHCI3.
4. 25.6% CH3COH, 74.4% O2.
6. Fe2(SO4)3-IOH2O.
7. 62.9 ; 68.7% AI4C3, 31.3% BaCO 3 .

171-91-3
3. - C2H5NH3CI1 - C2H5NH2l - CO2.
4. 36.0% CH3COOH1 64.0% O2.
6. CuCI2 2 2 0.
7. 49.6 ; 12.9% CaC 2l 87.1% AI4C3.

171-91-4
1. , :
C 17 H 33 COO- + H2O S C17H33COOH + ",
C 17 H 33 COONa + H2O S C17H33COOH + NaOH.
, .
2. 1) KOH AI2(SO4)3.
KOH , , AI(OH)3:
60 + AI2(SO4)3 = 2AI(OH)3i + 3K 2 S0 4 .
(1)
, (1)
AI2(SO4)3, :
AI(OH)3 + KOH = KfAI(OH)4].
(2)
2) AI2(SO4)3 , KOH , , :
340

8 0 + AI 2 (SO 4 ) 3 = 2K[AI(OH) 4 ] + 3K 2 S0 4 .
(3)
, (3) ,
AI 2 (SO 4 ) 3 AI(OH) 3 :
6K[AI(OH) 4 ] + AI 2 (SO 4 ) 3 = 8AI(OH) 3 I + 3K 2 S0 4 .
(4)
3. :
, , H 2 NCH 2 COOH.
[H 3 NCH 2 COOHJBr,
Ca(H 2 NCH 2 COO-) 2 .
H 2 N C H 2 C O O H + HBr = [H 3 NCH 2 COOHJBr l
2 H 2 N C H 2 C O O H + Ca(OH) 2 =Ca(H 2 NCH 2 COO) 2 + 2 2 0 ,
4H2NCH2COOH + 9 0 2 = 8 0 2 + 2N2 + 2 0 .
:
1) (NH4)2CO3;
2) NH 4 HCO 3 ;
3) RCOONH 4 :
,
.
4.
CH 3 COOC 2 H 5 + 5 0 2 = 4 0 2 + 4 2 0 + Q
:
Q = 4Go6P(C02) + 4 ( 2 ( 2 0 ) - 0 ( 3 2 5 ) =

X = 0.2.

= 4-393.5 + 4-241.8 - 486.6 = 2054.6 .


1 CH3COOC2H5
-2054.6
X CH3COOC2H5
-410.9 .

.., 0.2 CH3COOC2H5 1 O2, v = P VIR T= 105 12.2/8.31-305.3 = 0.5 O2.


0.2 CH3COOC2H5 (
0.2-88=17.6 ) 1.5 O 2 ( 1.5-32=48 ).
/() = 17.6 + 48 = 65.6 .
(O(CH3COOC2H5) = 17.6/65.6 = 0.268 ~ 26.8%
to(0 2 ) = 48/65.6 = 0.732 - 73.2%.
. 26.8% CH3COOC2H5, 73.2% O2.
5. ) :
NaHCO 3 + Ba(OH) 2 = BaCO 3 + NaOH + H 2 O 1
2 N a H C 0 3 + Ba(OH) 2 = BaCO 3 + Na 2 CO 3 + 2 2 0 .
:

341

) . (II)
t0

Cu(NO 3 ) 2 = CuO + 2 N 0 2 T + 1/2 O 2 ,


P2O3.
:
P 2 O 3 + 2Cu(N0 3 ) 2 = 2CuO + P 2 O 5 + 4NO 2 T 1
2 0 3 + 2Cu(N0 3 ) 2 = 2CuO + 3 P 2 0 5 + 4 N 0 .
CuO P 2 O 5 " (II):
t

+ P 2 O 5 = Cu 3 (PO 4 ) 2 .
) ( ):
CH 3 COONa(TB) + NaOH(TB) = Na 2 CO 3 + CH 4 .
MeS (Mr -X ~ 32)

4MeS + 7 0 2 = 2 2 0 3 + 4 S 0 2 1
b

0.5 b

0.5 b Me2O3 (b = 4.4/(^32)),


Me 2 O 3 + 6 H N 0 3 = 2 M e ( N 0 3 ) 3 + 3 H 2 0
0.5

3 HNO3. 37.8%-
HNO3 3-6-63/0.378 = 500-6 .
W(Me2O3) + /(- HNO3) = 0.5-6-(2:+48) + 500-6 =
(+524)- .
Wi(Me(NO3)3) = (+186) . , Me(NO3)3 41.7%:
+186) = 0.417-(+524)-6,
X = 56. FeS,
Fe(NO3)3 -242 = 0.05-242 = 12.1 . 0.05-(56 + 524) = 29 .
'"' 342

8.08 , ,
29 - 8.08 = 20.92 . Fe(NOa)3
20.920.347 = 7.26 ,
12.1 7.26 = 4.84 Fe(NO3)3, 0.02 .
8.08 - 4.84=3.24 ,
0.18 . ,
Fe(N0 3 ) 3 -9H 2 0.
. Fe(N0 3 ) 3 -9H 2 0.
7.

CaO 2 + 2HBr = C 2 H 2 T+ CaBr 2

BaSO 3 + 2HBr = SO 2 T + H 2 O + BaBr 2


X CaC 2 Y
BaSO 3 , X C 2 H 2 , Y SO 2 , X
CaBr 2 Y BaBr 2 . C 2 H 2
SO 2 :
26-+64-
V

X +Y

'

, CaBr 2 BaBr 2 , 248.5 :


200 + 297 = 248.5.
(2)
(1) (2) :
X = 0.5,
Y= 0.5.
WI(CaC2) = 0.5-64 = 32 , W(BaSO 3 ) = 0.5-217 = 108.5 ,
() = 32 + 108.5 = 140.5 .
(O(CaC2) = 32/140.5-100% = 22.8%,
Co(BaSO3) = 108.5/140.5-100% = 77.2%.
. 140.5 ; 22.8% 2, 77.2% BaSO 3 .

-91-1
1. N 4.5 .
6. 2.51% AI 2 (SO 4 ) 3 .
7. 0.112 ; 91.2% CH3NH2, 8.8% H2.

343

-93-4
1. M , (Fe) = 0.051 -M.
wi(Mg) = 0.021 -M.
: v(Fe)=0.051 /56=9.Il-IO-4M , v(Mg)=0.021-A//24=
= 8.7510"4 . v(Fe)/v(Mg) = 1.04.
. 1.04 .
2. NaOH :
CuOI 2 + 2 N a O H = CuO + 2NaCI + H 2 O 1
[(CH 3 ) 2 NH 2 JCI + N a O H = (CH 3 ) 2 NH + NaCI + H 2 O.
,
.
:
CuO + 2HCI = CuCI 2 + H 2 O,
(CH 3 ) 2 NH + HCI = [(CH 3 ) 2 NH 2 ICI.
3. \s22s22p4, 2
. 2 , 2.
: -2 (H2O), -1 (H2O2), (FOCI), +1 (F2O2), +2 (F2O).
\s22s22p63s23p5.
3s 3
3d 4s, 3 7 .
Cl 1 7 ( 2), -1 +7 ( +2). : HCI
(. 1, .. -1), Cl2 (. 1, .. 0), HCIO (. 1, .. +1), HCIO2
(. 3, .. +3), CIO2 (. 4, .. +4), KCIO3 (. 5, .. +5), CIO3
(. 6, .. +6), HCIO4 (. 7, .. +7).
1

4. a) C H 3 - C = C - C ( C H 3 ) = C H 2
,
.
" 4--4--2 ( 4--4--2).
: sp C 2 C 3
, sp2 C 4 5, sp3 Ci .
344

) HBr ,
:
CH3-C=C-C=CH2

CH3-C=C-CBr-CH3

^H3

<

CHj-CH=CBr-CBr(CH3)-CH3

CH3-CBr=CH-CBr(CH3)-CH3

CH3

CH3-CH2-CBr2-CBr(Chfe)-CH3

HBr

CH3-CBr2-CH2-CBr(CH3)-CH3

)
()
,
CH=C-CH 2 -C(CH 3 )=CH 2 2 =-=-= 2
( 18 ).

5. ) :
f
(NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 + 2 0 = K 2 HPO 4 + 2NH 3 T + 2 2 0

(NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 + = K 3 PO 4 + 2NH 3 T + 2 0 .


) , . Fe(NO 3 ) 2
2 F e ( N 0 3 ) 2 = Fe 2 O 3 + 4 N 0 2 T + 1/2 O 2 T,

:
6Fe(N0 3 ) 2 + 2AI = 3 F e 2 0 3 + 12N0 2 1 + AI 2 O 3

6 F e ( N 0 3 ) 2 + 10AI = 3 Fe 2 O 3 + 1 2 N 0 T + 5AI 2 0 3

3Fe(N0 3 ) 2 + 8AI = 3Fe + 6 N 0 t + 4AI 2 0 3

Fe(NO3)2 + 6 Al = Fe + 2AIN + 2AI203.


:

345

:
3Fe(N0 3 ) 2 + 2AI = 2AI(N0 3 ) 3 + 3Fe.
) , (
-)
( ):
Ob=CH-CHO
-ObCi-CCi2-CHO
6.

--
--

Zn + H 2 SO 4 = ZnSO 4 + H 2 T,

.
(1)

ZnSO 4 + BaS = Z n S l + B a S O 4 I .
(2)
, :
V(H 2 SO 4 ) = 35.7-1.4-0.392/98 = 0.2 ; V(Zn) = 8.125/65 = 0.125
; V(BaS) = 75-0.338/169 = 0.15 . (1)
0.125 ZnSO 4 , 0.125 H 2 , 0.075 H 2 SO 4 , BaS (2) ZnS ( , , ):
BaS + H 2 SO 4 = B a S O 4 I + H 2 S t .
(3)
ZnS + H 2 SO 4 = ZnSO 4 + H 2 S t .
(4)
(2) 0.125 ZnS
BaSO 4 0.025 BaS. (3) 0.025 BaS H 2 SO 4 , 0.025
BaSO 4 H 2 S. 0.05 H 2 SO 4 0.05
ZnS 0.05 ZnSO 4 0.05 H 2 S. , ZnSO 4
0.05 , 0.05-161=8.05 . :
= (- H 2 SO 4 ) + { Z n ) + (- BaS) - ( 2 ) - WI(ZnS) - WI(BaSO4) - WI(H2S) = 50 + 8.125 + 75 - 25-2 - (0.125 - 0.05)-97 - (0.125+0.025)-233 - (0.05+0.025)-34 = 88.1 .
-:
= WI(ZnSO4) + ( - H 2 SO 4 ) + ( - BaS) =
= 8.05 + (50 - 19.6) + (75 - 25.35) = 88.1 .
: (O(ZnSO4) = 8.05/88.1-100% = 9.14%.
. 9.14% ZnSO 4 .
:
346

7. CuO
CuO:

CuO

> Cu

:
v<0) = 0.384/16 = 0.024 .
,
H2O, P2O5, CO2, , N2, .
. :
v(H20)=0.288/l8=0.016 , V(CO2)=O. 176/44=0.004 ,
V(N2) = PVIRT= 98 0.0509/8.31-300 = 0.002 .
H2O CO2
0.016+2-0.004 = 0.024 ; ,
, , H N, :
v(C) = V(CO2) = 0.004; v(H) = 2-V(H2O) = 0.032;
V(N) = V(N2) = 0.004;
: v(C):v(H):v(N) = 1:8:1,
CH5N.
,
0.004 CH3NH2 0.006 H2 ( ,
: HCN H2 -
, : 0.002 H2NCH2CH2NH2 0.008 H2
0.002 C2N2 0.016 H2; , , ).
:
OT(CH3NH2) = 0.004-31 =0.124 ; (2) = 0.006-2 = 0.012 ;
:
(O(CH3NH2) = 0.124/0.136-100% = 91.2%;
(O(H2) = 0.012/0.136-100% = 8.8%;
.. :
()= V(CH3NH2)+K(H2)=O.004-22.4+0.006-22.4=0.224 .
. W(CH3NH2) = 91.2%; CO(H2) = 8.8%; 0.224 .

347

-99-4
1. Na 1.7 .
6. 2.81% Cr2(SO4)37. 0.134 ; 88.6% CH3NH2, 11.4% H2.

-91-4
1. 3.0 .
6. 8.67% FeSO 4 .
7. 0.269 ; 88.6% CH3NH2, 11.4% H2.

171-92-1
6. 332.8 FeS 2 85
Fe 2 O 3 .
7. 0.8 CH 3 COOC 2 H 5 .

171-92-2
6. 164.4 Cu 2 S 236
CuO.
7. 0.7 HCOOCH3.

171-92-3
6. 243.2 FeS 2 170.2 Fe 2 O 3 .
7. 0.7 HCOOC2H5.

348

171-91-2
1. ,
:
2 2 0 + 2 = 2 0 " + H 2 ( ),
2 ' - 2 = Br2 ( ).
, RbBr :
2RbBr + 2 2 0 = H 2 + 2RbOH + Br2.
2.
: = 1,2, 3,...
() I
. , I
0 - 1. I = s-, /=1 -, 1=2 ^-.

-/ +/.
ms : +1/2 -1/2,
3. C 8 H 1 4 4 ,
,
C 8 H 1 8 . C n H 2rv2 : , , .
. 2,2-
3 3 .
(CH 3 ) 3 C-CHC-CH 2 CH 3
(CH3)3CCH2-C=C-CH3
2,2--

5,5--2

(CH 3 ) 3 CCH 2 CH 2 -C=CH

(CH3)3CCH=C=CH-CH3

5,5--1

5,5--2,3

(3)3=-=2

(CH 3 ) 3 CCH 2 CH=C=CH 2

5,5--1,3

5,5--1,2

( ).
2,2-.
349

4. ,
(HCI, H2SO4) , .
Zn + 2HCI = ZnCI 2 + H 2
- Fe + 2HCI = FeCI 2 + H 2
. , , :
ZnCI 2 + 2 N a O H = Zn(OH) 2 + 2NaCI
Zn(OH)2 + 2NaOH = Na 2 [Zn(OH) 4 ] ()
FeCI2 + 2NaOH = Fe(OH)2 + 2NaCI
4Fe(OH) 2 + O 2 + 2H 2 0 = 4Fe(OH) 3 ()
Na2JZn(OH)4J + CO2 = Na 2 CO 3 + Zn(OH)2 + H2O
Zn(OH) 2 = ZnO + H 2 O
t
ZnO + C = Zn + CO
2Fe(OH) 3 L Fe 2 O 3 + 3H 2 0
t
Fe 2 O 3 + 3H 2 = 2Fe + 3 H 2 0
.
Cu + HgCI 2 = Hg + CuCI 2 ( )
: CuCI2 = Cu + Cl2.

, :
3Cu + 8 H N 0 3 = 3Cu(N0 3 ) 2 + 2 N 0 + 4 2 0
3Hg + 8 H N 0 3 = 3Hg(N0 3 ) 2 + 2 N 0 + 4 2 0
2Cu(N0 3 ) 2 = 2 + 4N0 2 + O 2
t
Hg(NO3)2 = Hg + 2 NO2 + O 2
t
CuO + H2 = Cu + H2O.
:

350

5. )
.
:
3 N a 2 S 0 3 + 2AIBr 3 + 3 H 2 0 = 2AI(OH) 3 + 3 S 0 2 + 6NaBr
2 N a 2 S 0 3 + AIBr 3 + 2 2 0 = AI(OH) 2 Br + 2 N a H S 0 3 + 2NaBr.
) KMnO4 :
24+204+420=0220+202+20.
KMnO4 ( ):
524+1 204+1 8 H 2 S 0 4 = 1 0 2 + 1 2 M n S 0 4 + 6 K 2 S 0 4 + 2 8 H 2 0 .

) :
H C O O H + NH 3 = HCOONH 4 .
:
H C O O H + NH 3 = HCONH 2 + H 2 O.
6.
:
v(Cu): v(S) = (66.7/63.5): (33.3/32) = 1:1
CuS (II).
SO 2 .
2CuS + 3 0 2 = 2CuO + 2 S 0 2 .

:
(^) = 2>(CuO) + 2Q(S02) - 2(2(CuS) =
= 2-165 + 2-297 - 2-53 = 818
( 2 CuS 818 ). V(CuS) = 57.6/96 = 0.6 . Q =
= 818/2-0.6 = 245.4 .
0.6 CuS 0.6 CuO.
( )
:
4

351

t"

+ 2AI = + AI2O3.
V(CuO) = 0.6, v(AI) = 18.1/27 = 0.67, ,
. CuO :
(2() = G(AI2O3) - 3Q(CuO) = 1675 - 3-165 = 1180
( 3 CuO). 0.6 CuO
Q = 1180/3-0.6 = 236 .
. 245.4 CuS 236 CuO.
7.
:
C H 3 C O O H + CH 3 OH = S = * C H 3 C O O C H 3 + H 2 O.
:
[] []
~[]-[]
( ;
,
).
V(CH3COOH) = 9/60 =
= 0.15 , V(CH3OH) = 28.8/32 = 0.9 .
5
, . BaCI2 BaSO 4 ,
:
BaCI2 + H2SO4 = BaSO 4 + 2HCI.
V(H2SO4) = V(BaSO4) = 4.66/233 = 0.02 . (
,
H 2 SO 4 ).
NaHCO3 :
C H 3 C O O H + NaHCO 3 = CH 3 COONa + CO 2 + H 2 O,
H 2 SO 4 + 2 N a H C 0 3 = Na 2 SO 4 + 2 0 2 + 2 2 0 .
:

352

V(CO2) = 2.02/22.4 =
= 0.09 . H 2 SO 4 (0.02 ) 0.04
CO 2 , 0.05 CO 2 . V(CH3COOH) = 0.09 - 0.04 = 0.05. , 0.05 CH 3 COOH 0.15 , .
0.15 - 0.05 = 0.1 CH 3 COOH 0.1 CH 3 OH, 0.1 CH 3 COOCH 3 . 0.9 - 0.1 = 0.8 CH 3 OH. :

_ () () _ 0.1-0.1 _ Q 2 5
()-() ~ 0.05 -0.8


.
200 80%- CH 3 COOH ( 1.07 /) 150
CH 3 OH.
V 0 ( C H 3 O H ) = 150/32 = 4.69 ,
(- C H 3 C O O H ) = 200-1.07 = 214 ,
Ot(CH3COOH) = 214-0.8 = 171.2 ,
V 0 ( C H 3 C O O H ) = 171.2/60 = 2.85 ,
V 0 (H 2 O) = 42.8/18 = 2.38 .

CH 3 COOH, :
V(CH3COOH) = 2.85-,
V(CH3OH) = 4.69 --,
V(CH3COOCH3) = ,
V(H2O) = 2.38 +.
:
*=

(2.85 -jc) -(4.69 - )

= 0.7 .
. 0.7 CH 3 COOCH 3 .

12-1115

=0.25

-92-1

>? 67 ;

2. Ca(HSO3)2, CaSO3, SO2


6. 20 .
7. C H 3 C O O N a 33.4%, NaOH 66.6%.

-92-2
2. Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 , CaCO 3 , CO 2 .
6. 15 .
7. CH 3 COOK 50%, KOH 50%.

-92-3
1. Al Is 2s 2 .
) 2/> ;
) , I (1=0, 1,... /1-1),/=0 (!) =1, ,
1/7- ;
) /- ( )
, .
2. Na 2 SO 3 , CaSO 3 , SO 2 .
Na 2 SO 3 + Ca(OH) 2 = CaSO 3 + 2 N a O H
Na 2 SO 3 + CaCI 2 = CaSO 3 + 2NaCI
CaSO 3 + 2HCI = CaCI 2 + SO 2 + H 2 O
5 S 0 2 + 2 K M n 0 4 + 2 2 0 = 2 M n S 0 4 + K 2 SO 4 + 2 H 2 S 0 4 .
3. ) NaOH:
2 N a O H + SO 2 = Na 2 SO 3 + H 2 O
( ). SO 2
:
Na 2 SO 3 + 2HCI = 2NaCI + S O 2 + H 2 O
) :
C 2 H 4 + Br2 = C 2 H 4 Br 2 ,
:

354

.

1,2-:
Zn + C2H4Br2 = ZnBr2 + C 2 H 4 .
4. a) NH 4 NO 3 = N2O + 2 2 0 -,
;
) CH3NH2 + HBr = [CH3NH3JBr -, ;
>
) CH 3 -C=C-CH 3 + H 2 O = CH 3 -CO-CH 2 -CH 3 - , .. 2 3.
5. ) NH3
CuBr 2 :
CuBr 2 + NH3 + H 2 O = CuOHBr + NH4Br
CuBr 2 + 2NH 3 +2 2 0 = Cu(OH) 2 + 2NH4Br
Cu(OH) 2 :
Cu(OH) 2 + 4NH 3 = [Cu(NH3)4J(OH)2.
) ,
Cu 2 O :
2(CH3)2NH + 1 5CU 2 0 = + 4 0 2 + N2 + 7 2 0;
Cu 2 O
, :
2(CH3)2NH + 11Cu 2 O = 22Cu + 4 0 + N2 + 7 2 0;
) , :
C 6 H 5 OK + AIBr3 + H 2 O = C 6 H 5 OH + AIOHBr2 + KBr
26 + AIBr3 + 2 2 0 = 2 6 5 + AI(OH)2Br + 2
6 5 + AIBr3 + 3H 2 0 = SC6H5OH + AI(OH)3 + .
6. Ni/Ni2+ , Fe/Fe 2+ ,
Fe 2+ :
12*

355

Ni + 2FeCI 3 = NiCI2 + 2FeCI2.


4(Ni)=59 /, M(FeCI3)=I62.5 /, M(NiCI2)=130 /.
455 0.1/162.5 FeCI3.
, FeCI3 NiCI2
-(.. ), Ni.
2 FeCI3
NiCI2. :
(455 0.1/162.5 - 2)-162.5 = 130.x,
= 0.1 .
0.1-59 = 5.9 . : 18.9 - 5.9 = 13 .
. 13 .
7. :
1) CH3COOK + = K2CO3 + CH4;
:
2) CH4 + Br2 = CH3Br + HBr
3) CH3Br + Br2 = CH2Br2 + HBr
4) CH2Br2 + Br2 = CHBr3 + HBr;
AZ(CHBr3) = 253 /, M(CH3COOK) = 98 /. 25.3 / 253 = 0.1 . 40%- 2-4 0.1/0.4 = 0.25 . , 1 0.25 CH3COOK (
) 0.25-98 = 24.5 .
24.5/49 = 0.5, 50%. KOH 0.5 50%.
. CH3COOK 50%, KOH 50%.

-92-4
2. Ca(HSO 3 ) 2 , CaSO 3 , SO 2 .
6.10 .

7. CH 3 COONa 50%, NaOH 50%.

356

-,

: l-.

-99-4
1. CnH2rt-8, /-4 .
3. -- CaCO 3 , CO 2 , Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 .
5.0.2 M Na 2 S, 0.1 M Na 2 S 2 ; 2.4 Br2.
6. : 0.750 < Cp(N2) < 0.921; :
0.730 < Cp(N2) < 0.919.

-93-2
1. 2-12, -6 .
3. N 0 , NO 2 , HNO 3 .
5.0.1 M Na 2 S, 0.2 M Na2S2; 2.4 Br2.
6. : 0.0643 < Cp(CI2) < 0.0930; :
0.0268 < (12) < 0.0394.

-93-3
1.
2 ,
4 2. ,
:
CnH2n+2-(2+8+6) = 2_14. 4 ( 4), ( 2/3-14). , ,
(4+2-14)/2 = 3/7-7.
2.
NaHCO3. , NaHCO3 ( ).
:
C H 3 C O O H + NaHCO 3 = CH 3 COONa + H 2 O + CO 2 ,
H C O O H + NaHCO 3 = H C O O N a + H 2 O + CO 2 .
, ,
.
357

, ' ;]>
:
+[()2]=-+24+20,
HCOOH + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH = 2 + (NH4)2CO3 + 2NH 3 + H2O.
3. Cl2, HCI,
:

Cl2 + H2 = 2HCI,
Cl2 + H2O
HCI +
Cl2 + 2 2 0 + SO 2 = 2HCI + H 2 SO 4 ,
2 = 2HCI + O 2 .

.
,

4. a) 3NaOH + 2 3 0 4 = NaH 2 PO 4 + Na 2 HPO 4 + 2 0.


.
) ,
:
NH4NO3 = N2O + 2 2 0,
Ba + N2O = BaO + N2,
Ba + 2 0() = BaO + H2,
Ba + H2 = BaH2,
+ N2 = Ba3N2.
:
NH4NO3 + 8 = + Ba3N2 + 2 2 .
) 5 3 +20 4 = 5 00+20 2 +0+ 2 0.

KMnO4.
5. : v(K) = 1.17/39 =
= 0.03, v(S) = 0.64/32 = 0.02.

2 + S = K 2 S
0.03/2=0.015 . 0.02-0.015=0.005
K2S K2S2:
K2S + S = K2S2.
V(K2S) = 0.015 - 0.005 = 0.01, V(K2S2) = 0.005. 50
:

358

^: C(K2S) = 0.01/0.05 = 0.2 /, C(K2S2) = 0.005/0.05 =


= 0.1 /.
:

K2S + Br2 = S + 2,
K2S2 + Br2 = 2S + 2.
Vl(Br2) = V(K2S) = 0.01, V2(Br2) = V(K2S2) = 0.005, Vo6uj(Br2) =
= 0.01 + 0.005 = 0.015. m(Br2) = 0.015-160 = 2.4 .
. 0.2 M K2S, 0.1 M K2S2; 2.4 Br2.
6. H2 N2.
, : Mcp < M(He), :
Afcp = (2 + 28) /( + )< 4, : > 12.
, ( ) .

N2 + 2 S 2NH3l
. N2 ( - 60%), 0.6-3=1.8
H2, 0.62=1.2 NH3. : V(H2) = .V- 1.8, V(N2) = - . = 0.4, V(NH3)= 1.2. ,
, . :
v=
1.8 + 0.4+ 1.2 = :-0.2.
, : Mcp > M(He),
:
Mcp = (2 + 28)/(-0.2)> 4, .* < 14.4.

:
12 << 14.4.
,
:
<PI(N2) = / ( + ) .'
<p2(N2) = 0.4 / (; - 0.2) .
, :
0.0649 = 1/15.4 < (P1(N2) < 1/13 = 0.0769 .
0.0282=0.4/14.2<(p2(N2)<0.4/l 1.8=0.0339 .
. : 0.0649 < (p(N2) < 0.0769;
: 0.0282 < (p(N2) < 0.0339.
:

359

-93-4
1 C n H 2 ^ 1 , -6 .
3, H2S, SO 2 , S.
5 , 0.1 M K2S, 0.2 M K2S2; S.4 Br2.
6. : 0.929 < (2) < 0.934; :
0.923 < (2) < 0.932.

171-93-1
1. 1.67 102.
4. - Cl2, - CaOCI2, - I2, - Kl, - Agl.
6. C(Na 2 S) = 0.2 , C(NaHS) = 0.4 ; 4.8 Br2.
7. C3H5CI; 3960 AgNO2

171-93-2
1. 6.9-IO"4.
4. , Ca 3 P 2 , PH3, P2Oe- H 3 PO 4 ,
E Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 .
6. C(Na 2 S) = 0.6 , C(NaAI(OH)4) = 0.2 ; 5.6 Br2.
7. C3H5CI; 4950 AgNO3.

171-93-3
1.53.3.
4. Cl2, KCIO3, - KCIO4, KCI, H2, E Cl2,
HCI.
6. C(K2S) = 0.2 , C(KHS) = 0.4 ; 4.8 Br2.
7. C3H5CI; 2475 AgNO3.
360

171-93-4
1. :
CH3COOH + H2O 5 H3O+ + CH3COO".
:
CH3COOH
H+ + CH3COO".
:
_ [H+]-[CH3COQ-]
[CH3COOH]
1 V0 = 25/60 = 0.417
CH 3 COOH. ,
av 0 H+ CH3COO", (l-a)v 0 CH3COOH.
( = 0.417 ), [CH3COOH] = (l-a)C,
[CH3COO"] = [+] = , :
1-a
m

a (K/Q = 6.6-10" , [+] = = 6.6-10"3-0.417 = 2.74-10"3


/.
. 2.74-IO 3 /.
2. : ,
, .
C6H5NH2 + HCI = [C6H5NH3ICIi.
,
, :
[C6H5NH3]CI + NaOH = C6H5NH2 + NaCI + H2O.
,
, .
,
361

-J

( ).
.
( ) .
, (
HCI).
C 6 H 5 OH + N a O H = C 6 H 5 ONa + H 2 O.
HCI + NaOH = NaCI + H 2 O.
, . CO 2 ,
:
C 6 H 5 ONa + CO 2 + H 2 O = C 6 H 5 OH + NaHCO 3 .

, ,
.
, ..
.
3. 4
: ( HCI NaOH), (Zn
Mg), (AICI3 Na 2 CO 3 ) (KMnO4).
HCI NaOH

:
2 K M n 0 4 + 16HCI = 2KCI + 2MnCI 2 + 5CI 2 + 8 2 0 .
HCI AICI3 Na 2 CO 3 :
Na 2 CO 3 + 21 - 2NaCI + CO 2 T+ H 2 O.
AICI3 HCI , NaOH , :
AICI 3 + 3NaOH = AI(OH) 3 I + 3NaCt.
AI(OH) 3 + NaOH = Na[Al(OH) 4 ].
:

362

-;
:
Mg + 2HCI = MgCI 2 + H 2 .
<
Zn + 2HCI = ZnCI 2 + H 2 .
NaOH.
MgCI 2 + 2 N a O H = M g ( O H ) 2 i + 2NaCI,
ZnCI 2 + 2 N a O H = Z n f O H ^ i + 2NaCI,
Zn(OH)2 :
Zh(OH) 2 + 2 N a O H = Na 2 [Zn(OH) 4 ].
4. :
(NH 4 ) 2 Cr 2 O 7 = N 2 + Cr 2 O 3 + 4 2 0 .
() :
N 2 + 2
2NH 3 .
() (II):
4NH 3 + 5 0 2 = 4 N 0 + 6 2 0 .
(II) () (IV):
2NO + O2 = 2N02.
(IV) () :
2 N 0 2 + 2 N a O H = NaNO 3 + NaNO 2 + H 2 O.
()
(E):
2 N a N 0 3 = 2 NaNO 2 + O 2
5. ) , , Fe 2 (SO 3 ) 3
. , CaSO 3
( ).
:
3 C a ( H S 0 3 ) 2 + 2 F e ( N 0 3 ) 3 = 2 F e ( 0 H ) 3 4 + 3Ca(N0 3 ) 2 + 6 S 0 2 T .
:

363

( Fe3+, Al3+, Cr 3+ ,
, (H 2 S, H 4 SiO 4
.), (CO 2 , SO 2 )).
) , ,
H 2 O 2 :
Ca(HSO 3 ) 2 + 2 2 0 2 = CaSO 4 + H 2 SO 4 + 2 2 0 .
) MgBr 2
RBr 2 . , RBr 2 :
CH3
H3C
C H 2 - C H 2 - C H - C H - C H 3 + Mg
|
Br
Br

CH3

+ MgBr2

6. (III)
Cr(OH) 3 :
Cr 2 S 3 + 6 2 0 = 2Cr(OH) 3 + 3H 2 S.
:
Cr 2 S 3 + + 3 H 2 0 = 2Cr(OH) 3 + 3KHS.
(1)
Cr 2 S 3 + 6 0 = 2() 3 + 3K 2 S.
(2)
Cr 2 S 3 + 8 0 = 2K[Cr(0H) 4 ] + 3K 2 S.
(3>
, ,
, :
V(Cr 2 S 3 ) = 2/200 = 0.02, v(KOH) = 16.54-1.185 0.2/56 = 0.07. V(Cr2S3) / v(KOH) = 1:7 , (2) (3). (2) 0.02 Cr(OH) 3 , 0.03 K 2 S,
0.01 , 0.01 Cr(OH) 3
0.01 KfCr(OH) 4 ]:
Cr(OH) 3 + KOH = KfCr(OH) 4 ].
, Cr(OH) 3 (0.01 )
50 K 2 S KfCr(OH) 4 ] :
:

364

C(K2S) = 0.03/0.05 = 0.6 /,


C(K[Cr(OH)4]) = 0.01/0.05 = 0.2 /.

- :
K 2 S + Br2 = S + 2.
(4)
2K[Cr(OH) 4 ] + Br2 = KBr + KOBr + 2Cr(OH) 3 + H 2 O.
(5)
( Cr(OH) 3 K(Cr(OH) 4 )
,
).
0.03 K 2 S (4) 0.03 Br2,
0.01 KfCr(OH) 4 ] (5)
0.005 Br2.
0.035 Br 2 (2) = 0.035-160 = 5.6 .
. C(K 2 S) = 0.6 , C(K[Cr(OH) 4 ]) = 0.2 ; 5.6 Br2.
7. CnH2n.-]Cl.
:
CH 3 C=CH + 4 0 2 = 0 2 + 2 2 0 ,
C n H 2n -I I + (1.5-0.5)0 2 = n C 0 2 + (n-1)H 2 0 + HCI.
C 3 H 4 (=40) C n H 2rv1 CI
(=14+34.5). -,
: V = PVIRT= 96.5-18/(8.31-418) = 0.5 .
M = 29D bou = 50.95 /.
0.5 = 50.95-0.5 = 25.5 .
C 3 H 4 2 H 2 O,
C n H 2 f v 1 CI -(-1) H 2 O. V(H 2 O) =
= 18/18= 1 .
, :
+ = 0.5
40.x + (14 + 34.5); = 25.5
[: + ( - 1 ) = 1

: =3, = 0.35 , = 0.15 . .



C3H5CI. 4
:
:

365

CCH2-CH=OH2
I
H3C4
H
C=C
4
H/
CI

CH3-CCI=CH2
*
H3C4
Cl
C=C
n
W
H

0.15 C3H5CI,
C3H5CI + 4 0 2 = SCO2 + 2 + HCI
0.15 HCI.
HCI + AgNO3 = AgCI + HNO 3
0.15 AgNO3.
/KAgNO3) = 0.15 170 = 25.5 .
(- AgNO3) = 25.5/0.017 = 1500 .
V(p-pa AgNO3) = 1500/1.01 = 1485 .
. 4 C3H5CI; 1485 AgNO3.

-93-1
2. 13.3 .
4. - C 2 H 2 , - C 6 H 6 , - C 6 H 5 NO 2 , - C6H5NH25. Mg, Mg(OH)2, H 2 SO 4 .
7. KO3.

-93-2
2. 30.5 .
4. - C2H2, - CH3CHO. - CH3COONH4, - CH 3 COOH,
- CH 3 COOC 2 H 5 .
5. Al, I2, CO2.
7. KO2.

366

-99-4
1. CaO + CO2 = CaCO3.
2. M(Na2CO3) = 106 / M(Na2CO3-IOH2O) = 286 /,
JC ,
.
:
0.14 = (100-1.070.07+ 106) /(IOO 1.07 + 286.*),
: = 0.114 . 286 32.5 .
. 32.5 .
3. 1) (Ni, Pt1 Cr2O3) ():
C 3 H 8 = C 3 H 6 + H2.
2) - ():
CH 3 -CHBr-CH 3 + KOH = C 3 H 6 + KBr + H2O.
3)
H 2 SO 4 AI2O3 ():
CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -OH = C 3 H 6 + H2O.
4) ()
CH 3 -CHBr-CH 2 Br + Zn = C 3 H 6 + ZnBr2.
4.

CaCO 3 + 4 = CaC 2 () +
CaC 2 + 2 2 0 = Ca(OH)2 + C2H2 ()
C2H2 + HCI = C2H3CI ()
C2H3CI + HCI = C2H4Cf2 ()

5. Mg, NH3l AICI3


3Mg + N2 = Mg3N2
Mg3N2 + 6 2 0 = ()2 + 2NH3
AICI3 + 3NH3 + 3H 2 0 = AI(OH)3 + 3NH4CI
AI(OH)3 + NaOH + 2 2 0 = Na[AI(0H)4(H20)2J
AI(OH)3 + 3HCI = AICI3 + 3H 2 0
367

6. a) 2FeCI 3 + K2S = 2FeCI 2 + S + 2KCI


) C 6 H 5 -C 2 H 5 + 4KMn0 4 =
= C 6 H 5 COOK + K 2 CO 3 + KOH + 4Mn0 2 + 2 2 0
) CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -C=C-Ag + HBr ->
CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -C=CH + AgBr
7. , CO 2 ,
( ), . MexOy. :
1) 2 MexOy + XCO2 = XMe2CO3 + (-0.5)0 2
2) Me 2 CO 3 + BaCI2 = 2MeCI + BaCO 3
3) 2Cu + O 2 = 2
, (3) :
V(O2) = 6.72/32 = 0.21 .
(2): V(BaCO3) = 27.58/197 = 0.14 = V(Me2CO3),
, v(Me) = 0.28 .
1): / (-0.5)=0.14 /0.21, : : = 1:2. , (MeO2)111 ( ).
= 1, MeO 2 .
V(MeO2) = V(Me) = 0.28 , MeO2:
AZ(MeO2) = 39.2 / 0.28 = 117.5 /, :
M(Me) = 117.5 - 32 = 85.5 /. Rb. RbO 2 . ( >1, , Rb).
. RbO 2 .

-93-4
2. 35.2 .
4. - CaC 2 , - C 2 H 2 , - C 2 Cu 2 , - CuBr.
5. Al, S, H2S.
7. CsO 2 .
:

368

171-94-1
1. Is22s22pl3sl.
4. X 1 - C r C I 3 ,
X3 K 3 Cr(OH) 6 ,

X2-Cr(OH)3,
X4 K 2 CrO 4 .

5. CH 3 COCH 3 (), CH 3 CH(OH)CH 3 ,


CH 3 CHBrCH 3 , D CH 3 CH(MgBr)CH 3 , E ( 3 ) 2 ,
F (CH 3 ) 2 CHCOONH 4 , G (CH 3 ) 2 CCICOOH.
6. COCI2 43.4%.
7. C7H12 5-7- .

171-94-2
1. \s22s22p5.
(2)
(3s).
is22s22pW.
. \s22s22PW.
2. 1) (FI) :
PbO + = Pb + CO 2 ,
CuO + = Cu + CO 2 .
2) .
Pb + 2 3 = (CH3COO)2Pb + H2T1
, CuO .
3. 1) :
2PbS + 3 0 2 = 2 + 2 S 0 2 ,
Ag + O 2 ->
2) Ag PbO
.
369

PbO + 2CH3COOH = (CH 3 COO) 2 Pb + H 2 O 1


.
4. 1)
(II):
Fe + 2HCI = FeCI 2 + H 2 T.
X1
2) Fe(II) Fe(III):
2FeCI 2 + Cl 2 = 2FeCI 3 .
X2
3)
FeCI 3 :
2FeCI 3 + 3 N a 2 S 0 3 + 3 H 2 0 = 2 F e ( O H ) 3 l + 3 S 0 2 T + 6NaCI.
X3

4) Fe(OH) 3 Fel 2 :
2Fe(OH) 3 + 6HI = 2Fel 2 + I 2 + 6 2 0 .
X4

5. 1) :
C 2 H 6 + Cl 2 = C 2 H 5 CI + HCI.

2)
:
C 2 H 5 CI + Mg = C 2 H 5 MgCI.

3) :
C 2 H 5 MgCI + CH 2 O + HCI = C 2 H 5 - C H 2 - O H + MgCI 2 .

4) CuO
:
,,,,
C 2 H 5 - C H 2 - O H + CuO = C 2 H 5 - C H = O + Cu + H 2 O.
D
5)

370

C 2 H 5 CH=O + 2{Ag(NH3)2]OH
C 2 H 5 COONH 4 + 2Agi + 3NH 3 + H 2 O.
E
6) :
C 2 H 5 COONH 4 + HCI =C 2 H 5 COOH + NH4CI.
F
7)
- :
CH 3 -CH 2 -COOH + Cl 2 = CH3-CHCI-COOH + HCI.
G
8) :
CH 3 -CHCI-COOH + 2NH3 = CH3-CH-COONH4
NH3CI
H
6. . N2 H2.
, 5% :
Mcp = (28* + 2) / (JC + ) = 0.954 = 3.8,
= 13.44 .

N2 + 2 S 2NH 3
N2, H2, 2 NH3. :
V(H2) + V(N2) + V(NH3) = (-) + (-) + 2 = 14.44: - 2.
() = 28.x + 2 = 54.9.x . , 4:
Mcp = 54.9* / (14.44.V - 2) > 4,
> 0.3575.x. , ,
/., , , 35.75%.
. 35.75%.
7. * ( = IZx + ).
:
:

371

C x H y + Cl 2 = C x H y CI 2 ,
C x H y + Br2 - C x H y B r 2 .
, :
HC x H y CI 2 ) = 22.95/(12++71) =
= V(CxHyBr2) = 36.3/(12*++160),
\2+=82. , <1.
X=6, = 10, 10. <6 (C 5 H 2 2 , 4 3 4 ..) ,
C 6 H 1 0 .

C n H 2 r v 2 ,
. , . :
H3C
CH3

1,2-

C2H5

25

Cf

1 -

3-

. C6H10.

171-94-3
1. 1 s 7 2s 2 2pW3p { .
4.

X1X3-

CuCI,
Cu 2 S,

5. A - C H 3 C H B r C H 3 ,
(CH 3 ) 2 CHMgBr 1
C-(CH3)2CHCH2OH1
D (CH 3 ) 2 CHCOOH i

X2- [Cu(NH 3 ) 2 ICI,


X4- Cu(NO 3 ) 2 .
E- (CH 3 ) 2 CHC(O)CI,
F - ( 3 ) 2 2 5 ,
G - (CH 3 ) 2 CHCOONa 1
H - ( 3 ) 2 3 .

6. C H 3 O H 70%.
7. C 1 0 H 1 2 .
:

372

171-91-2
1. ,
.
T = 200 0C P = 100 . 1
V = RT / P = 8.31-473/100 = 39.31 ,
d = ml V= 72/39.31 = 1.83 /.
2.

CH3CH2CH2NO21-;
H2NCH(CH3)COOH .
,
. 1- , , ,
. , 1 -, NaHCO 3
:
H 2 N C H ( C H 3 ) C O O H + NaHCO 3 =
= H 2 NCH(CH 3 )COONa + CO 2 + H 2 O.
3. v(Ag):v(N):v(H):v(0) = 7.69:23.08:46.15:23.08 = 1:3:6:3, AgN3H6O3.
(I): (Ag(NH3)2)NO3.

:
AgNO 3 + 2NH 3 = (Ag(NH 3 ) 2 JNO 3 .

[Ag(NH3)2JNO3 Ag2S:
2[Ag(NH 3 ) 2 JN0 3 + Na 2 S = Ag 2 S 4- + 2 N a N 0 3 + 4NH 3 .
4. 1) Cu(I)
Cu(H):
Cu2O + 3H2S04 = 2CUS04 + SO2 + 3H20.

.X,
2) CuSO 4 BaCI 2
:
CuSO 4 + BaCI 2 = B a S O 4 I + CuCI 2 .
X2

3) CuCI2 KOH :

CuCI 2 + 2 0 = C u ( O H ) 2 I + 2KCI.
X3

373

4) Cu(OH)2 Cu2O
:
2Cu(OH) 2 + C H 3 C H O = C H 3 C O O H + Cu 2 O -I + 2 2 0 .
X4

5. I)
Ba(OCI)2 KH
, Ba(OCI)2 BaCI2:
Ba(OCI) 2 + 2 = BaCf 2 + 2 0 .
2)
. :
NafAI(OH) 4 J + CO 2 = A I ( O H ) 3 1 + NaHCO 3 .
3)
1,2-:

:
2 C U S 0 4 + 2 = 2Cu I + 2 H 2 S 0 4 + O 2 .

, (II) . :
2 2 0 = 2 2 T + O 2 .
, .
,
, , , ,
(32 / Cu, 8 /
O 2 , 1 / H 2 ). ,
160 (2Cu + O2X
36 (22 + O 2 ), - 160/36=4.44 .
:

374

73 :

C3H6 + 4.502 = 3C02 + 20,


C4H6 + 5.50 2 = 402 + 20,
C3H5CI + 40 2 = 02 + 220 + .

- (1)
(2)
(3)


( ),

Na2CO3 + 2HCI = 2NaCI + H2O + CO2.

<4)

, HCI , , C3H5CI:
V(CO2) = 0.224 / 22.4 = 0.01 ;
V(HCI) = 2 V(CO2) = 0.02 ;
V(C3H5CI) = V(HCI) = 0.02 ;
2.74 - 1.12 / = 3.07 ,
HCI 0.02-36.5 = 0.73 ,
3.07 - 0.73 = 2.34 H2O. , , (1) (3),
V(H2O) = 2.34/18 = 0.13 .
0.02 (3) 0.04 H2O, 0.09 -1.
(1) (2) , H2O 3
, V(C3H6) +
+ V(C4H6) = 0.09 / 3 = 0.03 .
V(C3H6) = , V(C4H6) = , , (1) (3),
V(O2) = 4.5- + 5.5- + 0.02-4 = 4.5-(+) + + 0.08 = 0.215 + , ..
+ = 0.03 (. ). 0 < < 0.03,
0.215 < V(O2) < 0.245 .
, :
4.82 < V(O2) <5.49 .
. 4.82 < V(O2) < 5.49 .

171-91-2
3. [Cu(NH 3 ) 2 ]OH.
4.

Xi-MnCI2,
X 2 MnS,

X3-Mn(NO3)2,
X 4 Br2.

5. a) Ba(OBr) 2 + LiH;
) Na[AI(0H)4] + SO 2 ;
) 1 --2-.
7. 3.25 < V(O2) <3.36 .

-94-3
3. Cr(NO 3 ) 3 GH 2 O.
4.

X1-FeCI2,
X 2 Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ,

X3-FeCI3,
X 4 Na 2 S.

5. a) LiOCI + KH;
) Na[AI(0H) 4 ] + H 2 S;
) 1,4-.
7. 8.29 < V(O2) < 8.74 .

-94-4
3. (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 .
4.

X 1 K 2 CrO 4 ,
X 2 K 2 Cr 2 O 7 ,

5. a) KOCI + BaH 2 ;
) Na[AI(OH) 4 ] + CH 3 COOH;
) .
7. 7.50 < V(O2) < 8.40 .

376

X 3 Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3
X 4 .

-94-1
2. 6 .
4.

- CrCI 3 ,

X2 -

K 2 CrO 4 .

5. a).P 2 0 5 + HNO3;
) K 2 SO 3 + K 2 Cr 2 O 7 + H 2 SO 4 ;
) C H 3 - C H B r - C H B r - C H 3 + KOH (. -).
6. 1.12 Fe.
7. CH2O .

-94-2
2. 6 .
4. X 1 Fe(NO 3 ) 3 , X 2 FeCI 3 .
5. a) P 2 O 5 + H 2 SO 4 ;
) K 2 S + K 2 Cr 2 O 7 + H 2 SO 4 ;
) C 6 H 5 - C B r 2 - C H 3 + KOH (. -).
6.3.06 Ni.
7. C6H5CH(CH3)2 .

-94-3
2. 6 .
4. X 1 MnSO 4 , X 2 Mn(NO 3 ) 2 .
5. a) P 2 O 5 + HCIO 4 ;
) KNO 2 + K 2 Cr 2 O 7 + HNO 3 ;
) CH 3 -C(CH 3 )CI-CH 2 -CH 3 + KOH (. -).
6. 0.8 Ni.
7. C2H4 .

-94-4
1.

Tioq

M g ( O H ) 2 t , Mg 2+ + 2 0 ' .
((0) 2 ) = [ M g 2 + H O H f .

2. , -
. 6 , CH(CH 3 ) 2
: 2,3; 2,4; 2,5; 2,6; 3,4; 3,5.
H3C / 3
H3C ^CH3
CH
CH

H3C

H3C

CH3
CH

^CH3
CH

H3C

CH3
CH

H3C

/ 3
CH

3. 1) //?- :
. JD
KMnO4, H2SO4

I'jr
+ 3 CO2

2) .
-COOH 2- , 378

- 3- :
HCL -
. JD
HNO3 , .H2SO4
N

4. 1) (I) (II):
Cu 2 S + 1 4 H N 0 3 = 2 C U ( N 0 3 ) 2 + H 2 S O 4 + I O N O 2 + 6 2 0 .
X1
2) (II)
(II):
2 C U ( N 0 3 ) 2 = 2CuO + 4 N 0 2 + O 2 .
3) (II) :
CuO + H 2 SO 4 = CuSO 4 + H 2 O.
X2
4) (II)
:
CuSO 4 + (CH 3 COO) 2 Ba = B a S O 4 1 + (CH 3 COO) 2 Cu.
5. )
(V) :
P 2 O 5 + C 2 H 5 OH = C 2 H 4 + 2 0 3 .
) , K 2 Cr 2 O 7 , Kl.
6KI + K 2 Cr 2 O 7 + 7 H 2 S 0 4 = 3I 2 + 4 K 2 S 0 4 + Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 7 2 0 .
)
KOH :
C H 3 - C ( C H 3 ) B r - C H 3 + KOH
(CH 3 ) 2 C=CH 2 + KBr + H 2 O.
6. :
FeCO 3 + 2HCI = FeCI 2 + CO 2 T + H 2 O.
:

379

v(FeC0 3 )=2.32/l 16=0.02 , V(HCI)=I8.25/36.5=0.5 ,


.
0.02 CO2.
:
w = 100 + W(FeCO3) - W(CO2) = 102.32 - 0.02-44 = 101.44 .
:
Mn + CuSO 4 = MnSO 4 + Cu.
,
.
, ,
1.44 .
. 1.44 Mn.
7. :
V(K2C2O4) = 9.96 / 166 = 0.06 ,
V(MnO2) = 13.92 / 87 = 0.16 ,
v(KOH) = 2.24 / 56 = 0.04 .
, , 0.06 X, :
v(X): V(K2C2O4): V(MnO2): v(KOH) = 3: 3: 8: 2,
:
+ 8KMn0 4 = 3K 2 C 2 0 4 + 8Mn0 2 + 2 + zH 2 0.
, X
. C 2 H x O y .
H :
() + 32 = 12 + 16 + 2 +
(H) 3x = 2z + 2
, = 2 + 2. = 0, = 2: C2H2. ,
.
2 2 + 8KMn0 4 = 3K 2 C 2 0 4 + 8Mn0 2 + 2 + 2 2 0.
= 1, = 4
C 2 H 4 O. .
.
= 2, = 6
C 2 H 6 O 2 .
K2C2O4.
:

380


:
5 3 + 8KMn0 4 + 12H 2 S0 4 =
= 5 3 + 5 0 2 + 4K 2 S0 4 + 8MnS0 4 + 12 2 0.
. C 2 H 2 .

-95-1
3. (NH4)2S.
4. w(NaHS0 3 )=19.8%, CO(Na2SO3)= 19.8%; m(BaS0 3 )= 10.85 .
5. - C 2 H 2 , - CH 3 CHO, - CH3CH(OH)CN,
- 3 (). - 2 =,
E - CH 2 BrCH 2 COOH.
6. 2.100 .
7. 1--4-.

-95-2
3. (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 .
4. to(KHS03)=8.2%, co(K2S03)=21.6%; WI(CaSO3)= 12.0 .
5. - CH3CCI2CH3, - CH3C=CH, - CH 3 C=CNa,
CH 3 C=CCH 3 , - CH 3 COCH 2 CH 3 , E - CH 3 CH(OH)CH 2 CH 3 .
6. 1.654 .
7. 1--2-.

-95-3
NH2

NH2

10 -.
:

381

2. ) :
SO 2 + 2H 2 S = 3 S i + 2 2 0,
t
SO 2 + 3Mg
MgS + 2MgO.
) :
SO 2 + Br2 + 2 2 0 = H 2 SO 4 + 2,
5 S 0 2 + 2KMn0 4 + 2 2 0 = K 2 SO 4 + 2MnS0 4 + 2H 2 S0 4 .
3. , (NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 .
(NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 + 2 3 = 2CH 3 COONH 4 + CO 2 T + H2O1
(NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 + 20 = K 2 CO 3 + 2NH 3 t + 2 2 0,
3(NH 4 ) 2 C0 3 + 2AICI3 + 2 0=21(0) 3 4 + 3C0 2 T + 6NH4CI.
4.

2H 2 S + 3 0 2 = 2S0 2 T + 22,

(1)

NaOH + SO 2 = NaHSO 3 ,
2NaOH + SO 2 = Na 2 SO 3 + H2O1

(2)
(3)

Na 2 SO 3 + Ca(NO 3 ) 2 = C a S O 3 I + 2NaN0 3 .

(4)

V(H2O) = V(SO2) = V(H2S) = 4.48 / 22.4 = 0.2 .


V(NaOH) = 57.4-1.22 0.2 / 40 = 0.35 .
Jt SO 2 (2), SO 2 (3),
/J(SO2) = 0.2 = +
/i(NaOH) = 0.2 =jc+ 2
= 0.05, = 0.15.
w(p-pa) = w(p-pa NaOH) + W(H2O) + m(S0 2 ) = 51 .22 + 0.2 18 +
+ 0.2-64 = 86.4 .
V(NaHSO3)=*= 0.05, W(NaHSO3) = 0.05-104 = 5.2 , W(NaHSO3) =
= 5.2/86.4 = 0.0602 = 6.02%.
V(Na 2 SO 3 ) == 0.15, W(Na2SO3) = 0.15-126 = 18.9 , Co(Na2SO3) =
= 18.9/86.4 = 0.219 = 21.9%.
V(CaSO 3 ) = V(Na2SO3) = 0.15, W(CaSO3) = 0.15-120 = 18.0 .
. Co(NaHSO3) = 6.02%, Co(Na2SO3) = 21.9%; W(CaSO3) =
= 18.0 ."

382

5 . 1 ) C 6 H 6 + CH 3 CH=CH 2

) C 6 H 5 CH(CH 3 ) 2

2) C 6 H 5 CH(CH 3 ) 2 + Br2 J t l U C 6 H 5 CBr(CHH33) 2 + HBr

3) C 6 H 5 CBr(CH 3 ) 2 + KOH 5 >


C2HsOH
* C 6 H 5 C(CH 3 )=CH 2 + KBr + H 2 O

H;Nl

4) C6H5C(CH3)=CH2 + H2
5) H3C

> C6H5CH(CH3)2

H3C4 ^CH3

^CH3
CH
+ Br2

+ HBr

Br

6) 5BrC6H4CH(CH3)2 + 1804 + 27H 2 S0 4 =


= 5BrC6H4COOH + IOCO2 + 9K 2 S0 4 + 18MnS0 4 + 42 2 0.

6.

/2

Ix

/4

4Fe(N03)2 = 2Fe203 + 8 N 0 2 t + O2T

/2

/4

4Fe(N03)3 = 2Fe203 + 12N02T + 3 0 2 t


Fe(NO 3 ) 2
Fe(NO 3 ) 3 , (2 + )
NO 2 (/4 + /4) O 2 .
Mcp(NO2lO2) =

(2. + ) + 32 ( / 4 + / 4)
(2 + ) + (/4 + /4)

= 1.27 .
(. ) = W(Fe(NO 3 ) 2 ) + OT(Fe(NO3)3) = 180-JC + 242- =
= 486.5-.
(. ) = OT(Fe2O3) = 160-(JC/2 + /2) = 181.3-.
486.5/181.3 =
= 2.68 .
. 2.68 .
:

383

7. Fe + HCI ,
-NO 2 . -C8Hg (CnH2rv_7). 6 ,
.
, , CH3. ( -C 2 H 5 ,
: -C 2 H 5 > -COOH +
+ CO2). , .
6 :

CH 3

O4

(3)

(1)

0"

O4

fa

CH 3
CH 3

,0N

H3C

CH3

(2)
( ,
). (-CH 3
1- , -NO 2 2- ) . :
.
(3)

384

:
(CH 3 ) 2 C 6 H 3 NO 2 + 3Fe + 7HCI =
= (CH3)2C6H3NH3CI + 3FeCI 2 + 2 2 0,
5(CH 3 ) 2 C 6 H 3 N0 2 + 12KMn0 4 + 18H 2 S0 4 =
= 5(H00C) 2 C 6 H 3 N0 2 + 6K 2 S0 4 + 12MnS0 4 + 28H 2 0.

CO-95-4
3. FeCI 3 .
4. W(KHSO3) = 17.6%, (O(K2SO3) = 11.6%; W(BaSO 3 ) = 10.85 r.
5. A - C 6 H 5 C 2 H 5 , - C 6 H 5 CHBrCH 3 , B - C 6 H 5 CH(OH)CH 3 ,
- C 6 H 5 CH=CH 2 , - C 6 H 5 COOH, E - BrC 6 H 4 COOH.
6. 2.283 .
7. 1---.

-95-1
3. Cu(OH) 2 .
4. X1 FeCI3, X2 Fe(NO 3 ) 3 .
6. w(p-pa HNO 3 ) = 45.4
( : 3Cu 2 S + 22HN0 3 = 6Cu(N0 3 ) 2 + 10NO +
+ 3H 2 S0 4 + 8H 2 0).
7. CO(K2CO3) = 45.1%, Co(KOH) = 54.9%.

C-95-2
3. NaOH.
4. X1 CH 3 COOAg, X2 AgNO3.
6. w(p-pa HNO3) = 54.7
( : FeS 2 + 8HN0 3 =Fe(N0 3 ) 3 + 5N0 + 2H 2 S0 4 +
+ 2H 2 0).

7. Co(Na2CO3) = 57.0%, Co(NaOH) = 43.0%.


13-1115

385

171-91-2
3. .
4. X1 Cu(NO 3 ) 2 , X2 CuSO 4 .
6. m(p-pa HNO 3 ) = 33.87
( : FeS + 6HN0 3 = Fe(NO 3 ) 3 + 3 N 0 + H 2 SO 4 +
+ 2 2 0).
7. Co(Na2CO3) = 70.2%, Co(NaOH) = 29.8%.

-95-4
1. 4- -/-
.
2. CaCI 2 + CH 3 COOK /-
N2H4 + HCI
> [N2H5JCI (N2H4 )
3. KMnO4.
CH 3 COONa + KMnO4 /-
5 2 + 4KMn0 4 + 6H 2 S0 4 =
= 50 2 + 2K 2 S0 4 + 4MnS0 4 + 11H 2 O,
5 2 5 + 4KMn0 4 + 6H 2 S0 4 =
= 5 3 + 2K 2 S0 4 + 4MnS0 4 + 11H 2 O.
4.

KAIO2 + 4HCI = KCI + AICI3 + 2 2 0,


Xi
AICI3 + 3NH 3 + 3 H 2 0 = AI(OH) 3 I + 3NH4CI,
2AI(OH)3 = AI2O3 + 3H 2 0,

AI2O3 + 20

> 2KAIO2 + H 2 Ot.

5. a) 2HI + H 2 O 2 = I2 + 2 2 0;
) 6 5 = 2 + 2KMnO4 + 4 2 0 -> 6 5 () 2
+ 2Mn0 2 + 20,
C 6 H 5 CH=CH 2 + 2KMn0 4 + SH 2 SO 4
-> C 6 H 5 COOH + CO 2 + K 2 SO 4 + 2MnS0 4 + 4 ;
) Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + 6HCI = 3CaCI 2 + 2 3 0 4 .
386

6.

0.1
, '
,
0.1
CaSO 3 + 2HCI = CaCI 2 + H 2 O + SO 2 T

v(HCI) = 50-0.2/36.5 = 0.274, V(CaSO3) = 12/120 = 0.1 ;


.
'
1) Aw1 = w(p-pa HCI) m(S0 2 ) = 50 - 0.1-64 = 43.6 .
2) m(p-pa HCI) - , w(HCI) = 0.1-, /(H2O) = 0.9-:
Cr 2 S 3 + 6HCI = 2CrCI 3 + 3H 2 ST

Cr 2 S 3 + 6 2 0 = 2Cr(OH) 3 + 3H 2 ST
Cf 2 S 3 : V(Cr2S3)=12/200=
= 0.06.

v(HCI) + V(H 2 O) = 0.06-6 = 0.36 = O.lx/36.5 + 0.9/18,


= 6.83 . 6.83 10%- Cr 2 S 3
, 0.06-3 = 0.18
H 2 S 0.18-34 = 6.12 . Cr(OH) 3 , .
Awi1= 43.6 = w(p-pa HCI) - w(H2S), w(p-pa HCI) = 43.6 +
= 6.12 = 49.72 .
. w(p-pa HCI) = 49.72 .
7.

0.15

0.15

CH 3 COOC 2 H 5 + NaOH
> C H 3 C O O N a + C 2 H 5 OH 1
C 3 H 7 OH + NaOH / - >
V(CH3COOC2H5) = 16.5-0.8/88 = 0.15, v(NaOH) = 0.0625-8 = 0.5
0.15
C H 3 C O O N a 0.35 NaOH, :
0.15

C H 3 C O O N a + NaOH

0.15

CH 4 T + Na 2 CO 3 .

: V(Na2CO3) = 0.15, m(Na 2 C0 3 ) = 0.15 106 =


= 15.9 ,
V(NaOH) = 0.35 - 0.15 =0.2, W(NaOH) = 0.2-40 = 8.0 .
" CO(Na2CO3) = 1 5 3 / 23.9 = 0.665 = 66.5%,
CO(NaOH) = 8.0 / 23.9 = 0.335 = 33.5%,
. Co(Na2CO3) = 66.5%, Co(NaOH) = 33.5%.

13*

387

-2000-2
1. :
R'
I
R-C-OH
I
R"
R, R', R"
. ,
, , R, R', R"
. , CH 3 , C 2 H 5 :
H
I
C2H5-C-OH
CH3
-2. :
H
I
H
H3C^cN
Ic
,- VCH3

H5C2
'
C2H5
2. :
5

S 2 CI 2 + 3 H 2 S 0 4 = 5 S 0 2 T + 2HCIT + 2 2 0
(P(SO2) = 5/7 = 0.714 = 71.4%,
<p(HCI) = 2/7 = 0.286 = 28.6%.
3. , , :
RNH 2 + HCI = RNH 3 CI
H 2 N - C H ( R ) - C O O H + HCI = C I [ H 3 N - C H ( R ) - C O O H ]
R C O O N a + HCI = R C O O H + NaCI
R - C H = C H 2 + HCI
> R-CHCI-CH3

388

4. . : Xi , X 2 Oa(NO 3 ) 2 . :
Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 + Ca(OH) 2 = 2 0 3 + 2 2 0
1
CaCO 3

> C a O + CO 2

Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 + 2 H N 0 3 = Ca(NO 3 ) 2 + 2 0 2 + 2 2 0
I
2Ca(N03)2
> 2 + 4 N 0 2 + O 2
CaCO 3 + 2 H N 0 3 = Ca(NO 3 ) 2 + CO 2 T + H 2 O
Ca(NO 3 ) 2 + Na 2 CO 3 = C a C O 3 I + 2 N a N 0 3
5. ( ):
Pt, 300 QC
CH3CH2CH2CH2CH2CH2CH3
,
CH3
Pt, 300

+ 4 H2


: 2- (/-) 4- (-). , 4- (. ):
CH3

+ Br2

FeBr3
>

+HBr

4- 4- :

389

CH3
'I
5[3 J

' v '

> ' ' " '

" "

''

+ 6KMn04 + 9H2S04

COOH
+ 3K2S04 + 6 MnSO4 + UH2O

-COOH /-, a -Br opmo-napa, 4-


3:
COOH
COOH
+ HNO3

H2SO4

+ H2O
NO2

2-, 2- ,
3 5, njin .

, :
COOH
COOH
+ 3Zn + 7HCI

390

+ 3ZnCI2 + 2 H2O
NH3CI

, , : : ;
;: i
)
COONH2(C2H5)2

+ 2(C2H5)2NH

NH3CI

+ (C2H5)2NH2CI
NH2

Br

6. PX3 PX5
(X ). :
1

PX3 + 3H20 = H3PO3 +

PX5 + 420 = H3PO4 + 5


<? 1 PX3
5 KOH (H 3 PO 3 ):
1

H3PO3 + 20 = K2HPO3 + 220


3 3

HX + KOH = KX + H2O
,
1 PX5 8 :
1

H3PO4 + = K3PO4 + 2
5

HX + KOH = KX + H2O
V(KOH) = CV =2 / 0.035 = 0.07 .
(III):
V(PX3) = v(KOH) / 5 = 0.014 ,
M(PX3) = /V = 1.23 /0.014 = 88 /,
A(X) = ( 8 8 - 3 1 ) / 3 = 19 /.
,
X , PF3.
(V):
V(PX5) =' V(KOH) / 8 = 0.00875 ,
M(PX5) = / V = 1.23 / 0.00875 = 140.6 /,
A(X) = (140.6 - 31) / 5 = 21.9 / .
. PF3.
:

391

7. ,
. (..,
)
CnH2n ( ). , ()=12/( 12 + 2)=6/7, co(H)=2n/(12n + 2) = 1/7.
:
C x H 2 x + 3x12 O 2 = XCO 2 + XH 2 O
C y H 2 y + /2 O 2 = 0 2 + 2 0
C i H 2 z + 3z/2 O 2 = z C 0 2 + ZH 2 O
, C x H 2 x
, , C y H 2 y C 2 H 2z . ,
/2 = /2 + /2, x = y + z. Jt, .
, , . C n H 2 n
C 3 H 6 ( = 3,
z = 3). ,
(JC = + z - 6). C 6 H 1 2

:

+ Br2

( ^ f

, , C H 3 - C H = C H 2 ,

-96-2
2. (1) = 2/3; Cp(SO2) = 1/3.
4. X1 - MgSO 4 , X2 - Mg(NO 3 ) 2 .
5. - 2-, - 1,-2,4-,
- 2,4--1,3- ,

D - 2,4--1,3- ,
E - C 6 H 2 (NH 3 Br) 2 (COOH) 2 , F - C 6 H 2 (NH 3 F) 2 (COOH) 2 .
6. PCI 3 .
7. -1; ; .
:

392

-2000-2
2. (1) = 9 ( S 0 2 ) = 0.5.
4. X1 - Ba 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , X2 - Ba(NO 3 ) 2 .
5. - 2-, - 4-,
- O 2 NC 6 H 4 OOOH, D - H 2 NC 6 H 4 COONa,
E - BrH 3 NC 6 H 4 COOH, F - AgBr.
6. PF 3 .
7. ; ; .

-96-4
2. (1) = 0.8; (30 2 ) = 0.2.
4. X1 - Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , X2 - Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .
I

5. - , - 4--1-, - CIC6H4COOH,
D - --4- , E - (CIH3N)CIC6H3COOH,
F-(H 2 N)CIC 6 H 3 COONH 2 (C 2 H 5 ) 2 .
6. PCI 3 .
7. -1; ; .

-96-1
1.

C6H5NO3
(C6H4(OH)NO2).
CH2 C m6 H 2m . 5 N0 3 . 11
( = 3) , , 2--4-:

NO 2

393

2. AgNO3:
HBr + AgNO 3 = A g B r l + HNO 3
NaF + A g N O 3 / - >
2 0 + 2AgN03 = Ag2Ol + H2O + 2KN03
'AICI3 + 3 A g N 0 3 = 3 A g C l l + AI(NO 3 ) 3
AgBr , Ag 2 O -, AgCI .
3. ,
:

, r(F-F)2=2r(N-F)2 - 2r(N-F)2cosZFNF, cosZFNF = -0.209, ZFNF = 102.


, NF3 ,
.
, Sp3-ITiepHflHSanHH.
4 : , CuO:
2 C u 2 0 + O 2 = 4CuO
CuO + H 2 SO 4 = CuSO 4 + H 2 O
X2-Cu:
CuSO 4 + Fe = FeSO 4 + Cu
Cu + Cl 2 = CuCI 2
X 3 Cu(OH) 2 :
CuCI 2 + 2 0 = C u ( O H ) 2 I + 2KCI
2Cu(OH) 2 + CH 3 CH=O
> Cu2Ol + CH3COOH + 2 2 0
5. C6H12Oe
)

> 225 + 20 2 ( -

C 2 H 5 OH
:

394

140 0C1H2SO4

> C2H4 + H2O

CoH, +Cl 2

) C2H4CI2

C2H6OH
C2H4CI2 + 2K0H

> C2H2 + 2KCI + 2H 2 0


, 600 "
* C6H6

22
C 6 H 6 + HNO 3

H2SO4

C 6 H 5 -NO 2 + 3(NH4)2S

* C6H5-NO2 + H2O

C 6 H 5 -NH 2 + 3S + 2 + 6NH3

6. , :

./2

23

> (CH3COOH)2

: V(CH3COOH) =
= // = 5.4/60 = 0.09 . CH3COOH, /2
(CH3COOH)2 (0.09 - ) CH3COOH.
:
V = PV/(RT) = 43.7 4.50 / (8.31 473) = 0.05 = /2 + (0.09 - ) ,
= 0.08 .
:
(3)2] = V-N a = 0.08 / 2 6.02 IO23= 2.408 IO22
. 2.408 IO22 (CH3COOH)2.
7.
:
R-CO-O-R' + NaOH
> RCOONa + R1OH


, , R1OH ,
R1OH :
0.0025

0.005

R 11 -CO-O-C 6 H 4 -R m + 2NaOH
>

> R11COONa + NaO-C 6 H 4 -R'" + H2O


, ,
.
:

395

:
V(NaOH) = V = 0.1 / 0.05 = 0.005 ,
v ( R " - C 0 - 0 - C 6 H 4 - R " ' ) = V(NaOH) / 2 = 0.0025 ,
M(R"-C0-0-C 6 H 4 -R'")=7W/V=0.375 / 0.0025 = 150 /,
(R" + R'") = 150 M(CO-O-C 6 H 4 ) = 30 /.
30 / R" R'": 1) R" = H1 R m = C 2 H 5 ; 2) R" = CH3, R'" = CH 3 ;
3) R" = C 2 H 5 , R'" = . ,
, , .
: CH 3 -CO-O-C 6 H 4 -CH 3 . C H 3 - C O - O - CH 3
/--.
, .
-, -
- :
OCOCH3
OCOCH3
OCOCH3

(4 )

(3 )

//-,
-:

Il
O-C-CH3

,
: C 2 H 5 COOC 6 H 5 ,
, ..
, :

396

- -
C 2 H 5 COO.

.

/O-C2H5

(3 ) :
/ O --CH
CH3
O^ / O - C H 3
O^ / O - C H 3
C
C
C
.CH 3
CH 3

-96-2
3. Bl3 ; .^-.
4. X1 - Ag 2 SO 4 , X2 - Ag2O1 X3 - AgF.
6.1.8- IO22 .
7. -; .

397

-96-3
'' '3. NCI 3 N;
N .?/>3-.
4. X1 - CrSO 4 , X2 - K 2 CrO 4 , X3 - Cr 2 O 3 .
6. 3.6-IO22.
. 7. -;
.

-96-4
3. 13 ; Al .^-.
4. X1 - MnSO 4 , X2 - MnO 2 , X3 - MnCI 2 .
6. 4.52- IO22 .
7. -; .

-97-1
4. X1 - Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 , X2 - Cr(OH) 3 l X3 - CrCI 3 .
6. W(CaCO 3 ) = 7 , CO(NaCI) = 0.054, Co(NaHCO3) = 0.026,
Co(Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 ) = 0.017.
7. X - C 9 H 4 l Y - C 9 N a 4 .

-97-2
4. X1 - CuSO 4 , X2 - Cu(OH) 2 l X3 - CuO.
6. W(SrS) = 6 , CO(KNO3) = 0.102, CO(KHS) = 0.036, CO(Sr(HS)2)
= 0.040.
7. X C 9 H 4 l Y C 9 K 4 .
398

171-91-2
1. ) ,
, , , :
Hg2+, H+

C2H2 + H2O
> CH3-CH=O
) , , , .
2. : - , H -1, - IV, Mg - II, P - V.
(
):
2
-3
-2
-1
-2+1
+2 . 0 + 5 . 0
CH3-CH2-CH2-OH
Mg; P +

3. P + 3 Br - ,
: P +3 ,
Br" . NO 2 :
PBr 3 + HNO 3
> H 3 PO 4 + Br 2 + NO 2 + H 2 O.
- :
1 2PBr 3 + SH 2 O - 10> 2 3 0 4 + 3Br 2 + 10H +
10 N O 3 - + 2* +
NO 2 + H 2 O
2 3 + IOHNO 3 = 2 3 0 4 + 3Br 2 + IONO 2 + 2 2 0 .
,
,
, :
N a O H + H 3 PO 4 = NaH 2 PO 4 + H 2 O;
2 N a O H + 2 N 0 2 = N a N O 3 + NaNO 2 + H 2 O.
( ):
6 N a O H + 3Br 2 = 5 NaBr + NaBrO 3 + 2 0 .
. Br 2 NO 2

, ,
.
, :
399

Ca + 2H3PO4 = Ca(H2PO4)2 + H2T,


Ca + Br2 = CaBr2,
7Ca + 2N0 2 = 4 C a 0 + Ca 3 N 2
( NO2).
. NaOH Ca.
4.
. , , Xt. , X1 (II), MnO2
. ,
, MnO2 (, ), (II). Mn(NO3)2
Mn(CH3COO)2 ,
MnBr2 . : X1 MnCI2. :
MnO 2 + 4HCI = MnCI 2 + Cl 2 + 2 2 0 ,
MnCI 2 + 2AgCH 3 COO = Mn(CH 3 COO) 2 + 2AgCli.
.
, X2 X3
, X1 .
: X2 Mn(OH)2, X3 Mn(NO3)2.
:
Mn(CH 3 COO) 2 + 2 N a O H = M n ( O H ) 2 I + 2NaCH 3 COO,
Mn(OH) 2 + 2HBr = MnBr 2 + 2 2 0 ,
MnBr 2 + 2 A g N 0 3 = Mn(NO 3 ) 2 + 2AgBrl,
Mn(NO 3 ) 2 = MnO 2 + 2 N 0 2 ( ).
. X1 MnCI 2 , X2 Mn(OH) 2 , X3 Mn(NO 3 ) 2 .
5. . -,- ,
; . -,
, ;
,
.
. CnH2n-S
2 ! ,
.
:

400

Cn-i H 2 r v i o0 2 , COOH. Crv-I H 2n -IoO 2


, C r v 2 H 2 n - H , (2-7 = - 2). ,
Cn-IH2lVioO2 , C n -IH 2 r v 1 1 KO 2 .
,
2- C rv1 H 2rv -IoO 2
. ,
CO 2 . ,
= 8, 2_ , C 6 H 5 CH 2 CH 3 .
2_8 , C 6 H 5 CH=CH 2 ; C r v 1 H 2 r v 1 0 O 2 , C 6 H 5 COOH; C r v 1 H 2 r v 1 1 KO 2 , C 6 H 5 COOK.
.
1)
:
C 6 H 5 CH=CH 2 + IOKMnO 4 + 1 3 0
C 6 H 5 COOK + IOK 2 MnO 4 + K 2 CO 3 + 8 2 0 .
:
C 6 H 5 C O O K + HCI - > C 6 H 5 C O O H + KCI.
:
C 6 H 5 C O O H + KOH - > C 6 H 5 COOK + H 2 O.
3) :
C 6 H 5 CH 2 CH 3 + 4 0 4
C 6 H 5 COOK + K 2 CO 3 + KOH + 2 2 0 .
:

C 6 H 5 CH=CH 2 + 2 K M n 0 4 + 3 H 2 S 0 4 - >
- > C 6 H 5 C O O H + CO 2 + K 2 SO 4 + 2 M n S 0 4 + 4 2 0 .
5) :

401

6) :

SC6H5CH2CH3 + 12KMn04 + 18H2S04 ->


565 + 5 + 6K2S04 + 12MnS04 + 2820.
,
, - , 100%- . , , MnO2
MnSO4. .
:

, , , .
,
,
> C7HeO2,
523 > C6H5COOH, ..
.
, = 8; , , ,
.
6.
:
0.1

0.15

0
0.1
.1

0.2

BaBr2 + K2SO3 = BaSO3I + 2.


V(K2S03)=23.7/158=0.15 , v(BaBr 2 )=1500.198/297=0.1
.
V(BaSO3)=O.! , (0.15-0.1)=0.05

K2SO3.
SO2
K2SO3 (V(SO2) = 2.24/22.4 = 0.1 ):
0.05
0.05
0.1
0.1

K2SO3 + SO2 + H2O = 2KHS03.


:

402

(0.1 - 0.05) = 0.05 SO 2


:
0.05

0.05

0.05

BaSO3 + SO2 + H2O = Ba(HSO3)2.


V(BaSO3)=O. 1-0.05=0.05 .
WI(BaSO3) = 0.05-217 = 10.85 .
0.2 KBr 0.2-119 =
= 23.8 , 0.1 KHSO 3 0.1-120 = 12.0 0.05
Ba(HSO 3 ) 2 0.05-299 = 14.95 .
m(p-pa) = (- BaBr 2 ) + WI(K2SO3) + WI(SO2) - WI(BaSO3) =150 +
+ 23.7 + 0.1-64 - 10.85 = 169.3 .
:
CO(KBr) = 23.8/ 169.3 = 0.141, 14.1%;
Co(KHSO3) = 12.0 /169.3 = 0.0709, 7.09%;
CO(Ba(HSO3)2) = 14.95 / 169.3 = 0.0883, 8.83%.
. 10.85 BaSO 3 ; 14.1% KBr, 7.09% KHSO3, 8.83%

Ba(HSO3)2.
7. CxHy.
: = (96.43/12): (3.57/1) = 2.251 = 9: 4.
CgH4.
, - 2.25 2 CH 2 , .
. CgH4
. . , . ,
, ,
, . ?
. ,
. ,
:

CH3 - C = C - C = C - C = C - C = C H
HC = C - C = C - C H 2 - C = C - C = C H
:

403

HC = C - C ^ C - C H - C = C H

iIII

CH

-C=CH,
.
: CgH4_nMn, - .
, (
):
0.7017=/(9 -12+(4-)+),
=(112-)/(0.425).
1 4 , :
,
1) = 3, = 85.4 ().

=-=-(-=) 2 .
RbC=C-C=C-CH(-C=CRb) 2 . :
HC=C-C=C-CH(-CsCH) 2 + 3RbNH2 ->
RbC=C-C=C-CH(-C=CRb) 2 + 3NH3,
HC=C-C=C-CH(-C=CH) 2 + 8H2
-> H3C-(CH2)3-CH(C2H5)-CH2-CH3.
2) n = 4, A = 63.5 (). ( )
(-=)4.
(I)
(-=) 4 . :
( - = ) 4 + 4[Cu(NH3)2]CI ->
C(-C=CCu) 4 + 4NH3 + 4NH4CI,
C(-C=CH) 4 + 8H2 - C(C2H5)4.
. 1) HC=C-C=C-CH(-C=CH) 2 C9HRb3;
2) (-=) 4 C 9 Cu 4 .
:

404

-2000-2
4. X1 - FeCI 3 , X2 - Fe1 X3 - Fe 2 O 3 .
6. W(CaSO 3 ) = 6 , OO(NaBr) = 0.051, Co(NaHSO3) = 0.026,
Co(Ca(HSO 3 ) 2 ) = 0.025.
7. X - C 9 H 4 , Y - C 9 A g 4 .

-97-1
2: ;
3.5 .
4. - C4H3NHCHO ( ).
-

6. 75.3% Zn; 72.4% Fe; 27.6% S.


7. 58.6%.

-97-2
2. 2--2;
3 .
4. - CsH4NCH2OH ().
6. 76.5% Cr; 80.2% Zn; 23.5% S.
7. 59.1%.

-97-3
2. -1,3;
1920 .
4. - C4H3NHCOOCH3 ( ).
6. 65.2% Mg; 81.4% Fe; 34.8% S.
7. 50.9%.
405

-97-4
Ck

.Cl

4.
3,5-

, H2O, CO2, N2
HCI, a NO2 N0.
2C5H3NCI2 + 21NO 2 = IOCO2 + 4HCI + N2 + H2O + 21NO
2
C 5 H 3 NCI 2 - 21 - > 5 + 4 + + + N 0 + 2
21
N+4 + 2
N+2
2. ,

.
CH 3 CH(OH)CH 3
CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH
1872 - 1887 = -15 /. , ; , -1
.
-2.

:
(-1) / (-2) = [- / RT] =
= [-15000 / (8.31-723)] = 0.082365.
, -2 12
, .
3. (III)
:
1) :
2Cr + 12 = 213;
2) :
4Cr + 12HCI + 3 0 2 = 4CrCI 3 + 6 2 0 ;
3) :
2Cr + 3CuCI 2 = 2CrCI 3 + ;
406

J %> "
,
4) - ,

SO2CI2:

2Cr + 3S0 2 CI 2 = 2CrCI3 + 3S0 2 .


\

'

4. A CsH6N2 CsH5N NH (.. H


NH2), , , . .
CH3COCI , .. CH 3 CO
,
:
+ CH3COCI

NH2
""
:

1 Cl"
H

+ KHCO3
N H - 4 CH3

+ KCI + H2O + CO2


NH-C-CH3
""

( - - )
, .

:

407

HBr

3
, ( ). ,
4- , -
.
:

HBr
Hj-tIt

, :

"E1
. 2- 4-.
5. ) ,
,
. , , ,
,
. ,
:

408

,
:
C 2 H 5 - C O - O - C H = C H - C H 3 + KOH - >
- > C 2 H 5 COOK + CH 3 CH 2 CH=O.
)
1,1-. , ,
:
CH 3 CH 2 CHCI 2 + K 2 CO 3 - > CH 3 CH 2 CH=O + 2KCI + CO 2 .
) -.
, , . .
NaNO 2 + NaBrO = NaNO 3 + NaBr.
) .
.
:
2 C a S 0 3 + 2HCI = Ca(HSO 3 ) 2 + CaCI 2 .
6.
, :
Zn + S = ZnS,
(1)
2AI + 3S = AI 2 S 3 ,
(2)
Zn + 2HCI = ZnCI 2 + H 2 T,
(3)

2AI + 6HCI = 2AICI3 + 2 .

(4)

:
ZnS + 2HCI = ZnCI 2 + H 2 S t ,

(5)

AI 2 S 3 + 6HCI = 2AICI 3 + 3 H 2 S t .
(6)
:
H 2 S + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 = C u S i + 2 H N 0 3 .
V(CuS) = 1.92 / 96 = 0.02 , V(H 2 S) = v(CuS) = 0.02 . ( ) :
() = 0.784 /22.4 = 0.035 , (3)
(4) 0.035 - 0.02 = 0.015 .
:

409

. , ,
. (3)
0.015 . (5) 0.02
, (1) 0.02
0.02 . , :
W(Zn) = (0.015 + 0.02) 65 - 2.28 r,.m(S) = 0.02 32 - 0.64
CO(Zn) = 2.28 / (2.28 + 0.64) = 0.78 = 78%, co(S) = 22%.
,
. (4) 0.01 , (6) 0.02/3 AI2S3, (2) 0.04/3
0.02 .
m(AI) = (0.01 + 0.04/3) 27 = 0.63 , m(S) = 0.02 64 = 1.28
CO(AI) = 0.63 / (0.63 + 1.28) = 0.330 = 33.0%, co(S) = 67.0%.
,

.
. 78.0% Zn, 33.0% Al, 67.0% S.
7. , :
X
X
X
CH 3 COOO 3 H 7 + KOH
CH 3 COOK + C 3 H 7 OH.
v(KOH)=0.06-6=0.36 , 20.0/102=0.196 .
V(CH3COOC3H7) = ,
CH 3 COOK
(0.36-) .

CH 3 COOK + KOH -> CH 4 T + K2CO3.
:
1) KOH (0.36-* > ):
X
X
X
OH3COOK + KOH
CH 4 T + K2CO3.
* K 2 CO 3
(0.36 - 2) . :
2 39 + (0.36 - 2) 39 ^ 0 5 3 7
* 138 + (0.36 - 2) 56
'
'
:

410

= 0.145 . 0.145-102 / 20 = 0.739,


: Co(CH3CH2OH) = 1 - 0.739 = 0.261.
2) KOH (0.36- <):
0.36-

0.36-

0.36-

CH 3 COOK + KOH -> CH4T + K 2 CO 3 .


(0.36 - )
K 2 CO 3 (2 - 0.36) CH 3 COOK. :
2(0.36 - ) 39 + (2 -0.36)-39 _ 9 3
(0.36 - 2) -138+(2 - 0.36) 98 " '
'
= 0.164 ,
. .
. CO(CH3CHPOH) = 0.261.

-98-1
1. KfAI(OH)4] + H 2 S = KHS + AI(OH)3 + H2O.
2 . 1 ) + 2 = Ca 3 P 2 ;
2) C a 3 P 2 + 6HCI = 1 2 + 2 3 ;
3) PH 3 + 2 0 2 = H 3 P O 4 ;
4) H 3 P O 4 + N a O H = N a H 2 P O 4 + H 2 O.
3 . 1 ) 2 3 + 3 H 2 0 2 + 3 H 2 S 0 4 = Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 3Br 2 + 6 2 0 ,
2) 2CrBr 3 + 2 0 2 + 1 0 = 2 K 2 C r 0 4 + 6KBr + 8 2 0 .
4. C 6 H 5 - C H = C H - C H 2 C H 3 - > C H 3 C H 2 C O O H - >
- > CH3CH2C(O)CI
> CH3CH2COOCH2C6H5.
:
1) 5 6 5 - = - 2 3 + 8 K M n 0 4 + 1 2 H 2 S 0 4 =
= 5 6 6 + 5 3 2 + 4 K 2 S 0 4 + 8 M n S 0 4 + 12.
2) C H 3 C H 2 C O O H + PCI 5
C H 3 C H 2 C ( O ) C I + POCI 3 + HCI.
3) CH3CH2C(O)CI + C 6 H 5 CH 2 OH - )
-> CH 3 CH 2 COOCH 2 C 6 H 5 + HCI.
5. : - CH2CI-CH2CI, - C 2 H 2 , CH 3 CHO, D - C 2 H 5 OH, E - HOCH 2 CH 2 OH, F - C 2 H 4 , G - H2O.
1) C H 2 C I - C H 2 C I + 20(.-) - > C 2 H 2 + 2KCI + 2 2 0 .
:

411

2)
3)
4)
5)

C2H2 + H2O -> CH3CHO.


CH 3 CHO + H2 -> C 2 H 5 OH.
CH 2 CI-CH 2 CI + 2(.-)
HOCH 2 CH 2 OH + 2KCI.
CH 2 CI-CH 2 CI + Mg -> C 2 H 4 + MgCI2.

6) 2 4 + 2 K M N 0 4 + 4 2 0 = 2 4 ( ) 2 + 2 M N 0 2 + 2 0 .

7) C 2 H 4 + H 2 O -> C 2 H 5 OH.
1

12
25
= - ^ = = 6.25
[] [] 2-2

6. + = 2
:
2
-1 *
+ = 2

(\ + 2)2

= 6.25, X= 1.115
(3 - )(2 - )
()=(3-1.115)/6=0.314; ()=(2-1.115)/6=0.148; ()=0.538.
K=

7.
CxHyNz+ O2
> 0 2 + /2 H 2 O + /2 N 2
1) Jt: /2 : /2 = (30.8/44): (8.1/18) : (1.4/28) = 7 : 4.5 : 0.5. C 7 H 9 N.
2) : M = mRT/PV = 3.21-8.31-500/(99.7-1.25) ='
= 107 /. .
3) . 10.7/107 = 0.1
(138.5-9.0/8.31-500)= 0.3 . ,
:
CH3

CH3
.NH2

CH3
X .

4 v

NH2

CH3
.CH3

X.
N

.CH2CH3
CH3

-98-2
5. - Ca(OH) 2 , - (CH 3 COO) 2 Ca, - CH 3 COCH 3 ,
D - CaCO 3 , - CO 2 .
6. () = 0.108, CO(B) = 0.571, () = 0.321.
7. C 5 H 7 N.

412

171-91-2
5. Cu(OH) 2 , CuO, H 2 O, D C 2 H 5 OH,
CH 3 CHO, F Cu 2 O.
6. () = 0.174, () = 0.340, () = 0.486.
7. C 6 H 7 N.

-98-4
5. CH 3 CHCI 2 , CH 3 CHO, C 2 H 5 OH,
D C 2 H 5 CI, C 2 H 4 , F C 2 H 2 .
6. () = 0.219, () = 0.462, () = 0.319.
7. C 6 H 9 N.

-98-1
1. H2S.
H 2 S + 2FeCI 3 = S + 2FeCI 2 + 2HCI
H2S + 2AgN03 = Ag2Sl + 2 H N 0 3
2. -CH 3 +/-,
. Cl -I +/-; ,
, -NO 2 , (-Af) .
: > > .
( -NO 2 -):

413

H2SD4

+ HNO3

3.
. :
1

<2 =
_

I Tx

T2

Ea = Ea/2, :

1/2

2R

4. X CH3, Y .
:
CH3
AICI 3

1.

+ CH3CI

+ HCI

COOH
[]

2.

(5 6 5 3 + 6KMn0 4 + 9H 2 S0 4 =
= 5 6 5 + 3K 2 S0 4 + 6MnS0 4 + 14 2 0).
COOH
3.

414

+ HNO3

COOH
H2SO4

>

5.

P 2 O 3 + 2H 2 S0 4 + H 2 O = 2 0 4 + 2 S 0 2 ( +3
SO 2 + Ba(OH) 2 = BaSO 3 I + H 2 O (S

+4

S +4 )

+2

-> Ba )

BaSO 3 + = BaS + 3 C 0 ( ) (Ba+2 -> C+2).


6. :
HCOOH + KOH = HCOOK + H 2 O
CH 3 COOH + KOH = CH 3 COOK + H 2 O

HCOOK + Ag 2 O -> 2Agl


H 2 CO + 2 2 0

41

- v(HCOOH) = , V(CH3COOH) = , V(H2CO) =


KOH :
+ = 18.7-1.07-0.084/56 = 0.03.
Ag2O:
2 + 4 = 9.72/108 = 0.09.
:
46 + 60 + = 2.33.
: =0.005, =0.025, =0.02.
. : 10% , 50% CH 3 COOH, 40%
H 2 CO.
7. V(Cu) = 4.8 / 64 = 0.075; V(NaOH) = 100-0.1 / 40 = 0.25.
:
0.075

0.15

Cu + 4 H NO 3 = Cu(NO 3 ) 2 + 2 N 0 2 + 2 2 0
0.15

0.075

0.075

2N0 2 +2Na0H=NaN0 2 +NaN0 3 +H 2 0 (NaOH )


N0:
0.075

0.0375

2N0 2 " + 2 + 4+ = I2 + 2 N 0 + 2 2 0
0.075

-0.1125

2N0 3 ~ + 6 + 8+ = 3I2 + 2 N 0 + 4 2 0
V(I2) = 0.0375 + 0.1-125 = 0.15, WJ(I2) = 0.15-254 = 38.1 .
. 38.1 I2.

415

-98-2
1. Kl.
1 1-5
3. .
4. X - NO2, Y - NH2.
6. Co(HCOH)=O. 165, ()=0.505, ()=0.330.
7. W(I2) = 19.05 .

-98-3
1. FeCI 3 .
1 1/3

3. .
4. X - C H O 1 Y - C O O H .
6. Co(HCOH) = 0.111, () = 0.341, (33) =
= 0.548.
7. W(I2) = 30.48 .

-98-4
1. NaOH.
3. \
4. X - C l , Y - .
6. () = 0.126, Co(CH3COOH) = 0.252, Co(HCOOC2H5) =
= 0.622.
7. W(I2)= 15.24 .

-99-1
1. 303() + 20() = H 2 SO 4 ; 1207() + 2 0 () = 24;
2. 1) SiH4; 2) AIH4"
t
416

SiH4 + 2O2 = SiO 2 + 2 H 2 0


LiAlH 4

RCOOH

> RCH2OH

3. Cr 2 S 3
Cr(NO 3 ) 3 - > Cr 2 O 3 - > K 2 CrO 4
K 3 [Cr(OH) 6 ]
1) Cr 2 S 3 + 8 H N 0 3 = 2 C r ( N 0 3 ) 3 + 3 S + 2 N 0 + 4 H 2 0
2) 4 C r ( N 0 3 ) 3 = 2 C r 2 0 3 + 1 2 N 0 2 + 3 0 2
3) C r 2 O 3 + O 3 + 4 K 0 H = 2 K 2 C r 0 4 + 2 H 2 0
4) 2 K 2 C r 0 4 + 3K 2 S + 8 H 2 0 = 3S + 2K 3 [Cr(OH) 6 ] + 4 K 0 H
4. 1) AgCI.
[Ag + J = ()" 2 = 1.310"5 /, m(Ag+) = 1.3-10^-108 = 1.4-10"3
6
/ 2>) 6-10"
. .
AgL
[Ag + ] = ()" 2 = 1.510"8 /, (+) = 1.5-10^-108 = 1,6-10"6
/ < 6-10"6. .
3) Ag 3 PO 4 .
[Ag + ] = 3 (/27)"4 = 4.8-IO"5 /, /(+) = 4.8-10"5-108 =
= 5.2-IO 3 / > 6-IO"6. .
5.

C 1 4 H 6 Br 4 O 4

14-1115

C14H10O4

COONa

COOC2H5

C 7 H 4 Na 2 O 3

C11H14O3
417

6. v(Fe) = , v(C) = 2, V(Cu2O) = 5 . ,


56 + 12-2 + 144-5* = 80,
= 0.1.
:

6
.
Fe + 6HN0 3 = Fe(NO 3 ) 3 + 3N0 2 T + 2 0,
2
Sx
2
Sx
+ 4HN0 3 = CO2T + 4 N 0 2 t + 2 2 0,
5*

30.Y

Cu 2 O + 6HN0 3 = 2Cu(N0 3 ) 2 + 2 N 0 2 t + 3H 2 0.
,
6 + Sx + = 44=4.4 HNO3, .. 4.4-63/0.96=
= 289 96%- 289/1.5 = 193 .
0.3 N0?,
0.2 CO 2 0.8 NO2, 1.0
NO2, .. (0.3 + 0.2 + 0.8 + 1.0) = 2.3
2.3 22.4 = 51.5 .
. 193 96%- HNO3; 51.5 .
7.

CnH2n-6 -> C 6 H 5 COOH + ( - 7)0 2


CnH2rv6

C 6 H 4 (COOH) 2 + (-8)0 2

V(C6H5COOH) = 24.4/122 = 0.2 ,


V(C 6 H 4 (COOH) 2 )= 16.6/166 = 0.1 ,
V(CO2) = 12.0 101.3/(8.31-293) = 0.5 .
,
V(CO2) = 0.5 = 0.2-( - 7) + 0.1 -( - 8),
= 9.
, 1--4-:
H3C-CH-CH3
COOH
[]
+ 20 2

418


CH 3

COOH
[]

+ CO 2

Y
C2H5

COOH

W(C6H5CH(CH3)2) = 0.2-120=24.0 , W(C6H4(CH3)C2H5) = 0.1-120=


= 12.0 .
( , ..
CO 2 , a CH3COOH.)
. 24.0 , 12.0 1--4-.

-99-2
2.1) NH3; 2) H3O+
3. X - F e C I 2 , Y-Fe(OH) 2 .

4. AgCI, AgCN.
6. 178 96%- H 2 SO 4 ; 47.0 .
7. 24.0 , 36.0 1--2-.

-99-3
2. 1) H2O; 2) NH2"
3. X - Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 , Y - P 2 O 3 .
4. CuI 1 CuCN.
6. 105 96%- HNO3; 33.6 .
7. 20.1 -,20.1 1,4-.

13*

419

171-91-2
2. 1) NaH; 2) BeO.
3.-NO1Y-HNO3.
4. CuC 2 O 4 , Cu(OH) 2 .
6. 122 96%- H 2 SO 4 ; 32.5 .
7. 20.1 -, 33.5 1,2-.

-99-1
Na 2 B 4 O 7 -IOH 2 O
4
V(Na 2 B 4 O 7 -IOH 2 O) = 38200/382 = 100 ; V(B) = 400 ,
() = 400-11 = 4400 = 4.4 .
. 4.4 .
2. 1)4AI + 3C = Al 4 C 3 ;
2) 2AI + 6 H 2 S 0 4 = AI 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 3 S 0 2 + 6 2 0 ;
3) 2AI + 2 + 6 2 0 = 2[1() 4 ] + 2 ;
4) 8AI + 3 0 H N 0 3 = 8AI(N0 3 ) 3 + 3 N H 4 N 0 3 + 9 2 0 .
3.
Ph

COONa

NaOH
Ph

COOH

Ph

Ph

420

COOH

COOH

4. ^ ^
/ ,
/ , [] = - - , [] = , [] = . :
=

[ ]

[]

--

, = B . , .

[]

--

KlCi

= -
, = \ + +2
1 + { + 2
--

1 +K1+K2
, :

[] = :
1 + K1 +K2
K1U
[] =
\ + + 2'
[]=

5.

*
.
1 + Kx+K2

C 2 H 5 NH 2 + H 3 PO 4 = C 2 H 5 NH 3 H 2 PO 4
2C 2 H 5 NH 2 + H 3 PO 4 = (G 2 H 5 NH 3 ) 2 HPO 4

V(H3PO4) = + = 9.8 / 98 = 0.1.


W(C 2 H 5 NH 3 H 2 PO 4 ) = 143* = W((C2H5NH3)2HPO4) = 188.
= 0.057, = 0.043.
V(C 2 H 5 NH 2 ) = + 2 = 0.143, W(C2H5NH2) = 0.143-45 = 6.44 ,
/"(C 2 H 6 ) = 6.44-0.4 / 0.6 = 4.29 , V(C2H6) = 4.29 / 30 = 0.143.
() = (0.143 + 0.143) 22.4 = 6.4 .
. 6.4 .

421

CHCl-CH 3
2HCI

CH(OH)-CH3

^4N

2Na0H
H2O

CH2Cl

CH2OH

CH2OH
()

COOH
HN03(H36)

COOH

H2SO4

CH=O

7. C6H5NH2(CH2)n + ( + 15.5)/2 0 2 = ( + 6)C0 2 T + l/2N a T +


+ ( + 3.5)H2OT
V(C6H5NH2(CH2)n) = 1.35 / (93+14) ( x),
V ( C O 2 ) = (n + 6)x, V(N2) = 0.5:, V ( H 2 O ) = (n + 3.5).*, V OCT (O 2 ) =
= 3.64/22.4-(+15.5)/2-,
: v=PV//?r=244-3.75/(8.31-550)=0.200.
0.200 = (+6) + 0.5: + (+3.5): + 3.64/22.4 - (+15.5)/2-*,
= 3.
:
NH2

NH7

C2H5
NH2
C2H5
H 3 C'
, C 9 H 11 NH 2 .
422

J^CH2CH2CH3

-99-2
. IJ

>';}(.

' '

' .

' i

1. 10 , 10/, 10 .
4. Kc = 339- "3.
5. () = (0.143 + 0.143) 22.4 = 6.4 .
-". I
^
.
6. - C 6 H 4 ( C H 3 ) C O O N a .
7. C 6 H 5 ( C H 2 ) 3 C H 2 O H .

-99-3
fi
'
1 . ( 0 ( 0 = 40%.

4. (.) = 9.6%; .
5. (O(Ba(HCO 3 ) 2 ) = 5.7%.
6. - 3- 6 4 ( 3 ).
7. C 6 H 5 ( C H 2 ) 2 C O O H .
tV);;.'.'; Wi-

.:.

. . ., ..

-99-4
1. .
4. () = 44.4%; .

'

5. M(Ba(HCO 3 ) 2 ) = 4.0%.
ij
6. - 3-- 6 4 -=.
7. H 2 N ( C H 2 ) 4 C O O H .

-2000-1
i
;
'
1.
. :
.!-. 423

CH 3 CH(OH)CH 2 CH 3 + CuO
CH 3 COCH 2 CH 3 + Cu + H 2 O
, :
5-(3)-2 + 4KMn04 + 6H2S04 ->
5 - ( 3 ) - + 4 K 2 S 0 4 + 2 M n S 0 4 + 11H 2 O
2 . 1 ) BaCO 3 + 2HI = Bal 2 + CO 2 T + H 2 O
2) Br2 + Na 2 SO 3 + H 2 O = Na 2 SO 4 + 2HBr
3) Br2 + 2I = I 2 + 2HBr
4) Na 2 SO 3 + 2HI = 2Nal + SO 2 T + H 2 O
3. :
SO 3 2 " + H 2 O 5 HSO 3 ' + "

(1)

HSO 3 ' + H 2 O S H 2 SO 3 + "


(2)
H 2 SO 3 - , HSO 3 ", , , " ,
K 2 SO 3 .
:
K r 1 = / K a (HS0 3 ")
Kr" = K 8 / K a ( H 2 S O 3 ) .
:
Kr = 2 / ( 1 - )

Kr.
K a (H 2 SO 3 ) > K a ( H S O 3 ) => K r ' > Kr11 => ' > " =>
=> [ ]1 > [']" => [H+]1 < [H+]11
: = -IgfH+] -> 1 > 11.
4. 3d5-* 3d6:
Fe +3
Fe +2
i
,0
9
4s 3d -^3d :
Cu
Cu+2.
: 2FeOI3 + Ou = 2FeCI2 + CuCI2.

424

5.
CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH- CH3CH2CHO

CH3CH2COOH

- CH3CHBrCOOH

- 300
NH2

CH3CH2COONa - CH 3 CH-CO- N H - C H 2 C O O H
NH2
:
1) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH + CuO - > CH 3 CH 2 CHO + Cu + H 2 O
2) 5 3 2 + 2 K M n 0 4 + 3 H 2 S 0 4 - >
5 3 2 + K 2 SO 4 + 2 M n S 0 4 + 8 2 0
PKP

3) C H 3 C H 2 C O O H + Br 2
CH 3 CHBrCOOH + HBr
4) CH 3 CHBrCOOH + 2NH 3 - CH 3 CH{NH 2 )COOH + NH 4 Br
5) C H 3 C H ( N H 2 ) C O O H + H 2 N C H 2 C O O H - >
-> H2N-CH(CH3)-CONH-CH2-COOH + H2O
6) H 2 N C H ( C H 3 ) C O N H C H 2 C O O H + 2 N a 0 H
CH 3 CH(NH 2 )COONa + H 2 N C H 2 C O O N a + H 2 O
6. ,
, , .
AIX 3 + 3NH 3 + 3 H 2 0 = A I ( O H ) 3 i + 3NH 4 X
AIY 3 + SNH 3 + 3 H 2 0 = A I ( O H ) 3 I + 3NH 4 Y
2AI(OH) 3 = AI 2 O 3 + 2 0
AI 2 O 3 , AIX 3 AIY 3 2 ,
,
2 . (
, ) ,
: M(AIBr3) / M(AICI 3 ) = 267/133.5 = 2.
.
11 620.
2AIBr 3 + 12 = 2113 + 2.
425

AICI3 + 6 H 2 0 = AICI3-6H20
V(AlBr3) = 5/267 = 0.019 , V(Cl2) = PVIRT= 100 1/8.31-293 =
= 0.041 . V(A1C13-6H20) = 0.019, (113-620) =
= 0.019-241,5 = 4.6 .
,
,
.
AICI3 + 6 2 0 = 113-620
V(AICI3) = 0.019-2 = 0.038 , m(AICI3-6H20) = 4.6-2 = 9.2 .
. AICI3 AIBr3; 4.6 9.2 113-620.
7. C n H 2 i v 5 N .
,
:
CO(N)= 14/(14 + 9) = 0.131,
= 7. ,
C 6 H 4 ( C H 3 ) N H 2 :
.
1:1
C 7 H 9 N + HCI = C 7 H 1 0 NCI.
: V(C 7 H 9 N) = v(HCI) =
= 0.95-101.3 / (8.31-289.5) = 0.04 .
, , 1:2 1:3.
V(Br2) = 320 0.04/160 = 0.08 . C H 3 -, 1:2, V(C 6 H 4 (CH 3 )NH 2 ) = 0.08/2 = 0.04 ,
, .. 0.04
.
, 3-,
1:3; V(C 6 H 4 (CH 3 )NH 2 ) =
= 0.08/3 = 0.027 , V(TOM..) = 0.04-0.027=0.013 .
: CO(C 6 H 4 (CH 3 )NH 2 ) = 0.027/0.04 = 2/3, (..) = 1/3.
. 3-, 66.7%, , 33.3%.
426

-2000-2
1. 1--1-.
2. 4 ( 2 -).
3. 2.
4. Fe 3+

Fe 2+ , S 2 ' -> S.

5. CeHsOH2OH2CH2OHj
.
6. AICl3 AIBr3; 6.3 12.6 113-620.
7. 3-, 66.7%; ,
33.3%.

-2000-3
1. --1.
2.4 ( -).
3. K3PO4.
4. Fe 2+ -> Fe 3+ , Br0

Br".

5.
65().

52,

6. AICI3 All3; 4.1 12.7 AICI3 GH2O.


7. 3,5- 3-, 66.7%; , 33.3%.

-2000-4
1. .
2. 4 ( -).
3. K 2 S.
4. Cr2+ -> Cr3+, Cl

.
427

5. C6H5CH(CI)CH2CH3,
- - .
6. AICI3 All3; 3.6 10.9 113-620.
7. 3,5- 3-, 83%; , 17%.

-2000-1
1. CH 3 -CH=CH 2 + HBr -> CH 3 -CHBr-CH 3
2.

AI(OH)CI2 + HCI

AICI3 + H2O

AI(OH)CI2 + 20 -> AI(OH) 3 I + 2KCI


AI(OH)CI2 + -> KEAI(OH)4] + 2KCI
AI(OH)CI2 + 2AgN0 3 -> AI(OH)(NO3)2 + 2 AgClI
3.
/-. Br CH3.
CH 3

:
Br
CH3

CH,

'

428

4 . 1 ) C H 3 C H 2 C H 2 O H + CuO C H 3 C H 2 C H O + Cu + H 2 O
C3H8O
A
2) C H 3 C H 2 C H O + 2[Ag(NH 3 ) 2 ]OH
+ 2Agl
C3H9O2N
3) CH 3 CH 2 COONH 4 + HCI
C H 3 C H 2 C O O H + NH 4 CI
B

CH3CH2COONH4 + 3NH3 + H2O

4) C H 3 C H 2 C O O H + Br 2

?Kp

5) CH 3 CHBrCOOH + 2NH 3
6)

CH3CH(NH2)COOH

) CH 3 CHBrCOOH + HBr
C3H5O2Br
CH 3 CH(NH 2 )COOH + NH 4 Br
C

+ HBr - > CH 3 CH(NH 3 Br)COOH '


C3H8O2NBr

5. 1 , NH3
N2,
+ =-1

-:
RT
RT 1.03-8.31-263
. .
M=
= =
= 25.0 /
V P P
90
25.0 :
17* + 28 = 25.0
, = 0.273 , = 0.727.
CO(NH3) = 17 0.273/25 = 0.186 ( 18.6%)
. CO(NH3)= 18.6%.
6.

Ba(OH)2 .
J

Fe2O3
BaCO3 * Ba(NO 3 ) 2 F e ( N O 3 ) 2 ^

BaCI2^

J
* Fe

Ba(OH) 2 + CO 2 = B a C O 3 I + H 2 O
Ba(OH) 2 + 2HCI = BaCI 2 + 2 2 0
BaCI 2 + Na 2 CO 3 = B a C O 3 I + 2NaCI
:

429

BaCO 3 + 2 H N 0 3 = Ba(NO 3 ) 2 + CO 2 T + H 2 O
Ba(NO 3 ) 2 + FeSO 4 = Fe(NO 3 ) 2 + B a S O 4 I
4 F e ( N 0 3 ) 2 = 2Fe 2 03 + 8 N 0 2 T + O 2 T
Fe(NO 3 ) 2 + Zn = Fe + Zn(NO 3 ) 2
Fe 2 O 3 + 3 C 0 = 2Fe + 3 C 0 2
7. . ,
,
+2() 2 > 0 0 0 + 2 0 1 + 2 2 0
6 =

9.8/98 = 0.1

(1)

7.2/144 = 0.05
( )

(1) , b = 0.05
6.7/0.05 = 134 /,

12+ + 16 + 29 = 134
12 + + 16= 105
:

(*)

C n H x O 2 CHO + * + l.5 + 0.5x-z O2


( + 1 ) 0 2 +

H2O

(2)


2/ + 1.5 + 0.5-
= 1.1( + 1)
2
2.5.V- - 5z = 3.5
(*) (**)
12/?++ 16= 105
-12/ + - 60z = 42,

(**)

31-44= 147
(***)
(***) , I = I, 2, 3 4 , z < 0! = 5,6, 7 8
z,
! = 9, z = 3, / = 4. ,
430

: C4H9OsCHO, CsHioO4 .
: 2()()()2. , CH2,
: 2()2()() ..
. .

-2000-2
1. .
2. Fe(OH)(CH 3 COO) 2 ;
.
3. .
4. - C2H5OH, - CH3CH2COOK.
5. 9.0% CH4.
6. - Baf2.
7. C 4 H 8 O 4 .

-2000-3
1. .

2. Cr(OH)SO 4 ; .
3. .
4. - 1--1, - C2H5COOK.
5. 71.3% HBr.
6. - MnBr2.
7. C 3 H 6 O 3 .

431

-2000-4
1. .
2. AI(OH)SO4; .
3. .
4. - , - , - .
5. 2.86% H2.
6. - CuS.
7. C 5 H 10 O 5 .


-90-1
1. , .
, ,
.
Hn

H-C-C=O
Cl'
H

O-H
Fe-O-H
Cl
Fe-O
.

ATOM

1
2
. .
+1
-2
' .

Fe
H

3
1 2
.
+3
+1
Fe-Cl , O-H

Cl

Ci

C2

1
-1

4
+1

4
-1

Cl
1
-2
-1
-

2 . 1 ) 2 N a + 2 2 0 = 2 N a O H + H 2 T,
2) Na 2 O 2 + 2H 2 O = 2 N a O H + H 2 O 2 ,
3) N a H + H 2 O = N a O H + H 2 T 1
4) Na 2 SO 4 + Ba(OH)2 = BaSO 4 i + 2NaOH ().
432

3. - . ,
:
C 6 H 5 O H + N a O H = C 6 H 5 O N a + H 2 O,
H 2 S + 2 N a O H = Na 2 S + 2 2 0 .
, H2S,
, :
C 6 H 5 O N a + H 2 S = C 6 H 5 O H + NaHS.
H 2 S C6H5OH ,
H 2 S :
H 2 S + 2 N a O H = Na 2 S + 2 2 0 .
H 2 S + N a O H = N a H S + H 2 O.
- . , H 2 S S SO 4 2 ", .
: ,
a H 2 S S.
C 6 H 5 O H + 3Br 2 = C 6 H 2 Br 3 OH + ,
H 2 S + Br 2 = S + 2.
4. , [C6H5NH3]CI,
, C6H5NH2,
2,4,6-, C6H2Br3NH2.
[C 6 H 5 NH 3 ICI + AgNO 3 = [C 6 H 5 NH 3 ]N0 3 + AgCI 1
[C 6 H 5 NH 3 ]CI + N a O H = C 6 H 5 N H 2 + NaCI + H 2 O 1

5. )
:
Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 + Ba(OH) 2 = C a H P O 4 + BaHPO 4 + 2 2 0 ,
3 C a ( H 2 P 0 4 ) 2 + 6Ba(OH) 2 =Ca 3 (POj) 2 +JJBa 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + 1 2 2 0 .
:

433

) FeS H2SO4 :
F e S + H 2 S O 4 = F e S O 4 + H 2 S.

H2SO4 FeS:
2 F e S + 1 OH2SO4(KOHM) = Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + OSO 2 + IOH 2 O.

)
(II) :
Hg +2+ , H +

C 6 H 5 -C=OH + H2O

[C 6 H 5 -C==CH 2 ]

C6H5-C-CH3

VHP

6. :
Cu + 2H2S04(KOHM) = C u S O 4 + S O 2 T + 2.

2 + 2H 2 S0 4 (KOHU) = Ag 2 SO 4 + S O 2 T + 2 2 0.

(2)

Ba(OH) 2 + S O 2 = B a S O 3 4 + H 2 O.

(3)

Ba(OH) 2 + 2HCI = BaCI 2 + 2 2 0.

(4)

X Cu Ag. :
= w(Cu) + m(Ag) = M X + 108- = 4.52 .
(5)
(1) (2)
X+/2 SO 2 ,
Ba(OH) 2 (3). Ba(OH)2
, : v(HCI) = -V = 1.67-0.018 = 0.03 .
: V(Ba(OH)2) =
= -- = 34.9-1.2-0.204/174 = 0.05 ; (4)
HCI 0.03/2=0.015 , 0.05-0.015=0.035
0.035 SO 2 . ,
X +/2 = 0.035.
(6)
(5) (6), :
X = 0.02 = v(Cu), w(Cu) = 0.02-64 = 1.28 ;
= 0.03 = v(Ag), m(Ag) = 0.03-108 = 3.24 ;
:

434

:
(Cu) m 1.28/4.52-100% = 28.3%,
CO(Ag) = 3.24/4.52-100% = 71.7%.
SO 2 0.035-22.4 = 0.784 .
. 28.3% Cu, 71.7% Ag; 0.784 SO 2 .
7.
C n H 2n+ iCOOH (C n +iH 2n+2 0 2 ), Ml=IAn+
+ 46. :
C^iH 2 n t 2 O 2 + (3n+1)/2 O 2 = (n+1) C O 2 + (n+1) H 2 O.
1.53/(14+46)=
=

(+1)/2&

(+1)-6

(+\)-
;


, [3.36/22.4 - (+\)1-]
. ( + 1 ) CO 2 ( + 1) H2O ( !). ,
0.15 - (3 + 1)/2 + 2 in + l)b = 0.15 + (/2 + 1.5)6 =
1.53-(/2
+ 1.5) 2.865/1 + 9.195 306-2.75
1
= 0.15 +
=
=
= 0.2025
14+ 46
14+ 46
8.31-500
.
- 4. ,
1_

C 4 H 9 COOH.

4 , C 4 H 9 . 5-
.
1)
3 2 2 2 , 2)
3-2--
CH3

3)
! ,

--2-
'J

AH

4)

CH3
CH3-C-COOH

CH3

' " '


5)
3 2 2 3 .
. C 4 HgCOOH.
: ( )
(
). , 0.2025
0.2, = 4 = 0.1.

' 435

-90-2
4. C 17 H 35 COONa, C 17 H 35 COOH,
C-(C17H35COO)2Ca.
6. 26.3% H2, 73.7% ; 1.344 .
7. C 4 H 9 CHO.

-90-3
4. - CH3NH3CI, - CH3NH2, - CO 2 .
6. 22% Al, 78% Cu; 0.672 O 2 .
7. C4H9CH2OH.

-90-4
4. - C6H5OK, - CO 2 , - C6H5OH.
6.42.1% SO 2 , 57.9% CO 2 ; 0.672 .
7. HCOOC4H9.

-91-1
1. :
1) NH4NO2 = N2 T + 2 2 0;
2) (NH4)2Cr2O7 = N2 T + Cr 2 O 3 + 4 2 0;
3) + 2NH3 = + N 2 T + 2 0;
4) 4CH3NH2 + 9 0 2 = 40 2 T + 2N2 T + IOH2O.
2. :
CH3OH < C 6 H 5 OH < H 2 SO 3 < HBr.
1) , , :
436

I
'

C 6 H 5 OH + NaOH = C 6 H 5 ONa + H2O1


CH 3 OH + NaOH =I=

,
.
2)

C 6 H 5 ONa + SO 2 + H 2 O = C 6 H 5 OH + NaHSO 3 .

,
.
3)

Na 2 SO 3 + 2HBr = 2NaBr + H 2 O + SO 2 .


, . .
3. (II)
, :
2Pb(N0 3 ) 2 + 2 2 0 = 2Pb + 4HN0 3 + O 2 .

(1)

) ,
HNO3.
) ,
:
+ 8HN0 3 = 3Pb(N0 3 ) 2 + 2 N 0 + 2 2 0.

(2)

(1) (2) , ,
, Pb(NO3)2.
4. CH 3 COOH, 1 2 00,
H 2 NCH 2 COOH.
Av

CH 3 COOH + Cl 2 = CICH 2 COOH + HCI1


M r (CICH 2 COOH) / M r (NO 2 ) = 94.5/46 = 2.05 2.
CICH 2 COOH + NH3 = H 2 NCH 2 COOH + HCI1

H 2 NCH 2 COOH + HCI = [H 3 NCH 2 COOH]CI,


H 2 NCH 2 COOH + NaOH = H 2 NCH 2 COONa + H 2 O.

5. ) AI2S3
AI2S3 + 6 2 0 = 21()31 + 3H 2 S T1
KOH :
'
rji
^ AI2S3 + + 3H 2 0 = 2AI(OH)3 I + 3KHS,
^ v
437

AI2S3 + 6K0H

H2

AI2S3 + 80

> 21()31 + 3K2S,


> 2K[AI(OH)4] + 3K2S.

) Fel2

NO2:

2Fel 2 + 3N0 2 = Fe 2 O 3 + 2I2 + 3NO .

NO2 :
2N0 2 + H 2 O = HNO3 + HNO2.

Fe2+, .
:
Fel 2 + 6N0 2

> Fe(NO 3 ) 3 + 3NO t + I2.

) :
CH 3 CH 2 OH _!*_ [CH 3 CHBrOH]
CH 3 CHO 2 >
> BrCH 2 CHO
> Br 3 CCHO (+HBr).

.
6. - .
, :
2 2+1
6 2 + 1
CHOCOC2H2Z-H

CH2OH

2 + 1

+ = 6 0 + C y H 2 y + iCOOK
CHOH

CzH2z-HCOOK

, KOH . : v(KOH) = V-p co = 38-1.18-0.25/56 = 0.2 .


V(HCI) = V p c = 40.2-1.06-0.12/36.5 = 0.14 .
HCI
KOH + HCI = KCI + H 2 O

0.14 , 0.2 - 0.14 = 0.06


. () = 0.06/3 = 0.02 , Mf() =
= 13.32/0.02 = 666.
, :

438

666 = M(CH 2 OCO) + M(CHOCO) + M(CH2OCO) +


+ M(CxH2x+I) + M(CyH2y+1) + M(CzH2z+1) =
= 58 + 57 + 58 + 14x+ 1 + 14y + 1 + I4z + 1.

x + + = 35.

(1)

, . :
RCOO - + H+ = RCOOH.
, , , . .
1) , C x H 2x+ iCOOH.
0.02 , 10.8 , 10.8/0.02 = 540, = 35.3,
.
2) , C x H 2x+ iCOOH
2+1 , 0.02 . : 10.8 =
= 0.02-(14+46) + 0.02(14+46),
+ = 32.
(2)
.
3)
:
10.8 = 0.02(14+46) + 0.02(14+46) + 0.02(14+46),
++=28.7, .
,
2 , 3 7 ( = 3)
. .
: =, =15, ( : =13, =19 ..;
).
. :
CH2-O-CO-Ci7H35
C H - O - C O - C i 531
CH2-O-CO-C3H7

7.

MgCO3 = MgO+ CO2T,

(1)

MgO + H2SO4 = MgSO4 + H2O.


(2)
, , :

V(MgCO 3 ) = 50.4/84 = 0.6, V(MgO) = V(MgCO3) =0.6 = V(H 2 SO 4 ) =


= V(MgSO4). m(MgO) = 0.6-40 = 24 , W(H 2 SO 4 ) = 0.6-98 = 58.8 ,

W(MgSO4) = 0.6-120=72 , w(p-pa H2SO4) = 58.8/0.25 = 235.2 .


24 + 235.2 = 259.2 ,
72 MgSO4.
X MgSO4.
120 MgSO4 246 MgS0 4 -7H 2 0
X MgSO4 MgS0 4 -7H 2 0
Y = X-246/120 = 2.05- ,
100 26.2 MgSO4
259.2-2.05- 72 - X MgSO4.
100(72 - X ) = 26.2-(259.2-2.05-).
X= 8.83 , Y= 8.83-2.05 = 18.1 .
. 18.1 MgS0 4 -7H 2 0.

-91-2
4. - HCOOCH3, - CH3OH, - CH2O.
6. :
CH 2 -O-CO-Ci 5 H 3 I
C^H-O-CO-C 3 H 7
' CH 2 -O-CO-Ci 5 H 3 I
7. 21.4 FeS04-7H20.

-91-3
4. - CH3CHO, - CH3COOH, - CH3COOCH(CH3)2.
6. :
CH 2 -O-CO-C 17 H 31
C^H-O-CO-C 17 H 31
^-O-CO-C17H31
7. 123.1 rCaCI2-6H20.
- 440

-91-4
4. A - H 2 , - , - C H 3 O H .

6. :
OH 2 -O-CO-C 17 H 3 I
C^H-O-CO-C 15 H 29

Wo-Co-C17H31

7. 11.5 CuSO 4 SH2O.

-92-1
C^XcH 2 CH 2 CH 3

2.

Zn + 2HCI = ZnCI 2 + H 2 .


, ,
. , 20 0C 40 0C 27/3 = 9 . , -
V2ZV1 =J^-TOZIO f
V T 10, = 3. ,
55 0C 3<55"40)/1 = 5.2 ,
3/5.2 = 0.577 = 34.6 .
. 34.6 .
3. Pb(NO3)2.
PbS
H 2 S:

Pb(NO3)2 + H 2 S = PbS + 2HN0 3 .


N2
PdCI2. Pd :
> 441

PdCI 2 + + H 2 O = Pd + C O 2 + 2HCI.

:
C O 2 + Ca(OH) 2 = C a C O 3 + H 2 O.

. , , ,
:
N 2 + 6Li = 2Li3N.
Li3N + 3H 2 0 = 3LiOH + NH3.

4. 2,3,4,5-, 2()3.
:
2 () 3 0 + 2[Ag (NH3)2JO H =
= HOCH 2 (CHOH) 3 COONH 4 + 2 + 3NH3 + H 2 O.

:
5 1 0 5 + + 3HI + 15 2 0 = 51 + IOH 3 PO 3 .

55

:
CH2OH

5. )
:
H2NCH2COOH + NaHCO 3 = H 2 NCH 2 COONa + CO 2 + H2O.
) :
3H 2 0 2 +K 2 Cr 2 07+4H 2 S04=30 2 +K 2 S04+Cr 2 (S04) 3 +7H 2 0.

442

)
(II) :
CH 4 + 4CuO = 4Cu + C O 2 + 2 2 0.

6. :
H 2 SO 4 + 2NaOH = Na 2 SO 4 + 2 2 0,
Cu(NO 3 ) 2 + 2NaOH = Cu(OH) 2 + 2NaN0 3>
Cu(OH) 2 = C u O + H 2 O.

.
V(CuO) = 1.6/80 = 0.02 ,
V(Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ) = V(Cu(OH) 2 ) = V(CuO) = 0.02 ,

V(NaOH) = 25.4 1.18 0.1602/40 = 0.12 .


Cu(NO3)2 0.02-2=0.04 NaOH,
0.12-0.04=0.08 NaOH H2SO4.
V(H2SO4) = 0.08/2 = 0.04 .
C(Cu(NO3)2) = 0.02/0.04 = 0.5 /,
C(H2SO4) = 0.04/0.04 = 1 /.
,
. ,
N0. , ,
:
3CU + 8 + + 2 N 0 3 " = 2+ + 2 N O + 4 2 0 .

- :
V(Cu) = 2.5/64 = 0.0391 ,
V(H + ) = 2V(H 2 S0 4 ) = 0.08 ,
v ( N 0 3 " ) = 2V(CU(N0 3 ) 2 ) = 0.04 .

,
H+, :
V(NO) = v(H+)/4 = 0.02 , V(NO) = 0.02-22.4 = 0.448 .
. 0.5 M Cu(NO3)2, 1 M H2SO4; 0.448 NO.
7.

C H 3 C H O + H 2 5 C 2 H 5 OH.

,
V(CH 3 CHO) = , , , V(H2) = 2. Vj = 3*.
.
CH3CHO,
443

, C2H5OH. : V(CH3CHO) = * - , V(H2) = 2 - , V(C2H5OH) = .


V2 = ( - ) + (2 - ) + = - .
, 20%
. , ,
.
, V2 = 0.8v b - = 0.8-, = 0.6*.
,
, :
<(25) = / (-) = 0.25.
(..,
) / = 0.6.
. 25% C 2 H 5 OH, CH3CHO 60%.

-92-2
2. 1.9 .
6. 0.5 M AI(NO3)3, 1 M H 2 SO 4 ; 448 N0.
7. 5.26% C2H5OH, C2H4 20%.

-93-1
3. F2, HF, SiF4.
4. C6H5CCI3, C 6 H 5 COOH,
C 6 H 5 COOCH 3 , C6H5COOK.
5. a) Li3N + HNO3;
) CuS + HNO3;
) CIfH3NCH2CH2COOH] + .
6.472 KAI(S0 4 ) 2 12H 2 0; 33.47 CO 2 .
7. , . :
H 2 N-CH-NH-CH-NH-CH-COOH

444

^H 2 C 6 H 5

IH

-90-2
3. HI, I2, S.
4. CH3CH(OH)CH3, CH3CH=CH2,
3121, CH3C=CH.
5. a) Ba3N2 + HBr;
) Kl + HNO3;
) HOCH2CH(NH3CI)COOH + .
6. 676 KCr(SO4)2-1220; 44.8 CO2.
7. (2 ) . :
H2NCH-CO-NH-CH-NH-CH-COOH
Ii
H
(I)H2C6H5

-94-1
4.

X1 - K2S,
X2 - KfAI(OH)4],

X3 - PbS,
X4 - SO 2 .

5. a) FeCI2 + HNO3;
) [Cu(NH3)2ICI + (NH4)2S;
) C 6 H 5 OCOCH 3 + NaOH.
6. 53.3% C2H6, 46.7% NH3.
7.40% HCOOCH3, 60% CH3COOCH3.

-94-2
1. :
4 + 3NaOH + 3H 2 0 = 3NaH 2 P0 2 + PH3 .
2. Ba2+ . BaSO 4 ,
, .
Bal2 + Na 2 SO 4 = BaSO 4 + 2Nal.
445

,
, .
Bal2 + Cl2 = I2 + BaCI2.
3. C 6 H 5 CH=CHCH=O + Br2 -> C 6 H 5 CHBrCHBrCH=O.
C 6 H 5 CH=CHCH=O + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH -
-> C 6 H 5 CH=CHCOONH 4 + 2Ag + 3NH3 + H 2 O.

4. 1) :
AI 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 6NaHS0 3 = 2AI(OH) 3 1 + 6 S 0 2 T + 3Na 2 S0 4 .

'
X1
2) :
AI(OH)3 + KOH = KfAI(OH)4].

X2
3) KfAI(OH)4] AI(OH)3, (, ):
KfAI(OH)4] + CO 2 = AI(OH)3 + KHCO 3 .

X3
4) (IV) :
SO 2 + Br2 + 2 2 0 = H 2 SO 4 + 2.

X4
5)
:
2AI(OH)3 + 3H 2 S0 4 = AI 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 6 2 0.

5. ) (II)
:
F e S + 4HN0 3 = Fe(NO 3 ) 3 + NO + S + 2 2 0.

6) [Ag(NH3)2JOH Agl:
[Ag(NH3)2]OH + 3HI = Agl I + 2NH4I + H 2 O.

^ 5 446

) , :
HCOOC 6 H 5 + 20 = C6H5OK + HCOOK + H2O.
6. Ar C2H5NH2,
- = 30.
,
, [C2H5NHsJBr.
C 2 H 5 NH 2 + HBr = [C2H5NH3JBr.

1.814-29 = 52.6 /. , Ar HBr ( Ar C 2 H 5 NH 2 ,
40 < MCP < 45). V(Ar) = , V(HBr) = 20 - .
MCP = (40- + 81 (20-)) / (jc + 2 0 - ) = 52.6.
V = * + = 30.
, : = 18, = 12. :
W(Ar) = 18/30-100% = 60%.
(O(C2H5NH2) = 12/30-100% = 40%.
. 60% Ar, 40% C2H5NH2.
7. :
R C O O R ' + KOH = R C O O K + R1OH
R 1 1 C O O R M + K O H = R 1 1 C O O K + R 111 OH

KOH : v(KOH) =
= 70-0.08/56 = 0.1 , 0.01 : + = 0.01,
= V ( R C O O R 1 ) 5 = V(R 1 1 COOR I M ).

, ( ) (R = ):
HCOOR'+2[Ag(NH3)2]OH = R 1 0H+(NH 4 ) 2 C0 3 +2Ag+2NH 3 .
V(Ag) = 6.48/108 = 0.06, v(HCOOR') = 0.06/2 =
= 0.03, v(R"COOR"') = 0.1 - 0.03 = 0.07.
R1, R11 R11' MU M2, M3, .
:
:

447

7.4 = 0.03 (45 + M1) + 0.07-(44 + M2 + MI),


,
3-Mi + 7-(M 2 + M3) = 297.
R' = CH3, M| = 15, M2 + M3 = 36. , ,
. , R' = C2H5, M1 = 29, M2 + M3=30.
M1 M2 1 (R11COOR'" ), M2 = M3= 15, R" = R'" = CH3.
:
0.03 HCOOC 2 H 5 + 0.07 CH 3 COOCH 3 .

.
. 30% HCOOC 2 H 5 ,70% CH 3 COOCH 3 .

-95-1
5. X1 Mg(OH)2, X2 MgSO4.
6. : 12.8 Cu, 2.2 H2; : 28.4 Cl2, 14.4 O 2 . Q =
= 250900 .
7. C 9 Hi 0 O z -COOH C2H5,
4- .

-95-2
5. X1 Cu(NO3)2, X2 CuO.
6. : 19.2 Cu, 2.0 H2; : 28.4 Cl2, 14.4 O 2 . Q =
= 250900 .
7. CioH12Oz -COOH CH3,
2,4,6- .

-95-3
H 3 P 2 O 7 - 15 H 2 P 2 O 7 2 - + H+

1.

[ 2 2 ?-].

[H3P2O7J
2.

2FeBr 3 + H 2 S = 2FeBr 2 + S i + 2HBr


(FeBr3 );

2FeBr 3 + 3CI 2 = 2FeCI 3 + 3Br2


(FeBr3 ).

3.
CCI 3 CH=OH 2 + HCI
> CCI 3 CH 2 CH 2 CI
( -/-
. -CCI 3 );
CCI 3 CH 2 CH 2 CI + 40 >
2 2 + 4KCI + H 2 O.
4. D

0 ^ 0 "

I + HCI

2)

NHs+CI
+ 3FeCI 2 + 2 2 0

+ 2 2 0

15-1115

449

: - 4-
:

5.1) BaSO 3 + H 2 O 2 = BaSO 4 + H 2 O

Xi , BaSO 4 ;

2) BaSO 4 + 2 - l ^ BaS + 20 2 ;
3) BaS + 2HCI = BaCI 2 + H 2 S t

X2 , BaCI2;

4) BaCI 2 + H 2 SO 4 = B a S O 4 I + 2HCI;
5) BaCI 2 + Na 2 SO 3 = B a S O 3 I + 2NaCI.

6. V(Cu(NO3)2) = 235-0.2 / 188 = 0.25;


w(N0 3 ~) = 0.25-2-62 = 31.0 ;
V(BaCI2) = 150-0.208/208 = 0.15.

w(NO3~)/0)(NO3~) =
= 31.0/0.092 = 337.0 .
Aw=235 +
+ 150 - 337 = 48.0 .
.
I . ,
:
0.15

0.3

0.15

Cu 2+ + 2 -> Cu

0.3

0.3

0.15

2 - 2 -> Cl2 ( )
w, = m(Cu) + m(CI2) = 0.15-64 + 0.15-71 = 20.25 ; v(e) = 0.3;
0.1 Cu2+.
II . ,
":

0.1

0.2

Cu 2+ + 2
:

450

0.1

Cu (Cu 2+ )

:- ,

. .0-2

40H" - 4e

0.05

- > -.."")

0 + 2

AM2 = (Cu) + m(O2) = 0.1-64 + 0.05-32 = 8.0 r, v(*0 = 0.2.


III . : H+,
":
2.2

1.1

2 + + 2 - > H 2
2.2

0.55

40~ - 4
O 2 + 2
, 2 =
= 2 2 + O 2 : AM3 = 48 - 20.25 - 8.0 = 19.8 , V(H2O) = 19.8 18 =
= 1.1 = V ( H 2 ) - V ( C ) = 2.2.

, (0.15+0.1)-64 = 16.0
Cu 1.1-2 = 2.2 H2, 0.15-71 = 10.6 Cl2 (0.05 +
+ 0.55)-32 = 19.2 O 2 . (0.3+0.2+2.2)=2.7
2.7-96500 = 260550 .
. : 16.0 Cu, 2.2 H2; : 10.6 Cl2, 19.2 O 2 .
Q = 260550 .
7.
iri
1 2O1CO2)
Afcp(H

CxHyOz + O2
> JcCO2T + /2 H2OT
= mRTHpV) = RT/p = 1.000-8.314-473/113.3 = 34.71

CpV
/.
34.71 = (44* + 18y/2)/(jt + /2), =0.9, .. v(C):v(H) = 9:10.
, (
[Ag(NH3)2JOH) (
- C H 3
-, CO 2 ).
,
(-2,3; -2,4; -2,5; -2,6; -3,4; -3,5).
(-2,6) ( ):

I.
O
15*

451

(CH 3 ) 2 C 6 H 3 CHO + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH =


= (CH 3 ) 2 C 6 H 3 COONH 4 + 2 A g l + 3NH3 + H 2 O,
5(CH 3 ) 2 C 6 H 3 CHO + 14KMn0 4 + 21H 2 SO 4 =
= 5(HOOC) 2 C 6 H 3 COOH + 7 K 2 S 0 4 + 14MnS0 4 + 31H 2 O.

B-95-4
5. X 1 - A I ( O H ) 3 l X 2 - A I .

6. : 9.6 Cu, 2.5 H2; : 21.3 Cl2, 17.6 O 2 . Q =


= 270200 .
7. CioH12Oz -CH=O -CH 3 ,
:

-96-1
6.

8.29 CL2; 108.5 -


H2C=CH

HCI.

^^CH3

( )
H2C-C

^ _

= =

CH3

( ).

452

-96-2
.

1. , -

C 2 H 7 N. : CH 3 CH 2 NH 2 () CH 3 NHGH 3 (-

).
2. a) K 2 Cr 2 O 7 + 3 S 0 2 + H 2 SO 4 = K 2 SO 4 + Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + H 2 O
) 2K 2 Cr0 4 +3KN0 2 +2K0H+5H 2 0=3KN0 3 +2K 3 [Cr(0H)e]

3. ,
- ( , ..

- -
, - - :
CH2OH(CHOH)4CHCI2 + H2O
> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 2HCI
( ).
- :
CH2OH

- -
4 . 1 ) C 2 H 5 OH+2CI 2 +5NaOH = CH 3 C00Na+4NaCI+4H 2 0.
2) CH 3 COOC 2 H 5 + NaOH = CH 3 COONa + C 2 H 5 OH
3) 5 2 5 + 4KMn0 4 + 6H 2 S0 4 = 5 3 + 2 K 2 S 0 4 +
+ 4MnS0 4 + 11H 2 O
-:453

4) CH 3 COONa + C 2 H 5 I = CH 3 COOC 2 H 5 + Nal


5) CH 3 COONa + HCI = CH 3 COOH + NaCI
6) CH 3 COOH + C 2 H 5 OH

s 0 4

) CH 3 COOC 2 H 5 + H 2 O

5. ) FeCI2 :
2FeCJ 2 + 4H 2 S0 4 = Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + SO 2 + 4HCI + 2 2 0

) PH 3 :

3 + 8KMn0 4 = 80 2 + 2 0 4 + K 2 HPO 4 + 4 2 0
) CuSO 4 Na2CO3
( ):
2CuS0 4 +2Na 2 C0 3 +H 2 0=[Cu(OH)] 2 C0 3 i+2Na 2 S0 4 +C0 2 t

) :
NaOCH 2 -CHONa-CH 2 ONa + 3 ->
-> -- 2 + 3CH 3 COONa

6. :
0.06 / .
. .
2KMn0 4 = K 2 MnO 4 + MnO2 + O 2 T

:
V(O2) = / M = (22.12 - 21.16) / 32 = 0.03 . 0.03 K2MnO4, 0.03 MnO2
0.06 KMnO4.
.
V(KMnO4) = 22.12/158 - 0.06 = 0.08 .
, (KMnO4,
K2MnO4, MnO2), :
0.08

0.64

0.2

2KMn0 4 + 16HCI = SCI 2 T + 2KCI + 2MnCI2 + 8 2 0

' ' '

0.03

0.24

K 2 MnO 4 + 8HCI = 21 + 2KCI + MnCI2 + 4

12

MnO2 + 41 = CI2T + MnCI2 + 2 2 0


V(CI2) = (0.08 5/2) + (0.03 2) + 0.03 = 0.29 ,
V(CI2) = 0.29 22.4 = 6.50 .

v(HCI) = (0.08 16/2) + (0.03 8) + (0.03 4) = 1.00 ,


'

454

Wf(HCt) = v M = 1.00-36.5-36.5 ,
(-
HCI) = m(HCI) / W(HCI) = 36.5 / 0.365 = 100.0 ,
V(p-pa HCI) =/ P = 100.0/ 1.18 = 84.7 .
. V(Cl2) = 0.29 - 22.4 = 6.50 , V(p-pa HCI) = 84.7 .
7. ,
, ,
.
HOCH=CHR, .
, ,
, . , :
0.0845

R 1 - C O - O - C H = C H - R + KOH

0.0845
R'COOK + O=CH-CH 2 -R

R' CnH2fh7.
0.0845
RCH 2 CH=O + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH

0.01689
> RCH2COONH4 + 2Agl +
+ 3NH3 + H 2 O

V(Ag) = i n / M = 1.824 / 108 = 0.01689 ,


V(RCH 2 CH=O) = V(Ag) / 2 = 0.00845 ,
v ( R ' - C 0 - 0 - C H = C H - R ) = V(RCH 2 CH=O) = 0.00845

Af(R 1 -CO-O-CH=CH-R) =/ V = 1.368 / 0.00845 = 162,


M(RVR) = 162 - M(CO-O-CH=CH) = 162 - 70 = 92 / .
R1 = 2.7, a R = CmH2nHb
(12 + 2 - 7) + (12 + 2 + 1) = 92
+ = 7, > 6 ( ).
: = 6, = 1
= 7, = 0. :
O4

,O-CH=CH-CH3

Q
:

455

= 7, = 0 (3 ):
O^ ^O-CH=CH 2
O^ / 0 - C H = C H 2
O^ / 0CH=CH 2

chs

CH3
, ,
:
R'-CO-O-R-C=CH + KOH

R'COOK + HO-R-C=CH

HO-R-C=CH + [Ag(NH3)2JOH
HO-R-C=CAgi + 2NH3 + H2O
, , , R R'.
.
. C 6 H 5 -CO-O-CH=CH-CH 3
CH 3 -C e H 4 -CO-O-CH=CH 2 (3 ).

-96-3
6.3.25 Cl2; 47.5 - HCI.
7

^O

2 --^ 0 _ = _ 2 _
( )
H2C^

c
h

^O
^0-CH=CH-CH3

( )

- 456

-96-4

MU.

6.3.02 Cl2; 40.7 - HCI.


^

^o-CH=CH-CH-CH3

( )

~(^)_()-=-

( ).

-97-1
6. CuSO 4 SH 2 O.
7.

G^=C-CH3

HC^C-CH2-CH3

(I)H3
)

(-1)

-97-2
1. : , , . () . :

CH 2

2. -
H+ ( , /

.> 457

: , 2, HNOg).
.
:
,
: - .;

CH3COOH + NaOH =
= CH 3 COONa+ H2O.
23 + Mg =
= (CH3COO)2Mg + H2T.

;-

3. )
:
SC 2 H 5 CHO + 2KMn0 4 + SH 2 SO 4 =
= 5 2 5 + K 2 SO 4 + 2MnS0 4 + 2 0.

) CO 2 :
C 2 H 5 MgBr + C O 2 + H 2 O - + C 2 H 5 COOH + Mg(OH)Br.

4. ) . . :
2Ca(N03)2 = 2 + 4N02T + O 2 T,
:
C a O + 2HCI = CaCI 2 + H 2 O.

:
CaCI 2 = C a + Cl 2 .

) :
Hg(NO3)2 = Hg + 2 N 0 2 t + O 2 T.

) (II)
(III), :
4Fe(N03)2 = 2Fe 2 0 3 + 8N02T + O2T1
Fe 2 O 3 + = 2Fe + .

5. CgHi
. . .

:

458

. HGI, , , . ,
*
,
.
:
25
C2H5
H2SO4

+ H2O

NO2
CHCI-CH3
+ HCI

+ KCl + H2O

K ^ Y J +24+SH2SO4 K ^ J j +CC>2 + K2SO4 +


+ 2MNS04 + 4 2 0

NO2

NO2

6. X /,
V(MeS)=I 6/(+32). b.
MeS

4MeS + 7 0 2 = 2 2 0 3 + 4 S 0 2
:

459

6/2 Me2O3,

Me2O3 + 3H2S04 = Me2(S04)3 +


36/2 H2SO4. 29.4%-
H 2 SO 4 (36/2)-98/0.294 = 5006 .
: /(-)= m(Me 2 0 3 ) + (- H2S04)=6/2-(2X + 48) + 5006=
= (X + 524)6 .
: Wi(Me2(SO4)3) = 6/2-(2 + 288) =
= (X + 144)6 . , Me2(SO4)3
34.5%:
(X + 144)6 = 0.345 (X + 524)6,
X = 56 (6 = 0.02). FeS, Fe2(SO4)3 (X + 144)6 = 200-0.02 = 4.0 .
( ) (X + 524)6 = 580-0.02=11.6 .
2.9 ,
, 11.6 - 2.9 = 8.7 .
Fe2(SO4)3 8.7-0.23 = 2.0 ,
4.0 - 2.0 = 2.0 Fe2(SO4)3,
2.0/400 = 0.005 .
2.9 - 2.0 = 0.9 , 0.9/18 = 0.05 .
10 , Fe2(SO4)3-IOH2O.
. Fe2(SO4)3-IOH2O.
7.
, . , CnH2n CnH2rv2, : v(CnH2n)=2v(CnH2rv2). :
CnH2n + H2O = C n H 2ru1 OH,
C n H 2rv2 + H2O = CnH2nO.
.

2
2
2/1
CnH2n + 3n/2 O2 = 0 2 + 20
1

-1
CnH2rv2 + ( - 1 )/2 O2 = 0 2 + ( - 1 )20
:

460

V(CO2) = 2 + =
V(H2O) = 2 + ( - 1) = ( - 1).

(.) = (0 2 ) + m(H 2 6) = -44 + ( - 1)18 = 186 - 18 .
:
CuSO 4 + 5 2 0 = CuSO 4 SH 2 O.
, 27.27% :
( - 1) 18 = 0.2727 (186 - 18),
= 4.
C 4 H 6 ,
[Ag(NH 3 ) 2 PH,--1:
C H 3 - C H 2 - C = C H + [Ag(NH3)2PH

C H 3 - C H 2 - C = C A g + 2 N H 3 + H2O

,
.
C 4 H 8
2-.

2-
:
C H 3 - C = C H 2 + H2O

/, H3PO4

I
H 3 - H 3

CH 3
C H 3 - C H 2 - C = C H + H2O

Hg2+, Ht1

CH3-CH2-C-CH3
Il

. 2-, -1.

461

-90-2
6. CuCI 2 -ZH 2 Q.

7. CHf=CH

CH

CH 3

CH-^H-

CH 3

CH 3

(--1)

(--1)

-97-4
6. T1(N03)3-3H20.
7.

CHZ=CH-CH-CH3

CH=C-CH-CH3

CH 3

CH 3

(--1)

(--1)

-98-1
2. [+]2402 =1-3-10 3;{H+]czmo2ci =1.11-10 2; = 80.8.

4. ) X - Fe; ) X - Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ; ) X - Fe(NO3)26.20 .


7. C 4 H 8 O 4 .

-98-2
2. {+]2302! =0.016; [*]220212 =0.0814; /^2302|= 40.2.
4. ) X - Fe; ) X - Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ; ) X - Fe(NO3)2.
6. 15 .
7. 5105.

462

. -98-3
2. [+]7602 = 2.5-10'3; [H+Icthjnw = 2.3-10 2; Kcnauwl^cmaai ..

= 106.2.

4. ) X - Cu; > X - CuO; ) X - CuS.


6.10 .
7. C4H8O4.

-98-4
1. H2 + Ca = CaH 2 ,
PbO 2 + SO 2 = PbSO 4 .
2. CH3CH2COOH ^

CH3CH2COO + H+

3(0)00
CHaCH(OH)COO"+ H+
, ;
1) [+] = OiC = 0.011 0.1 = !." 3 .
2) [H+I = = 0.0360.1 = 3.6-10*3
:
=
1-
:
Ar(CH3CH(OH)COOH) _ 0.036 2 q - 0.011?
" 0.0112 (1-0.036) ~

Ar(CH 3 CH 2 COOH)

3. C 2 H 4 * C 2 H 6 > C 2 H 2 > C 2 Ag 2
:
- 2

- 3

CH 2 =CH 2 + H2
-3
CH 3 -CH 3
-1

CH=CH + 2fAg(NH3)2]OH

i CH 3 -CH 3 ,

-1
CH=CH + 2 2 ,
-1

CAg=CAgi + 4NH 3 + 2.
4
463

4.) C u .
CuSO 4 + Fe = FeSO 4 + Cu,
Cu + 4HNO3 = Cu(NO3)2 + 2N0 2 + 2 2 0 .
) X CuO.
2 C U S 0 4 = 2 C u 0 + 2 S 0 2 + O 2 ( ),
CuO + 2 H N O 3 = Cu(NO3)2 + H2O.
) X CuBr2.
CuSO 4 + BaBr2 = CuBr2 + BaSO 4 I 1
CuBr2 + 4HN0 3 = Cu(NO3)2 + Br2 + 2N0 2 + 2 2 0.
5. C 2 H 5 -C=CNa
C 2 H 5 -C=CH
C 2 H 5 -CO-CH 3 ->
C 2 H 5 -COOH
C 2 H 5 -COONH 3 CH 3
:
1) C 2 H 5 -C=CNa + H2O
C 2 H 5 -CaCH + NaOH,
2) C 2 H 5 -C=CH + H2O
C 2 H 5 -CO-CH 3
( Hg2+, H+),
3) C 2 H 5 -CO-CH 3 + []
C 2 H 5 -COOH + CO 2
( :
5 2 5 -- 3 + 8KMn0 4 + 12H 2 S0 4 =
= 5 2 5 + SCO 2 + 4K 2 S0 4 + 8MnS0 4 + 17).
4) C 2 H 5 COOH + CH3NH2 = C 2 H 5 COONH 3 CH 3
( + > : ).

6. Sn + 2FeBr 3 = SnBr 2 + 2FeBr 2 .


Sn, SnBr 2 219 .
(III): m(FeBr3) = 435.5 0.2 - 2-296 = 87 - 592* .
, 219 = 87 - 592, * = 0.1.
: m(Sn) =
= 16.9 - 0.1-119 = 5.0 .
. 5.0 .
7.
CxHyO2 + 2[Ag(NH3)2]N03 =
= CxHyOz+1 + 2Agl + 2NH 4 N0 3 + 2NH3
, : v(CxHyOz)=v(Ag)/2=(6.48/108)^=0.03 .
:

464

.

CxHyO2 + ( 3 0) 2 0 = CxHyOz(C2H2O)n +
5.40/60 = 0.09 CH3COOH. ,
= 0.09/0.03 = 3, .. .
: AZ(CxHyOz(C2H2O)n) =
= 7.80/0.03 = 260 /, Af(CxHyOz) = 260 - 3-M(C2H2O) =
= 134 /. , C 5 H 10 O 4 . :
CH=O

H-C-H
I

H-C-OH
I
H-C-OH
I

CH2OH

( , ).
. C 5 Hi 0 O 4 .

-99-1
1. 2 C 2 H s C I + 2 N a - > C 4 H 1 0 + 2 N a C I .
V ( C 2 H 5 C I ) = 129/64.5 = 2 ,
V T O P ( C 4 H 1 0 ) = 1 ,
V npil Xr(C 4 H 10 ) = 0.65 ,

Wnptti(C4H1O) = 0.65-58 = 37.7 .


. 37.7 C 4 H 1 0 .

2. , 2 +
D :
2
W = - () ().
3
3 , 3 = 27 .
, ,
.
:

465

-:

27 = 2 .5 AT-ZIOf
7-= 10 lg(27) / IgCJ) = 36 .
. 36 .
3. a) Ba3N2 + 4H2S04 = 3BaS0 4 + (NH4)2SO4

) 2FeCta + 2Ht = 2FeCI2 + 2 + 2HCI


) CH3OCCH3 + 2 KMnO4 = 2CH3COOK + 2Mn02i

4. SO 2 KOH
:
2

20 + SO2 = K2SO3 + H2O


KOH + SO 2 =KWBO3
V(KOH) = 504 - 0.1/56 = 0.9 = 2 + ,
V(SO2) = 17.2 101.5/(8.31-300) = 0.7 = + .
= 0.2 , = 0.5 .
m(K 2 S0 3 ) = 0.2 -158 = 31.6 ,
m(KHS03) = 0.5 120 = 60.0 ,
m(p-pa) = 504 + 0.7-64 = 548.8 .
CO(K2SO3) = 31.6/548.8 = 0.058 = 5.8%,
Co(KHSO3) = 60.0/548.8 = 0.109 = 10.9%.
. 5.8% K2SO3, 10.9% KHSO3.
5.

MH + H2O = MOH + H2T

M3P + 20 = + PH3T

V(MH)=I1 V(M3P) = , Torflav(H2)=I, V(PH3) = X .



2 +

* - 3 4 =0.2-44

1 + JC

: : = 0.27.
(.., ) :

I - (A + 1) = 0.27 (+ 31),
A = 39 /. .
. KH K3P.
15* 466

.
NH3Cl

NO2
HNO1

Zn

COOH

COOH

H2SQ,
IH

I 2K0H
N H ,

V-

CIHJOH
- .

-.,

...

N O i

COOC2H5

7. :
+ 2 >
CsH10O4 + H3PO4 +

H3PO4:
2 3 0 4 + () 2 = Ba 3 (PO 4 ) 2 I + 6 2 0

V(Ba3(PO4)2) = 9.015/601 = 0.015 ,


V(H 3 PO 4 ) = 2 0.015 = 0.03 ,

() = 0.03 ,
/() = 9.66/0.03 = 322 /.
322 0.087 =
= 28 , 2 . , . :
.
:
() + 2) =
= AZ(C5H10O4) +- Af(H3PO4) + (),
^() = 322 + 36 - 134 - 98 = 126 /.
. :

467

IL
P-O-(

. .

-99-2
1. 87 .
2. EA = 81.6 /.
3. a) Ca(OH) 2 + H 3 PO 4 ; ) Ba(HSO 3 ) 2 + H2O2;
) HCOOK + KMnO4.
4. w(Na[AI(OH)4]) = 21.4%.
5. Li 2 SO 3 Li 3 P.

6. - - 2 -.
7. --.

-99-3
1. 99.8 C2H5MgBr.
2. 2.1 .
3. a) Sr(OH) 2 + KHSO3; ) BaH 2 + H 2 O 2 ;
) C 6 H 5 CH 3 + KMnO4.
4. W((NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 ) = 15.0%, W(NH 4 HSO 4 ) = 8.7%.

5. MgCO 3 MgS.
6. 7. ,
468

Ci2H22On.

HOCH2-CeH4-CHO.

-99-4

I- ' ' V V rV

1. 90.1 TC6H5C2H5.
2. 88 .
3. a) Li3N + NaHCO 3 ; ) Cu + FeCI3; ) C2H5OH + KMnO4.
4. co(K2[Zn(OH)4]) = 24.1%
5. Ba3N2 Ba 3 P 2 .
6. - O=CH-C 6 H 4 -CH=O.
7. C 5 H 6 N 2 O 2 .

-2000-1
1. - , 2 , +2. (3-
, -1.
2. 3CI2 + 6 = KCIO3 + 5KCI + 2 0.
2

_ 2(20- _ J_
^i
16
. 16 .
4.

6.
:

469

NH3HSO4

NH 2

NO 2

7. ,
102 :
MgCO 3 = MgO + CO 2 T - 102 ,

, 5.1
5.1/102 = 0.05 MgCO3 0.05 CO2.
Ba(OH)2
75 0.057/171 = 0.025 .
0.05 CO 2
0.025 ( 0.025-259 = 6.48 ).
Ba(OH) 2 + 2 0 2 = Ba(HCO 3 ) 2

:
(O(Ba(HCO3)2) =

6 . 4 8 / ( 7 5 + 44-0.05) = 6 . 4 8 / 7 7 . 2 = 0.084.

. CO(Ba(HCO3)2) = 0.084 (8.4%).


8.

Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + H 3 PO 4 =s 0 4

2 0 4 + 5 + 2Si0 2 = 2 + 2 C a S i 0 3 + 5 + H 2 OT
4 + 3NaOH + 3H 2 0 = PH 3 T + 3NaH 2 P0 2
PH 3 + 2 0 2 = H 3 PO 4
2 3 0 4 + Ca(OH) 2 = Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 + 2
V

3Ca(H 2 P0 4 ) 2 + 12 = Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + 4 3 0 4 + 12 2 0

470

9. NaCI KCI
58.5 + 74.5 = 25

(*)

,
:

NaCI + AgNO 3 = A g C I l + NaNO 3 ,

(1)

KCI + AgNO 3 = A g C I l + KNO 3 ,

(2)

, , AgNO3 ( , z AgNO3):
0.5z

z
C u + 2AgN0 3 -> Cu(NO 3 ) 2 + 2 A g l .

:
108z- 0.5-64= 1.52
z = 0.02. V(AgNO3) = 840-0.5/1000 = 0.42 .
, (1) (2) 0.4 AgNO3, ..
+ =0.4
(**)
(*) - (**), : * = 0.3, = 0.1. M(KCI) = 0.1-74.5/25 = 0.298 (29.8%).
. (O(KCI) = 0.298 (29.8%).
10. , :
+ KOH = , + H2O1

+ 2 = 2 + 2 2 0.
v(KOH) = 40-0.05/56 = 0.0357 = v(B). /() = 9.00/0.0357
= 252 / = (). , .
:
- H2NCH(CH2C6H4OH)CONHCH(CH3)COOH.

( ), ( ):
:

471

- H2NCH(CHiC6H5)CONHCH(CH2OH)COOH.
:
H2NCH(CH2C6H5)CONHCH(CH2OH)COOH + 2 =
= H2NCH(CH2C6H5)COOK + H2NCH(CH2OH)COOK + H2O,
- :
H2NCH(CH2C6H40H)CONHCH(CH3)COOH + =
= H2NCH(CH2CeH4OK)COOK + H2NCH(CH3)COOK + 220.
v(A) = v(B) = 21.0/252 = 0.0833 . V1(KOH) = 0.0833-3 =
= 0.250 , V2(KOH) = 0.0833-2 = 0.167 , ^- ) =
= 0.250-56/0.4 = 35.0 , 2 (- ) = 0.167-56/0.4 = 23.4
. - Tyr-Ala Ala-, - Phe-Ser Ser-Phe
35.0 23.4 40%- KOH

-2000-2
1. 22.
2. - H 2 SO 4 NO2.
3. 27 .
4. .
5. - VI, +2.
6. --1,
CH2BrCHBrGOOCH3.
7. OXNa2IZn(OH)4]) = 0.134.
8. - .
*

9.29.4% NaBr 70.6% RbBr.


10. Lys-Asp Asp-Lys; = 58.7 .

4 7 2

-92-1
2.15.4 .
6.0.4 M Cr(NO3)3, 1.6 M HCl; 448 N0.
7. 5.55% CH3OH, 25%.

-92-2
2..9.

;.',iV;.

\ ;

6.0.4 M Mg(NO 3 ) 2 ,1.6 M HCI; 448 N 0 .


7.11.1% CeHi2, 50%.

-93-1
1.

NH2

2. : Cu 2+ + 2 = Cu,
: 2 - 4 = 4 + + O 2 .
:
2Cu(N0 3 ) 2 + 2 2 0 = 2Cu + 4HN0 3 + O 2 .
Cu(NO 3 ) 2 ,
.
3. H 2 S, S, SO 2 .
:
H 2 S + H 2 SO 4 = S + SO 2 + 2 ,
2H 2 S + SO 2 = 3S + 2 2 0.
:

473

NO2

COOH

COONa

NH 3 Cl j
^
"NH 2
:
5C6H5CH(CH3)2 + 18KMn04 + 27H 2 S0 4 =
= 5C 6 H s COOH + IOCO2 + 18MnS0 4 + 9K 2 S0 4 + 42 .
-COOH 2- ,
-.
C6H5COOH + HNO3 = C6H4(NO2)COOH + H2O.
3-
, HCI.
C6H4-COOH + 3Fe + 7HCI = C6H4-COOH + 3FeCI2 + 2 2 0.
NO2
NH3CI

, :
C6H4-COOH + 2NaOH = C6H4-COONa +NaCI + 2H20.
NH2
NH3CI
5. a) Mg3N2 + 4304 = 3MgS04 + (NH4)2SO4.
H2SO4
Mg3N2.
) 3K2S + 8HN03(pa36) = 3S + 6KN0 3 + 2N0 + 4.
) 3 0 - 2 - - 0 0 + 2 0 = C H 3 O - C H 2 - C H - C O O K
~

NH 3 CI

+ KCI + 2 2 0.
( ).

474

NH 2

6. 1000 , 50
K 2 SO 4 (M =' 174).
KAI(SO 4 ) 2 -12 2 0 ( = 474) ( /2 K 2 SO 4 ):
m(KAI(S0 4 ) 2 -12H 2 0) = 474* ,
m(K 2 S0 4 ) = 50 + 174-/2 = 50 + 87* ,
m(p-pa) = 1000 + 474: .
, K 2 SO 4
10%, ..
(50 + 87xV(1000 + 474*) = 0.1,
*= 1.26.
m(KAI(S04)2- 12 2 0) = 474-1.26 = 598 .
/2 = 0.63
AI2(SO4)3, K 2 S :
AI 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 3K 2 S + 6 2 0 = 21()3 + 3H 2 S + 3K 2 S0 4 .
, V(H 2 S) = S v(AI2(SO4)3) = 3 0.63 = 1.89 .
V(H2S) = 1.89-22.4 = 42.3 .
. 598 KAI(SO 4 ) 2 -^H 2 O; 42.3 H 2 S.
7. 1 307 307-0.137 = 42
, .. 3 N. , , :
H2N-CH-CO-NH-CH-CO-NH-CH-COOH
t
I
I
Ri
R2
R3
, :
'
. /
H2N-CH-CO-NH-CH-COOH
R1

R2

H2N-CH-CO-NH-CH-C
R2
R3
HCI KOH
:
H 2 N - C H - C O - N H - C H - C O O H + 2HCI + H 2 O =
R1

R2

= [H3NCH(R1)COOHICI + [H 3 NCH(R 2 )C00H]CI.


? , 475

H 2 N-CH-CO-NH-CH-COOH + 2K0H =
R2
R3
= H2NCH(R2)COOK + H2NCH(R3)COOK + H2O1
V(HCI) = 0.536 0.0112 = 0.006 ,
( ) = 0.003 ,
( ) = 0.480/0.003 = 160 /,
M(Ri + R2) = 160 - M(H2NCHCONHCHCOOH) = 30 /.
v(KOH) = 15.7-1.020.021/56 = 0.006 ,
( ) = 0.003 ,
( ) = 0.708/0.003 = 236 /,
(R2 + R3) - 236 - M(H2NCHCONHCHCOOH) = 106 /.
, , :
M(Ri + R2 + R3) =
= 307 - M(H2N(CHCONH)2CHCOOH) = 121 /.

:
M(Ri+R2) = 30
M(R2 + R3) = 106
M(Ri+R2 + R3) = 121
, : M(R1) = M(R2) = 15, M(R3) = 91, : R1 = R2 = CH3, R 3 = CH2C6H5.

. :
H 2 N-CH-CO-NH-CH-CO-NH-CH-COOH
3
3
62
--. --:
H 2 N-CH-CO-NH-CH-CO-NH-CH-COOH
25
6 3
6 H3

476

H-

-93-2

3. HI, 1 2 , HIO3.
4. - OH 3 OHBrCH 2 Br, - CH 3 C=CH, - CH 3 COCH 3 ,
-CH 3 CH(OH)CH 3 .
5. a) Ca 3 N 2 + HI; ) PbS + HNO3;
) C H 3 S - C H 2 - C H - C O O H + .
NH3CI

.553 KCr(SO 4 ) 2 -12 2 0; 37.5 H 2 S7. (2 ) . :


H2N-CH-NH-CH-NH-CH-COOH

CH 2 CeHs

-94-1
4. X 1 K 2 CO 3 , X 2 K[Cr(OH)4], X 3 -

LiHCO 3 , X 4 CO 2 .

5. a) AI 2 S 3 + HNO 3 ; ) [Cu(NH3)2JOH + H 2 S;
) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 Br + CH 3 ONa.
6.57.1% CO 2 ,42.9% CH 3 NH 2 .
7 . 1 5 % H C O O C H 3 , 85% C H 3 C O O C H 3 .

-94-2
4. X , - K 2 SO 3 , X 2 - Fe 2 ISO 4 I 3 , X 3 - BaSO 3 , X 4 - BaCI 2 .
5. a) CrCI 2 + H 2 SO 4 ; ) [Ni(NH3)6JSO4 + (NH 4 ) 2 S;
) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 Br + C 2 H 5 OK.
6. 37.5% N 2 , 62.5% NH3.
7.30% HCOOC 2 H 5 ,70% CH 3 COOCH 3 .

477

"

-95-1

V <

5. X 1 K 3 PO 4 , X 2 .
6. () = 17.38 .
7. C 2 H 6 52.0%. 17.7%.

-95-2
1. C O 2 + 2NaOH = Na 2 CO 3 + H 2 O.
4Cu + C O 2 ;

2. 1) 2 C U 2 0 +

2) C a C O 3 + 4 C a C 2 + ;
3) 3 C u 2 0 + 14HN0 3 = 6Cu(N0 3 ) 2 + 2 N 0 + 7 2 0.
3. 1) C 6 H 6 + C 2 H 5 CI

2) C 6 H 5 C 2 H 5 + Cl 2 C

'

) C 6 H 5 C 2 H 5 + HCI;

CHCICH

+ HCI;

250
3) C 6 H 5 CHCICH 3 + K O H
,
)
-> C 6 H 5 CH=CH 2 + KCI + H 2 O;

4) 6 5 = 2 + IOKMnO 4
>
6 5 + 2 + IOMnO2 + KOH + 4 2 0 .
D

478

4. ) ) ,
. ) , . , 4 (
, , .. ). :
CH2-C4H-CH3
I
l

. :
1) 2()3 + Cu(OH)2 + 20 =
= K2[Cu(0CH2CH(CH3)0)2] + 420;
2) CH2-CH-CH3 + 2
> CH3-CHBr-CH2Br + 220.

5.1) CaC 2 + 220 = Ca(OH)2 + C2H2T
| , Ca(OH)2;
2) Ca(OH)2 + 23 = Ca(CH3COO)2 + 220;
3) Ca(CH3COO)2 + Na2CO3 = CaCO 3 I + 2NaCI
X2 , CaCO3;
4) CaCO 3 + 4 C a C

+ .

6. -2:

N'
I

z/2

23()3+2
23()23+2
V(C4H4NH) = V(CH3C5H4N) = , V(C4H9OH) = ,
V(H2) = PVIRT= 6.01 101.3/(8.31-293) = 0.25 = + /2.

( ), 3-- 3- ( ):
H

H
^5 479

H
,
:

CH3CH(OH)CH2CH3 + HCI -> CH3CHCICH2CH3 + H2O


X

Q+HC1I
H

+HCI
N
U

>

,Nt
" 4H

v(HCI) = 76.040.36 / 36.5 = 0.75 = + + z


/2 + /2 = 0.25
+ + = 0.75
= 0.25; W(CH3-C5H4N) = 0.25-93 = 23.25 .
. (-) = 23.25 .
7. CH 3 CH=CH 2 + H 2 > C 3 H 8
1) V(C 3 H 6 ) = , V(H2) = 1-,
42- + 2-(1-*) = 215 = 30,
= 0.7, . . V(C 3 H 6 ) = 0.7, V(H 2 ) = 0.3.
25%
25%
. H2 ,
: V(C3H6) = 0.7 - , V(H2) = 0.3 - , V(C3H8) = ,
vo6iu = 0.75 = (0.7 - ) + (0.3 - ) + , = 0.25. 0.3 C 3 H 8 (H2 ), 0.25/0.3 = 0.833 = 83.3%.

480

:
_

V(C3H8)

V(C 3 H 6 )-V(H 2 )

0.25

0.45-0.05

2) V(C3H6) = a, V(H2) = 1 - ,
42- + 2-(1 - ) = 216 = 32, = 0.75, ..
V(C 3 H 6 ) = 0.75, V(H2) = 0.25. 6
H2.
:
_

V(C3H6)'
_
6
_
V(C 3 H 6 )-V(H 2 )
(0.75-6)-(0.25-6)

, : 0 < 6 < 0.25, .. 6 = 0.214.


Vo6m = (0.75 - 0.214) +
+ (0.25 - 0.214) + 0.214 = 0.786, .. 21.4%
(1 ). , 21.4%.
. C 3 H 8 83.3%. 21.4%.

-95-3
_

3. 313, C 6 H 5 CH(CH 3 ) 2 , C 6 H 5 COOH,


D-C6H5COOCH(CH3)2.
5. X1 Cu, X2 Cu(OH) 2 .
6. (-) = 20.43 .
7. C 2 H 5 OH 65.6%. 20.7%.

-95-4
3. BrCH 2 CH=CHCH 2 Br, 2 = 2 ,
2 2 2 2 , D 2 2 .
5. X1 AI(OH) 3 , X 2 - A l .
6. /(4-) = 15.81 .
7. CH 3 OH 52.5%. 12.1%.
16-1115

481

-90-2
1 .M = RT/P = 1.165 0.082-293/1 = 28 / (II) .
2. :
AI2(SO4)3 = AI2O3 + 3 S 0

t + 3/202

:
2 A I 2 0 3 = 4 A I + 30 2
:
2H2S + SO2 = 3 S i +

220

3. C 6 H 5 D , ~ 17%. :

/- , ./-, ( ):

482

+ HOD

+ HNO3

, /-,
, .
4. :
CH2OH

CH2OH

,
-OCH 3 :
CH2OH
CH2OH
H

+ CH3OH

HCI

CH2OH

^H2OH

OCH3

+ H2O

15*

483

( ), ( ):
C 12 H 22 O 11 + Ag 2 O

> C 12 H 22 O 12 + 2 A g l


, .
5.
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)

1) Ag 2 O + 2HCI = 2AgCI + H 2 O
2AgN0 3 + 2 0 = A g 2 O i + 2KN0 3 + H 2 O
+ 4HN0 3 = 3AgN0 3 + N O t + 2 2 0
2 + Ci 2 = 21
[Ag(NH3)2J2SO4 + Ba(OH) 2 = 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH + B a S O 4 I
[Ag(NH3)2JOH + C H 3 - C = C H ->
C H 3 - C = C A g I + 2NH3 + H 2 O
7) 2 3 -= + H 2 SO 4 = Ag 2 SO 4 + 2 C H 3 - C = C H t
8) Ag 2 SO 4 + 2NH3 = [Ag(NH3)2JSO4
9) [Ag(NH3)2J2SO4 + 6HCI = 2AgCll + 4NH4CI + H 2 SO 4
10) Ag 2 O + 4NH 3 + H 2 O = 2[Ag(NH3)2JOH
11) CH 3 -C=CAg + HNO 3 = AgNO 3 + C H 3 - C = C H t
12) 2AG + 2H 2 S0 4 (KOHU) = Ag 2 SO 4 + S 0 2 t + 2 H 2 0

6. NaCIOx, jt = 1 + 4.
:
0.012/
0.012
NaCIOj + 2 Kl + H 2 SO 4 = NaCI + \ + K 2 S O 4 + H 2 O

V(I2) = / = 3.05/254 = 0.012 , V(NaCIOx) = 0.012/ .


, V(NaCIOx) = / = 0.543/(23 + 35.5 + 16) .

0.012/ = 0.543/(23 + 35.5 + 16)
= 2. NaCIO2.

:
NaCIO 2 '= NaCI + O 2 T

1 NaCIO2 (90.5 ) 1 NaCI (58.5 ).


32 , 32/90.5'100% = 35.4%.
. NaCIO2. 35.4%.
:

484

7.
>

:
0.01

0.01

+ 2 = H3PO4 + C5HioO5 +

:
0.01

0.005

()2 + 2304 = Ca3(PO4)2I + 620


V(Ca3(PO4)2) = mlM = 1.55/310 = 0.005 ,
V(H3PO4) = 2-v(Ca3(P04)2) = 0.01 ,
() = V(H3PO4) = 0.01 ,
() = m/v = 3.63/0.01 = 363 /.
1 :
m(N) = 363 0.1928 = 70 ,
V(N) = / = 70/14 = 5 .
, 5
. :
. 363 / . , :

485

-90-2
1. CO 2 .
6. LiCIO3; 53%.
7. .

-96-3
1. SO 3 .
6. ; 17.7%.
7. .

-96-4
1. SO 2 .
6. NaCIO4.
7. .

-97-1
1.

CH3-CH-C-O-Ca-O-C-CH-CH3
I
Il
Il I

,
:
(CH3CH(OH)COO)2Ca + K2CO3 =
= CaCO 3 I + 23().
,
:
(CH3CH(OH)COO)2Ca + 2HCI =
= CaCI2 + 23().

486

I
2. :
NH 3 + H2O = =

NH4+ + OH'

:
[NH4+] [ ]
=

= 1.7-10

[NH3]
(
).
[~] = /,
[NH4+] = , [NH3] = 1.5-.
, : = 5.0-10"3. :
[+] = ZiTw / [ ] = 1.0-1014/5.0-103 = 2.0-IO"12 /.
. [+] = 2.0-10 " /.
3. :
5 S 0 2 + 2KMn0 4 + 2 2 0 = K 2 SO 4 + 2MnS0 4 + 2H 2 S0 4 .
, 2 H 2 SO 4 ( 2-98 = 1% )
1 K 2 SO 4 ( 174 ) 2 MnSO 4 (
2 151 = 302 ).
(.., ),
:
co(K 2 S0 4 )/oXH ? S0 4 ) = m(K 2 S0 4 )/m(H 2 S0 4 ) = 174/196,
CD(K2SO4) = 0.050-174/196 = 0.044, 4.4%. ,
Co(MnSO4) = 0.050-302 / 196 = 0.077, 7.7%.
. Co(K2SO4) = 4.4%, Co(MnSO4) = 7.7%.
4. 1) :
CH 3 CHO + 2[Ag(NH3)2OH] =
= 2Agl + CH 3 COONH 4 + 3NH 3 + H 2 O.
,
[Ag(NH3)2OH], :
3 + [Ag(NH3)2OH] =
= CH 3 COOAg + 2CH 3 COONH 4 + H 2 O.
487

2)
:
CH3COOH + NaHCO 3 = CH 3 COONa + CO2T + H2O.
3) :

+ 2

Jj

I +

Br
2,4,6- :

Br
+ HBr
Br
5. 1)
Ba(OH)2:
6() 2 + 6CI2 = 5BaCI2 + Ba(CIO3)2 + 6 2 0.
2)
Ba(CIO3)2 + H 2 SO 4 = BaSO 4 I + 2103.
3)
HCIO3 + KOH = KCIO3 + H2O.
4) ;
:

KCIO3 + 6HCI = KCI + 12 + 2.


5) , :
Ba(OCI)2 + 2KN0 2 = BaCI2 + 2KN0 3 .
6)
2HCI + Ba(OH)2 = BaCI2 + 2 2 0.
7)
KCI + H2SO40tOHU) = KHSO4 + HClT.
8)
:
Ba(OCI)2 + 2 K 2 SO 3 = BaSO 4 I + K2SO4 + 2KCI.
:

488

9)
Ba(OH)2:
2()2 + 2CI2 = BaCI2 + Ba(OCI)2 + 220.
10) :
Ba(CIO3)2 = BaCI2 + 302.
11) :
4HCI03 + 3H2S = 4HCI + 3H2S04.
12) :

23 = 2KCI + 302.
6. ,
. ( ) :
2MeN03 = 2MeN02 + O2T.
(X ):
( + 46)/( +62) = 0.635,
X = -18.2 /, .
:

2AgN03 = 2Ag + 2N02T + O2T.



108/170 = 0.635, .
. AgNO3.
7. , ..

2--2-

(C2Hs)2CBr-CO-NH-CO-NH2
(NH2)2CO :
!V

(C2H5)2CBr-CO-NH-CO-NH2 < "1


. -HCL

(C2H5)2CBr-CO-CI + NH2-CO-NH2.

(C2H5)2CBr-CO-CI :
:

489

(C 2 H 5 ) 2 CBr-CO-CI (

P0C|3

(C 2 H 5 ) 2 CBr-CO-OH + PCl5.

- (C 2 H 5 ) 2 CBr-COOH
2- :
(C 2 H 5 ) 2 CBr-COOH < ~

(C 2 H 5 ) 2 CH-COOH + Br2.

2- -3.
:
25

C2Hg

C2HgCHC2Hg

HBr __
^C2H5-CH-C2H5
-H2O
I
Br

CO2

^C2H5

CH-C2H5
I

COOMgBr

Mg

>- 2 5 CH-C 2 H 5
I
MgBr

H2O
-Mg(OH)Br
w

2. [+] = 1.610"14.
3. Co(K2SO4) = 7.1%; Co(MnSO4) = 12.3%
6. Hg(NO3)2. .

-97-3
2. [H+J = 1.08 10 ,4 .
3. Co(K2SO4) = 5.8%; Co(Cr2(SO4)3) = 13.1%.

490

CO2
>

^ C 2 H 5b- C H - C 2 H 5

-97-2

6. CsNO 3 .

-H2O

COOH

H-

-93-2
2. [H + J= 9.1-"15.
3. (O(K2SO4) = 4.7%; (O(Cr2(SO4)3) = 10.7%.
6. Fe(NO 3 ) 2 .

-98-1
3. - Si; - ; - SiC; D - SiO2; E - CO 2 ; F - HF.
4. ) X - Fe; ) X - Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 ; ) X - FeS.
5. , .
6. MgS0 4 -7H 2 0.
7. 12 ( ).

-98-2
3. - ; - S; - CS 2 ; D - CO 2 ; E - SO 2 .
4. ) X - Fe; ) X - FeBr 2 ; ) X - Fe 2 (SO 4 ) 3 .
5. , .
6. CaBr 2 SH2O.
7. C 6 H 10 (, )/

-98-3
1. S 2 - : Is2 2S2 26 3S2 6.
IJ2 2S2 26 3i 2 5 4 '.
2. -
. ,
:
491

, :
CH 3 CONH-C 6 H 4 -OH + NaOH >
> CH 3 CONH-C 6 H 4 -ONa + H2O.
-

3. - Si, - S 1 - SiS 2 , D - SiO2, - SO 2 .


:
Si + 2S = SiS 2 ,
SiS 2 + 3 0 2 = SiO 2 + 2S0 2 ,
SO 2 + Ca(OH) 2 = C a S O 3 I + H 2 O.
4. ) X Cu.
Cu 2 O + = 2Cu + CO 2 ,
Cu + Cl2 = CuCI2.
) X CuO.
2CU 2 0 + O 2 = 4CuO,
CuO + 2HCI = CuCI2 + H2O.
) X CuCI.
Cu 2 O + 2HCI = 2CuCI + H2O1
2CuCI + Cl 2 = 2CUCI 2 .
:

492

5. , :

O=P-O-CH2

X H ( ) ( ), Y . CioHi4N5OaP, ..
, PbCioH12N5OeP
, Y
, ( ) .
,
:

H
8 ,
, , .. X = ;
.
( ) ;
:

493

6. FeCI2 + XH2O = FeQ 2 xH20



40 + 10 - 24.3 = 25.7 25.7 0.385 = 9.90
FeCI2. 40 0.385 = 15.4 FeCI2,
24.3
15.4+ 10-9.9 = 15.5 rFeCI 2 .
FeCI2 FeCI2 XH2O
:
15.5 _
127
24.3 ~ 127 + 18* '
jc = 4.
. FeCI2-4H20.
7. CxHy + Cl2 = CxHyCI2,
+ 2KMn0 4 + 4 2 0 = ()2 + 2Mn0 2 + 2.
,
:
5.01
_
3.90
12: + + 71

12JC+ + 34 '

12. + = 96.
: JC = 7, = 12. C7H12 CnHav2. ,
, , . :

. C7H12.

-98-4
3. - Al; - ; - AI4C3; D - AI(OH)3: E - CH4.
4. ) X - K2CrO4; ) X - Cr2O3; ) X - K2CrO4.
5. , .
494

6. Na2SO4TH2O.
7. CaH14 (, ).

-99-1
1. --:
H2N-CH-CONH-CH2-CONH-CH2-COOH
(CH 2 ) 4 NH 2

2. :
_ _

Jt11 = A e

-E1

/RT

- , E1 = 76000 /, T = 300 .
3.38 104 :
Ar2 =33800Ii l =Ae'* 2 ' 1 *.

E1-E2= RTlnik2Zkl) = 8.31 300 ln(33800) = 26000 /.


E2 = 76 - 26 = 50 /.
. 50 /.
3.

KMnO4 ^ V ?

" ^

,HB1

2KOH
=

H2O

STr

X=CNa
Jif

C2H5OH

^C=CH
NaNH2

H2O, Hg2+, H+

C-CH3

495

4. a) AI(NO3)3 + 3NaHS0 3 = AI(OH)3 + 3NaN0 3 + 3S0 2 ;


) 6Zn + 2AgN03(TB) = 6Zn0 + N2 + 2Ag;
) CH 2 Br-CHBr-C(CH 3 ) 2 -CH 3 + Ca -
CH 2 =CH-C(CH 3 ) 2 -CH 3 + CaBr2.
5.a) Cu(OH)2 + 4NH3 = [Cu(NH3)4J(OH)2 (p-p)
Mg(OH)2 .
[Cu(NH3)4J(OH)2 + 6HCI = CuCI2 + 4NH4CI
CuCI2 + 2K0H = Cu(OH) 2 I + 2 KCI
) 3Ag + 4HN0 3 = 3AgN0 3(p . p) + NOT + 2H 2 0
Au .
2AgN0 3 = 2Ag + 2N0 2 T + O 2 T
) C 6 H 5 OH + NaOH = C 6 H 5 ONa + H2O
C 2 H 5 OH , C 6 H 5 ONa .
C 6 H 5 ONa + HCI = C 6 H 5 OHl + NaCI
6. NaOH
. :

/2

2 2 0 + 2-> H2T + 2 0 :

/4
40" - 4 - > O 2 T + 2 2 0
50
, 50 0.08 / 40 = 0.1 NaOH.
" /2 H2 /2-2 = ,
:
(50-) (0.1+) ",
10 0.1 0.3 =
= 0.03 " (v(OH-) = V(HCI)),
= 0.05 .

= 0.05 " ( 0.1 - 0.05 = 0.05 )
/4 = 0.0125 O 2 0.0125 32 = 0.4 .
(50-0.4) 0.05 - ,
10 - ,
:

496

>=10-0.05/49.6=0.01 .
0.01 HNO3, 0.01/0.3=0.033 =
= 33 0.3 /.
. 33 HNO3.
7.
, . , .
(C 5 H 10 O 5 ) (C 5 H 10 O 4 )
.
, . , ( C10H1SN5O4):
NH 2

HO-CH2

HO-CH2

v(A) = , () = . .
C 5 H 10 O 5 C 5 H 10 O 5 . 5 CO 2 , : V(CO2) =
= 5*+ 5 = 0.224/22.4 = 0.01.
C 5 H 10 O 5 (C 2 H 5 CO) 2 O
. , C 5 H 10 O 4
. V((C2H5CO)2O) = Ax + = 0.910/130 = 0.007.
: = 0.001, = 0.001.
.
. , 0.001 .
:

497

SN-98-2
1. .
2. 39.7 .
4. a) Cr 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + Ba(HSO3)2; ) NH4NO3 + Sr;
) 2,5- + Mg.
6. 50 HCI.
7. : = 1:2.

-99-3
1. .
2. 2.3 .
4. a) Fe(NO 3 ) 2 + KHSO3; ) Cu(NO3)2 + Li;
) CuC=CC(CH3)3+ HCI.
6. 126 LiOH.
7. : = 1:2.

-99-4
1. Gly-Gly-Lys.
2. 65 .
3. - 512.
4. a) FeBr 3 + Na 2 S; ) Fe(NO 3 ) 3 + Li; ) C4H9COOK + .
7. : = 2:1.

-2000-3
1. -

14

N.

2. - H 3 PO 4 NO2.
498

3. 6.25 .
4. .
5. F, ; Fr, Cs.
6. ,
JW-C6H4(NH3Br)2.
7. (KKlAI(OH)4]) = 0.134.
8. - , -
.
9. 52% RbCI 48% CsCI.
10. - Phe-Ser Ser-Phe, - Tyr-Ala Ala-.
15.6 23.4 40%- .

-2000-4
1. F , Na + .
2. - CO 2 SO 2 .
3. 64 .
4. .
5. - IV, +2.
6.

^-O 2 N-C 6 H 4 -CHBrCH 2 Br.

7. OO(Ca(H2PO4)2) = 0.116.
8. H 2 SO 4 ,
.
9. 18.8% NaCI 81.2% CsCI.
10. Lys-Ala Ala-Lys;?n = 195.3 .

499


-90-1
4. - CaC 2 , - C2H2, - C2H2CI4.
6. 24.3% HNO3, 75.7% H2SO4; 0.448 NH3.
7.2.20 HCI.

-90-2
4. - C 7 H 16 , - C6H5CH3, - C6H5COOH.
6. 61.3% KBr, 38.7% Nal; 0.448 HCI.
7.31.01 .

-90-3
1.1)
CH3(CH2)4CH3
2)
22

/,Cr2O3
- > C6H6 + 42 ;
1,
> C6H6.

2.
, , .
3. , (, ):
22 + O 2 = 2 2 0 (),
2 + N2
2NH3,
4Li + O 2 = 2Li 2 0,
6Li + N2 = 2Li3N.
N2 O 2 ,
(, ),
, :

4 FeS 2 + 110 2 = 2Fe 2 0 3 + 8 S 0 2 t ,

FeS 2 + N2 =/=,

C2H5OH + 3 0 2 = 2 C 0 2 t + 3H 2 0,

C2H5OH + N2 =/=.

500

4. : , 410;
, CH3COOH;
, Ca(CH 3 COO) 2 .
CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 + 5/2 O 2

2 3 + H2O.

200 50
( ).
2 3 + Ca = Ca(CH 3 COO) 2 + H2 .
.
RCH=CHR RCOOH:
t0
5RCH=CHR + 8KMn0 4 + 12H 2 S0 4 = IORCOOH +

+ 8MnS0 4 + 4K 2 S0 4 + 12 2 0.
2 R C 0 0 H + Ca = Ca(RCOO) 2 + H2T.

5. ) :
KHCO3 + Ca(OH) 2 = C a C O 3 1 + KOH + H2O1
20 3 + Ca(OH) 2 = C a C O 3 1 + K2CO3 + 2 2 0.
) :
Al + 3FeCI3 = AICI3 + 3FeCI2,
Al + FeCI3 = AICI3 + Fe.
)
( .. ) . -1,2
:
HOCH2CH2OH + HOCH2CH2OH

> 2222

-H2O

H2SO4*

Ot-Chfe-O
O-CH2-CH?

501

HOCH 2 CH 2 OH

H^so4' [CH2=CH-OH]

> CH 3 CHO HOCH2CH2OH


0-2
-H2O
CH3-CH-O-CH2
;
CH2-OH +
.
_
/
^H2-OH
HOSO3H(Kohu)^

I F V O H * ^HOSOAH(KOHM)

CH 2 -O-SO 3 H
^

H2O

220

6.

NaCI + H2SO4(KOHU) = NaHSO 4 + HCI1


(1)
CuCI2 + H2SO4(KOHU) = CuSO 4 + 21,
(2)
NaOH + HCI = NaCI + H2O1
(3)
2NaOH + H 2 SO 4 = Na 2 SO 4 + 2 2 0.
(4)
X NaCI Y CuCI 2 -2H 2 0.
:
= m(NaCI) + m(CuCI2-2H20) = 58.5-X + 171-= 2.88.

(5)

: V(NaOH) = VpcoIM =
= 17.7-1.13 0.12/40 = 0.06 ; V(H2SO4) = cV= 0.67-0.015 = 0.01
. (4) 0.02 NaOH, 0.06-0.02=0.04 NaOH HCI, 0.04 . (1) (2)
,
X+ 2= 0.04.
(6)
(5) (6), :
X = 0.02 = V(NaCI); m(NaCI) = 0.02-58.5 = 1.17 ;
= 0.01 = v(CuCI2-2H20); m(CuCI2-2H20) = 0.01-171 = 1.71 ;
: CO(NaCI) = 1.17/2.88-100% = 40.6%,
co(CuCI2-2H20) = 171/2.88-100% = 59.4%.
HCI : V(HCI) = 0.04-22.4 = 0.896 .
. 40.6% NaCI, 59.4% CuCI 2 -2H 2 0; 0.896 HCI.
7.

CH=C-CH 2 -CH 3 CH 2 =CH-CH=CH 2


Mr= 5 4

Mr = 5 4

CH3-C=C-CH3
Afr = 5 4

3- , . 1 :

502

2 . :
5.4

C 4 H 6 + 2Br2 = C 4 H 6 Br 4
54

320

WI(Br2) = 5.4-320/54 = 32 ,
(-) = 32-/ 0.05 = 640 ,
V(p-pa) = / = 640/1.6 = 400 .
. 400 .

-90-4
V

4. - CH 3 COONa, - CH 3 COOH, - CH 3 COOC 2 H 5 .


6. 57.5% FeO, 42.5% Fe 2 O 3 ; 3.58 HCI.
7. 324.4 .

-91-1
1.2.65-10 , 3.12-10 .
6. 12.5% CH 3 OH; 40% .
7. 29.5% C 6 H 5 NH 2 , 14.9% C 6 H 5 OH, 55.6% C 6 H 6 .

-91-2
1. 6.64-IO-23 ; 3.09-IO"22 .

6. 15.4% NH3; 40% N2.


7. 18.6% C6H5NH2, 47.0% C 6 H 5 OH, 34.4% C 6 H 6 .

-91-3
1. 1) 6-23 O 3 48 ,
1 O 3 X .

X = 48/(6-IO23) = 8- IO 23 .

503

2) 6 1023 C3H7OH 60 ,
2 C3H7OH Y .
Y = 2 60/64023 = 210 -22 .
. 810' 23 . 2-10"22 .
2.1) C 12 H 22 O 11 + H2O = C 6 H 12 O 6 + C 6 Hi 2 O 6

( );
2) C 6 H 12 O 6 = 225 + 20 2 T
( ).
3.

AgNO3 -> Ag + NO2 + O 2


2 Ag+ +
> Ag
2 N5+ +
>N4+
1 20 2 " - 4
>02
2AgN0 3 = 2Ag + 2N0 2 + O 2 .
- Ag+ N+5.
4. :
I0
Zn(NO3)2 = ZnO + 2N0 2 + 1/2 O 2 .
:
20 + 2N0 2 = KNO3 + KNO2 + H2O.
. , KNO3
KNO2, N2.
,
(II):
KNO3 + KNO2 + 7Zn + 12 + 11H2O =
= 2NH3 t + 7K2[Zn(OH)4],
t
+ 2NH3 = + N2 T + 3H 2 0.
ZnO :
t0
ZnO+ = Z n + .
.

504

5. ) AI(NOa)3 , .
2(CH3)3N + AI(NO3)3 + 2 2 0 =
= AI(OH)2NO3 + 2[(CH3)3NH]N03,
t0
3(CH3)3N + AI(NO3)3 + 3H 2 0 =
= AI(OH) 3 1 + 3[(CH3)3NH]N03.
)
Oa(HS) 2 + 2CI2 = CaCI2 + 2S 4 + 2HCI,
t0
Ca(HS) 2 + 8CI2 + 8 2 0 = CaSO 4 + H 2 SO 4 + 16HCI.
) :
5 6 5 3 + 6KMn0 4 + 9H 2 S0 4 =
= 5 6 5 + 6MnS0 4 + 3K 2 S0 4 + 14 2 0
:
C 6 H 5 CH 3 + 2KMn0 4 = C6H5COOK + 2Mn0 2 4 + KOH + H2O.
6. .
( ) , -.
X SO 2 O 2 , VQ=2X .
:
VQ^To
Po

2-8.31-800
304

=417


2 S 0 2 + O2 5 = 2 S 0 3

(2)

, (
(1))
PrV
V1 =

266-43.7-X
=

_____

= 1.75- .

...
(3)

R-Ti
8.31-800
(2) , O 2 , (2)
2 - 1.75- = 0.25- O 2 2-0.25-=0.5- SO 2 , 0.5- SO 3 .
:

505

SO 3 , ,
0.5-/(1.75-)-100% = 28.6%.
SO 2 SO3 0.5-100% = 50%.
. SO 3 28.6%,
SO 2 50%.
7. :
O6H5NH2 + HCI = C6H5NH3CI.

(1)

V(HCI) = Vp oVM = 49.7-1.08-0.17/36.5 = 0.25 , V(C6H5NH2) = 0.25 , m(C6H5NH2) = 0.25-93 = 23.25 .


, :
C 6 H 5 OH + 3Br2 = C6H2Br3OH i + ,

(2)

(=331)

C 6 H 5 NH 2 + 3Br2 = C6H2Br3NH2 i + .

(3)

(=330)

(3) 0.25
0.25-330 = 82.5 , 99.1 - 82.5=16.6 , 16.6/331 =
= 0.05 ; V(C6H5OH) = 0.05 , (65) =
= 0.05-94 = 4.7 .
:
(O(C6H5NH2) = 23.25/50-100% = 46.5%,
(O(C6H5OH) = 4.7/50-100% = 9.4%,
(O(C6H6) = 100% - 46.5% - 9.4% = 44.1%.
. 46.5% C 6 H 5 NH 2 , 9.4% C6H5OH1 44.1% C 6 H 6 .

-91-4
1.4.65-10"23 ; 3.06 IO'22 .
6. 30.8% C 6 H 12 ; 80% C6H6.
7. 18.6% C 6 H 5 NH 2 , 5.6% C6H5OH1 75.8% C 6 H 6 .

506

-92-1
3. 30.79% 203TI, 69.21 % 205TI.
6. O(H2SO4)=S. 16%, 12.8 Cu 0.5 H2, 7.2
O2.
7. 20% C 2 H 5 OH, C 2 H 4 41.7%.

-92-2
191

3. 38.75% Ir, 61.25% 193Ir.


6. CD(HNO3)=S.67%, 12.8 Cu 0.4 H2, 6.4
O2.
7. 19% C 2 H 5 OH, CH 3 CHO 80%.

-92-3
3.39.24%

185

Re 1 60.76%

187

Re.

6. CD(HN03)=2.65%, 20.1 Hg 0.3 H2, 4.0


O2.
7. 12.5% CH 3 OH, 40%.

-92-4
1.

:
V -

~ ~ ~

VAT'

V , V .
V(HBr) = 12.15/81 = 0.15 ,
V(HI) = 12.8/128 = 0.1 . :
v(HBr) = 0.15/(11) = 0.15 /( ),
v(HI) = 0.1/(11) = 0.1 /(),
HBr HI.
.

507

2.
IV .
IV Br", Se 2 - , A s v V
Rb + , Sr2+, Y3+. : Rb 2 Se,
SrBr 2 . :
2Rb + Se = Rb 2 Se 1 Sr + Br2 = SrBr2.
3. 1 69 Ga
(1 - ) 7 l Ga. 1 69.72 , :
69*+ 71(1-*) = 69.72,.
= 0.64. :
CO(69Ga) = 69 0.64/69.32 = 0.6334, 63.34%,
CO(71Ga) = 71 0.36/69.32 = 0.3666, 36.66%.
. 63.34% 69 Ga 1 36.66% 71 Ga.
4. , NH2
--, COOH -.

3
5, -- - :
NH2
Br

'-OH

Br 2 ,
(H2O)

5. ) (II) :
Cu2++H2O = S

Cu(OH) + + H+.

(1)

CuSO 4 Ca(HCO 3 ) 2
:
:

508

Ca 2 + + SO 4 2 - = CaSO 4 ,

(2)

HCO 3 -+ H = CO 2 + 0.
(3)
(1) H+ (3),
Cu(OH)+, SO 4 2 " [Cu(OH)J2SO4.
:
2CuS0 4 + Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 = [Cu(OH)J2SO4 + CaSO 4 + 20 2 .
) :
Mg3P2 + 6HN0 3 = 3Mg(N0 3 ) 2 + 2 3 .
PH 3 H 3 PO 4 :
Mg 3 P 2 + 22HN0 3 = 3Mg(N0 3 ) 2 + 2 3 0 4 + 16N0 2 + 8 2 0.
) , ,
HS" HS:
CHb-C(CH 3 )-CH 3 + NaHS = Chfe-C(CH3)-CH3 + NaBr.
^r

:
CKb-C(CH 3 )-CH 2 -H + NaHS -> (CH3)2C=CH2 + NaBr + H 2 S.
^r
NaHS ,
, :
Chb-C(CH3) + NaHS + H2O=(CH3)3COH + NaBr + H 2 S.
^r
6. AgNO3 Ag+, . :
: Ag+ + = Ag.
: 2 2 0 -4<? = 4+ + O 2
:

509

:
4AgN0 3 + 2 2 0 = 4Ag + 4HN0 3 + O 2 .
V(AgNO3) = 400 0.085/170 = 0.2 . 0.2
Ag 0.2-108 = 21.6 0.05 O 2 0.05-32 = 1.6 .

21.6 + 1.6 = 23.2 .

:
2 2 0 = 2 H2 + O 2 .
V(H2O) = (25 - 23.2)/18 = 0.1.
V(H2) = V(H2O) = 0.1, m(H2) = 0.1-2 = 0.2 .
V(O2) = 0.5, V(H2O) = 0.05, w(0 2 ) = 0.05-32 = 1.6 .
, ,
1.6 + 1.6 = 3.2 .
.
V(HNO3) = V(AgNO3) = 0.2,
W(HNO3) = 0.2-63 = 12.6 .
w(p-pa HNO3) = 400 - 25 = 375 .
Co(HNO3) = 12.6/375 = 0.0336.
. Co(HNO3) = 3.36%, 21.6 Ag 0.2 H2,
3.2 O 2 .
7. 6 6 + 2
C 6 H 12 .
1 C 6 H 6
(1- ) H2.
0.2-48=9.6 /, 1 9.6 :
78* + 2 ( 1 - ) = 9.6,
* = 0.1. V(C 6 H 6 ) = 0.1, V(H2) = 0.9.

.
C 6 H 6 , , C 6 H 12 . : V(C6H6) =
= 0.1 - , V(H2) = 0.9 - , V(C6H12) = .
v = (0.1 - ) + (0.9 - ) + = 1 - .
(9.6 ),
, .
0.25-48 = 12
/:
:

510

9.6/(1 - ) = 12,
= 0.0667.
,
, :
W(C6H12) = /(1 - ) = 0.0834.
(.., ) /0.1 = 0.667.
. 8.34% C6H12, C 6 H 6 66.7%.

-93-1
1. C 2 H 4 + H2 = C2H6.
4. C2H4, CH3CHO, CH3COOH.
6.42.2% Ag, 57.8% Cu; 1.12 NO2.
7.44.7% CH3NH2.

-93-2
1.2 4 = C 2 H 2 + 2.
4. CH3CH=CHCH3, CH3COOH,
Mg(CH3COO)2.
6.42.9% Al, 57.1% Mg; 1.344 H2.
7. 54.4% C6H5NH2.

-93-3
1. C 2 H 2 + 22 = C2H6.

(J

4. CH 3 COONa, CH3COOH,
CH 3 COOC 2 H 5 .
6.45.8% Ag, 54.2% Cu; 0.56 N0.
7.47.1% CH3OH.
:

511

SN-98-2
1. C 2 H 6 = C 2 H 2 + 22.
4. CH3CHO, CH3COOH1 CH 3 COOCH 3 .
6. 22.3% Fe 1 77.7% Zn; 0.896 H2.
7. 61.4% C6H5OH.

-93-1
4. C6H6, C6H5NO2, C6H5NH3CI1
C6H5NH2, - C6H2Br3NH2.
5. ) Cu + H 2 SO 4 (KOHU); ) KCIO3 + ; ) C 3 H 8 + Br2.
6. 19.8% NaHSO 3l 8.0% Na 2 SO 3 ; 43.3 BaSO 3 .
7. C6H5CH=CHCH3.

-93-2
1.
2.

CH3CH2CH2CH2OH,

CH3CH2CH2OCH3.

SO 3 + H2O = H 2 SO 4l
CO2 + 2Na0H = Na 2 CO 3 + H2O.

3. .
, :
CuO + 2HCI = CuCI2 + H2O.
:
CuCI2 + 2NaOH = Cu(OH)2 + 2NaCI,
:
t0
Cu(OH)2 = CuO+ H2O.

512

4. CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 Br, CH3CH=CH2,
CH3CHBrCH2Br, CH3C=CH,
CH 3 COCH 3 .
:
CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 OH + HBr -> CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 Br + H2O1
CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 Br + KOH

CH 3 CH=CH 2 + KBr + H2O1

CH 3 CH=CH 2 + Br2 -> CH3CHBrCH2Br,


CH 3 CHBrCH 2 Br + 20

CH3C=CH + 2KBr + 2 2 0,

CH 3 C=CH + H2O - CH 3 COCH 3 .


5. a) 5Mg + 12HN03(pa36) = 5Mg(N0 3 ) 2 + N2 + 6 2 0.
) :
I0
2KN0 3 + = 2KN0 2 + CO 2 .
) :
CH 3 CH 3 + HNO 3 = CH 3 CH 2 NO 2 + H 2 O.
6. 2H 2 S + 3 0 2 = 2 2 0 + 2S0 2 .
V(H2S) = 3.36/22.4 = 0.15,
V(H2O) = V(H2S) = 0.15, m(H 2 0) = 0.1518 = 2.7 ,
V(SO 2 ) = V(H2S) = 0.15, m(S0 2 ) = 0.15-64 = 9.6 ,
-(- ) = 50.4-1.21 = 61 , V(KOH) = 61-0.23/56 = 0.25.
0.15 SO 2 0.15 KOH 0.15 KHSO 3 :
KOH + SO 2 = KHSO3.
0.1 KOH 0.1 KHSO 3 0.1
K 2 SO 3 :
KHSO 3 + KOH = K 2 SO 3 + H2O.
, 0.1
K 2 SO 3 0.15-0.1=0.05 KHSO3.
W(K 2 SO 3 ) = 0.1-158 = 15.8 , W(KHSO3) = 0.05-120 = 6.0 ,
w(p-pa)=w(p-pa K0H)+w(H 2 0)+w(S0 2 )= 61+2.7+9.6=73.3 .
OXK2SO3) = 15.8/73.3 = 0.216, CO(KHSO3) = 6.0/73.3 = 0.082.
17-1115

513


:
KHSO 3 + Ca(OH) 2 = CaSO 3 + KOH + H2O1
K 2 SO 3 + Ca(OH) 2 = CaSO 3 + 2.
V(CaSO3) = V(KHSO3) + V(K2SO3) = 0.05 + 0.1 = 0.15,
W(CaSO3) = 0.15-120 = 18 .
. 8.2% KHSO 3 ,21.6% K 2 SO 3 ; 18 CaSO 3 .
7. CxHy + 2Br2 = CxHyBr4.

75.8%, M(CxHyBr4) = 4-80/0.758 = 422 /,
M(CxHy) = 422 - 320 = 102 /. ,
CsH6. ,
4 , .
:
C 6 H 5 C=CH.
:
C 6 H 5 C=CH + 22
C6H5CBr2CHBr2
565= + 80 4 + 12H 2 S0 4
-> 5 6 5 + 5 0 2 + 4K 2 S0 4 + 8MnS0 4 + 12H z O.
C 6 H 5 C=CH + H2O - C 6 H 5 COCH 3 ( ).
. C 6 H 5 C=CH.

-93-3
4 CH 3 CHO, C 2 H 5 OH, CH3CHO,
C 2 H 5 OH, C2H4.
5. ) +2504(>; ) N0 2 +P; ) C6H5CH3+CI2 ( ).
6. 6.0% NaHSO 3 , 21.9% Na 2 SO 3 ; 24 CaSO 3 .
7. C 6 HsCH=CH 2 .

514

-93-4
4. CH3CH=CH2, CH3CHBrCH3,
CH3CH(OH)CH3, CH3CH=CH2, CH3CHBrCH2Br.
5. ) Zn + HN03(pa36); ) NO2 + S; ) C 6 H 5 CH 3 + Cl2 ( FeCI3).
6.17.6% KHSO3, 11.6% K2SO3; 32.55 BaSO 3 .
7. C e H 5 C=CCH 3 .

. -

-94-1
1. H O v
4

HOx

S
4

2. 1) .
CW3CH=CH2 + H2O = CH3CH(OH)CH3.
2) 2- .
313 + KOH = CH3CH(OH)CH3 + KCI.
3. 1) .
. , ,
:
Ca + 2 2 0 = Ca(OH) 2 + H2 .
Ca(OH) 2 + 2HCI = CaCI2 + 2 2 0.
CaCI2 = Ca + Cl2 .
2) .
, .
Fe + 2HCI = FeCI2 + H2 .
:
17*

515

FeCI2 + 2K0H = Fe(OH) 2 4 + H 2 O.


Fe(OH) 2 = FeO + H 2 O.
FeO + CO = Fe + CO 2 .
4.1) :
CH4 + Cl2 = CH3CI + HCI.
2) :
2CH3CI + 2Na = C 2 H 6 + 2NaCI.
3) :
C 2 H 6 + Cl2 = C2H5CI + HCI.
4) KOH :
C 2 H 5 CI + (.-) = C 2 H 4 + KCI + H 2 O.
5. a) Fe(NO 3 ) 3 + 3NaOH = Fe(OH) 3 I + 3NaN0 3 .
) Cu 2 S + 2 0 2 = 2CuO + SO 2 .
) 3 = 2 + 20 4 + 4 2 0 =
= 3 () 2 + 2Mn0 2 + 2K0H.
- ) ).
6. :
2KMn0 4 = K2MnO4 + MnO2 + O 2 .
(1)
:
2KMn0 4 + 16HCI = 5CI2 t + 2KCI + 2MnCI2 + 8 2 0,
(2)
K2MnO4 + 8HCI = 2CI2 T + 2KCI + MnCI2 + 4 2 0,
(3)
MnO2 + 4HCI = Cl2 T + MnCI2 + 2 2 0.
(4)

: (02)=28.44-27.16=1.28 , V(O2)=I.28/32=0.04 .
:
V(KMnO4) = 28.44/158 - 0.04-2 = 0.1 ;
V(K2MnO4) = 0.04 ;
V(MnO2) = 0.04 .
(2)-(4) 0.1-16 + 0.04-8 +
+ 0.04-4 = 2.08 HCI, 0.1-5 + 0.04-2 + 0.04-1 =
= 0.62 Cl2. 0.62-22.4 = 13.89 .
:
516

2.08-36.5=75.92 ,
75.92/0.365=208 , 208/1.18=176.3 .
. 13.89 Cl2, 176.3 - HCI.
7. :
2 3 + Ba(OH) 2 = (HCOO) 2 Ba + 2 3 ,
233

+ Ba(OH) 2 = (CH 3 COO) 2 Ba + 2 3 .

Ba(OH) 2 CuCI2:
Ba(OH) 2 + CuCI 2 = Cu(OH) 2 I + BaCI2.
V(HCOOCH3)=A:, V(CH 3 COOCH 3 ) = .
:
20.8 = 60-* +74-.
Ba(OH) 2 :
0.1-2.5 = /2 + /2 + 90.9-1.1-0.135/135.
, : = 0.1, = 0.2.
:
(O(HCOOCH3) = 0.1-60 / 20.8 100% = 28.8%,
(O(CH3COOCH3) = 0.2-74 / 20.8 100% = 71.2%.
. 28.8% HCOOCH 3 , 71.2% CH 3 COOCH 3 .

-94-2
6. 10.98 Cl2, 139.0 - HCI.
7.29.6% HCOOC 2 H 5 , 70.4% CH 3 COOC 2 H 5 .
%

-94-3
6. 3.81 Cl2, 54.2 - HCI.
7.44.8% HCOOCH 3 , 55.2% CH 3 COOCH 3 .

-94-4
*

6.4.70 Cl2, 61.0 - HCI.


1 . 8.76% , 5.71% CH 3 COOH.
:

517

-98-4
2. 0.0025 /(-).
5.

0.142

CH3-(CH2)T-COOH

HOOC(CH2)7COOH.
6 . CO(N2)

= 37.5%, CO(NH3) = 62.5%.

7.0.7 CH 3 COOCH 3 .

-95-2
2. 0.0015 /( ).
5. 0.5 CO 2 0.5 C 2 H 5 COOH.
6 . CO(Ar) = 6 0 % , CO(C 2 H 5 NH 2 ) = 4 0 % .

7. 0.7 HCOOC 2 H 5 .

-95-3
2. 0.006 /(*).
5. 0.1 C 2 H 5 COCH 3 0.1 C 2 H 5 COOH.
6. CO(CO2) = 57.1%, CO(CH3NH2) = 42.9%.
7. 0.8 CH 3 COOC 2 H 5 .

-95-4
2. 0.006 /( ).
5. 0.25 CO 2 0.25 (CH 3 ) 2 CO.
6 . CO(C 2 H 6 )

= 53.3%,

CO(NH 3 )

7. 0.7 HCOOCH 3 .

>

518

= 46.7%.

0.142

-96-1
1. .
<

2. SO 2 , P 2 O 3 ; Ag2O, K2O;
ZnO; N2O.
3. :

Fe
FeCI 2
> Fe(OH) 2
> FeO
> Fe

:
HNO 3

Cu

KOH

> Cu(NO 3 ) 2

4.

HFE

> Cu(OH) 2

CuO

Cu

N 2 O 3 + 2NaOH = 2NaN0 2 + H 2 O
C 6 H 6 + CH 3 CH=CH 2

> C 6 H 6 -CH(CH 3 ) 2

3H 2 0 2 +K 2 Cr 2 0 7 +4H 2 S04=30 2 T+K 2 S04+Cr 2 (S04) 3 +7H 2 0


5. (650)=32.9%, (25)=32.2%, CO(C7H16)=34.9%.
6. :
H2

1)N2

> NH 3

2
2
Na
Ci2

2) CH 4 -> CH3CI -> C 2 H 6


> C2H5CI
[]

C 2 H 5 OH

CL2

CH 3 COOH

> C 2 H 5 OH

NH3

CI-CH 2 COOH

H 2 N-CH 2 COOH

7. :
t0
B a S O 4 + 4 = BaS + 4 0
BaS + 2HCI = BaCI2 + H 2 S t
.
. Co(BaSO4) = 77.7%, () = 22.3%.

' 519

SN-98-2
5. O(CH3OH) = 0.333, W(C6H5OH) = 0.188, CO(C6H14) = 0.479.
7. Co(CaSO4) = 0.694, () = 0.306.

-97-1
3. C(Ba2+) = 0.15 /, () = 0.5 /, (+) = 0.2 /.
5. - C 2 H 2 , - CH 3 CHO, - C 2 H 5 OH, D - C2H5Br,
- C 2 H 5 MgBr, - C 2 H 5 CH 2 OMgBr.
6. (3)=9.9%, ()=7.1%, Co((HCOO)2Fe)=I 1.3%.
7. Ar - 60%, CH3NH2 - 40%.

-97-2
1.
2 2 + O 2 = 2 2 0,
,
,
.
2.
:
2AI + 6HCI = 2AICI3 + 2,
Cu + HCI -/-.

:
Cu + 2H2S04(KOH4) = CuSO 4 + SO 2 + 2 H 2 O.

CuS0 4 -5H 2 0.
AICI3 AI(OH)3
:
AICI3 + 3NH 3 + 3 H 2 0 = AI(OH) 3 i + 3NH4CI. .
AI(OH)3 AI2O3:
2!()3 = AI2O3 + 2 0.
520

3.
BaCI2 + Na 2 SO 4 = BaSO 4 I + 2NaCI,
:
Ba2+ + SO 4 2 - = BaSO 4 I.
: V(Ba2+) = cV = 0.25, v(CI~) =
= 2v(Ba 2+ ) = 0.5, v(S0 4 2 - ) = 0.5, V(Na+) = 2v(S0 4 2_ ) = 1.0 .
Ba2+ , 0.25 Ba2+ SO 4 2- . 2 .
: c(Cf)=v/V=0.5/2=0.25 /,
c(S0 4 2 ~) = (0.5-0.25)/2 = 0.125 /, c(Na + ) = 1.0/2 = 0.5 /.
4. ) ,
:
HCOOC 6 H 5 + 2
HCOOK + C6H5OK + H 2 O.
)
:
C 2 H 5 COONa + NaOH
C 2 H 6 T + Na 2 CO 3 .
) :
C2H5OK + C2H5CI -> C 2 H 5 OC 2 H 5 + KCI.
) ( (I))
:
3 C u + 8HN0 3 = SCu(NO 3 ) 2 + 2N0T + 4 2 0.
5.1) CaC 2 + 2H 2 O = Ca(OH) 2 + C 2 H 2 T.
,"
2) 2 2
i C 6 H 6 ( ).
FeBr3
3) C 6 H 6 + CH3CI
> C 6 H 5 -CH 3 + HBr ( ).
"

4) C 6 H 5 -CH 3 + 12
5) C 6 H 5 -CCI 3 + 2 2 0

Av

> C 6 H 5 -CCI 3 + 3HCI.


C 6 H 5 -COOH + 3HCI.
H+

6) C 6 H 5 -COOH + CH3OH
> C 6 H 5 -COOCH 3 + H2O.
. C 2 H 2 , C 6 H 6 , C 6 H 5 CH 3 ,
D C6H5CCI3, E C 6 H 5 COOH, C 6 H 5 COOCH 3 .
:

521

6.
CH 3 COOCH 3 + H 2 O
CH 3 COOH + CH 3 OH 1
:
I ! : s:

0.05

0.025

'

0.025

0.025

2 3 + M g - > (CH 3 COO) 2 Mg + H2T.


V(CH 3 COOH) = V(CH 3 OH) = V(CH 3 COOCH 3 ) = 7.4/74 = 0.1 .
V(Mg) = 0.6 / 24 = 0.025 .
: CH3OH 0.1 ( 0.1-32 = 3.2 ), CH 3 COOH
0.1 - 0.05 = 0.05 ( 0.05-60 = 3.0 )
(CH 3 COO) 2 Mg 0.025 ( 0.025-142 = 3.55 ).
:
/(-) = Tn(CH3COOCH3) + Wi(H2O) + w(Mg) - m(H2) = 7.4 + 30 +
+ 0.6-0.025-2 = 38.0 .
:
M(CH3OH) = 3.2/38.0 = 0.084 = 8.4%,
Co(CH3COOH) = 3.0/38.0 = 0.079 = 7.9%,
Co((CH3COO)2Mg) = 3.55/38.0 = 0.093 = 9.3%.
. 8.4% CH 3 OH, 7.9% CH 3 COOH, 9.3% (CH 3 COO) 2 Mg.
7.
NH 3 + HCI = NH4CI
NH4CI.
Mcp = 0.945-29 = 27.4 /
C 2 H 6 ( = 30 /) NH 3 (M = 17 /). ,
. , NH3 HCI, 30 /.
NH3 C 2 H 6 , (-10) NH3 C 2 H 6 .
:
+ =30
1 7 ( - 1 0 ) + 30>>

* - I O ) + ?
= 14 , = 16 .
<p(NH3) = 14 / 30 = 0.47 = 47%, Cp(C2H6) = 16 / 30 = 0.53 = 53%.
. 47% NH3, 53% C 2 H 6 .
:

522

SN-98-2
3. C(Mg2+) = 0.1 /, () = 0.5 /, ( + ) = 0.3 /.
5. - CH 4 , - CH3CI, - CH3MgCI1 D - CH 3 COOH 1
- CH 2 OCOOH 1 - 2 .
6. (O(C2H5OH) = 0.076, CO(CH3COOH) = 0.049,
Co((CH3COO)2Cu) = 0.075.
1. CO 2 - 57%, CH 3 NH 2 - 43%.

-97-4
3. (2+)=0.25 /, ()=0.4 /, c(N0 3 ")=0.1 /.
5. - CH 4 , - C 2 H 2 , - CH3CHCI2, D - CH 3 CHO,
- CH 3 CH 2 OH, - C 2 H 4 .
6. (25)=9.5%, ()=4.8%, (()2)=5.9%.
7. N 2 - 37.5%, NH 3 - 62.5%.

-98-1
3. X - Cl2.
4. - C2H5CI, - C2H4, - C 2 H 5 OH, D - CH 3 COOH.
6. CO((CH3)2CHNH2) = 0.386.
7. Co(Na2SO4) = 0,043, Co(NaHCO3) = 0,025, Co(Na2CO3) = 0,080.

-98-2
1. 2 + 2H 2 S0 4 ( K O H U ) = A g 2 S O 4 + S O 2 T + 2 .

2. 1) Fe + 2HBr = FeBr 2 + H2T,


2) Fe(OH) 2 + 2 = FeBr 2 + 2,

3) FeSO4 + BaBr2 = FeBr2 +BaSO4I

523

3 . x SO 3 .
1) 4FeS + 7 0 2 = 2Fe 2 0 3 + 4 S 0 2 ( FeS),
2) 2 S 0 2 + O 2 = 2 S 0 3 (t, P, ),
3) SO 3 + NaOH = NaHSO 4 .
4. A - OH3OHBrCH3, B - CH3CH(OH)CH3, C - CH 3 COCH 3 ,
D - CH 3 COOH.
:
CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 3 + Br2
CH 3 -CHBr-CH 3 + KOH
CH 3 -CH(OH)-CH 3 + CuO
CH 3 -CO-CH 3 + 4[0]

CH 3 -CHBr-CH 3 + HBr1
CH 3 -CH(OH)-CH 3 + KBr1
> CH 3 -CO-CH 3 + Cu + H2O1
CH3COOH + CO 2 + H2O

( :
5 3 -- 3 + 8KMn0 4 + 12H 2 S0 4 =
= 5 3 + 5 0 2 + 4K 2 S0 4 + 8MnS0 4 + 17 2 0).
5. Na 2 Se . , ,
, .

:
Na 2 Se + H2O
NaHSe + NaOH.
Na 2 Se , , :
Na 2 Se + 2HCI = H 2 SeT + 2NaCI.

, Na 2 Se
:
Na 2 Se + Cu(NO3)2 = C u S e I + 2NaN0 3 .
, Na 2 Se :
Na 2 Se + 4CI2 + 4 2 0 = Na 2 SeO 4 + 8HCI.
6. :
23 + 3 0 2 = 2 0 2 + 4 2 0,
4C2H5NH2 + 150 2 = 80 2 + 2N2 + 14 2 0.
, NaOH, .
:

524

V(N 2 ) = 4.48/22.4 = 0.2 ,


V(C 2 H 5 NH 2 ) = 2 0.2 = 0.4 .
Vo6lll(H2O) = 43.2 / 18 = 2.4 .
V 2 (H 2 O) = 7-v(N2) = 1.4 ,
Vi(H 2 O) = 2.4 - 1.4 = 1.0 .
V(CH 3 OH) = V[(H 2 0)/2 = 0.5 .
(D(CH3OH) = 0.5-32/(0.5-32 + 0.4-45) = 0.47.
. 47% CH 3 OH.
7.
:
0.05

0.05

0.025

0.1

0.025

2ZnCI 2 + 2 2 0 3 + H 2 O = [Zn0H] 2 C0 3 ! + 4KCI + CO 2 .


V(ZnCI2) = 35.7-1.12-0.17/136 = 0.05 , V(K 2 CO 3 ) = 3-0.05 =
= 0.15 .
:
0.025

0.025

0.05

K 2 CO 3 + CO 2 + H 2 O = 20 3 .
:
0.1 KCI, 0.05 KHCO3, (0.15 - 0.05 - 0.025) = 0.075
K 2 CO 3 . :
(-) = m(p-pa K 2 CO 3 ) + m(p-pa ZnCI2) - m([Zn0H] 2 C0 3 ) =
= 50-1.30 + 35.7-1.12 - 0.025-224 = 99.4 .
:
W(KCI) = 0.1-74.5 / 99.4 = 0.075;
(O(KHCO3) = 0.05-100/99.4 = 0.050;
(O(K2CO3) = 0.075-138/99.4 = 0.104.
. 7.5% KCI, 5.0% KHCO 3 ,10.4% K2CO3.

-98-3
3. X - Na 2 SiO 3 .
4. - 3121, - CH 3 C=CH, - CH 3 OOCH 3 ,
D-CH 3 COOH.
6. O(C6H5NH2) = 0.544.
7. W(Na2SO4) = 0.081, (O(NaHCO3) = 0.048, CO(Na2CO3) = 0.030.
:

525

-98-4
3. X - Mn(OH)2.
4. O 6 H 5 CH 3 , C 6 H 5 CH 2 CI, C 6 H 5 CH 2 OH 1
D _ C 6 H 5 COOH.
6. (CH 3 NH 2 ) = 0.447.
7. Co(KNO3) = 0.145, Co(KHCO3) = 0.072, Co(K2CO3) = 0.050.

-99-1
1. + 3HN0 3 = H 3 BO 3 + 3N0 2 T
2. C3H7CI + Mg
C3H7MgCI
V(C3H7CI) = 31.4/78.5 = 0.4 ,
vTeop(C3H7MgCI) = 0.4 ,

Vnp(C3H7MgCI) = 0.4-0.488 = 0.195 ,


Wnp(C3H7MgCI) = 0.195-102.5 = 20.0 .
. 20.0 C3H7MgCI.
3. :
Pb(NO 3 ) 2 = PbO + 2N0 2 T + Vfe O 2 T.
(II) :
PbO + = Pb + CO 2 .
.
, NO 2 O 2 :
2 N 0 2 + 2 = KNO3 + KNO2 + H 2 O.
:
3KN0 3 + 3KN0 2 + 14AI + 8 + H 2 O =
= 6NH 3 T + 14K[AI(OH)4].
4. CH 3 CH=CHCH 3 ->CH 3 CH(CI)CH(CI)CH 3 -*CH 3 C=CCH 3 ->
CH 3 CH=CHCH 3 -> 3 ()() 3
-> CH 3 CH(Br)CH(Br)CH 3
CH 3 C=CCH 3
526

:
1) CH 3 CH=GHCH 3 + Cl 2
CH 3 CH(Ct)CH(CI)CH 3 ;
2) CH 3 CH(CI)CH(CI)CH 3 + 20(.) ->
^ C H 3 O C C H 3 + 2KCI + 2
3)CH 3 C=CCH 3 + H 2 ^ CH 3 CH=CHCH 3 ;
4) CH 3 CH=CHCH 3 + 20 4 + 4 2 0->
3 ()() 3 + 2 + 20;
5) ()() 3 + 2HBr 1
CH 3 CH(Br)CH(Br)CH 3 + 2 2 0 ;
6) CH 3 CH(Br)CH(Br)CH 3 + 2KOH(cn.)
-> CH 3 C=CCH 3 + 2KBr + 2 2 0.
5.1) 3CI2 + 6 0 = KCIO3 + 5 + ;
2) 4 3 = 3KCI0 4 + KCI;
3) KCIO4 = KCI + 2 0 2 ;
4) 1(} + 3 0 4 ( , = HCIt + KH 2 PO 4 ;
5) 3KH 2 P0 4 + () 2 = K 3 PO 4 + Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 + 6 2 0;
6) 2 3 (0 4 ) 2 + + SSiO 2 = 6 C a S i 0 3 + IOCOt + P 4 T.
6. :
2HzS + 3 0 2 = 2H 2 O + 2SOZ
C n H 2n+2 + (+1 )/2 O 2 =

+ (+1 ) 2 0

CO 2 + Ba(OH) 2 = BaCO 3 I + H 2 O
SO 2 + Ba(OH) 2 = B a S O 3 I + H 2 O
BaCO 3 + 2HN0 3 = Ba(NO 3 ) 2 + H 2 O + CO 2 T
5 B a S 0 3 + 6HN0 3 + 2KMn0 4 =
= 5 B a S 0 4 + 2KN0 3 + 2Mn(N0 3 ) 2 + 3 H 2 0
SO 2 CO 2 ,
19.9
.
KMnO4
2.33 (0.01 ) . ,
0.01 H 2 S 0.03 . (19.9 )
0.01 (2.17 ) (19.9-2.17)= 17.73
(0.09 ) . , 0.03 0.09 , .., .
. C3H3:

527

7. : W(Na2S2O3-SH2O) = , Wi(H2O) = .
:
W(O0C) = 0.3443 = / ( + )
(1),
(| Na 2 S 2 O 3 :
U 1 (Na 2 S 2 O 3 -SH 2 O) = 158/248 = 0.6371,
a 2 (Na 2 S 2 0 3 -2H 2 0) = 158/194 = 0.8144.
(1) : = 0.8504;, ( + ) = 1.8504.*.
: (-) = 165.0 , Zn(Na2S2O3) =
=165.0-0.70=115.5 . , :
w(50C) = 0.6292 = (< + 115.5 - 2-30.0)/( + + 165.0 - 30.0) =
= (0.6371-jc + 91.07) / (1.8504-JC + 135.0).
: 1.8504- + 135.0 = 1.0126- + 144.74, = 11.62 , = 9.89 .
. 11.62 Na 2 S 2 O 3 -SH 2 O 9.89 H2O.

-99-2
4. - .
6. C 2 H 4 .
7. 5.12 12-620 4.35 H2O.

-99-3
2.40.0 C4H9MgI.
4. - .
6. C4He.
7. 6.24 MgS0 4 -7H 2 0 6.93 H2O.

-99-4
2. (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 .
6. C 2 H 2 .
7. 57.65 Mn(N0 3 ) 2 -6H 2 0 13.55 H2O.
:

528

-2000-1
1. - , .
2.
H2N-CH-CONH-CH-COOH
I
I
R
R'
4 3 , R
R' 4 3 .
(R = CH2OH) (R' = CH2CH2COOH).
. Ser-Glu Glu-Ser.
3. - ,
, :
(CH3)2NH + HCI = (CH3)2NH2CI.
,
:
(CH3)2NH2CI + KOH = (CH 3 ) 2 NHt + KCI + H2O.
:
2Cu + O 2 = 2.
,
:
CuO + H2 = Cu + H2O1
2 2 0 = 22 + O2T.
4. - MOx ( ), - MHaI2x, .. , .
, ,
(, ), 1 : IO1 ..
Wi(O) _
16*
1
/Ti(HaI) ~ M(Hal)-Ix ~ 10'
M(HaI) = 80 /. - , Br.
. Br.
529

5.
, C 3 H 2 O 4 Na 2 ,
D .
, - .
.
:
C 3 H 6 + Br2

> CH2BrCH2CH2Br

H2O

CH 2 BrCH 2 CH 2 Br + 2

> H O C H 2 C H 2 C H 2 O H + 2

C3HeO2
KMnO4

HOCH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH + 4[0]

> 2 + 2
H 2 SO 4

2 + 2NaOH - NaOOCCH 2 COONa + 2


C3H2O4Na2
NaOOCCH 2 COONa + 225

CH 2 (COOC 2 H 5 ) 2 + 2NaBr

6. C 3 H 4
C n H 2rv1 Cl,
96.5-18.0
* +=

= 0.5

8.31-418
:

Zx

C 3 H 4 + 4 0 2 = 0 2 + 2 2 0,

C n H 2rvl CI + (3 - 1 ) / 2 O 2 = HCI + 0 2 + ( - 1) 2 0,

2 + ( - 1) = 18.0/18 = 1 H 2 O
+ = 0.5 ,
( - 1 ) = 2, = 3.
C3H5CI,
:
CHCI=CH-CH 3 1- (- -),
CH 2 =CCI-CH 3 2-,
CH 2 =CH-CH 2 CI 3-.
:

530

''
) :
>

/(34, C3H5CI) = 1.757-29 = 50.95 =


:
-

4 ( k + 76 5 v

- - .
+

, : jc = 0.35, = 0.15.
0.15 HCI.
HCl + AgNO 3 = AgCIi + HNO3.
V(AgNO3) = 0.15, (-) = (0.15-170)/0.017 = 1500 , V(p-pa) =
= 1500/1.01 = 1485 .
. C 3 H 5 CI; 1485 AgNO 3 .
7. (NH4)2CO3-HaO1
K 2 CO 3 (NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 ,
114*+ 138+ 132 = 38.4
: (, ) 2 NH 3 CO 2 :

Ix
X
(NH 4 ) 2 CO 3 -H 2 O
2NH 3 + CO 2
,

K 2 CO 3 -> CO 2
z

2Z

(NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 -> 2NH 3


V(CO2) = 8.8/44 = 0.2 = + ; V(NH3) = 6.8/17 = 0.4 = 2 + 2.
, , , : = = = 0.1.
OJ((NH4)2CO3H2O) = 114-0.1/38.4 = 0.297;
(O(K2CO3) = 138-0.1/38.4 = 0.359;
(O((NH4)2HPO4) = 132-0.1/38.4 = 0.344.
. 29.7% (NH4)2CO3-H20,35.9% K2CO3,34.4% (NH4)2HPO4.

-2000-2
1. . .
2: Phe^Glu GIu-Phe.

'

3. 1) ; 2)
.
:

531

4. .
5. A - C 2 H 6 l D - C H 3 C O O H .
6. C3H5CI; 3.96 AgNO3.
7. 25.4% NH4HCO3, 32.2% CaCO 3 , 42.4% (NH4)2HPO4.

-2000-3
1. . .
2. Ser-Tyr Tyr-Ser.
3. 1) Ag2O;
2) .
4. .
5. - C2H4, D - CH(CH3)3.
6. C3H5CI; 4.95 AgNO3.
7. 34.5% (NH4)2CO3 H2O, 25.5% MgCO3, 40.0% (NH4)2SO4.

-2000-4
1. . .
2. Phe-Tyr Tyr-Phe.
3. 1) ; 2)
.
4. .
5. - CH 3 COOH, > D - C2H2.
6. C3H5CI; 2475 AgNO3.
7. 25.7% (NH4)2CO3,47.7% Fe(HCO3)2, 26.6% NH4HSO3.

532


-96-1
1. : (-CHa-C(CH 3 )=CH-CH 2 -).

200000/(- 2 -( 3 )=- 2 -) = 200000/68 = 2941.
2. C(Fe(OH)2) = 6.30 IO 6 /.
3. X1 MgO, X2 Mg(NO3)2.
4. NaHCO 3 .
Cu(OH)2 Cu 2 O. -1
.
5.
CH3

-CH3

Xi
COOH

OT
I
NO2
X5

c h s

NO2
X6

, 533

7. : - :
H2N-CH-NH-CH-NH-CH2-COOH

- .

-96-2
2. 1.93- IO'10 /.

3. X, - Mn(OH)2, X2-Mn.
5. X1 (), X2 CH 3 CHBrCOOH,
X3 CH 2 =CHCOONa, X4 CH 2 BrCH 2 COOH,
X3 CH 2 BrCH 2 COONa, X6 CH 2 BrCH 2 COOCH 3 .
6. NH 3 35.8%.
7. GIy-Gly-Phe.

-96-3
2. 1.26 IO 8 /.
3. X1 - CuO, X2 - (CH 3 COO) 2 Cu.
5. X1 C 6 H 5 CCI 3 , X2 C 6 H 5 COONa, X3 C 6 H 5 COOH,
X4 O 2 NC 0 H 4 COOH, X, CIH 3 NC 6 H 4 COOH,
X6-H2NC6H4COONa.
6. CH 3 OH 70%.
7. AIa-Ala-Phe.

534

-96-4
2. 1.8 "7 /.

'

'

3. X1 - Cr 2 O 3 , X2 - Cr.
5. X1 O 2 NC 6 H 4 C 2 H 5 , X2 O 2 NC 6 H 4 CHBrCH 3 ,
X 3 O 2 NC 6 H 4 CH(OH)CH 3 , X4 O 2 NC 6 H 4 CH=CH 2 ,
X 5 -O 2 NC 6 H 4 CH(OH)CH 2 OH.
6. C 6 H 12 15.8%.
7. Phe-Phe-Gly.

-97-1
1. , , .
2. = 3 . '0.74 =1.96-10" 8 .
PnpN4 .
.
,

3. X1 KfAI(OH)4], X2 AI2(SO4)3.
4. X1 4-, X2 2--4-.
5. a) 2FeCI 3 + 3Na 2 Si0 3 + 6 2 0 = 2Fe(OH) 3 i + 3 H 2 S i 0 3 l +
+ 6NaCI;
) 2PBr 3 + 5CI2 + 8H 2 0 = 2H 3 P0 4 + 3Br2 + 10HCI;
) 5CH 3 CH 2 OH + 4KMn0 4 + 6H 2 S0 4 = 5CH 3 COOH +
+ 2K 2 S0 4 + 4MnS0 4 + 11H 2 O.
6. x LiF, : = [Li+][F~] = (0.1-*/0.5)-(0.15-*/0.5) =
= 1.5-IO""3, = 0.039. /n(LiF) = 0.039-26 = 1.0 .
7. ,
HBr.

( ),
, .. , , V(NH2): v(COOH) = 3:1.
, HBr (> 20%), , , HBr . 535

-97-2
2. V= 8.17-10"3 3, R- 1.25-10"' .
3. X1 - ZnSO 4 , X2 - Zn(NO3)24. X1 - C 6 H 5 COOH, X2 - O 2 NC 6 H 4 COOH.
6. W(BaSO3) = 0.260 .
7. Gly-Ala, = 16.4 .

-97-3
2. V= 1.695-IO2 3, R = 1.59-IO1 .
3. X1 - K[Cr(OH)4J, X2 - Cr(NO3)3.
4. X1 - CH3CHO, X2 - CH3CH(OH)CN.
6. OT(CaSO4) = 0.297 .
7. Glu-GIu, = 41.4 .

-97-4
2. V = 2.68- IO 2 3, R = 1.86-IO'1 .
3. X1 - Cu(NO3)2, X2 - CuSO 4 .
4. X1 - 31, X2 - 2=.
6. Ot(CsCIO4)= 19.7 .

7. Gly-Phe,= 49,95 .

536

-98-1
2. K = 6.25.
4. - Cl2, - MgCI2.
6. Qi = -17 /, Q2 = -15 /.
46.7%.
7. () = 161.20 , m(H 2 0) = 38.49 .

-98-2
2. K= 16.
4. - S, - MgS.
6. Q1 = - 1 7 /, Q2 = -15 /.
45.8%.
7. () = 144.5 , WT(H2O) = 29.4 .

-98-3
2. K= .
4. - Br2, - PBr3.
6. Q\ = -13 /, Q2 = - 9 /.
57.3%.
7. () = 204.3 , m(H 2 0) = 79.0 .

-98-4
1. ) :
21203 -> 4AI + 3 0 2 .
) :
5 + (-1 ) 2
-> 4-(3-2-).2-4 + (H-I)H 2 O
537

Ir 0.5 ,0.5 , I, : , , .
2. 2A = +
3.5 - 3 = 0.5 , 1 0.5 .
:[] = 3 - 1 = 2 , [] = [] =
= 3 + 0.5 = 3.5 .
[] 2

'

=3.06.

3. . , -1 , :
CH3CHO + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH
-> CH 3 COONH 4 + 2Agl + SNH 3 + H2O,
C4H9C=CH + [Ag(NH3)2JOH

C 4 H 9 C=CAgI + 2NH3 + H2O.

4. A 12, B - B a l 2 .
:
1) KI(TB) + 304(%) = KH2PO4 + HIT,
2) 2KI + Br2 = I2 + 2KBr,
3) I2 + H2 = 2HI ( ),
4) 2KI + O 3 + H2O = I2 + O 2 + 2K0H,
' ' 5) I2 + Ba = Bal2,
6) Bal2 + H 2 SO 4 = BaSO 4 I + 2HI.
5. ) :
SO2CIBr + 2 2 0 = H 2 SO 4 + HCI + HBr
:
SOCI2 + Br2 + 3H 2 0 = H 2 SO 4 + 2HCI + 2.
)
:
20
H2N-CH-CO-NHCHCOOH

CH2

538

CH3

-H2O

2
- H 2 N-CH-COOK + H 2 N-CH-COOK ,
-H2O
1
1
CH2

6
H2N-CH-CO-NHCHCOOH
1

CH3

20
-H2O

CH2

6
2KOH
- H 2 N-CH-COOK + H 2 N-CH-COOK ,
-H2O

CH3

CH2

6
6. :
C 4 H 10 + Br2

> CH3CH2CH2CH2Br + HBr,

(1)

C 4 H 10 + Br2
CH3CH2CH(Br)CH3 + HBr,
(2)
1.8 0.389 = 0.7
1- 1.8 - 0.7 = 1.1 2-.
(1) (2) Q1
Q2,
-19 = 0.7(2, + 1.1(22.
(3)
Q1 Q2 ,
, (1) (2) ,
. , 1- 2-:
Qi - Q2 = G o6p (I-C 4 H 9 Br) - (2-49) = - 4 .

(4)

(4) (3), : Q1 = -13.0, Q2 = -9.0 /.


1-
(1.8 - ) 2-, :
:

539

- 1 9 . 4 = xQ, +

(1.8-X)Q2,

jc = 0.8. 1- 0.8/1.8 = 0.444.


. -13.0 -9.0 /; 44.4%.

7. : M(KL-IOH2O)= 400 /, M(KL-6H20) =


= 400 - 72 - 328 /, M(KL) = 400 - 180 = 220 /.
V(KL-IOH2O) = , V(H2O) =
KL 90 40 0C.
90 0C
(O(KL) = m(KL)/m(p-pa) = 220./(400 + 18) = 90/190.
40 0C
CO(KL) = m(KL)/m(p-pa) = 220-(jt-0.5)/(4(Xk+18y-0.5-328) = 60/160.
, : = 1.06, = 3.79. :
m(KL-1 OH2O) = 1.06-400 = 424 ; m(H 2 0) = 3.79-18 68.2 .
. 424 KL-1OH2O, 68.2 H2O.

-99-1
1. () t J CaCO3(P-P) -> Ca 2+ + '3
:
[CaCO 3 ] = 0.013 / 100 = 1.3-10"4 /.
'[Ca 2+ ] = [CO32""] = 1.3-10"4 /.
(0 3 ) = [Ca 2 + HCO 3 2 - ] = 1.7-IO"8.

2-

2. COOH -,
-:
COOH
COOH

COOH

540

3. ) KMnO4
. CO 2 :
C 2 H 2 +2KMn0 4 +3H 2 S0 4 =2C0 2 +K 2 S0 4 +2MnS0 4 +4H 2 0.
KMnO4 :
2 2 + 8KMn0 4 = 3K 2 C 2 0 4 + 8Mn0 2 + 2 + 2 2 0.
) NO2 Fel 2
:
2Fel 2 + 3N0 2 = Fe 2 O 3 + I2 + 3N0.
NO2 , Fel2:
Fel 2 + 6N0 2 = Fe(NO 3 ) 3 + I2 + 3N0.
4. 1) NaCI ,
.
2) :
Zn + 2HCI = ZnCI2 + H2.
ZnCI2 :
ZnCI2 -> Zn(OH) 2 I
ZnO -> Zn
3)
:
3Cu + 8HN0 3 = 3Cu(N0 3 ) 2 + 2 N 0 + 4 2 0.
Cu(NO3)2
:
Fe +Cu(NO 3 ) 2 = Fe(NO3)2 + Cu.
5. - NH3, - N2, - Mg3N2, - H2O, - NO, E - NO2.
:
1) -> : 4NH 3 + 3 0 2 = 2N2 + 2 0 .
2) : N2 + 3Mg = Mg3N2
3) + A: Mg3N2 + 6 2 0 = ()2 + 2NH3T
4) > : 4NH 3 + 5 0 2 = 4NO + 6 2 0 ( )
5) : 2 N 0 + O 2 = 2N0 2
6) E + : 3N0 2 + H2O = 2HN0 3 + NOt ( )
7) E -> A: 2N0 2 + 72 = 2NH3 + 4 2 0.
:

541

6. 3 0 4 -> (HPO 3 ) n H 2 O + (n-1)H 2 0.


V(H3PO4) = 9.8/98 = 0.1 , V(H2O) = 1.71/18 = 0.095 .
v(H 3 P0 4 )/v(H 2 0) = 0.1/0.095 = /( - 1), = 20. : M^(HPO 3 ) n H 2 O) = 20-80 + 18 = 1618.
. 1618.
7.
CH2OCOR
CHOCOR' + 20
I
CH2OCOR"

CH2OH
I "*
CHOH +RCOOH + R'COOH +RnCOOH
I
CH2OH

/( 2 0) = 27.96 - 26.34 = 1.62 ,


V(H 2 O)= 1.62/18 = 0.09,
() = 0.09/3 = 0.03,
) = 26:34/0.03 = 878 /.
M(R+R'+R") = 878 - 173 = 705 /. , ,
(4 !). , R = CiyH23,
R' = Ci 7 H 31 , R" = C1VH33.
H2, , ,
.
V(H2) = ()-6 = 0.18.
V(H2) = 0.18-8.31-523/(2-101.3) = 3.86 .
. R = C17Hpg. R ' = C 17 H 31 , R" = C 17 H 33 , V(H2) = 3.86 .

-99-2
L n P ( B a S O 4 ) = 1.7-10'10.
5. - CuO, - H 2 O, - O 2 , - SO 3 , - H 2 SO 4 , E - CuSO 4 ,
-Cu.
6. 1778,
7. R = C 15 H 27 , R' = C 15 H 29 , R" = C 15 H 31 , V(H2) = 2.57 .

542

-98-4
t. FIP(HgS) = 1.4-10"45.
5. Cr2O3, NaCrO2, Na(Cr(OH)4), CrCf3,
Na3ICr(OH)6], E - Cr(OH)3.
6. 2018.

7. R = Ci 5 H 25 , R' = C15H27, R" = C15H29, V(H2) = 3.86 .

-99-4
I

1. FIP(PbS) = 8.8-10"29.
5. - CO 2 , - Na 2 CO 3 , - NaOH, - NaCI, - NaHCO 3 .
6. 4018.
7. R = C17H3-)., R' = C17H33, R" = C17H35, V(H2)*= 2.57 .

-2000-1
1. 2 0 9 TI-J

209

Pb + .

2. Zn + 2HCI = ZnCI2 + H2T.


, ,
. ,
20 0C 40 0C
27/3 = 9 . , Y
(*/<*= ^ - ^
T 10, 3. ,
55 0 C (55-40)/, = 5.2 ,
3/5.2 = 0.577 = 34.6 .
. 34.6 .

543

3. 100-1.03 = 103
103-0.05 = 5.15 MgSO4.
MgS0 4 -7H 2 0 ( = 246 /) MgSO4
( = 120 /) -120/246 = 0.488* .
:
5.15 + 0.488* _ t
103 +:
~ ' '
Jt= 13.3.
. 13.3 MgS0 4 -7H 2 0.
4. a)

CuBr2

Cu(OH)2

CuO

CuBr2

CuBr2 + 20 = Cu(OH) 2 I + 2
Cu(OH)2 = CuO + H2O
CuO + 2HBr = CuBr2 + H2O
)

CuBr2 -> Cu(NO3)2 -> Cu


CuBr2
3CuBr2 + 8 H NO3 = 3CU(N0 3 ) 2 + 3Br2 + 2NO + 4 2 0
Cu(NO3)2 + F e = Fe(NO3)2 + Cu

Cu + Br2 = CuBr2
5. - C2H5CI, - C4H10, - CH3CH2CHBrCH3,
- CH3CH2CH=CH2, - CH3CH2COOH, E - ,
- CH3CH(NH2)COOH, 3 - CH 3 CH(NH 3 HS0 4 )C00H
:
C2H5OH + HCI -> C2H5CI + H2O
2C2H5CI + 2Na -> CH3CH2CH2CH3 + 2NaCI
/

CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 3 + Br2 - CH3CH2CHBrCH3 + HBr


C2H5OH

CH3CH2CHBrCH3+NaOH
> CH 3 CH 2 CH=CH 2 +NaBr+H 2 0
CH3CH2CH=CH2 + 2KMn0 4 + 3H 2 S0 4
-> CH 3 CH 2 COOH + CO 2 + K2SO4 + 2MnS0 4 + 4H 2 0
CH 3 CH 2 COOH + C I 2 ^ U + HCI
+ 2NH3

CH3CH(NH2)COOH + NH4CI

CH3CH(NH2)COOH + H 2 SO 4
:

544

CH 3 CH(NH 3 HS0 4 )C00H

6. PX 3 PX5
(X ). :
/

PX 3 + 3H 2 0 = H 3 PO 3 +
1

PX5 + 4 2 0 = H 3 PO 4 + 5
1 PX 3 5 KOH (H 3 PO 3 ):
I

H 3 PO 3 + 20 = K 2 HPO 3 + 2 2 0
3

HX + KOH = KX + H 2 O
,
1 PX 5 8 :
1

H 3 PO 4 + = K 3 PO 4 + 2
5

HX + KOH = KX + H 2 O
v(KOH) = C-V = 2 / 0.035 = 0.07 .
(III):
V(PX3) = v(KOH)/5 = 0.014 ,
M(PX3) = m/v = 1.23 / 0.014 = 88 /,
A(X) = (88 - 31)/3 = 19 /.
X , PF 3 .
(V):
V(PX5) = v(K0H)/8 = 0.00875 ,
M(PX5) = m/v = 1.23 /0.00875 = 140.6 /,
A(X) = (140.6 -31)/5 = 21.9 / .
. PF 3 .
7. CH3OH
C 2 H 5 OH,
32* + 46 = 30.8.
KMnO4
K2CO3, - CH 3 COOK:
*

Ix

CH3OH + 2KMn0 4 = K 2 CO 3 + 2 M n 0 2 l + 2 2 0,
18-1115

545

>

4/3

3 2 + 40 4 = 3 00 + 4 M n 0 2 l + KOH + 4.
MnO 2 + 4HCI = MnCI2 + CI2T + 2.
V(CI2) = 128.8-20.0/(8.31-310) = 1.0 = V(MnO2) = 2 + 4/3.
, : = 0.1, = 0.6.
W(CH3OH) = 32-0.1 / 30.8 = 0.104;
W(C2H5OH) =46-0.6 / 30.8 = 0.896.
. 10.4% CH 3 OH, 89.6% C 2 H 5 OH,

-2000-2
1. 209 Pb.
2. 1.9 .
3.30.5 Na 2 SO 4 -IOH 2 O.
4. a) X1 - Mg(OH)2, X2 - MgO; ) X1 - MgO, X2 - Mg.
5. - C 6 H 5 CHBrCH 2 Br, 3 -.If-O 2 NC 6 H 4 COOH.
6. PCI3.
7. 25.4% .

-2000-3
1. 13 N.
2. 15.4 .
3. 32.5 Na 2 CO 3 -IOH 2 O.
4. a) X1 - FeCI2, X2 - Fe(NO 3 ) 2 ; ) X1 - Fe(NO 3 ) 3 , X2 - Fe.
5. - , 3 - 2- .
6. PF 3 .
7. 45.0 .

:; 546

::
I- 226 Ra.
.4,.

, t

-2000-4

' ^

>-; : I-:-:.:- . ..

-A

. - : - , . . - > T .

2. 1.0 .
- ^ 1 I - -.
3.35.2 CaCI 2 -6H 2 0.

'

3 ^ \ ,-'...,'I

FJ-TMV

-I-IP

- *. *v. ,'i fs." V -F

J ';\

4. a) X1 - ZnCI2, X2 - Zn(OH)2; X1 - Zn, X2 - Zn(NO3)25. - CH3CH=CHCH2Br, 3 - CH3CH(NH2)COOC2H5.


6. PCI3.
7.44.0 .

T "


-90-1
6. 54.2% Cu, 45.8% Ag; 1.12 NO2.
7.44.7% CH3NH2.

-90-2
6. 57.1% Mg, 42.9% Al; 1.344 H2.
7. 11.75% C6H5OH1 18.25% CH3COOH.

-90-3
>!- / -.. > f.-.v

'<{.

'

'

1.
IslIs2IpbZs1Zp6As2. 2- Ca 2+ Is1Is2ZpiZs2Zp6.
Ar S 2 ", Cl", K+,
Sc 3+ .
18*

''547

2. ) Fe+ 2HBr = FeBr 2 + H 2 T


( HBr ).
) FeO + 2HBr = FeBr2 + H2O ( ).
) 2FeBr3 + Fe = 3FeBr2
(- ).
3. 1) - . , . , ,
.
2HCI + Na2CO3 = 2NaCI + CO2 T + H2O,
H2SO4 + Na2CO3 = Na2SO4 + CO2 T + H2O,
2H 2 S0 4 + Na2CO3 = 2NaHS04 + CO2 T + H2O.
2) - . :
2KMn0 4 + 16HCI = 5CI2 T + 2KCI + 2MnCI2 + 8 2 0,
:
2HCI + Zn = ZnCI2 + H2 .

C u + 2H 2 S0 4 (KOHU) = C u S O 4 + SO 2 T + 2 2 0


Zn + H2S04(pa36) = ZnSO4 + H2 .
4.
2,4,6-.
C6H5NH2 + 2
> C 6 H 2 Br 3 NH 2 I + .
(II)
-
( ). .
(I).
CH3CHO + 2Cu(OH)2 + NaOH=CH3COONa + Cu2O + 2 0,
2()4 + 2CU(OH)2 + NaOH =
= HOCH2(CHOH)4COONa + Cu2O + 2 0.
:

548

CH 3 CHO, .. .
5. )
:
KOH + H 2 SO 4 = KHSO4 + H2O,
20 + H 2 SO 4 = K 2 SO 4 + 2 2 0.

)
SiO2 + 2 = Si + 20,
t"
SiO 2 + = SiC + 2 0 .
().
.
) -, - . -
, -

6. 31.5%- ,
N0:
3Cu + 8HN0 3 = 3CU(N0 3 ) 2 + 2 N 0 + 4 2 0,
(1)
3Ag + 4HN0 3 = 3AgN0 3 + NO + 2 2 0,
(2)
Ba(OH) 2 + 2HN0 3 = Ba(NO 3 ) 2 + 2 2 0.
(3)
HNO 3 : V(HNO3) = 23.9-1.17-0.315/63 =
= 0.14 . Ba(OH)2 : V(Ba(OH)2) = C-V =
= 1.4-0.0143 = 0.02 . (3) 0.04 HNO3,
0.14 - 0.04 = 0.1
HNO3.
X Cu Ag.
:
= W(Cu) + /() = 64-+ 108-Y =3.54.
(4)
:

549

(1) (2) :
8/3- + 4/3-= 0.1 HNO3.
(4) (5), :
X = 0.03 = V(Cu); () = 0.03-64 = 1.92 ;

(5)

= 0.015 = v(Ag);OT(Ag)= 0.015-108 = 1.62 .


:
oXCu) = 1.62/3.54-100% = 45.8%,
CO(Ag) = 1.92/3.54-100% = 54.2%.
(1) (2)
2/3- + Yl3 = 0.02 + 0.005 = 0.025 NO, V(NO) = 0.025-22.4 =
= 0.56 .
. 45.8% Cu, 54.2% Ag; 0.56 NO.
7. :
Mg + 2 = Mg(HCOO)2 + H2 ,

(1)

Mg + 2 3 = Mg(CH3COO)2 + H2 ,

(2)

2 + O 2 = 20 2 T + 2 2 0,

(3)

CH3COOH + 2 0 2 = 2 0 2 T + 2 2 0.
(4)
X HCOOH Y CH3COOH, (1) (2) /2 + /2 Mg:
/2 + /2 = 0.92/24 = 0.03833.
(5)
(3) (4) +2 , CuSO 4 :
X + 2= 1.98/18 = 0.11.
(6)
(5) (6), :
X=13/300=v(HCOOH), y=l/30=v(CH3COOH). :=13:10.
. v(HCOOH): V(CH3COOH) = 13:10.

1-90-4
6.77.7% Zn, 22.3% Fe; 0.896 H2.
7. 62.65% C6H6, 37.35% C6H5NH2.

550

'

-91-1

Vi

z . . . ,.

; .

4. - Ci 7 H 35 CQOH, - , - .
6.0.1 (13.6 ) KH 2 PO 4 , 0.1 (17.4 ) K 2 HPO 4 .
7.67.2% CH 3 COOH 1 32.8% C 3 H 7 COOH; 0.896 CO 2 .

-91-2
1. ,
, . 137Cs CsOH 29.7 .
2. :
1) SO 2 + Cl2 + 2 2 0 = H 2 SO 4 + 2HCI;
2) S + HCIO3 + H 2 O = H 2 SO 4 + HCI;
3) H 2 S + HCIO4 = H 2 SO 4 + HCI.
3.1) CaO + H 2 O = Ca(OH) 2 ;
2) Ca + 2HzO = Ca(OH) 2 + H2 ;
3) CaH 2 + 2 2 0 = Ca(OH) 2 + 2 2 T,
4) CaC 2 + 2 2 0 = Ca(OH) 2 + C 2 H 2 .
4. , , , ;
, .
CH2-OH
'- +
CH2-OM

CH 2 -O-CO-Ci 7 H 3 3
CH-O-CO-Ci7H33
CH 2 -O-CO-Ci 7 H 3 3
""

2,

j-

551

CH 2 -O-CO-C 17 H 33
/

CH-O-CO-C 1 7 H 3 3
CH 2 -O-CO-C 17 H 33

K1.

+ 2

CH 2 -O-CO-C 17 H 35

NI

CH-O-CO-C 1 7 H 3 5
CH 2 -O-CO-C 17 H 35

ILGLL

IIQII

5. ) CaO SO 2 :
CaO + SO2 = CaSO3,
CaO + 2S0 2 + H2O = Ca(HSO3)2.
) Ca(HS)2 :
3Ca(HS)2+1603() '= 3CaS0 4 +3H 2 S0 4 +16N0+8H 2 0,
3Ca(HS)2 + 10HN03(pa36) = 3Ca(N03)2 + 6S + 4N0 + 8H 2 0.
HNO3 H2S.
)
CH 3 -CHC-CH 3 + H-OH

Hg

[CH 3 -C=C-CH 3 ]

A^V,
^

CH3-CH2-C 3

6.
AICI3 + 3NaOH = AI(OH) 3 1 + 3NaCI.
(1)
(1). V(AICI3) = 25 0.08/133.5 =
= 0.015, V(NaOH) = 25-0.08/40 = 0.05. AICI3 . (1) 0.015-3=0.045 NaOH,
0.015 AI(OH)3. NaOH
0.05 - 0.045 = 0.005 0.005 AI(OH)3
:
AI(OH)3 + NaOH = Na[AI(OH)4],
(2)
, 0.015-0.005=0.01
AI(OH)3.

21()3 '= AI2O3 + 2 0


0.01/2=0.005 AI2O3 0.005-102=0.51 .
. 0.51 AI2O3.
:

552

(3)

7. :
Zn + 200 = Zn(HCOO)2 + H2 T1

(1)

Zn + 23 = Zn(CH3COO)2 + H2 T1

(2)

CuO + H2 = Cu + H2O1

(3)
(4)

CuO + H2SO4 = CuSO4 + H2O1

H2SO4 + 23 = K2SO4 + 20 2 + 2 2 0.
(5)
X HCOOH Y CH 3 COOH.
:
= wi(HCOOH) + W(CH3COOH) = 46- + 60-= 3.04.

(6)

KHCO3 : V(KHCO3) = V = 1.25 0.016 =


= 0.02 . (5)
0.01 H 2 SO 4 .
V(H 2 SO 4 ) = VpoVM = 28.3-1.06-0.098/98 = 0.03 ; , (4) 0.03 - 0.01 = 0.02 H 2 SO 4
0.02 CuO. CuO: V(CuO) = 4/80 =
= 0.05 . (3) 0.05 - 0.02 = 0.03 CuO
0.03 H2, (1) (2):
(7)

/2 + Yl2 = 0.03.
(6) (7), :
X = 0.04 = v(HCOOH); w(HCOOH) = 0.04-46 = 1.84 ;
Y= 0.02 = V(CH 3 COOH); m(CH 3 COOH) = 0.02-60 = 1.20 .
:
() = 1.84/3.04-100% = 60.5%,
(O(CH3COOH) = 1.20/3.04-100% = 39.5%.
: V(H2) = 0.03-22.4 = 0.672 .
. 60.5% , 39.5% CH 3 COOH; 0.672 H2.

-91-3
4. - , - , - .
6.29.2% HCl.
7.61.9% HCOOCH 3 , 38.1% CH 3 COOCH 3 ; 1.12 CO 2 .

553

-96-4'
4. ' >~ , C17Hs5G(X)K,
C 17 H 35 COOH.
6.5.5% K2S, 3.9% Na 2 S.
7. 27.7% H C 0 0 H , 72.3% CH 3 COOH; 0.672 CO 2 .

-92-1
1. ) 10 , 11 ; ) 10 , 10 .
2. 228Ac.
4. -38.0 /.
6. 15.6%.
7. C 4 H 8 : , , -1, -2,
2-.

-92-2
1. ) 10 , 11 ; ) 16 , 16 .
2. 14N.
4. -2.3 /.
6. 39.9%.
7. C3H6: ; 5: -1, -2,2--1 .

-92-3
1. ) 18 , 17 ; ) 18 , 18 .
2. 210 Pb.
4.-143.1 /.
6. 42.2%.
7. C 6 H 12 : , , -1, -2,
2- .
'"'554

J
-96-4'
1. ) 18 , 19 ; ) 18 , 18
2. 28 Si.
4. -16.8 /.
6. 54.7%.
7. C3H6: ; CsH10: -1, -2,2--1 .

-93-1
1. Vm(H2O) = 18 , Vm(C2H5OH) = 57.5 .
4. - Ca, - CaO, - Ca(OH)2, - CaCO3, - Ca(HCO3)2,
E - CaCI2.
6. 32% Cu, 68% Al. 3.5 NaOH.
7. 10 , -, -,
-.

-93-2
1. Vm(H2O) = 18 , Vffl(CH3OH) = 40 .
4. - ZnO, - Zn, - ZnCI2, - Zn(OH)2, - Na2[Zn(OH)4],
E - ZnCI2.
6.2.46 SO 2 .
7. C7H12 , .

-93-3
1. D He = 4.
3. - NH3, - N2, - NH4Br.
4. - C6H6, - C6H5NO2, - C6H5NH3CI, - CeH5NH2,
- BrC6H4NH2.
,

Vs - 555

I
6 . C4H3F5.

7. AgNO 3 , Ag 2 CO 3l AgF. 57.3 .

-93-4
1. D h 2 = 14.4
3. - SiO 2l - Mg2Si1 - SiH4.
4. - C 6 H 6l - C 6 H 5 Br, - C 6 H 5 ONa 1 - Br 3 C 6 H 2 OH.
6. C4H5CI3.
7. Hg(NO 3 ) 2l HgO1 HgF 2 . 77.95 .

-94-1
3. - Br2l - C 2 H 4 Br 2l - C 2 H 2l D - CH 3 CHO.
6. OXKHSO3) = 0.182, Co(K2SO3) = 0.06.
7. C 3 H 4 , C 4 H 6 .

-94-2
3. - CuO, - Cu, - SO 2 , D - S.
6. CO(KNO2) = 0.057, Co(KNO3) = 0.068.
7. CH 3 OH - 0.1 , C 3 H 7 OH - 0.2 .

-95-1
2. Bi(NO3)3 SH 2 O.
4. X1 - FeCI2, X2 - FeCI3, X3 - Fe(OH) 3 , X 4 - Fel 2 .
6. m(BaS0 3 ) = 17.36 , Co(Ba(HSO3)2) = 0.015.
7. V = 157.7 .
556

SN-98-2
2. Co(NO 3 ) 2 -IOH 2 O.
4. X1 - CrCI2, X2 - Cr(NO3)3, X3 - Cr(OH) 3 , X4 - K2CrO4
6. W(BaSO 3 ) = 17.36 , Co(Ba(HSO3)2) = 0.020.
7. V = 150 .

-95-3
2. CoS0 4 -7H 2 0.
4. X1 - CrCI3, X2 - Cr(OH)3l X3 - K3[Cr(OH)6], X4 - K 2 CrO 4
6. W(BaSO3) = 10.85 , CO(Ba(HSO3)2) = 0.0148.
7. Cp(CH3C=CH) = 50%, Cp(Ar) = 50%.

-95-4
2. Mn(NO 3 ) 3 6 2 0.
4. X1 - CuCI, X2 - Cu(NH3)2CI, X3 - Cu 2 S i X4 - Cu(NO 3 ) 2 .
6. W(BaSO 3 ) = 4.77 , C o ( B a ( H S O 3 ) 2 ) = 0.0206.
7. Cp(C2H4) = 2/3, Cp(N2) = 1/3.

-96
1. ) ; ) 2/ ; ) .
2. : ) , )
, ) .
3. ) 3 K H S O 3 + 2 K M N 0 4 = 2 K 2 S 0 4 + K H S O 4 + 2 + H 2 O
) 6Cul + 1 6 H N 0 3 = 6 C u ( N 0 3 ) 2 + 3I 2 + 4 N 0 + 8 2 0
4. , : 2,3-; 2,4-; 2,5-; 2,6-; 3,4-; 3,5-.
557

5. X, FeCI2, X

- Fe.

6. :
CH2-O-CO-C15H31
CH-O-CO-C17H35
CH2-O-CO-C3H7
7. W(Cr2(SO4)3) = 2.81%.

-96
1. Co(O2) = 66.7%, Co(O3) = 33.3%.
2. m(H 2 0) = 400 - 1 8 . 8 = 382.8 .
3. - CaCO 3 l - CO 21 - Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 .
4. a) SO 2 + 2\(.) = H 2 SO 4 + 2 N 0 2
) C 6 H 5 CH=CH 2 + 2KMn0 4 + 3H 2 S0 4 ->
-> C 6 H 5 COOH + CO 2 + K 2 SO 4 + 2MnS0 4 + 4 2 0
) 3P 2 S 3 + 14K 2 Cr 2 0 7 + 47H 2 S0 4 =
= 6 3 0 4 + 14K 2 S0 4 + 14Cr 2 (S0 4 ) 3 + 38 2 0
5. C 4 H 8 (-1, -2, 2-), C 5 H 10 (-1,
-2, 2--1).
6. X1 - C 2 H 5 Br; X2 - C2H5MgBr; X3 - C 2 H 5 COOH;
X4 - (C 2 H 5 COO) 2 Ca 1 X5 - C 2 H 5 COC 2 H 5 ; X6 - C 2 H 5 COOH;
X7 - CH 3 COOH.
7. C(H 2 SO 4 )=I /, C(Cu(NO3)2)=O,5 /. V(NO)=0.448 .

-96
.

[HPoih-{ + ]

1. 2 =
[H 2 POJ]

/.:;'..

2.1) 2NaN0 2 + 2Nal + 2H 2 S0 4 = I2 + 2 N 0 + 2Na 2 S0 4 + 2H 2 0


2) 5NaN0 2 + 2KMn0 4 + 3H 2 S0 4
> 5NaN0 3 + K 2 SO 4 +
+ 2MnS04 + 3H20
558

3. --1; --1,2; 3-1,3; --1,4.


4. X1 Na2IZn(OH)4], X2 Zn(NO3)2.
5^ H3CCHCH3

H 3 C-CBr-CH 3

H 3 C-C=CH 2

P
X2

X3

H3CCHCH3

H3C CH CH3

X4

Br
X5

COOH

Br
,

X6

.. .

6. co(CuS04-5H20)=29.6%, co(HgS04)=70.4%. V(HCI)=0.224 .


7. X C6H5-CH=CH-OH3.

-96
1. CO2 + 2Na0H = Na2CO3 + H2O
2.2FeCI2 + 4H 2 S0 4 = Fe2(SO4)3 + SO2T + 4HClt + 2H 2 0
3. , : 2,3-; 2,4-; 2,5-; 2,6-; 3,4-; 3,5-.

'

4.1) Ca3(PO4)2 + 3Si0 2 + 5 = 3CaSi0 3 + 2 + 50


2) 4 + 50 2 = 2 2 0 5
3) P2O5 + 2 0 = 2 3 0 4
4) 2 3 0 4 + Ca(OH)2 = Ca(H2PO4)2 + 2 2 0
5) Ca(H2PO4)2 + Ca(OH)2 = 204 + 2
6) 20 4 + Ca(OH)2 = Ca3(PO4)2 + 2 2 0

559

1
5. X1 - C 2 H 2 ; X2 - CH 3 CH=O; X3 - CH3CH(OH)CN;
X4 - CH 3 CH(0H)C00H; X5 - CH 2 =CHC00H;
X6 - CH 2 BrCH 2 COOH.
6. W(NaHSO3) = 6.02%, Co(Na2SO3) = 21.9%. W(CaSO3) = 18.0 .
7. Co(NaOH) = 43.0%, Co(Na2CO3) = 57.0%.

-97-1
1. -1,5 -1,4.
2. .
3. ,
() = //?=435-20/(8.31-873) = 1.20 = v(NH3)+v(N2) +
+ V(H2) = (1-) + /2 + /2 = 1 + , = 0.2 .
20%.
4. 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4) ; 5) ; 6) .
5. - , - , D - .
6. 100 CuSO 4 26.6 CuS0 4 -5H 2 0 73.4 ,
1.06 , .
, .. .
7. W(CO2) + W(H2O) = 1.37 ; W(CaCO3) = 2.50 .
X C 5 H 6 N 2 O 2 ().

-97-2
3.41.3%.
5. - C 6 H 5 COOH, - C 6 H 5 COCI, D - C 6 H 5 COONa.
6.
.
7. X - .
560

SN-98-2
3. 30%.
5. - CH3CH(OH)CH3, - CH3CH=CH2, D - CH3COCH3.
6. .
7. X - .

-97-4
3. 20%.
5. - CH3CH=CH2, - CH3C=CH1 D - CH3CH(OH)CH3.
6. NiSO4.
7. X - .

-97-1
1.
CH3-CH

CH-CH 2 OH

-5--2--3--1 (=148.5 /)
2.3SrCI 2 + AI2(SO4)3 = 2 S r S 0 4 l + 2AICI3.
3. . .,
. , 11 .
4. 1) ; 2) KCI;
3) .
5. Mg, H2, Mg(OH)2, H2SO4, MgSO4,
E BaSO4.
6. CO(ZnCI2) = 19.4%, Co(ZnO) = 23.0%, co(Zn) = 57.6%.
7. 4.82 < V(O2) <5.49 .
561

-97-2
5. - Al, - Br2, - AIBr3, - AI(OH)3, - AI2O3.
6. oXMgO) = 36,8%, (O(MgCI2) = 21,8%, w(Mg) = 41,4%.
7. 3.25 < V(O2) <3.36 .

-97-3
, 5 . Mg, Mg3N2, NH3, AI(OH)5,
AICI3.
6. W(CuO) = 9,6%, (O(CuCI2) = 16,2%, CO(Cu) = 74,2%.
7. 7.50 < V(O2) < 8.40 .

-97-4
5. - Fe, - S, - FeS, - H2S.
6. (O(AI2O3) = 2,14%, (O(AICI3) = 5,61%, (O(AI) = 92,24%.
7. 8.29 < V(O2) < 8.74 .

SN-97-1
1. CH 3 -O-C 2 H 5 , CH 3 -CH 2 -CH 2 -OH.
2. PCI3 + H 2 SO 4 + 2 2 0 = H 3 PO 4 + SO 2 + 3HCI.
3. MgBr 2 -6H 2 0.
4. Ag, AgNO3, Ag2O1 D [Ag(NH3)2JOH1
E Ag2SO4.
5. 1) ; 2) ; 3) ; 4)
C2H5Br; 5) ; 6)
.

6. W(NaHCO3) = 46.2 , W(Na2CO3) = 13.3 .


7. CgH3l 5C=C-CH3.
562

SN-98-2
IFe(NO3)2BH2O.
4. Cu, CuSO 4 , CuCI2, Cu(Nb 3 ) 2 ,
Cu(OH)2.
6. (K 2 CO 3 ) = 48.3 .
7. X-C 6 H 5 CH=CHCH 3 .
.-[ W

YA-97-1
I. CH 3 COOC 2 H 5 , 3 2 2 .
2.3Cal 2 + 8HN0 3 = 3Ca(N0 3 ) 2 + 3I2 + 2N0 + 4207
3. Fe2(SO4)3.
4. - CuO, - Cu, - CuCI2, D - Cu(NO3)2, E - Cu(OH)2.
5. 1) +PCI5; 2) +2HCI; 3) +KOH ( ); 4) +H 2 O;
5) +PCI5; 5) +KOH ( ); 6) +KOH ( ).
6. V(K 3 PO 4 ) = 0.05 , V(K 2 HPO 4 ) = 0.15 .
7. .

YA-97-2
3. Fe(NO3)3.
4. Fe2O3, FeCI3, Fe(NO3)3, D Fe(OH)3,
E-Fe(OH)2.
6. 0.2 Na3PO4 0.1 Na2HPO4.

CH2-OH
563

-96-4'
2. 1) Fe(OH)3 + HCI; 2) Fe2(SO4)3 + BaCI2; 3) Fe + Cl2:
4) FeCI2 + Cl2.
3. <p(S02) = 5/7, cp(HCI) = 2/7.
4. S > SO2 -> SO3 -> MgSO4
-> BaS.

-D -

Na2SO4

BaSO4

SO 3 Na

6. (12-620) = 14.14 .
7. ; 23.15 .

-98-2
3. (1) = 2/3; V(SO2) = 1/3.
4. P -> Ca 3 P 2 -* PH 3 -* H 3 PO 4 -* Na3PO4 - * Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 -* .
5. C3H7CH2OH - * C3H7CHO - * C3H7CH(OH)CN ->
-> C3H7CH(OH)COONH4.
6.28.17 .
7. ; 55.56 NaOH.

-98-3
3. (P(SO2) = <(1) = 0.5.
4. - * CaC2 - * C2H2 -> C2H4 -> CH3CH2OH - *
- * CH3COOH - * CO2.
5. 3=2 - * CH3(CHBr)2CH2OH - *
- * CH3(CHBr)2CH2Br - * 3()22.
6. 14.6 .
7. CO(C4H8O2) = 70.4%; Co(C3H6O2) = 29.6%; V(NH3) = 1.12 .
564

-98-4
3. (1) = 80%;. (P(SO2) = 20%.
4. Si

SiF4

Si -> Mg2Si -> SiH4

5. 2 = - 2=1
-> CH2BrCHBrCOOCH3.

SiO2 -> Na2SiO3.


2 = 3 ->

6. (12-220) = 96 .
7. O(C3H6O2) = 38%; O(C2H4O2) = 62%; V(CO2) = 1.12 .

-98-1
1. 4 + 6.50 2 = 40 2 + 5 2 0. ,
.
2. 1) . 2) CO 2 . 3) .
4) , . 5)
.
3. C 5 H 6 .
4. A - F 2 l B - H F 1 C - S i F 4 .
5. CH3COONa
NaHCO3

Na2CO3

CO2 >

HCOONa

6.0(Na2CO3) = 2.04%, O(NaHCO3) = 1.28%.


7. C2H5COOK.

-98-2
. 3. C5H6 - .
4. A - Li; - NH3; - AICI3.
5. - CaCO3; - CO2; - ; D - Na2CO3; E - CH3COONa.
6. O(K2HPO4) = 1.8%; O(K3PO4) = 2.5%.
7. C4H9COONa.
565

-98-3
3. 510 - .
4. A - H I ; - I 2 ; - S .
5. - K2CO3; - CO2; - ; D - HCOONa; E - NaCI
6. CO(Na2SO3) = 1.0%; Co(NaOH) = 2.0%.
7. C6H5COOK.

-98-4
3. 44.
4. - Al; -1 2 ; - CO2.
5. - BaCO3; - CO2; - CaC2; D - C2H2; E - C2Ag2
6. CO(Na2S) = 1.7%; Co(NaOH) = 0.8%.
7. C3H7COONa.

YA-98
1.

CH3
CH3-C-CH-CH=CH2
I J

2. Na2S + 2NaN0 2 + 4HCI = S + 2NO + 4NaCI + 2 2 0.


3. =25.
4. Cl2 -> KCIO3

I2

Fel2

5. .
6. C2H4
C2H5Br
C 2 H 5 CN -> C2H5COOH -
-> 3 (1)00 -> 3 ()
-> (CH3CH(OH)COO)2Ca
7. W(Cr(OH)3)= 1.03 .
,

566

NE-98
1. OH 3 -CH=CH-CH 2 -CH=O.
2. SFeCI2 + NaNO3 + 4HCI = 3FeCI3 + N 0 + NaCI + IH 2 O.
3.^=49.
4.X NaOH.

. ;

6. m(HCOOH) = 4.14 , m(CH 3 COOH) = 12.60 ; 450 .


7. , , .

SN-98-1
1. CH 2 =CH-CH 2 -CH 2 OH 1 CH 3 -CH=CH-CH 2 OH.
2. 3Fe 3 0 4 + 28HN0 3 = 9Fe(N0 3 ) 3 + NO + 14H 2 0.
3. C8H10O5.
4. C2H5CI
C2H4 -> CH3CHO
W CH3COOC2Hb
C2H5OH

CH3COOH
C2H5CI.

5. .
6. (()3) = 0.91 .
1.
.
.
"'"--rV11CH4 - CH3Br C2H6 - C2H6Br - C3H8 - CH3CHBrCH3
I I
V
..>:
CH 3 -C-C-CH 3 - CH3-CBr-CBr-CH3 - CH3-Cri-CH-CH3
I I
I
I
. : ,
. 1
I


'

567

SN-98-2
3. CsHgO4.
4. C2H4CI2 - C 2 H 2
CH3CHO -> CH3CH2OH -> C2H4
-> C2H4(OH)2
C2H4CI2.
6. 1.03 Cr(OH)3.

TV-98
4. 2.67 .
6. -13.0 -9.0 /; 44.4%.
7. 424 KL-IOH2O 68.2 H2O.

-99-1
1. : 2=2 > (- 2 - 2 -);
:
/TH2N(CH2)6NH2 + (2)4 -
-> H(-NH-(CH 2 ) 6 -NH-CO-(CH 2 ) 4 -CO-) n OH + (21) 2 0.
2. CaCO 3 + CO 2 + H2O = Ca(HCO3)2.
3. , , .
4. 1) +(.-); 2) ; .3) +; 4) +H2O;
5) +Ca(OH) 2 ; 6) +H 3 PO 4 .
5. ) + ; ) + HCI; ) + NaOH.
6. 14.8 rFeS0 4 -7H 2 0.
7. 2()3 - .

-99-2
6. 123.1 1 2 -6 2 0.
7. 2()2.
568

-99-3
6. 11.5 CuSO 4 SH2O.
7. 2 () 2 2 - .

-99-4
6. 18.1 MgS0 4 -7H 2 0.
7. 2 () 2 2 - .

-99-1
V.
1. .
2. : (-HN-(CH 2 ) 5 -CO-) n .
11 .
3. Xi H 2 S, X 2 S,
4. a) CrO 3 + NH3; ) K 2 SO 3 + ; ) C2H5OK + C2H5CI;
) Cu + HNO3.
5. - C 6 H 6 , D - C6H5CCI3, F - C 6 H 5 COOCH 3 .
6. 15% HCOOCH 3 , 85% CH 3 COOCH 3 .
7. X =14.7, Y= 114.1; C(NaOH) = 7 /.

'

-99-2
3. X1 - FeCI3, X 2 - CuCI2.
4. a) LiCIO + KH; ) CH 3 COONa + NaOH; ) K2Cr2O7 + ;
) Cu + HNO3.
5. - CH 3 CI 1 D - CH 3 COOH, F - 2 .
6. 33.3% HCOOC 2 H 5 ,66.7% CH 3 COOCH 3 .
7. X = 8.06, Y = 107.9; C(KOH) =4.2 /.
.

569

-99-3
3. X, - CuSO4, X2 -CuS.

4. a) [Cu(NH3)2JCk(NH4)2S; ) +202; ) C2H5OH + CuO;


) K2CO3 + AI2O3.
5. - C2H2, D - CH3CHO, F - C2H4.
6. 40% HCOOCH3, 60% CH 3 COOCH 3 .
7. X = 3.11, Y = 102.7; C(LiOH) = 8 /.
-99-4
3. X1 - Fe(NO3)3, X2 - Ni(NO3)2.
4. a) Ca(HCO 3 ) 2 + Ba(OH)2; ) K2Cr2O7 + Al;
) CH 3 CHO + Cu(OH)2; ) KNO2 + NH4CI.
5. - CH3CHO, D - CH3C(O)CI1 F - CO2.
6. 30% HCOOC2H5, 70% CH 3 COOCH 3 .
7 . = 17.56, Y= 117.3; C(Ba(OH)2) = 3.5 /.
-99-1
1. ( ).
2. 2 4 = C 2 H 2 + 2 .

3. - NaOH AgNO3;
- ; COOH - NaHCO3.
4. X 1 - CuCI, X 2 - [CU(NH3)2]CI, X 3 - Cu 2 S, X 4 - Cu(NO 3 ) 2 .

5. C 5 H 4 NCOONH 4

C5H4NCHO <- C5H4NCH2OH

[C 5 H 4 NCH 2 OCOCH 3 ]HCI -> C5H4NCH2OCOCH3.


6. C(NaHS) = 0.4 , C(Na 2 S) = 0.2 ; 4.8 Br2.
7. 44.8% HCOOCH 3 , 55.2% CH 3 COOCH 3 .
570

-99-2
1. .

'

./

4. X 1 - FeCI2, X2 - FeCI3, X3 - Fe(OH)3l X4 - Fel25. - CH 3 -CsH 3 N-CH 2 OH.


6. C(Na2S) = 0.6 M 1 C(Na[AI(OH)4]) = 0.2 ; 4.8 Br2.
7. 28.8% HCOOCH3l 71.2% CH3COOCH3.

-99
2. CO(N0 3 ) 2 -6H 2 0.
3.

C 2 H 5 OH -> C2H5CI -> C 4 H 10 .

4. X 1 - CrCI2l X2 - Cr(NO3)3l X3 - Cr(OH)3l X4 - K2CrO4.


5. a) H 2 S+KCI0 3 ; ) C6H5ONa+C2H5Br; ) 2 5 (0)1+ 2 0.
6. 17.4 BaSO3; 2.0% Ba(HSO3)2.
7. 150 .

SN-99-1
1.2.66-10 -22 ; 3.12-10"22 .
2.

HCOONa

3. Cu2S + 20 2 = 2CuO + SO2.

4. , , , .
5. a) AIBr3 + 3N(C2H5)2CH3 + 2 0 =
= AI(OH)3 + 3[HN(C2H5)2CH3]Br;
) KHSO3 + Cl2 + H2O -> KHSO4 + 2HCI;
) C 6 H 5 CH 3 + 3HN0 3 = C 6 H 2 (NO 2 ) 3 CH 3 + 2 0.
571

6. 12.5% CH 3 OH; 40% CO.


7. 14.9% C6H5OH1 29.5% C6H5NH2l 55.6% C6H6.

SN-99-2
1.6.6410" 23 ; 3.09-10"22 .
2. CH4 -4 C2H2

CH3CHO.

3. AgNO3 = Ag + NO2 + 1/02.


6. 15.4% NH3; 40% N2.
7. 47.0% C6H5OH1 18.6% C6H5NH2, 34.4% C6H6.

4-99
2. FeS2 + HNO3 -> Fe(NO3)3 + H2SO4 + NO2 + H2O.
3. , .
4. O-CH3C6H4OH
CH3C6H2Br2OCH3.

O-CH3C6H4ONa -> O-CH3C6H4OCH3

5. a) AICI3+3NH(C2H5)2+3H20=AI(0H)3+3[H2N(C2H5)2]CI;
) Ba(HS)2 + 812 + 8 2 0 -> BaSO4 + H2SO4 + 16HCI;
) C6H5CBr(CH3)2, FeBr3
/J-BrC6H4CH(CH3)2.
6. 17.4 BaSO3; 1.5% Ba(HSO3)2.
7. 40% N 2l 40% CH3NH2l 20% C2H5NH2.

1-2000-1
1. .
2. 13.3%.
3. NH4NO2.
:

572

4. ) ; ) ; ) NaNO3,
NaNO2 CO2.
5. A - H C O O N a 1 F - C O .
6. 0.54 HCOOC2H5.
7. CH 3 COOH, 3().

-2000-2
1. .
2. 3.3%.
3. (NH4)2CO3.
4. ) ; ) ; ) .
5. - C2H5CI, M - CuO.
6. 0.59 CH 3 COOCH 3 .
7. [MgOHJ2CO3.

1. .., .., ..
. - M.: , 1995, 1997, 1999,2000.
. , ,
.
- .
2. .., .., .. .
. M.: ,
1997-2001.
. , ,
, .
3. : . M.: , 1999.
, , , , ,
,
9
11 . , ,
, , .
4. .., .., ..
(8-11 ). M.: , 1996-2000.
90% ,

. ,
..

574

5. .., ..
.: , 2001.

. 2700 , 400 .

,
.
5. .., .. . 1000 . M.: , 1999,2000.

. 32 , ,
.
6. .., .. :
8-11 . M.: , 1989-1995.
. , ,
, , .
7. / . ... M.: , 1989.
.
.
.
8. . . 2- . M.: , 1991,
1998.
, .
, .
, , .
9. .., .. .
. M.: , 2001.
, .

575


065970 24.06.98
20.04.2001
84x108/32. .
. .-. . 21,93
. . . 30,25. 10000. 1115

OK 005-93, 2; 953000 ,

77.99.02.953..000494.01.01 31.01.2001 .
" "
. , . , . 4, . 1.
E-mail: examen@citvline.ru

600000, . , ., . 7.

.: 263-96-60