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Process Piping Design Voume1 Piping designers, engineers, students and college in- structors—this book is for you, ‘In the two volumes of Process Piping Design, Rip Weaver systematically presents a complete course in the design of piping systems for processing plants. ‘Weaver has drawn on his own extensive experience to explain each phase of piping design and its atten- dant problems. He writes in the simple descriptive lan- ‘guage of field personnel about standards of the indus- try published here for the first time. ‘Process Piping Design can be used as a toxt for ‘schools or businesses. It takes up where Process Pip: ‘ng Draiting, already a text in hundreds of schools and Used in more than 50 countries, ends. Easy-to-understand and absolutely completo, this, book includes review questions at the end of ‘each ‘chapter and dozens of illustrations by the author as well fas many from industrial publications. This is the reference book on the design of piping systoms. It deals in depth with problems and solutions (f vital interest to all those involved in the design or in- ‘stallation of industrial piping. No one in the process in- dustries can afford to be without it About the Author Process Piping Design Volume 1 General Piping . Process Terms Plant Arrangement and Storage Tanks Process Unit Plt Plans Piping Systems and Details Pipe Fabrication Vessels Instrumentation ‘Appendix on Conversions PeENoMaers lume 2 Pumps and Turbines ‘Compressors Fired Heaters Exchangers Piping Flexiblity oaenag Rip Weaver has more than 35 years of experience in drafting, design, and engineering for private business. Our- ing his career, he has trained hundreds of drafting technicians and has had numerous articies published in trade and technical magazines. Presently project manager for SMC McEver, Inc. in Houston, Mr. Weaver was with Fluor {or 20 years and M.W. Kellogg for 6 years. His books, Modern Basic Drafting, Process Piping Drafting/3rd Edition, and Process Piping Design, Volumes 1 and 2, are used as textbooks in hundreds of schools in the United States and Canada, and in companies throughout the world. Piping Videos Are Also Available From Gulf Publishing Company— Piping Familiarization This 13-part series provides a thorough, fundamental understanding of the terminology and functions of process. plant components and systems. The tapes cover Flanges, fitings, and pipe; Valves; Orthographic projections; Uti- ity systems; Flow diagrams; Fractionating towers; Pressure vessels; Pumps and compressors; Exchangers; Fired heaters; Instrumentation; Pipe fabrication; and Piping isometrics. Piping Pointers ‘Aimed at designers and supervisors, this S-part series reveals time-saving, cost-cuting tips for doing better, ‘more efficient piping drafting. The tapes cover pointers on Flow diagrams: Organization; Equipment; and Instru: ‘mentation. Proview tapes are available. Call (713) 520-4444, Gulf Publishing Company (BB) scor ovison PO. Box 2608 CY fistston, Tens 77252-2608 (Series) ISBN 0-87201-995-C ‘ISBN 0-87201-993-" 210 Ladders, 135 Level controller installation, 194 location, 121 types, 156 Level gage installation, 160 Tocation, 121 types, 160 Line loss, 121 Manhole davits, 125, 128 Dinges, 125, 128 Mechanical joints, 76 Mercaptan, 26 ‘Meter runs, 152 Mill, tolerance, 2 Miters, 93 Monitors, 82, 83 Nonferrous metals, 1 Nowe orientation, 121 Oakum, 76, 79 Offset platforms, 135.” Orient, 129° Orifice flanges, 152. Orthographic spool, 93 Overhead product, 119 Piping at anks, $4 clases | drawing index, 65 lengths, 5 thickness tolerance, 2 * Process Piping Design Platforms, 120, 135 Plot plan dimensioning. 64 Polymerization, 142 Process flow diagram, 59 Process unit flow diagram, 59 Product, 142 Pump-out systems, 84 Pump piping, 119, 129 Random length, 5 Reactor, 61 Reboilers, 70 Recorder, 149 Reflux ‘accumulator, 119 Tiguid, 121, 134 Reforming, 142 Relief valve parts, 169 Retention time, 121 Ribs, 129 Saddles, 123, 129 Sample connections, 135 Separators, 119 Sewer flow diagrams, 77 tail pipe, 90 terms, 75 ‘Shop fabrication, 92 ite dats, 37 Slide plates, 124 Specific gravity, 34 Spools, 92 Straightening vanes, 153, Satie head, 34 saturated, 35 superheated, 35 racing, #4 ‘Storage tanks, 39 Tank dikes, 46 materials, 51 spacing, 43 aps. 151, 153 ‘Temperature gradient, 134 Thermal reliefs, 90 Thermocouple, 150 ‘Thermowel, 123, 150 Thread engagement, 93 ‘Thrust blocks, 76 Tracing, 84 Transite piping, 81 Transmiters, 149 Trays, 129 Triangle solving, 93 ‘Tube pulling arca, 68 Twocphase flow, 31 Underground systems, 73 Valves, 24 Venturi tube, 153, Vertical meter runs, 153 Vessel davits, 142 efiition, disengaging, 121.3, horizontal, 119: pipe supports, 142 vertical, 129. Visible giass, 160, Vitrified clay, 75, Welding, 92 Winterizing, 85 Yellowtack, 150 Index = Accounting meter, 152 Cracking, 142 Flow diagram transposition, 66 ope vs Atel, 19" Cutbacks, 93 Flow instruments, 152 Fem Autor, 164 = 289-5 Fluid definition, | AGA, 152 ont Foam system, 55 FEE. SANSI25 98 * Davits, 125,128, 142 Foundation location plan, 66 ~ ggg ASTMA2 «site t Dead eps, 84, #9, 124 Fractionation Pee Alrsgooken 330 eS Desalier, 26 <éefnition, 27 gig Me towers, 68, 119, 129 Sy Bell and spigot jo Galvanizing, 125 Bends, 93 Gasoline, 142 Block’ plot plan, 39 Bond, 25 Double random length, Bootleg, 125 Downcomer, 129 Bridle, 125 Drawofl nozzle, 12 no Bypass, 152, 164 Drop area, 142 Dual insiuens, 149 Rape Darin pi Cliges 135 128 Sapir tabing 184 sea 2 ine, 74 oe. 25 Cast iron water pipe, 15 fyi Each bt, 7,5 Rpt pot pln 57 Hater, 26 sins, 73, Wipment plot plan, Cleanous, 81 Excavation plane 66 Hydrotest, 35 ‘Clearances, 87 ‘Compressors, 70 Indicator, 149 Cone roof tanks, 39 Ferrous metals, 1 Inspection opesings, 124 Control buildings, 68 Fired heaters 68 Tastrument Control valve Fire plogs, 83 ‘connections, 138 actuators, 164 Fire water systems, 82 functions. angle type, 169 Fittings. 5, 611, 93 Instrumentation, 149 Flanges. $ Inver elevation. 74 Flare systems, 88 Isomettic spool 93 Flash zone, 142 Cooling towers, 68 Floating roof tanks. 1 Jot efficiency. 2 Cooling water, 82 Floor plate, 135 Jute, 16.79 209 208 Process Piping Design Table A-9 Millimeters to Inches and Meters to Feet nes Fea an Mi owns Newest — Deca Nave Nowe mms WH eer Decnals_metws Nett NPS ein com Pe nome Tar Sa Gear gow $2 aul a3 20me a0 Sirians Otte ates niet $33 2am dower we taal SayaMe qiane: ousma $4 aye 218 ana $00 Eine kruine 1968504 0 buisie kits anea20s gue se 2ule 2144 220m too 239/16 23916 338506 ite fe ij dase ae ee re Oasis $9 D57tg 2a1j64 23mm Be MUpe 2s Samer Ossa70 633i 23620 ano? i238 21302 240157 Qaraue G2 27716 2716, aston Ostist G3 aif aaamt Fests ca OSSIIS Gt 212 233/64 251969 et nearest 16" cial 059055 6529/16 29/16 2.55906 ers Nearest osm «2518 21982 29980 +358 32808 assay 61258 aioe aem00 & 6a éser7 & 6 % 0 2 x am % T 2 70866 26 243/64 267717 3 910118 943s (074808, 2uif6 223/32 271654 4 BIR 1311234 78740 234 23/4 2.98801 5 16 4778 164042 082677 2IsN6 251/64 2.79528 6 19. 81/4 19.6850 086614 DING 253/64 283465 7 zai te 2.9659 (090551 278-2718 287402 8 26 215/16 262467 094488 229/32 291339 9 28. 65/16 516 098425 Diss 261/64 295276 0 32 911/16 32.8084 103216 «3263/64 2.99213 " 36 1116 36.0892 106299 7731/16 31/32 3.03150 2 30. 47/16 393701 110236 7831/6 35/68 3.07087 B 42 Tishs 42.6509 Lisi73 79-383 7)64 3.11024 45.13/16 459318 Hisiio $0 31/8 35/32 3.14961 15 49. 2916, 92126 122047 8133/16 33/16 3.18898 6 52 S1SN6 52.4934 12594 82 «3/3 15/64 3.22835, ” 55.7143 129021 31/37/64 3.2672 8 59.0881 13385884 3S/I6 35/16 3.30709 19 623360 W3TIS 8S 33/8 311/32 334646 2» 655168, 141732 8533/8 325/64 3.38583 a 8103/4 68.8976 14ses9 8737/6 320/64 342520 2 728 ‘maras 19606 8837/16 315/32 3.46857 2 75. 51/2 15.4393 T5353 89312 312 350304 » 73 8718 787402 15748090 39/16 338/68 3.88331 2s a2 01/4 82.0210 LeIT 91 39/6 337/64 3.58268 % 85. 35/8 83018 1es3se 9235/8 35/8 3.62205 Z 38.7 865827 Leo9t 93 311/16 321/32 3.6142 28 91-103/8 91.8635 173228 © M3116 3.45/64 3.70079 » 95. 13/4 9s.t4aa HITI6S 9833/4 347/o4 374016 30 3. S18 98.4252 4113/6 L136 tat? 9 «33/4 325/32 3.77953, 3 101 81/2 101.7060 4717/8 L272 18509 97 313/16 31/6 341890 3 ToH1 13ft6 1049869 4817/8 130/64 138976 98-3718 355/64 3.85827 3 18. 33/16 10.2677 38 115/16 189;68 192913 99-3718 357/64 3.9764 M Ut 69/16 HLSedo SO 115/16 131/82 196850 100 315/16 315/16 393701 3 Us 915fi6 1148294 open 207 Tate 8 ot ee ee Inher Millimeters® a a er ene | ao es aha mor Ae dato doce rs ata m/e Bl Re RG See Ss a aise o> | 720 mma 28 m2 sens so ote sank oe52 mas % | isd wert soos ost ating sto ales bd aan % | ios isd iss eck ne ito ees an tase tee co | iso sea isms 6a ease eso e168 swarm % | tes lat lems esd swe oc Moos fosse old dome | sooo ons ons naa ake 2s tees fogs dost dave oo | 260 114 m8 T2226 HIB ORK OSB 20892 25146 ie | eo ee ae mp et kk en i wi To | = e308 owe ois iain iso mse aisse gee 2702 ab) somo See 3S Sse, AB he ate Pel 2 ‘so | Stie0 Gaans | Sse Tot 130 tan tone zak essee Eases 30. | 9140 94488 97536 100384 10362 tos ma9mS aM tsi L882 4 | i2ion sbopes Gane Ioioce Isard inten eons teste Matt aosee % | ino ses (seus feiss teas? ieten teow ane tere toes ‘60 18.2880 18.5928 188976 19.2024 19.5072 19.8120 20.1168 204216 20.7264 21.0312 % | basco Stee Zisue Ba 37 eon ise dase Bee dense B | d3mo ess oe Bier Boer Meow dens sine deme uae 90 | 27.4320 27.7368 28.0416 28.3464 28.6512 28.9560 29.2608 29.5656 29.8704 30.1752 100 | 30.4800 - - - - - - - -* = "Exact figure 206 Process Piping Design . Table AB Inches to Millimeters and Feet to Meters ie Indes = ee |e Ff i ve ne 1 [ose 25 | oso 23 [osis 3] 1300 1] 2 aos | ose iv | 5 fos 3 | 254 3 Joie as | tr 5 [osu 3] 399 v | a | 3 toes) 13a o | am |e [osee s | tsa 5 [om 125| 1984 37 | sre 125| tse 3 | & [ous 25 | 238 vy | fous 78 | Sos + | ots ss | a7 3) | os | tn v fa [oa | 8 fois” | Sins 5 | 10 | ao | 2 |oezs 0” | tre 9 Jou es | ss72 «1 | oc 2s} 162 s fio |orsess | 350 a | [aese | tows Mt [aun as | a3ee [osm srs inte a] 6 |i lomrs” | See u | | 8 fom s”| rae 13 [oats 125| sas9 4s |o70 123] ina 7] 8 fone i | 338 w|i [anes] tase 13 [nase ais | sass & ome 13] tas v fafa] | te ]ei 0% | ee] sfc foe | am | [Sis00") tose 17 [aaa eas | rer 2 | ox os] wa |. o} fe} fos fis [abe 8 | ae a | [am 2] Boe a x 19 | 0.296 875 | 7.541 51 | 0.796 875) 20.241 5 | 10 | a [osre s” | ass ws | a6 | 5 [oar S| nas . 21 | 0.328 125 | 8.334 53 | 0.828 125] 21.034 uv | 2 [ose 38 | sia a | i [tse | asst B Joss as] 9.28 S| oasis) 213 36 | 1 | i [ean | ssa 1 | | as | 5 [oaise° | aba 25 [osm os | 990 a7 | os 62s] 2202 is | [oan 35 [i039 | 3 [Gon | a0 zr [ovat es |iome 2 | oon ars] de a | | [eins finns is | 50 | & [osors"| Baia 2 | 04s 125 |i 61 | os 125] 2209 as | 20 [oass 8 | toe ai | 2 |ooes 12 | aos 31 [ose ars [tase & loose s| ees fafa bs [rs |e fos o7 |iStto]2 fa fs Ls | se |e [00 0” 2004 Table A (continued on facing page) ‘Appendix 205 Table AT Inches of Mercury, Weight in Pounds and Inches of Water Equivalents In, of Mercury Lbs. * tnof Water i) (ao) 13.5955 20303 Brot 53.989 a0786 s7588 196 Sean éL180 2486 stom? ats sists east 8168 10366 18.768 5.562 22.359 Bois? H3s.036 12.733 149.530 150.348 testa loon Terai 183.539 0337 Irs 208.932 210.730 7.858 2u7328 A104 24325 8.350 B13 21395 27921 aaa 2ukTI9 i iss 9.085 231516 1. 9332 aaa fee rot 19s 9578 zoo. 20. ‘ina 211910 Ds 10.069 2iat07 21 losis 785.505 as. 10365 252.303 2 10205 zp.10L Bs 11bst 35898 a Net 312.696 aio.t94 Bo292 atm San? sso ». Bs 3. Chicago Brlage and Iron Company 204 ve Process Piping Design Table AS Specific Gravity and Weights of Various Liquids Weight in Liquia At Temp. Specific Lbs, per Gravity US. Gal Acetaldehyde 0.788 os Acie Acid L019 274 Acetic Anhydride Loss 9.02 Acetone 0702 6.60 Aniline 1022 851 Aepbaltara Lis: ozs Bromine 3.19 25.98 Carbon Disulfide 1263, 1052 Carbon Tetracloride 1595 1328 Geter Oi 0.969 Goustie Soda, 66% Solution 170 Ghloroform 499 Givie Ae 1542 Cocoanut Oil 0.926 olea Oil (Rape Seod Oi 0915 Gorm Ot 0921-0.928 Cottonseed Ol 0.926 Creosote 1.010-1.100, Dimethsl Anne 0.956 Ether 0.708 Elhyl Acetate 901 Ethyl Chloride sit Ethyl Ether on2-0.718 Formaldehyde 139 #1 Fuel Ot 0.0-0.85, #2 Pao Oi oai-0.91 #4 Fuel Oi 08t-1.00 #5 Fuel OL O91-1.06, #6 Feel Oi 092-1.08, Fusfurat L159, Gasoline (Motor Fuel 0.70-0.76 Glucose 1s Glycerin 1260 Hyrockh ria Kerssone on lactic Aed 1209 ant 0 0913-0915 need il—Raw 093 ince Oil-Boited 9.942 Mercury 13595, Molatiee Naphthalene 1%; Sali 590 To ono iy ean Ou soo oo Syerm 0 mo eared Sor vite ina at Sallie oi BP Station ou tant Tr tao ir Tetrarhlnvthane ao By Tichlorotistene ono Liat wo omen wo ono Whale oi wo ten nio Source: Chicago Bridge and ron Company. Weight in Lbs. per CuFt. ” S758 5-09 60 56 5 45 50-53 5-87 52-62 51-66 52-67 wear » 7 7a a Appendix - 203 Table AS: ‘Temperature Conversion Chart, Contigrade-Fahrenheit NOTE: ‘The numbers in boldface refer tothe temperatre in degree either Centigrade ot Fahrenheit, which i is desired to convert into the other scle Tf converting from Fahrenheit to Cemtirade degrees, the equivalent temperature will be found inthe left esl while i converting from degrees Centigrade to degrees Felenbet, the answer wil be found in the column onthe right. Canirats Fate | Comrade tenet |Centrade Fatenhe | anirate Fatvenhl| Comrade. Farenheit ws | 22 ae vos | ge ss0 022 in | oF ie |B 3} ois Bo] RO Int | ie ese lzo| t ® gis | So Bo Ire Mas] ft aoa | Mo Bo loos seo | do aot | le Sao 18 eo | de Bee | Ml ale that ae dens | at Sin Lae a5 0 | 67 ua a2 | as 6301166 Ban) Ha 320 | Sins Te Bn | ta 128 Bo | is sgh ian ah) |e tee Bio | 3) ben aan sain | fe Ha Be jak Stn) a 3 ih | sh a0 e = ie | ase Pa soa | iss Gon at ch th | ine a8 yao | st too B88 a5 50 j rit 3 ath 3 RD 1 aR 1 Me fe tod 5 a0 +3 Be $i a 8S 5 te | 0 ane | ioe ORE | | 8 t | i i | p i | & | a 22 1 on ' 158 * ‘ ied oR ‘ 1833 4 ' on 8 aa Veh os i ok a ee ee a En ie aah 20m Rt mi te Sie 90.0 om wey myt wm | me ti BYR het bi Hi te ino eh ‘he at i ce TR “i ty 8 ut it ‘ra i ow ut om be me tod Bin eB it i _ eee #8 ‘The formulas at the right may_ aio 5 3 sed fot converting Centigrade. or Deprers Cen C* = S4F* 4400-40 Depiees Fala PY = 2 (Ct 4 40) 40 Fahrenet degsers inte the ater sal ¥ 5 Desens Kelin, R= CF 4 278 egrns amine, BO =F 4 499272 ‘Souree (Chicago Bridge and Iron Company. 202 Process Piping Design rae Ye 156 0377 He be “0625 x * ee Fy om 8 . te a Bho = x z a » x z # * r ‘ he . z i : t z x a 2 Appendix 201 Table AB Surface and Volume of Spheres Volume of Sphere Diam. | Sue | ‘Volume of Sphere GuFt_| US.Gals | US.BbI | inFt. | Sere | Cu.Fe US. Bb os | aa ® | a | nes aie | S| ata Lice B39 rile | ass Bao yar) Boer Bear a | ae Boil uo | exon 26a, 11939 | 13s mow ziti | Yeas Bae anime | Sassae Eye BAN) | 401679 318 sia name eae Sit ns lene wees rim ia 338 | 16,043 40,938 baa, aR aes tess aol ‘859 89 ae 420 a 35t 2 ean a a8 a iat & 920 % 108306 u itase a io B Brevzit rest * Bess 13599 a 2951581 insz a 2339 weir a 340 a S223 | tots %3 S886 | wate % isor z om Ey Seon oo | i | Soi i ‘L412 103s | fot 183 lores? mot sa | ea | eat | oasis is iow | west | user itty 5 t to 13 tees Wtet ns | Pk TIE 0 fivaae Gates | Tua ie | ina | & | lune wo | 1st | ee) rate assumed a2 nyter, valves in olurane ice a Spleen Square Fret” and “\ulame of Sphere—Calas—_elume of were D> Barrels of 21S, Gallons il ree cook Spee in Syuate Metets atl Volume Number of Martel of 2 U8 Cabins ag ania true ere = hore in Guloe Miers reactive mea ‘shred a dameter af aphere sa Svcs eeu ol sphere © MINIT DY Snare Feet Ayah Ligue el 200 Table A-2 (concluded) 0 Circumference ‘Area of Circle ‘Volume of Gylindor Por Foot of Height in Feot | Feet Meters | Sa.Fect | Sq.Meters | US.Gals. |tmperial Gais.| US SbIs. Feet | Sa | (ne (42Gots) Re igozie | insaa72 | Soaasa | asus Br hiss | statis staat | Resa 133 aiaaa | fer 13 53:166.1 Be Tasao0s | iste stata | Boe 10 1skoss0 | 1S3aee0 | Lsoisi2 | iisisse | Sspsea | 2aht3 mt issoiss | iseisso | 14506206 | rigeng6 | onzco8 | 27a.06 ie Usene | ier | Lange saa5.3 | Zan iis 138.9007 ‘sonore 1o0i039.3, ie 137.9883 1315.0005 118336 Is 1388058 T33c076 as 146 aspaos4 | iszaise | 1555-3106 i Horas | igoncer | 13167196 los7iss iis istnies | 12056 | W3oezese loniste 189 Tord | iiss | Lelosist ioaieios 150 143.6090 | Therte | Noi-r332 noo7ss | Suara 11 russe | 17907.06 misi9 | 3.18933 152 hiss? | Telus 1a 2 155 1463003 | 18385 38 1183539033 se 1itaesa | Tsao 11600022 153 tiga | 1800819 1173933 156 wear | istisss 119.055.3 ist 1303305 | 1359.28 120.3866 158 isi3% | 1960668 iaiats 159 igzaste | 19ssoes baste 160 1352082 | 20.08.19 15.239.0, 181 ass2c67 | 20,350.30 1269024 | 3625.97 162 isis | dooi1s9 Tanaes | Senits 165 1se.oa19 | 2086124 Beems | Sree ee srosoa | 3112406 1yrs192 | 37620 165 istss | 2i3eeKe | 19864990 3387 | 3)p0038 166 asegsis | 2160243 | 20106877 pamao | asses ler Ispaiai | 2190308 | Sosesssa Boast] 168, 160.9680 | dexera7 | 3s0'see9 Troeo | Sout 169 ielaors | gousi7s | Boeagres Hso2¢6@ | Sloos27 10 1e27e18 | 2260000 | 2ioarise Taisaht | 80169 m1 restazs | 2296582 | 219358: uasosts | 409039 ite Tessa | zrasee1 | Fisee tines | Sizer us isseses | 330013 | Z1as-tost Moai] | 19683 ite Teesiso | more71 | Za00tie0 Haier | asst Us ersi20 | 2iose1 | 32845800 1999220 | 9138399 16 reasso | 2432849 | 22601910 433309 in ieoaer | 2860033 | 22s0800 3024 118 Tnoaase 2311 8508 452s ip Tiiso2s 2331 907 Shazor 180 123603 236h0944 453229 181 1133179 450279 182 ia3785 65356 183 153330 pr 18s 1761900 Pinos $3896 185 Hnaast Dust 2st ress 186 178.1057 szasers | 203: ist Hoan 20540033 183 gorse 3 139, 209 '9673 10 Bessoate | 2120042 11 seeseio | zecinue | aisaze | rreanos 192 issool | 2ewaid | loses | lost 195 eases |e ie | atin | 188209 | 195 | | 4033 | sen) 196 wzoas | cout | ist Lia eas ator | ie 198 139 3908 sank |i 19 190 393 Brea | 200 isis | assert | 195. i Note dere capaci por Cant of vertical bei af Tit diameter, are lags in, co We Diameter Fo rere igh ieee Square Peet” wil 12 US, Gallons per vertical fot stout cree in ~juare meters rep ti Ds = CSG 4 per serial pre vertical ot Slvees poe tied fou lantern Wowse) = Cubic eter, salue in column “Area ri valeq sf eatin tc 4 indi; ° 1 5 ‘Table A-2 (continued) Appendix 99 Volume of Cylinder Por Foot of Hoaht Diam, Peo AT | iam. inFeet | Feet Meters US.Gals. | Imperial Gals.| US-BbI5. | in Foot | (42698) amr35 ain aiaioa | ose | oe a0 Sh cass | or 3a Bites | Siem | & aes M908 fam | o aoa Mion teat | 5 223.05 sora10 was | a5 fae Bie | 2 Be Hanae fee | 8 BEM | Sexes ose iat | ier | Hates Hoa, tess | 38 mar | nae 421.4509 sors | 76 a0 eae sas | ie He.oe toon sie | i 28 forest | 3si00 ae | 3 Bs Smee] iSound aoat | a 47 5153.09 ova | a Bui Sie sag | Be 0 Saost geet | 305 ane cores | Bt 2er.0¢ Banas woos | 6 x08 58.80 10x59 | 95 ine Soe Hoses |r eas 8001 Yoss2r | Foe sais ® beans | fodoot | setts % ws | mis | ssues a1 goo | Mio | Seer a port | eaeh | elte5t 2 Boa | Soot | sesoze ot ooas | oem | Roasze 8 ois | o1g0ss | ngueat 96 jos | Sagat | Pept * Sores | samioo | E5050 se aie | Stee | teres ° atts | Seager | isso | Fst 100 gz | sons | sonss | res22 rt Sass | Saw | RN | E 10 335 | mem | Baas 1 Hep | Sco | Serer 1880 | fot soot | wosess | Bes90i res | ies sa | soso | geez | aipane rsrias | 106 Seis | iadshe | sosate | moans ir bom | loans felons 108 ae | tucgan fear 109 3588 seat 1 wa.72 em.0126 mn she mo ib 3300 oes iB Bete Bi ng sas sie | ng sous ver ae ig ist oon ie ion 138s ie sa presen) ft x09 Nostomp to 390.13 oat 704 nt wea i soe | | ra woo | i ad 13 39541 | 126 wast ie i 1h | | i i 1 swogs9 | i teases | ie | mace | is | bs | \ 1aea0it | ast iS ‘Table A-2 (continued on following page) 198 Process Piping Design Table A2 Circumference, Area and Volume of Circles and Cylinders Courtesy of Chicago Bridge and Iron Co. Circumference ‘rea of cle | Volume of Ovnder Par Foot of Hesht | Diam, |— ; —— _ | iam, US. Bbis. inFeet | Feet eters ost jters | sls, | imperial Gals. in Feet Fe Mi sa.F sa.Meters | U.S. Gals, | impe (a2Geh) 09576 | 0.785 730, 0.190 11st sie Soi O00 aera? 0 ‘poor 1.250 a0 13566 riers 22m | tana a8 Tashi ian Pere 2am 2.6968 sas e029 sans 3Sie3 083 5303 50.388 wena 853 0180 Gor 35102 1 O80 aS 3200 139 Lossat 65.038, 9289 69% ison rior | s050n1 1asae iene | r3sia 15.4058 iss | Laois 1a hems | tears 13.3209 zoe | in6r93 16 eames eso) | 3L0eT! it 133300 Bia | Hou ts raese aus | des » iousit Sia39 | ellos 2 | 20.1087 scat | sz 1700 1 21003 fangs | 3is5, 2 Bom fisare | 33089 a moat aaa | Boas 2 2930 Soot; | S003? B 249965 s93209 26 Bas : z Ra Si a Fie siete » Bhiaet e003 50 29.6013, zou1z02 x Soe aa 3 315994 3 323300 Es mans Ee guava | ora S340 | Lure | soar | Nisutl i sau | [obs Bove ams | 12k Hietiss | S008 | 20 | amas rasesse | omaz 4 aie | rages itis | ioseta 2 aia | 18330 Ioiaos2 8 eis | iaoas Hess | tee a WovaT | Spock HERS | aor 8 sure | i610 | asians | anno sam | 40 ‘hoe | LEST Tobinie | 1296 { | Boot | sin feetiss | stoe sh } doom | ae Hin | tons ” jE Heit | tease q | } zone wre | same a | beam | eng 2 | | sdett | teait at ates | ESA a | ims | sen } su} arse | sexacn a} imor Et Sh | til si Be so | tas set (Bone ns a fan | ses hens a | ter | seano 21360 oe | i | Sat Sa ua es | iste | enter wae os | soko | eizaty | Bias eS] aS | ene | SSIST | ata Table A-2 (continued on facing page) Appendix " 197 Table A-1 (concluded) Ibs ° 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ° 4. in. kglem? —kg/em? —kglem® —kgfem?—ka/em?—kg/em?—kglem —kglem? — kg/cm? kg/cm? 50 52.730 52.801 52.871 $2.91 53.011 53.082 53.152 53.222 53.293 $3.363 60 $3433 $3,504 53574 53.644 «$3,715 $3,785 5385S 53.925 53.996 54.066 70 54.136 54207 54.277 54347 S418 54488 54.558 54.629 54.699 54.769 80 54839 54.910 54.980 $5,050 $5121 55.191 55.261 55.332 55.402 55.472 90 55.543 $5,613 55.683 55.753 $5824 55.894 55.964 56.035 56.105 56.175 800 56.246 56.316 $6,386 S646 56.527 56.597 56.667 56.738 56.808 $6878 10 56949 7.019 57.089 57.160 57.230 57300 $7370 57.441 S7.511 57.581 20 57.652 $7722 57.792 $7.863 57.933 58.003 58.074 58.144 58.214 58.284 30 58355 58425 58.495 58.566 58.636 58.706 58.777 $8847 58.917 58.988 40 59.058 59.128 59.198 59.269 59.339 59.409 59.480 59.550 59.620 59.691 50 59.161 59.831 59.902 59.972 60.042 60.112 60.183 60.253 60323 60.394 60 GOAGS 60.534 60.605 60.675 60.745 60816 60.886 60.956 61.026 61.097 70 61.167 61.237 61.308 61.378 GI-A4B GID 1.589 61.659 61.730 61.800 80 61.870 61.940 62011 62081 62.151 62.222 62.292 62362 «62.433 62.503 90 62.573 62.644 62714 62.784 62.854 62.925 62995 63.065 63.136 63.206 900 63.276 63.347 63.417 63.487 63.557 63.628 63.698 63.768 63839 63.909 10 63.979 64.050 64.120 64.190 64.261 64.331 64.401 G4ATI 64.542 64.612 20 64.682 64.753 64.823 64.893 64.964 65.034 65.104. 65.175 65.245 65.315 30 65.385 65.456 65.526 65.596 65.667 65.737 65807 65878 65.948 66.018 40 66.089 66.159 66.229 66.299 66.370 65.440 66.510 66.581 66.651 66.721 50 66.792 66.862 66.932 67.003 67.073 67.143 67.213 67.284 67.354 67.424 60 67495 67.565 67.635 67.106 67.716 6784667917 67.987 68.057 68.127 70 68.198 68.268 68.338 68.409 68.479 68.549 68.620 68.690 68.760 68.831 80 68.901 68.971 69.041 69.112 69.182 69.252 69323 69.393 69.463 69.534 90 69.604 69.674 69.745 G98IS 69.885 69.955 70026 70.09 70.166 70.237 196 Table A-1 (continued) Ib Process Piping Design ° 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Sim Kafer? —ka/em? kale? —kg/em® —kg/em® — kale? —kgem?—kg/em? —ka/em? 60 25.3105 25.3808 254511 25.5214 25.5917 25.6620 25.7324 25.8027 25.8730 70 26.0136 26.0839 26.1542 26.2245 26.2948 26.3651 26.4354 26,5087 26,5760 80 26.7166 26.7870 26.8573 26.9276 26.9979 27.0682 27.1385 27.2088 27.2791 90 27.4197 27.4900 27.5603 27.6306 27.7009 27.7713. 27.8416 27.9119 27.9822 400 28.1228 28.1931 28.2634 28.3337 28.4040 28.4743 28.5446 28.6149 28.6852 10 28.8259 28.8962 28.9665 29.0368 29.1071 29.1774 29.2477 29.3180 29.3883 20 295289 29.5992 29.6695 29.7398 29.8102 29.8805 29.9508 30.0211 30.0914 30 30.2320 30.3023 30.3726 30.4429 305132 30.5835 30.6538 30.7241 30.7945 40 30.9351 31.0054 31.0757 31.1460 31.2163 31.2866 31.3569 31.4272 31.4975 50 31.6381 31.7084 31.7788 31.8491 31.9194 31.9897 32.0600 32.1303 32,2006 60 32.3412 324115 324818 32.5521 326224 32.6927 32.7630 32.8334 32.9037 70 33.0443 33.1146 33.1849 33.2552 333255 33.3958 33.4661 33.5364 33.6067 80 33.7473 338177 33.8880 33.9583 34.0286 34.0989 34.1692 34.2395 34.3098 90 34.4504 34.5207 34.5910 34.6613 34.7316 34.8019 348723 34.9426 35.0129 $00 35.1535 35.2238 35.2941 35.3644 35.4347 35.5050 35.5753 35.6456 35.7159 10 35.8566 35.9269 35.9972 36.0675 36.1378 36.2081 36.2784 36.3487 36.4190 20 36.5596 36.6299 36.7002 36.705 368409 36.9112 36.9815 37.0518 37.1221 30 37.2627 37.3330 37.4033 37.4736 375439 37.6142 37.6845 37.7548 37.8251 40 37.9658 38.0361 38.1064 38.1767 38.2470 383173 38.3876 38.4579 38.5282 50 38.6688 38.7391 38.8094 38,8798 38.9501 39.0204 39.0907 39.1610 39,2313 60 39.3719 39.4422 39.5125 39.5828 39.6531 39.7234 39.7937 39.8641 39.9344 70 40.0750 40.1453 40.2156 40.2859 40.3562 40.4265 40.4968 40.5671 40.6374 80 40.7780 40.8483 40.9187 40.9890 41.0593 41.1296 41.1999 41.2702 41.3405 90 414811 41.5514 41.6217 41.6920 41.7623 41.8326 41.9030 41.9733 42.0836 600 42.1842 42.2545 42.3248 42.3951 42.4654 42.5357 42.6060 42.6763 42.7466, 10 42.8873 42.9576 43.0279 43.0982 43.1685 43.2388 43.3091 43.3794 43.4997 20 43.5903 43.6606 43.7309 43.8012 43.8715 43.9419 44.0122 44.0825 44.1528 30 44.2934 44.3637 44.4340 445043 44.5756 44.6149 44.7152 44.7855 44.8558 40 44,9965 45.0668 45.1371 45.2074 45.2777 45.3480 45.4183 45.4386 45.5589 50 45.6995 45.7698 45.8401 45.9104 45.9808 46.0511 461214 46.1917 46.2620 60 46.4026 46.4729 46.5432 46.6135 46.6838 46.7541 46.8244 46.8947 46.9651 70 47.1057 47.1760 47.2463 47.3166 47.3869 47.4572 47.5275 475978 47.6681 80 47.8087 478790 47.9494 48.0197 48.0900 48.1603 48.2306 48.3009 48.3712 90 48.5118 48.5821 48.6524 48.7227 48.7930 48.8633 48.9336 49.0040 49.0743 700 49,2149 49.2852 49.3855 49425R 49.4961 49.5664 49.6367 49.7070 49.7773, 10 49.9179 49.9883 0.059 50.199 $0.29 $0.40 $0810 $0.480 20 0.621 50.691 50.762 50.902 $0973 S1.043 | SLII3—S1.183. 30 51.324 S130 $1,465 5160S 51.67% S174 SUSI6 51.887 40 52.027 52.097 52.168 52308 $2379 $2449 52519 52.590 9 kglem? 25.9433 26.6463 27.3494 28.0525 28.7555 29.4586 30.1617 30.8648 31.5678 32.2709 32.9740 33.670 34.3801 35.0832 35.7862 36.4893 37.1924 37.8955 38.5985 39.3016 40.0047 40.7077 41.4108 42.1139 42.8169 443.5200 44.2231 44.9262 45.6292 46.3323 47.0354 47.7384 48.4415 49.1446, 49.8476 50.551 31.254 51.987 52.660 ‘Table A.1 (continued on facing pagel Appendix 195 Table A-1 Conversion Table, Pounds per Square Inch to Kilograms par Square Centimeter Based on 1 Inch = 25.4 Millimetres; 1 Pound = 0.45359243 Kilograms tod ° 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 sain, kkg/em? —kglem? gem? ka/em? ~—kg/em?—ka/om?— kg/m? —ka/em® —kg/em? —_kg/em? = 0.07031 0.14061 0.21092 0.28123 0.35153 0.42184 0.49215 0.56246 0.63276 10 0.70307 0.77338 0.84368 0.91399 0.98430 1.05460 1.12491 1.19522 1.26553 1.33583 20 140641 1.47645 1.54675 1.61706 1.68737 1.75767 1.82798 1.89829 1.96860 2.03890 30 210921 2.17952 2.24982 2.32013 239044 2.46074 253105 2.60136 267166 2.74197 40 281228 2.88259 2.95289 3.02320 3.09351 3.16381 3.23412 3.30443 337473 3.44504 50 3.51539 3.58566 3.65596 3.72627 3.79658 3.86688 3.93719 4.00750 4.07780 4.14811 60 4.21842 4.28873 4.35903 4.42934 4.49965 4.56995 4.64026 4.71057 4.78087 4.85118 70 4.92149 4.99179 5.0621 5.1324 5.2027 5.2730 5.3433 5.4136 5.4839 5.5543 80 5.6246 5.6949 5.7652 5.8355 5.9058 5.9761 6.0464 6.1167 6.1870 6.2573 90 6.3276 6.3979 6.4682 6.5385 6.6089 6.6792 6.7495 6.8198 6.8901 6.9604 100 7.0307 7.1010 7.1713 7.2416 73119 -7:3822«-74525—«75228 «7.5932 7.6635, 10 7.7338 78041 7.8744 79447 8.0150 8.0853 8.1556 8.2259 8.2962 8.3665 20 8.4368 8.5071 8577S 86478-87181 78488587 8.9290 8.9993 9.0696 30 9.1399 9.2102 9.2805 9.3508 9.4211 9.4914 9.5617 9.6321 9.7024 9.7727 40 9.8430 9.9133 9.9836 10.0539 10.1242 10.1985 10.2648 10.3351 10.4054 10.4757 50 10.5460 10.6164 10.6867 10.7570 108273 108976 10.9679 11.0382 11.1085 11.1788 60 11.2491 11.3194 11.3897 11.4600 11.5303 11.6006 11.6710 11.7413 118116 11.8819 70 11.9522 12.0225 12.0928 12.1631 12.2334 123037 12.3740 12.4443 12.5146 125849 80 12.6553 12.7256 12.7959 12.8662 12.9365 13.0068 13.0771 13.1474 13.2177 13.2880 90 13,3583 13.4286 13.4989 13.5692 13.6396 13,7099 13.7802 13.8505 13.9208 13.9911 200 140614 14.1317 14,2020 14.2723 14.3426 14.4129 14.4832 14.5535 14.6238 14.6942 10 14.7645 14.8348 14.9051 14,9754 15.0457 15.1160 15.1863 15.2566 15.3269 15.3972 20 15.4675 15.5378 15.6081 15.6785 15.7488 15.8191 15.8894 15.9597 16.0300 16.1003 30 16.1706 16.2409 16.3112 16.3815 16.4518 16.5221 16.5924 16.6628 16.7331 16.2934 40 168737 16.9440 17.0143 17.0846 17.1549 17.2252 17.2955 17.3658 17.4361 17.5064 50. 17.5767 17.6470 17.7174 17.7877 17.8580 17.9283 17.9986 18.0689 18.1392 18.2095 60 18.2798 18.3501 18.4204 184907 18.5610 18.6313 18.7017 18.7720 12.8423 18.9126 70 18.9829 19.0532 19.1235 19.1938 19.2641 19.3344 19.4047 19.4750 19.5453 19.6156 80 19.6860 19.7563 19.8266 19.8969 19.9672 20.0375 20.1078 20.1781 20.2484 20.3187 90 203890 20.4593 20.529 20.5999 20.6702 20.7406 20.8109 20.8812 20.9515 21.0218 300 21.0921 21.1624 21.2327 21.3030 21.3733 21.4436 21.5139 21.5842 21.6545 21.7249 10 21.7952 21,8655 21.9358 22.0061 22.0764 22.1467 22.2170 22.2873 22.3876 22.4279 20 22.4982 22.5685 22.6388 22.7092 22,7795 22.8498 22.9201 22.9%4 23.0007 23.1310 30 23.2013 23.2716 23.3419 23.4122 23.4825 23.5528 23.6231 23.698 23.7638 23.8341 40 23.9044 23.9747 24.0450 4.1153 24.1856 24.2559 24,3262 24.3965 24.4668 24.5371 50 24.0074 24.6777 24.7481 24.8184 24.8887 24.9590 © 25.0293 25.0996 25.1699 25.2402 Table A:1 (continued on following page) 194 Yard, USA Yard, USA Yard, USA Yard, USA, Yard, USA Yard, USA Yard, USA Yard, USA Yard, USA Year Year Process Piping Design Y 91.4402 3 36 9.144 x 10-* 0.9144 4.934 x 1074 5.682 x 10-4 914.402 0.1818 8,765 525,948 Centimeter Feet Inch Kilometer Meter Mile, nautical, USA. Mile, statute, USA Millimeters Rod Hours Minutes Conversion factor T (concluded) Tons, short/day Tons, short/day Tons, short/day Tons, metric/day ‘Tons, metric/day Tons, metric/day Tons, metric/day Tons, long/day Tons, long/day Tons, long/day Tons, long/day Vara Vara Vara Voltfinch Water, 62°F Water height in feet Water height in feet Water height in inches Water height in inches Water height in meters Water height in meters Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watts Watt-hours Watt-hours Watt-hours Watt-hours Watt-hours Watt-hours Watt-hours Watt-hours Watt-hours Appendix 0.9072 0.8929 318 91.859 41.667 0.9843 1.1023 12 1.016 93.333 42.335 v 2.9777 33.3333 0.9259 0.3937 w 8.3311 0.4335 0.03048 0.03613 0.00254 1.42067 0.100 3.4128 0.05688 107 44.27 0.7378 1.341 x 1073 1.36 x 10"? 0.001 3.4128 3.60 x 10!° 2,656 859.85 1341 x 1079 1.3596 x 10"? 0.8605 367, 0.001 Tons, metric/day Tons, long/day = Kilograms/hour = Pounds/hour Kilograms/hour Tons, long/day Tons, short/day Tons, short/day Tons, metric/day Pounds/hour = Kilograms/hour = Feet Inch Yard = Volt/centimeter = Pound Pound/square incit Kilograms/square centimeters Pound/square inch Kilograms/square centimeter Pound/square inch Kilograms/square centimeters Btu/hour Beu/minute Ergs/second Foot-pounds/minute Foot-pounds/second Horsepower, USA Horsepower, metric Kilowatt Btu Ergs Foot-pounds Gran-calories Horsepower-hours. USA = Horsepower-hours, metric Kilogram-cslories Kilogram-meters + Kilowatt-hours 193 192 Conversion factor $ (concluded) ‘Square rods Square vara Square yard ‘Square yard Square yard Square yard Square yard ‘Square yard Square yard Square yard Stone Stone Tablespoon Tablespoon, Teaspoon Teaspoon Temperature, °C + 17.78 Temperature, °F ~32 Ton, long Ton, long, ‘Ton, long Ton, long Ton, metric Ton, metric Ton, metric Ton, metric Ton, metric Ton, shipping, USA. Ton, shipping, USA Ton, shipping, USA Ton, short Ton, short Ton, short Ton, short Ton, short Ton, short Ton, short Ton, short Ton. short Tons, shiort/square foot Tons, short/square foot Tons. short/day Tons, short/day Process Piping Design 30.25 7.716 2.066 x 10-* 8361 9 1,296 0.8361 3.228 x 1077 8.361 x 10° 0.03306 14 6.35 T x 0.0625 x3 x 0.0208 x 0.333 x18 x 0.955 x 1,016 x 2,240 x 1.016 x 1.12 x 7.454 x 1,000 x 2,205 x 0.9842 x 1.1023 x 40 x 2.8317 x 1.050 x 40 x 268.8 x4 x 907.18486 x 1,000 x 32,000 x 2,000 x 0.89286 x 0.907 x 9,765 x 2,000 x 83.333 x 0.16643 Square yard Sauare feet = Acres Square centimeter Square feet = Square inches Square meters Square miles ‘Square millimeters Square rods Pound Kiloeram = Metric tons Short tons. Barrel, oil, 36API Kilograms Pounds Ton, long = Ton, short Cubie feet Cubic meter = Ton, shipping, British Cubic feet Gallons, USA, liquid = Hogshead Kilograms Liter Ounces Pounds Tons. long ‘Tons. metric Kilograms/square meter Poutids’square inch = Pounds'our = Gallons'minute Conversion factor T (conti sed on facing page) Conversion factor § (continued) Snow, cubic foot Snow, inch deep Square centimeter Square centimeter Square centimeter Square centimeter ‘Square centimeter Square centimeter Square feet, USA ‘Square feet, USA Square feet, USA. Square feet, USA Square feet, USA Square feet, USA Square feet, USA Square feet, USA Square inches Square inches ‘Square inches Square inches Square kilometer Square kilometer ‘Square kilometer Square kilometer Square kilometer Square kilometer Square kilometer Square meters Square meters Square meters ‘Square meters Square meters Square meters Square meters Square meters Square miles Square miles ‘Square miles Square miles ‘Square miles Square miles ‘Square millimeters Square millimeters Square millimete Square rods Square rods ‘Square rods Appendix 12 o1 1.076 x 1073 0.155 0.0001 3.861 x 107! 100 1.196 x 104 2.296 x 10-$ 9.29 x 10"* 929.034 144 0.0929 3.587 x 10° 9.29 x 108 O11 6.452 6.944 x 107 645.2 7.116 x 10"* 247.1 100 10.76 x 10% 1.55 x 107 10° 0.3861 1.196 x 10° 2471 x 10"* 0.01 0.0001 10,000 10.764 1,550 3.861 x 107? 1.196 640 259 27.88 x 10° 259 2.59 x 10° 3.098 x 108 0.01 1.076 x 10" LSS x 10°! 0.00625 272.25 25.293 191 Pounds, 32°F Inch, water Square foot Square inch ‘Square meter ‘Square miles ‘Square millimeters ‘Square yards Acre Square inches Square meter Square miles ‘Square millimeters ‘Square yards Square centimeters Square feet Square millimeters Square yard ‘Acre Hectare Square feet = Square inches ‘= Square meters Square mile, USA = Square yards = Acre Are Hectare Square centimeters Square feet Square inches Square miles Square yards ‘Acre Hectare ‘Square feet = Square kilometers = Square meters Square yards | = Square centimeters = Square feet ‘Square inches Acre ‘Square feet ‘Square meter Conversion factor S (continued on following page) Process Piping Design o Quadrant x 0.25 Circumference Quadrant x 90 Degrees Quadrant x 5,400 Minutes Quadrant x 1571 Radians Quarts, USA, dry x 0.03125 Bushel Quarts, USA, dry x 1,101.2 Cubic centimeter Quarts, USA, dry x 0.03889 Cubic foot Quarts, USA, dry x 67.20 Cubic inches Quarts, USA, dry x 11012 Liter Quarts, USA, dry x 1.16365 Quart, USA, liquid Quarts, USA, liquid: x 946.331 Cubic centimeter Quarts, USA, liquid x 0.03342 Cubic foot Quarts, USA, liquid x $7.75 Cubic inches Quarts, USA, liquid x 9.464 x 107% Cubic meters Quarts, USA, liquid: x 1.238 x 109 Cubic yard Quarts, USA’ liquid x4 cup Quarts, USA, liquid x 256 Dram fluid Quarts, USA, liquid x 0.25 Gallons Quarts, USA, liquid x 0.946331 Liter Quarts, USA, liquid x 5.9523 x 10° Oil, barrel Quarts, USA, liquid x 32 Ounces Quarts, USA, liquid x2 Pint Quarts, USA, liquid x 0.8594 = Quart, USA, dry R Radians x 57.3 = Degrees: Radians x 3,438 Minutes. Radians x 0.6366 Quadrants Radians x 2.063 x 10° Seconds Rod x 0.165 ‘Chain, engineer Rod x 0.25 Chain, Gunters Rod x 16.5 Foot Rod x 0.025 Furlong Rod x 198 = Inch Rod x 25 = Link Rod x 5029 = Meter Rod x 5.5 = Yard s Seconds, angle x 2.778 x 10% = Degrees Seconds, angle x 16.67 x 1073 Minutes: Seconds, time x 2.777 x 10* Hour Seconds, ime x 0.1656 = Minutes Conversion factor § (continued on facing page) Conversion factor P (concluded) Pounds Pounds Pounds, troy Pounds, troy Pounds, troy Pounds, troy Pounds, troy Pounds, troy Pounds, troy Pounds, troy Pounds, troy Pounds of water Pounds of water Pounds of water Pounds of water/minute Pounds/cubic foot Pounds/cubie foot Pounds/cubic foot Pounds/eubie foot Pounds/cubic inch Pounds/cubic inch Pounds/cubic inch Pounds/cubic inch Pounds/hour Pounds/hour Pounds/hour Pounds/hour Pounds/square foot Pounds/square foot Pounds/square foot Pounds/square foot Pounds/square foot Pounds/square foot Pounds/square foot Pounds/square foot Pounds/square inch Pounds/square inch Pounds/square inch Pounds/square inch Pounds/square incl. Pounds/square inch Pounds/square inch Pounds/square inch Pounds/square inch Appendix 4936 x10" x10 5,760 373.2417 13.1657 n 240 0.822857 3.6735 x 107 3.7324 x 107* 4.1143 x 1074 0.01602 27.68 0.1198 2.67 x 10°* 0.01602 16.02 5.187 x 104 7 2768, 2.768 x 10° 1,728 46,656 10.714 x 107? 12x 10° 10.886 x 10" 0.45359 4.725 x 10-* 0.01602 0.01414 4.2824 out 0.107638 6.944 x 10"? 10.76387 0.068046 2.307 217 2.036 0.0703 703.1 sina 2,304 144 189 Tons, metric ‘Tons, short Grains Grams Ounces, avoirdupois Ounces, troy Pennyweights, troy Pounds, avoirdupois Tons, long Tons, metric Tons, short Cubic feet Cubic inches Gallons cubic feet/second Grams/cubic centimeters Kilograms/cubic meter Pounds/eubic inch Pounds/cubic yard Grams/cubic centimeter Kilograms/cubic meter Pounds/cubic foot = Pounds/cubic yard Tons/day, long Tons/day, short Tons/day, metric Kilograms/hour ‘Atmospheres Feet of water inches of mercury Kilograms/square meter Ounce/square inch = Pound/square centimeter Pound/square inch Pound/square meter Atmospheres Feet of water tnch of water Inch of mercury Kilogram/square centimeter Kilogram/square meter Millimeters of mercury Ounce/square foot Pound/square foot 188 - Process Piping Design Conversion factor P (continued) Pint, USA, dry x2 = Cup Pint, USA, dry x 0.125 Gallon, USA, dry Pint, USA, dry x 0.1454: Gallon, USA, liquid Pint, USA, dry x 0.5506 Liter Pint, USA, dry x 0.0625 Peck Pint, USA, dry x 05 Quart, USA, dry Pint, USA, dry x 0.58182 Quart, USA, liquid Pint, USA, liquid x 437.2 Cubic centimeters Pint, USA, liquid x 0.01671 Cubic feet Pint, USA, liquid x 28.875 Cubic inch Pint, USA, liquid x2 cup Pint, USA, liquid x 0.1074 Gallon, USA, dry Pint, USA, liquid x 0.125 Gallon, USA, fiquid Pint, USA, liquid x4 Gill Pint, USA, liq! x 0.4732 Liters Pint, USA, liq) x 16 Ounces Pint, USA, liquid x 05 Quarts, USA, liquid Pint, USA, liquid x 0.42968 Quarts, USA, dry Pint, USA, liquid x 128 Dram, fluid Poise x 100 Centipoise Pole x 16.5 Feet Pole x 5.0292 Meter Pole x1 Rod Pole x55 Yard Ponce x 271 Centimeter Pood x 1,000 Cubic inch Pood x 40 Funt Pood x 432 Gallon, USA Pood x 16.3805 Kilogram Poundals x 13,826 Dynes Poundals x 14.098 Grams Poundals x 1.383 x 10°? Joules/centimeter Poundals x 0.1383 Joules/meter Poundals x 0.0141 Kilograms Poundals x 0.1383 = Newton Poundals x 0.03108 Pound-force Pounds x 2267.9616 Carats Pounds x 256 Drams Pounds x 7,000 Grains Pounds x 453.5924 Grams Pounds x 0.04448 Joulesjcentimeters Pounds x 0.4536 Kilograms Pound's x 16 Ounces Pounds x 14.5833 Ounces, troy Pounds x 32.174 Poundals Pounds x 1.21528 Pourids, troy Pounds x 4.404 x 1074 = Tons, tong Conversion factor P (continued on facing page) Nail Nepers Newton Ounces Ounces ‘Ounces ‘Ounces Ounces ‘Ounces ‘Ounces ‘Ounces, fluid ‘Ounces, fluid Ounces, troy Ounces, troy Ounces, troy Ounces, troy Ounces/square inch Parsee Parsec Parts/million Parts/million Peck, British Peck, British Peck, British Peck, USA Peck, USA Peck, USA Peck, USA Peck, USA Pennyweights, troy Pennyweights, troy Pennyweights, troy Pennyweights, troy Pfund, Germany Pint, USA, dry Pint, USA, dry Pint, USA, dry Pint, USA, dry * Appendix 25 8.686 1x 108 ° 16 437.5 28.349527 0.0625 o.o11s 2.79 x 10° 2.835 x 10°$ 1.805 0.02957 480 31103481 1.09714 0.08333 0.0625 KKM HMM KM Pp 19 x 10"? 3.084 x 10"? 0.05833 0.07016 8.345 594.6 2 x 9.0919 x 0.25 x 937.605 x 8.809582 x8 x 9.3092 4 0.05 155517 4.1667 x 107? 500 0.015625 550.6136 o.01945 33.6 - 187 Inch Decibels Dynes Drams Grains Grams Pounds Ounces, troy Tons, long Tons, metric Cubic inches Liters Grains Grams junces, avoirdupois, Pounds, troy -ounds/square inch Miles, USA, statute Kilometers Grains/gallon, USA Grains/gallon, British Pounds/million gallons, USA. Cubic inches Gallons, British iters Bushels Cubic inches ers = Quarts, dry Quarts, liquid Grains = Ounces, troy Grams Pounds, troy Gram Bushel Cubic centimeter Cubic feet = Cubic inches Cunversion factor P (continued on following page) 186 Process Piping Design Conversion factor M (concluded) Mile, USA, nautical x 72,962.58 Inches Mile, USA, nautical x 1.853 Kilometer Mile, USA, nautical x 033 = League Mile, USA, nautical x 1,853.248 Meter Mile, USA, nautical x L1S15S Mile, USA, statute Mile, USA, nautical x 2,026.73 Yard Miles, USA, statute x 5,280 Feet, USA Miles, USA, statute x8 Furlongs Miles, USA, statute x 63,360 Inches Miles, USA, statute x 1.60935 Kilometer Miles, USA, statute x 8,000 Link Miles, USA, statute x 1,609.35 Meters Miles, USA, statute x 0.8684 Mile, USA, nautical Miles, USA, statute x 1,900.8 Vara Miles, USA, statute x 1,760 Yard Miles/hour x 44.7 = Centimeters/second Miles/hour x 8 Feet/minute Miles/hour x 1.467 Feet/second Miles/hour x 1.609 = Kilometers/hour Miles/hour x 0.02682 Kilometers/minute Miles/hour x 0.8684 Knots Miles/hour x 2682 = Meters/minute Miles/hour x 0.4470 Meters/second x 0.01667 Miles/minute Miles/minute x 5,280 Feet/minute Miles/minute x 316,800 Feet/hour Miles/minute x 88 Feet/second Miles/minute x 60 Mile/hour Miles/minute x 1.609 Kilometers/minute x 0.8684 Knots/minute x Ol Centimeter Millimeter x 3.281 x 10"? Feet Millimeter x 0.03937 Inches Millimeter x 10° Kilometers Millimeter x 0.001 Meters Millimeter x 6.214x 10"? Miles Millimeter x 39.37 Mils Millimeter x 1.094 x 10°? Yards Million gallons/day x 1.54723 Cubic feet/second Mils x 2.540 x 107 Centimeters Mits x 8.333 x 10" Feet Mils x 0.001 Inches Mils x 2.540 x 10"* = Kilometers Mils x 2.778 x 10° = Yards Conversion factor L (concluded) Liters Liters Liters Liters Liters Liters Liters Liters Liters Liters Liters/minute Liters/minute Liters/second Lumen Lumen Lumens/square foot Lux Maas Meter Meter Meter Meter Meter Meter Meter Meter Meter Meter Meters/minute Meters/minute Meters/minute Meters/minute Meters/minute Meters/minute Meters/second Meters/second Meters/second Meters/second Meters/second Meters/second Micron Micron Mile, USA, nautical Mile, USA, nautical Appendix MRR KKM KH KK HHH MO OX 1,000 0.035316 6.291 x 107? 61.027 0.001 1.308 x 10-3 0.2642 1.7598 2.1134 2.202 5.886 x 10™* 4.403 x 10° 2.1186 0.07958 1s 100 3.2808 0.01 39.37 0.001 5.396 x 10"* 6.214 x 10" 1000 1.094 1.179 1.667 3.281 0.05468 0.06 0.03238 0.03728 196.8 3.281 3.6 0.06 2.237 0.03728 0.0001 1000 6,080.2 6,080 185 Cubic centimeters Cubic feet Barrels, oil, USA Cubic inches Cubic meter Cubic yard Gallon, USA, liquid Pint, USA, dry Pint, USA, liquid Pounds of water Cubic foot/second Gallons/second = Cubic feet/minute Candlepower Watt = Foot-candles Foot-candles Liter Centimeter Feet, USA Hectometer Inch Kilometer Miles, nautical Miles, statute Millimeters Yards Vara Centimeters/second Feet/minute Feet/second Kilometers/hour Knots lesfhour Feet/minute Feet/second Kilometers/hour Kilometers/minute Miles/hour Miles/minute Centimeter Millimicron Feet, USA Feet, British Conversion factor M (continued on following page) 184 Conversion factor K (concluded) Kilometers/hour Kilometers/hour Kilometers/hour Kilometers/hour Kilowatts Kilowatts Kilowatts Kilowatts Kilowatt-hours Kilowatt-hours Kilowatt-hours Kilowatt-hours Kilowatt-hours Kilowatt-hours Kilowatt-hours Kilowatt-hours Kilowatt-hours Kip Kip Knott, USA Knott, USA Knott, USA Knott, USA Knott, USA Knott, USA League, land League, land League, land League, marine League, marine League, marine Light year Light year Links, engineers’ Links, surveyors’ Links, surveyors’ Links, surveyors” Liters Liters ‘*Bvaporated from and at 212°F ‘Raised from 62°F to 21°F Process Piping Design 0.9113 0.5396 16.67 0.6214 36.92 1.35972 1.341 1,000 3,413 3.6 x 10"? 1.36 134 3.6 x 108 860.5 3.671 x 10 3.53 22.15 1 1,000 51.48 6080.2 1.8532 30.887 1.15155, 2027 24 4.828 3 5.56 3 3.45 5.9 x 10"? 9.46091 x 10! 12 792 0.66 0.22 0.02838 100 = Feet/second Knots Meters/minute Miles/hour Btu/minute Horsepower, metric Horsepower, USA = Watts Bru Exes Horsepower-hour, metric Horsepower-hour, USA Joules Kilogram-calories Kilogram-meters Pounds of water* Pounds of watert Kilopound = Pound Centimeter/second Feet/hour Kilometer/hour Meter/minute Mile/hour Yards/hour = Furlong Kilometer Mile Kilometer Mile, nautical Mile, statute Miles = Kilometers Inches Inches Feet Yard Bushels, USA. dry = Centiliters Conversion factor L (continued on facing page) Joule Joule Joule Joule Joule Joule Kilogram Kilogram Kilogram Kilogram Kilogram Kilogram Kilograms/cubic meter Kilograms/cubic meter Kilograms/cubic meter Kilograms/cubic meter Kilograms/cubic meter Kilograms/meter Kilograms/meter Kiiograms/meter Kilograms/meter Kilograms/square centimeter Kilograms/square centimeter Kilograms/square centimeter Kilograms/square centimeter Kilograms/square centimeter Kilograms/square meter Kilogranus/square meter Kilograms/square meter Kilograms/square meter Kilograms/square meter Kilograms/square meter Kilometers Kilometers Kilometers Kilometers Kilometers Kilometers/hour Kilometers/hour eK Ke KM MM KH K KRM MM KKM MMM KKK KKK Appendix J 9.48 x 10-* 10? 0.7376 2.389 x 107 1.0197 x 10 2.778 x 10° K 1,000 70.93 2.205 9.842 x 10° 1.102 x 107? 0.001 0.001 0.06243 3.613 x 10° 3.405 x 107 8.428 x 107? 10 391.983 0.672 0.056 0.9678 32.81 28.96 2,048 14.22 9.678 x 107 3.281 x 107? 2.896 x 10°? 0.03937 0.2048, 1.422 x 1073 3281 3.937 x 10* 1,000 0.6214 1,094 27.78 54.68 183 = Btu Ere Foot-pound Kilogram-calorie Gram-centimeter = Watthours Grams, Poundals Pounds Tons, long Tons, short Tons, metric Grams/cubic centimeter Pounds/cubic foot Pounds/cubic inch Pounds/mil-foot Ton, short/cubic yard Gram/centimeter Gramfinch Pounds/foot Pounds/inch Atmospheres Feet of water Inch of mercury Pounds/square foot Pounds/square inch Atmospheres Feet of water Inches of mercury, = Inches of water Pounds/square foot = Pounds/square inch Feet Inches Meters Miles Yards Centimeters/second Feet/minute Conversion factor K (continued on following page) 1ez Conversion factor H. (concluded) Horsepower-houts, metric Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hundredweight (ong) Hundredweight (ong) Hundredweight (short) Hundredweight (short) Hundredweight (short) Hundredweight (short) Hundredweight (short) Hundredweight (short) Inch Inch Inch Inch Inch Inch Inch Inch Inch Inch Inch Inch Inch, mercury Inch, mercury Inch, mercury Inch, mercury Inch, mercury Inch, mercury Inch-pound Inch-pound Inch, water, 4°C Inch, water, 4°C Inch, water, 4°C lnch, water, 4°C Inch, water, 4°C Inch, water, 4°C Process Piping Design x 0.73545 x 0.0417 60 0.00137 0.1142 x 1079 5.982 x 10-3 112 0.05 18 45.36 100 o.0s 0.04536 0.044643 254 x 106 2.54 0.833 x 107? 1.2626 x 107? 0.254 0.08233 0.0254 1.578 x 10° 25.4 1,000 5.05 x 10° 0.02778 0.03342 1.133 13.61 70.13 0.49116 0.03453 1.07 x 10-4 0.0833 2.458 x 1079 0.07355 2.54 x 1079 0.5781 5.204 0.03613 = Kilowatt hour Day Minute Month Year Week Pounds Tons, long Cubic foot Kilograms Pounds Ton, short Tons, metr = Tons, long = Angstrom Centimeter Chain, engineer Chain, Gunter Decemeter Foot, USA Meter Mile, statute, USA Millimeters Mils Rods Yards Atmospheres Feet of water Inch height, water Pound/square foot = Pound/square inch Kilograms/square centimeter Btu Foot-pound Atmospheres Inches of mercury Kilograms/square centimeter Ounces/square inch Pounds/square foot = Pounds/square inch Conversion factor H (continued) Hectare Hectare Hectare Hectare Hectogram Heetoliter Hectoliter Heetoliter Heetoliter Hectoliter Hectometer Hectometer Hectometer Hectometer Hectowatts Henties Hossheads, Brit Hogsheads, USA Hogsheads, USA Hogsheads, USA. Hogsheads, USA Hogsheads, USA Horsepower, USA Horsepower, USA Horsepower, USA Horsepower, USA Horsepower, boiler Horsepower, boiler Horsepower, boiler Horsepower, elect Horsepower, electric Horsepower, elect: Horsepower, electric Horsepower, hours, USA Horsepower, hours, USA Horsepower, hours, USA Horsepower, hours, USA Horsepower, hours, USA Horsepower, hours, USA Horsepower. hours. USA Horsepower, hours, USA Horsepower-hours, metric Horsepower-hours, metric Horsepower-hours, metric Horsepower-hours, metti Horsepower-hours, metric Appendix 0.01 10,000 3.861 x 107? 11,960 100 3.532 on 0.1308 26.42 100 328.089 100 0.06214 109.36 100 1,000 10.114 8.42184 63 238.476 504 252 42.44 33,000 550 0.7457 33,479 34.5 9.803 0.7072 146 0.746 746 2,547 2.6845 x 10"? 1.98 x 10° 641,190 1.01387 2,376 x 10 26.8453 x 108 0.7457 2509.83 1.9529 x 108 0.98632 632,467 26.4761 181 ‘Square kilometer Square meters Square miles Square yard Gram Cubic feet Cubic meter Cubic yard Gallon, USA Liter Feet Meter Mile, statute, USA Yard Watts Millihenies Cubic feet Cubic feet Gallons, USA Liter Pint Quart Btu/minute = Foot-pounds/minute = Footpounds/second Kilowatts = Btu/hour = Pounds water/hour Kilowatts Btu/second Joule/second Kilowatts Watts Btu Eres Foot-pounds = Gram-calories Horsepower-hour, metric Inch-pound = Joule Kilowatt hour Bu Foot-pounds Horsepower-hour, USA. Gran-calori neue Conversion factor H (continued on following page) 180 Conversion factor G (concluded) Gram Gram Gram Gram Gram Gram Gram Gram Gram Gram Gram Gram Gram Gram Gram Grams/centimeter Grams/cubic centimeter Grams/cubic centimeter Grams/liter Grams/liter Grams/liter Grams/liter Grams/square centimeter Gram-calories Gram-calories Gram-calories Gram-calories Gram-calories Gram-alories Gram/calories/second Gram-centimeters Gram-centimeters Gram-centimeters Gross Gross, great Gross, great Hand Hand Hand Hand Head, fect elevation, water Hectare Hectare Hectare Process Piping Design 5 3.858 100 0.2572 0.56438 980.665 15.4324 9.807 x 105 9.807 x 10° 0.001 1000 0.03527 0.03215 0.07093 2.205 x 10°? 5.6 x 10"? 62.43 0.03613 58.417 8.345 0.062427 1,000 2.0481 3.968 x 10°? 4.1868 x 107 3.088 1.55856 x 10-§ 1.163 x 10"¢ 1.163 x 1079 14.286 Carat Carat, metric Centigram Dram, apothecary Dram, avoirdupois, Dyne Grain Joules/centimeters Toules/meter (newtons) Kilograms Milligrams Ounces, avoirdupois Ounces, troy Poundais Pounds Pounds/inch Pounds/cubie foot Pounds/cubie foot Grains/gallon, USA Pounds/1,000 gallons Pounds/cubic foot Parts/million Pounds/square foot Btu Ergs Foot-pounds Horsepower/hours Kilowatt-hours Watt-hours Btu/hour 9.29658 x 10-* = Btu 980.7 Eres 9.807 x 10° Joules 12 Dozen 144 Dozen i2 Gross 4 10.16 = Centimeter 4 Inch 48 Foot 1,016 Meter 0.433 Pounds/square inch 2.471 Acre 100 = Are 1.07639 x 10° ‘Square feet Conversion factor H (continued on facing page) Conversion factor G (continued) Gallon, liquid, USA Gallon, liquid, USA Gallon, fiquid, USA Gallon, liquid, USA Gallon, liquid, USA Gallon, liquid, USA Gallon, liquid, USA Gallon, liquid, USA Gallon, liquid, USA Gallons/hour, USA Gallons/hour, USA Gallons/hour, USA Gallons/hour, USA, Gallons/minute, USA Gallons/minute, USA Gallons/minute, USA Gallons/minute, USA Gallons/minute, USA Gallons/minute, USA Gallons/minute, USA Gallons/minute, USA Gallons/minute, USA Gallons/minute, USA Gallons/minute, USA Gallons/minute, USA Gallons/minute, USA Gallons/minute, USA Gallons/second, USA Gallons/second, USA. Gallons/second, USA Gallons/second, USA. Gills, British Gills, British Grade Grade Grade Grade Grain Grain Grain Grain Grain Appendix ORK H KM MRM RK MH MMM MMR RMR RH 0.0238 3785.434 3.785434 0.13368 231 3.7854 x 107 4.951 x 10° 0.859365 0.832673 3.7853 8 4 8.3453 0.1337 2.228 x 10°? 0.01666 2.777 x 10-* 34.2857 1.42857 0.023809 192.4999 8.021 0.13368 2.228 x 107? 0.2271 1440 60 0.01666 5.35565 5.99839 0.06308 481 8.02 0.1337 60 142.07 0.1183 0.25 0.0025 9,000 34 oo1s71 0.01666 0.03657 U 0.0648 2.0833 x 107? 179 = Barrel, oil Cubic centimeter Cubic decimeter Cubic foot Cubic inch, water, 62°F Cubic meter Cubic yard Gallon, dry, USA Galton, liquid, British Liter Pint, liquid, USA Quatt, liquid, USA Pounds, water Cubic feet/hour Cubic feet/minute Gallons/minute Gallons/second = Barrels/day, oil Barrels/hour, oil Barrels/minute, ofl Cubic feet/day Cubic feet/hour Cubic feet/minute = Qubic feet/second Cubic meters/hour Gallons/day Gallons/hour = Gallons/second ‘Tons, long, water, 62°F /day Tons, short, water, 62°F /day Liters/second Cubic feet/hour Cubic feet/minute Cubic feet/second Gallons/minute, USA Cubic centimeter Liters Pints, Liquid Circle Degree Minute Radian Dram, apothecary Dram, avoirdupois Grain, troy Grams = Ounces Conversion factor G (continued on foliowing page) 178 Conversion factor F (concluded) Foot-pound/minute Foot-pound/minute Foot-pound/minute Foot-pound/minute Foot-pound/minute Foot-pound/minute Foot-pound/second Foot-pound/second Foot-pound/second Foot-pound/second Foot-pound/second Foot-pound/second Foot-pound/second Fot Fot Fot Fot Foute Furlong Furlong Furlong Furlong Furlong Furlong Furlong Fass Fuss Gallon, British, Imperial Liquid Gallon, British, Imperial Liquid Gallon, British, Imperial Liquid Gallon, British, Imperial Liquid Gallon, British, Imperial Liquid Gallon, British, Imperial Liquid Gallon, British, Imperial Liquid Gallon, British, Imperial Liquid Gallon, dry, USA Gallon, dry, USA Gallon, dry, USA Gallon dry, USA Gallon, dry, USA Gallon, dry, USA. Gallon, dry, USA Gallon, dry, USA. Gallon, dry, USA. Process Piping Desian 2.259 x 10 0.01666 3.066 x 10° 3.0303 x 10° 2.2597 x 107 0.022597 0.0771 4.6263 1.843 x 10°9 1.818 x 109 1.356 1.3558 x 10°? 1.3958 0.974 100 0.2969 10 1 66 10 660 201.168 0.125 220 40 0.9842 0.300 G 0.125 4546 0.16046 0.0045 1.032 1.2009 4.54596 10 0.125 4404.92 0.155555 268.803 1.16365 4.4049 0.05 8 4.6546 Ergjsecond Foot-pound/second Horsepower, metric Horsepower, USA Kilowatt Watt Btu/minute Btu/hour Horsepower, metr Horsepower, USA Joule Kilowatts Watt Foot, USA Lines Meter Tum Foot, USA Chain, engineer Chain, Gunter Feet Meters Mile, statue, USA Yards Rods Foot, USA = Meter Bushel, dry, British Cubic centimeter = Cubic foot Cubic meter Gallon, dry, USA = Gallon, liquid, USA. Kilogram Pound, water, 62°F = Bushel, USA Cubic centimeter Cubie foot = Cubic inch Gallon, liquid, USA Liter Peck Pint = Quart, liquid, USA Conversion factor G (continued on facing pagel Conversion factor F (continued) Feet/minute Feet/second Feet/second Feet/second Feet/second Feet/second Feet/second Feet/second Feet/second Feet/second/second Feet/second/second Feet/second/second Feet/second/second Feet/100 feet Firkin Firkin Foot-candle Foot-candle Foot-candle Foot-candle Foot-candle Foot-candle Foot-Lambert Foot-Lambert Foot-Lambert Foot-Lambert Foot-Lambert Foot-Lambert Foot-Lambert Foot-pound Foot-pound Foot-pound Foot-pound Foot-pound Foot-pound Foot-pound Foot-pound Foot-pound Foot-pound Foot-pound Foot-pound Foot-pound Foot-pound Foot-pound Foot-pound/minute Foot-pound/minute PRR ARKH HMMM HAKKAR M KM MK MRM Appendix 0.1894 x 107? 30.48 1.097 0.921 18.29 0.681818 00113636 3600 60 30.48 1.097 0.3048 0.6818 1 9 34.06798 10.764 1 10.764 1.076 0.001076 distance in feet 03425 x 10"? 03183 0.00221 0.001076 square foot Area 1.076 0342 x 10" 1.2853 x 107? 1.356 x 10” 032389 5.0505 x 10-7 5.12% 10"? 12 1.355982 13554 3.238 x10" 0.1383 3.766 x 10"? 0.001356 0.01338 0.3766 x 107? 1.356 0.077118 1.286 109 7 = Mile/minute Centimeters/second Kilometers/hour Knots Meters/minute Miles/hour Miles/minute = Feet/hour Feet/minute Centimeters/second/second = Kilometers/hour/second = Meters/second/second Miles/hour/second Percent grade Gallon, liquid, USA Liter Lumen square meter Lumen/square foot Candlepower Candle/square centimeters Candie/square foot Candie/square inch Lambert Lumen Millilambert = Stilb Bu Eres Gram-calorie Horsepower-hours, USA Horsepower-hours, metric Inch-pound Joule absolute Joule international Kilogram-calories Kilogram-meters Kilowatt-hours Kilowatt-second Liter-atmosphere Watt-hour Watt-second Btu/hour But/minute Conversion factor F (continued on following page) 176 Process Piping Design E Bll x 114.30 Centimeters EI x 45 Inches Em, pica x 0.167 Inch Em, pica x 04233 Centimeter Erg/second xl = Dyne-centimeter/second Ere x 9.480. x 1071! Btu Erg x1 Dyne-centimeter Erg x 7.367 x 10-8 Foot-pounds Expansion coefficient, °F x18 Expansion coefficient, °C F Fahrenheit 32 x 955 Centigrade Famm x 5.8455 Foot, USA Famm x 1.7814 Meter Faradays x 26.8 ‘Ampere-hour Fathom, British x 6.08 Feet Fathom, British x 1.8532 Meter Fathom, British x 0.001 Nautical mile, British Fathom, USA x6 = Feet Fathom, USA x 1.8288 Meter Fathom, USA x2 Yard Feet, USA x 12 Inches Feet, USA x 0.3048 Meters Feet, USA x 0.3333 Yards Feet, USA x 0.18939 x 10"? Miles, USA statute Feet, USA x 12x10" Mils Feet, USA x 0.0606 Rod Feet of water x 0.0295 ‘Atmospheres Feet of water x 0.8826 Inches of mercury Feet of water x 0.03048 Kilograms/square centimeters Feet of water x 304.8 Kilograms/square meter Feet of water x 6243 Pounds/square foot Feet of water x 0.4335 Pounds/square inch Feet/hour x 0.01666 Feet/minute Feet/hour x 0.2777 x 107? Feet/second Feet/hour x 0.1894 x 10"? Mites/hour Feet/minute x 0.5080 Centimeter/second Feet/minute x 0.01666 Feet/second Feet/minute x 0.18288 = Kilometer/hour Feet/minute x 0.009868 Knot Feet/minute x 0.3048 Meter/minute Feet/minute x 0.00508 = Meter/second Feet/minute x 0.01136 Mite/hour Conversion factor F (continued on facing page) Conversion Factor C (concluded) Cubic yards Cubie yards Cubie yards Cubic yards Cubic yards Cubie yards Cubie yards Cubic yards/minute Cubic yards/minute Cubic yards/minute Cubit, Bible cup cu Dalton Days Days Decigrams Deciliters Decimeters Degrees (Angle) Degrees (Angle) Degrees (Angle) Degrees (Angle) Degrees/second Degrees/second Dekagrams Dekaliters Dekameters Drams (apothecaries or troy) Drams (apothecaries ot troy) Drams Drams Drams Dyne/centimeters Dyne/square centimeters Dyne/square centimeters Dyne/square centimeters Dynes Dynes Dynes Dynes Dynes Dynes Dynes/square centimeters AREER RRR KKM EAR KKK KKK 27 46,656 0.7646 202 164.6 1,615.9 807.9 0.45 3.367 12.74 218 0s 16 D 1.650 x 10724 1,440 86,400 01 Ol 0.1 60 3600 0.01745 o.o1i 0.1667 2.778 x 107 10 10 10 0.1371429 0.125 2.34375 1.771845 0.0625 0.01 9.869 x 107? 2.953 x 1075 4.015 x 10"* 1,020 x 10"? 1077 107s 1.020 x 107% 7.233. 105 2.248 x 10"* 10% 175 Cubic feet Cubie inches Cubic meters = Gallons (USA liquid) Liters Pints (USA liquid) = Quarts (USA liquid) Cubic feet/second Gallons/second Liters/second Inch int ‘Tablespoon = Gram Minutes Seconds = Grams Liters Meters Minutes Seconds Radians Quadrants Revolutions/minute Revolutions/second Grams Liters Meters Ounces (avoirdupois) Ounces (troy) Grains Grams ‘Ounces Erg/square millimeters = Atmospheres = Inch of mercury at 0°C Inch of water at 4°C Grams = Joules/eentimeters Joutesjmeters (newtons) Kilograms = Poundals Pounds Bars 174 Conversion factor C (continued) Cubic centimeters Cubic centimeters Cubic feet Cubic feet Cubie feet Cubic feet Cubie feet Cubic feet Cubic feet Cubic feet Cubie feet Cubic feet Cubic feet/minute Cubic feet/minute Cubic feet/minute Cubic feet/minute Cubic feet/minute Cubic feet/second Cubic feet/second Cubic feet/second Cubic inches Cubic inches Cubic inches Cubie inches Cubic inches Cubic inches Cubic inches Cubie inches Cubie inches Cubic meters Cubic meters Cubic meters Cubic meters Cubic meters Cubic meters Cubic nieters Cubic meters Cubic meters Cubic meters Cubic meters/hour Cubic metersfhour Cubic metersfhour Cubie meters/hour Cubie meters/hour Cubie meters/hour Cubic meters/hour Cubic yards Process Piping Design x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 2.113 x 1073 1.057 x 107 0.8036 28,320 1,728 0.02832 0.03704 7.48052 28.32 59.84 29.92 0.1781 472 0.1247 0.4720 62.43 1.6989 0.646317 448.831 101.94 1639 5.187 x 104 1.639 x 10° 2.143 x 107 4.329 x 10° 0.01639 1.061 x 10° 0.03463 0.01732, 6.290 28.38 108 35.314 61,023 1,308 264.17 1,000 2113 1,057 9.810 x 10"? 0.5886 4.8033 150.95 3.6651 35.31 2778 7.646 x 108 Pints (USA liquid) Quarts (USA liquid) Bushels (dry) Cubic centimeters Cubic inches Cubic meters Cubie yards Gallons (USA liquid) Liters Pints (USA liquid) Quarts (USA liquid) Barrels (oil, USA) = Cubic centimeters/second Gallons/second Liters/second = Pounds of water/minute Cubic meters/hour Million gallons/day Gallons/minute Cubie meters/hour Cubic centimeters = Cubie feet Cubic meters Cubie yards Gallons Liters Mil-feet Pints (USA fiquid) Quarts (USA liquid) Barrels (USA oil) Bushels (dry) Cubic centimeters Cubic feet Cubie inches Cubic yards Gallons (USA liquid) Liters ints (USA liquid) Quarts (USA liquid) Cubic feet/second Cubic feet/minute Gallons/minvte (USA) Barrelsiday Imperial gallons/minute Cubic feet/hour Cubie centimeters/second Cubic centimeters Conversion factor € (Continued on facing pagel Conversion factor 8 (concluded) Bucket (British-dry) Bushels Bushels Bushels Bushels Bushels, Bushels Bushels Candle/square centimeter Candle/square inch Centares Centigrade Centiliter Centiliter Centiliter Centimeters Centimeters Centimeters Centimeters of mercury Centimeters of mercury eters of mercury eters of mercury Centimeters/second Centimeters/second Centimeters/second Centimeters/second Centimeters/second Chain Chain Cords Cord feet Coulomb Coulombs Coulombs/square centimeter Coulombs/square centimeter Coulombs/square inch Coulombs/square inch Cubic centimeters Cubie centimeters je centimeters Cubic centimeters Cubic centimeters Cubie centimeters HR KRAMER Appendix 1.818 x 10* 1.2445 2,150.4 0.03524 35.24 4 64 32 c 3.142 0.487 1.0 9/5 + 32 0.3382 0.6103 2.705 3.281 x 107? 0.3937 1.094 x 107? 0.01316 0.4461 136 27.85 0.1934 1.1969 0.03281 0.036 0.1943 06 0.02237 792 20.12 8 16 2.998 x 10° 1,036 x 10° 64.52 10 0.155 1,550 3.531 x 10S 0.06102 10" 1.308 x 10°¢ 2.624 x 107 0.001 173 Cubic centimeters Cubic feet Cubie inches cubic meters Liters Pecks Pints (dry) Quarts (dry) = Lamberts Lamberts Square meters Fahrenheit Fluid ounce (USA) Cubic inch Drams Feet Inches Yards Atmospheres Feet of water Kilograms/square meter Pounds/square foot Pounds/square inch Feet/minute Feet/second Kilometers/hour Knots Meters/minute Miles/hour Inches Meters Cord feet Cubic feet Statcoulombs Faradays ‘Coulombs/square inch Coulombs/square meter Coulombs/square centimeter Coulombs/square meter Cubic feet Cubic inches Cutie meters Cubic yards. Gallons (USA liquid) = Liters Conversion facter € (continued on following page) 172 ‘Conversion factor A (concluded) Atmospheres Atmospheres Atmospheres Atmospheres Atmospheres ‘Atmospheres Atmospheres Atmospheres Barrels (USA, dry) Barrels (USA, dry) Barrels (USA, liquid) Barrels (oil) Barreis (oil) Barrels (oil), Barrels/day Barrels (oil) Barrels/day Bars Bars Bars Bars Bars Btu Btu Btu Btu Btu Btu Btu Btu Btu/hour Btu/hour Btu/hour Btu/hour Btu/hour foot °F Btu/hour foot? Btu/pound Btu/pound °F hour foot? °F Beu/minute Btu/minute Btu/minute Btu/square foot /minute Process Piping Design 29.92 76 33.90 1.033 10,332 1,013.2 760 10.332 B 7,056 105 315 42 0.159 159 6.6245 x 10°? 5.6154 29.167 x 107 0.9869 10° 1.020 x 10* 2,089 14.50 1,055 x 10'° 7783 252 3.931 x 10-* 1,054.8 0.252 107.5 2.298 x 10-4 0.2162 0.070 3.929 x 10°* 0.2931 1.4882 2.7125 0.5556 1 0.12402 12.96 0.02356 0.01757, 17.87 0.1221 = Inches of mercury at 0°C Centimeters of mercury set of water at 4°C Kilograms/squate centimeter Kilograms/square meter Millibar Millimeters of mercury = Meters of water at 4°C Cubie inches Quarts (dry) Gallons Gallons (oil) Cabie meters Liters Cubic meters/hour Cubic feet Gallons per minute = Atmospheres Dynes/square centimeter Kilograms/squate meter Pounds/square foot ‘ounds/square inch Eres Foot-pounds Gram-calori Horsepower-hours Joules Kilogram-calories Kilogram-meters Kilowatt-hours Foot-pounds/second Gram-calorie/second Horsepower-hours (British) Watts Kilocalorie/meter hour °C Kilocalorie/meter* hour jocalorie/kilograms jocalorie/kilograms °C Kilocalorie/meter hour °C Foot-pounds/second forsepower Kilowatts Watts atts/square inch rersion factor 8 (continued on facing page) Appendix In any international operation, measurement conversion is common. Engineers, designers and draftsmen are constantly seeking conversion tables and charts and usually find every one but the one they need. In this chapter conversion factors are assembled in alphabetical order. Following the factors are conversion tables useful to engineers and designers. Acre Acre Acre Acre Acres Acres Acres Acres Acte-feet ‘Acte-feet Amperes/square centimeters Amperes/square centimeters Amperes/square inch Amperes/ square inches Amperes/square meter ‘Amperes/square meter Are Ares Ares ‘Atmospheres Atmospheres 10 160 1x 108 0.4047 43,560 4,047 1,562 x 107? 4,840 43,560 3.259 x 108 6.452 10* 0.1550 1,550 104 6.452 x 104 0.02471 119.60 100 14.7 1.058 in = Square chain (Gunters) Rods ‘Square links (Gunters) = Hectare or square hectometer Square feet ‘Square meters = Square miles Square yards Cubic feet = Gallons Amperes/square inch Amperes/ square meter Amperes/square centimeters Amperes/square meter Amperes/square centimeter = Amperes/square inch Acre (USA) Square yards ‘Square meters Pounds/square inch = Tons/square foot Conversion factor A (continued on tollowing page) 170 Chapter 8 Review Test 1, Define the four major instrument types. 2. Give the four major functions of the types. 3. What is a dual instrument? 4, What does “board mounted”mean? 5. Which instrument item has no moving parts? 6. Define AGA. 7. Orifice flanges are___ pound minimum rating. 8, Level gages are usually limited to. inches length between valve centers. 9. Multiple gage glasses shall have a viewing area overlap of —____. 10, Most control valves are of the type body. 11, Cooling fins are added to control valves for fluid temperatures of __°F or greater. 12, What is a control valve handjack? 13. For angle control valves, flow normally goes in the and out the 14, Relief valve springs should normally be installed_____. 15, Because of the inlet nozzle, relief valve inlet flanges require longer Instrumentation 169 Control valve actuators should be installed in the vertical position. In some rare cases this is not practi- cal, as with body sizes of 10” and larger with actu- ators utilizing cooling fins resulting in diaphragm heights of 7-8". Accessibility demands that these dia- phragms be lowered, which results in horizontal in- stallation, particularly on angle control valves. With a horizontal valve plug stem or rod, two spe- cial problems arise. Supporting the diaphragm is a ‘mechanical problem best handled by cable from above. This allows free expansion, Many times the valve manufacturer can offer support solutions. The ‘other problem is lubrication of the stem or rod. With the horizontal installation, gravity will compel the lu- bricant to seek and lubricate the lower half of the stem. The manufacturer must be notified if horizontal installation is selected, so that he can alter the lubrica- tion design to make it effective for horizontal installa- tion. ‘Angle control valves are specified for large pres- sure drop applications. Flow is normally in the side and out the bottom when the diaphragm is vertical. However, this varies with the service. Before issuing the final piping drawing, the manufacturer's certified outline drawing must be checked to determine flow pattern. Control valves must be removable for mainte- nance. With flanged valves the flanges can be un- bolted and removal is simple. If the flanges are ring joint, removal is much easier if one of the block valves is located in the vertical so a flanged elbow can be removed. For screwed or socketwelded con- trol valves, provide a union on both sides of the control valve. Relief Valves Figure 8-19, conventional flanged relief valve, lists the relief valve’s various parts. Except for small thermal relief valves, springs should always be installed upright. The inlet flange is part of the body while the nozzle forms the flange face or seating surface. This nozzle is ¥ to 1" thick, result- ing in longer than standard bolting. When tabula- ting material needed for a relief valve always check the nozzle for added bolt length. As 2 guide, for relief valve flanged inlets up to 1" size, add 14" to normal bolting. For sizes 1% to 4” add %” and for 6" and larger add 1” 168 Process Piping Design LONERGAN Safety-Rolief Valves D Series Conventional AG SCREW RG SCREW GASKET COMPRESSION SCREW sre i car, soREWeED tocknr qi CaP cAsneT v ‘SPRING STEPS SPRING ‘onner Boy stuns ng, SPRING STEP ‘srup Nuts ———* BONNET easker ‘BODY GASKET OLDER INSERT ise woLoeR. RING PIN DISC RETAINER [ING PIN GASKET nome ise Bony NAME OF PART MATERIAL Gag Srew “AIST ANG Stainless Stoel Gag Screw Gasket Gorrugated Ste Tron Stem AISLA16 Staines Stel CCompremion Ser ‘AIST A16 Stain Steel Bonnet Plug Carhon Steet Locknut AIST AIG Staines Stet Gap Gasket Corrugated Saft Ion. ‘Spring Steps AISI C117 Carbon Steet Body Studs ASTM A195 GR'BY, Alloy Sto! Stud Nuts ASTM A194 GR 2H, Allo Stel Bonnet Casket Corrugated Sofe Ion Body Gasket ‘Corrugated Sol 01 Guide ASTM ASSI GR CFR, Stanles Stoel, Holder tngere [AISLA16 Staines Sec, Hardened Ring Pin Gashet Corrugated Soft tron Ring Pi AAISTAIG Staines Stel Dine Holder ASTSLASSLGR CF, Stainless Stee Dise Retainer lst 3a? Stainiew Stet ise 174 PH. Saini Steel, Hardened Aalst Ring AISI 302 Stain Stee! te ASTM A.SH1 GR CFM, Staines Stel ng (Sore W) Carton Steet ne (Soe 2) ‘Tungaten Steet ¢ 15) Gp, Sreweet ASTAUAIG, GR WCB, Caton Stel Bonnet (Note 3) ASTM A216, GR WCH, Cattun Stel Honnet (Note 4) ASTM A217, GR WOn, Allow cet Body (Note 3) ASEM ASG GR Wel, Carbon Stee Bealy (Note 4) ASTM AIT, GR WES, Allon Scct Figuee 8-19. Conventional flanged relief valve. Courtesy of J.€. Lonergan Co. Instrumentation 167 TYPE CS-1 TYPE ¢8-2 TYPE CS-3 FLGD. FLD. USE REDUCING ELLS WHEN BLOCK VALVES ARE 8" € UNDER (TYPE CS-I € CS-2), FOR LARGER SIZES USE CONCENTRIC REDUCERS (TYPE CS-3) feed cas fa} TYPE CS-4 TYPE CS: TYPE CS-6 SCREWED SOCKET WELD MAY FLOW EITHER DIRECTION CHECK INST ENGINEER 40" o” NOTES: |. CHECK HEIGHTS § WIDTHS OF CONTROL VALVE OPERATORS FOR CLEARANCE 2. CONTROL VALVE COOLING FINS REQUIRED AT 450°F & ABOVE. 3. ON PULSATING PIPING LOWER BY-PASS AS MUCH AS POSSIBLE. MAKE THE INSTALLATION COMPACT TO REDUCE VIBRATION, 4. DIMENSION 2'-0" iS FROM HIGH POINT OF GRADE OR PAVING. Figure 8-18, Typical contro! stations. 166 - Process Piping Design B —-—_————— Pax FLANGE STUD PACKING FLANGE YOKE LOCKKUT PACKING PACKING FLANGE KUT + FELT WIPER RING g PACKING FOLLOWER PACKING SPRING VALVE PLUG STEM TEFLON WIPER RING BONNET = VALVE BODY PACKING BOX RING GUIDE BUSHING VALVE PLUG GUIDE BUSHING BOTTOM FLANGE Figure 8.17. Control valve body. Courtesy of J.€. Lonergan Co, Figure 8.16. Control valve actuator, Courtesy of Fisher Controts Co. 164 Process Piping Design rr Fes oly smd dass marie Basses FR mec RECs gues VALVES FITTS 70 CONFORM To GONEANINS FEUER SANG OF Pus, see ow usa ron Figure 815, Multiple level gage installation, Courtesy of Fluor Corp. Figure 8-15, multiple level gage installation, shows how gages are overlapped 8” to overlap view- ing area 1" minimum. This viewing area overlap will vary with the manufacturer. Control Valves Control valves are designed with a body for throttling. Most control valves employ a globe-type body, but ball, butterfly and other iypes are also used. Control valves regulate flow throughout the unit by opening or closing fractional amounts le ting more or less flow pass as the impulse signal commands them to do. The impulse signal may be pneumatic, electronic, hydraulic or electro-hydrau lic, A few control valves are operated manually, but the great majority are pneumatically operated, ‘The control valve is comprised of two basic components, the actuator or motor operator and the valve body. Figure 8-16, a control valve actua- tor, gives details of actuator and terminology of diaphram actuator parts. Figure 817, « control valve body, gives details and terminology for body parts. A double-port body is shown but many parts are common for all control valves. For fluid temperatures of 450°F or higher, ra- diating cooling fins are installed on top of the body but under the actuator to dispell heat to the atmos- phere, protecting the actuator. This makes the ov- erall height of the control valve greater and piping designers often forget to consider cooling fins. This results in actuators and by-passes vying to occupy the same spot and this cannot happen. Figure 8-18, typical control stations, shows how to design control valve installations incorporating, block valves on either side of the control valve. A. globe valve by-pass is shown but gate valves can be used more economically. Dimensions from cen- terline of by-pass to control valve are a guide for stu- dents and will be sufficient in most cases. Each con- trol valve height must be checked to ensure 9” minimum clearance above the actuator. Actuator dia~ phragm widths vary and must also be checked to en- sure clearance from the vertical pipe. When station types CS-1 or CS-2 are used, diaphragms are often wide enough to interfere with the block valves’ flanges. Control valves are sometimes purchasea with handwheels, commonly called handjacks, mounted ‘on the actuator. The handwhect allows manual op- eration, opening or closing the valve, which miakes| manual uid control possible if the automatic con- trol becomes inoperative. Manual control will con- tinue until repairs are completed and automatic control is resumed. Block and by-pass valves are not supplied when manual handwheels are spe fied. Handwheels are usually mounted on the actu- ator’s side; however, a reverse-acting control valve may have the handwheel on top. Control valves must be lovated near the equip- ment they serve and must be accessible to the ope ator. A level control valve controls the level in a vessel by receiving impulse signals from a level co troller attached to the vessel. Locating the control valve near the level controller reduces length of impulse line. When operating the control valve manually or when operating on by-pass, the ope1 {or should be able to see the vessel's gage glass. Instrumentation Direct Reading LIQUID LEVEL GAGES ITEM: Technical Data: Valve Centers 163 FOR PENBERTHY REFLEX AND TRANSPARENT LIQUID LEVEL GAGE SETS Threaded Gage Connection Types ace TP a moon HE ] USTANGE WED VAVECINTRS mH? cee | ae) Me | CON | te I ' sections | tatsi| nots | often | "* at ] Vy Dow waves? | “Valves” | wos. fs, 25 x s w au F WITH IPPLES | WITH NIPPLES | VALVES? « x00 | sure} — | sreoo| saw] — | 9 | ae] ew [we [ox tr she | S| mer] aman |S] or | Bt] ose | oe |B oa | sites seo: | Sevaoe tf oe] owe |e foe Seo | sites ress | sraea | wera] ot | ax] om | owe | ow oot | sitoe rae | srraoe | were | ot | oe) tae | tse | oom ios | sates wuss | seizes | wris| 1 foe | oe | ote | one ee | sitos wane | seizes | wri) 1 | won| ts ve | ao | e507 | S107 x1-607 | st-1207 | wra7 1 nh 16% 19% 1% x08 | s.1108 x408 | st-1208 | Wr-18 1 12% 7% | 20% 12% xen | sue won [aa [won| a | |e] am] as | xs2a | senza xro2a | st-1224 | wr-24 2 7% 2 24% 7% Xa | fins Bross | seizes | wras| 3 |e] oe | be | toe raze | sia fen | seine [wes| 2 || ioe | ome | rap | sine sear | seize | wrar| 2 | asm] 30 nx | asm Ton | sts | wae | stew | seize |weae| 2 [aoe] ame | ae |e | sus | saas | was | ateas | srizas | wras| 3 | ao | asm am | 30m rats | sites | was | xreu | seize | wros| 3. | aoe | ame | am | Sax rau | sive | war | ate | seize wear] 3 | ame] am | ten | aoe Xoa | sine | wae | see | sta [wee] 3 | am] om | tom | dom race | sues | was | atese | arizee [wras] « | an] oe] on [se | Se | War | ewer | Seuaer | wear) | |S | den |e PSS Eng p wa pma isa ag) of | ef Sk | ak | 8 [ase [sss [was [aa bases wre) = | am] @ we) are] | xsr | sez | war | xns7 | star | weer s | an] 70% 7% eK | ras [sce [woe] ore [ate [wre | 3 | an] rn | mem | oon x07 wor | xt-67 | ‘1-67 weer 6 70% 3% 86% 78% bi wa | me lie | wre| os | ax] ow vox | am war | ma tsar [wr] 7] am] sen) wm Pan] wie jm ism [wize| 7 | om | vem | sm | ore war | mars wa? | wrar vom | vox ns) tos] was | irae i ara | wee tre | nee | ome [oni | war | way srar | wrar Vien | ize] zen | em | vee oa toe | wen Liam | toe | aie | te | waar] nar ater tT wraor Tisew | a7 ore | te t wetos | xtton y srtos_| wrioa| 10 | vex | tees urK nox | 1 Salat comet gone by serng fo preiuretenpertore rong {21 The cntrto-canar dimension give in ole ith minima dence ‘bleinbiebteven rave coir fr te cormpendng goge ond rove large Chomber Gauge Ed conneced edd 'e" te figures shown ratec te simenianal dee of gage vohe. etn deen he covrenpoding ur. Fer goge valve pvsre-tomparatr roting en dimen. ) Minimo Vat cantar for "Clove Hook-up Gage is He longer ‘how down noe foe rapt goge, (On tromiporet gvger, react sree! ahr sections 1 meke op the {oil sisny aad, lr trteence beret eeding wil en He trae i sles trom Nigher pears groupe Ti, however, ont el Soot Io the Reds ype goom Figure 8-14. Level gage dimensions, Courtesy of Penberthy. 162 Direct Reading LIQUID LEVEL GAGES ITEM: Special Service Heating and Cooling ‘and/or Design Gages and Vaives Process Piping Design For accurate level measurements of liqulds whose Vitcosity tends to vary, or volatile liquids which tend to boll under existing conditions, heating or cooling type gages are available. Gage and valves are traced with heating or cooling me- dium, elther externally or Internally as shown and described. Fig. 1_Extemal type Reflex gage with integral heating or cooling chamber at the back of liquid chamber. Fig. 2—Extemol type transparent gage with welded heating for cooling chambers on each side of liquid chamber. Fig. 3—Stonderd reflex or transparent type gages and valves with intemel heoting or cooling stoinless steel tube posing through liquid chomber ond valves. Tube being held in ploce with packing adopters in the vent and drain connections of the valves, Fig. 4—Packing block tees replace volves of Fig. 3 which ‘enables side connection installation. Fig. 5—Stondard %" dio. tubulor gless gages equipped heating or cooling tube end packing adopters. All Penberthy reflex series gages are available with extemally ected or cooled feature—transparent type is only aveilable in the ST Series. When Ordering: For exomple "S-1108HC" is an $-1108 with external heating or coaling chamber. Figure 8-13. Liquid leve gage types. Courtesy of Penberthy, Instrumentation LEFT HAND MOUNTING LEFT HAND MOUNTING IRIGHT HAND |) MOUNTING hoy Flange connection position 1 and lft hand Instrument positon wil be supplied untess otherwise spectted. For high pressure chembers (1500 Ib. and 2500 ASA) connection positions 1, 3 and 7 ony are avaliable, {MOUNTING Figure 8-12, Level controller head orientation. Courtesy of Masoneilan, “160 Process Piping Design Pa: 10 || 0 12802W Dimensions (inches) RANGE 128020 12808W 207W FF MR FF MAL FF MR ” “7 2. 7 7 32 32 16 40 16 96 18 8 43 24 562k 5228 60 6 30 68 30 8430 72 m2 36 8036 73 36 84 B42 92 42 8842 96 9% 48 10448 10048 120 120 6 128 60 12460 Flanged Connection B = 1%" — 2° size 150 — 300 — 600 Ib. ASA rating Figure 8-11. Level controllers ~ flanged connections. Courtesy of Masoneilan. Figure 8-11, level controllers—flanged connections, shows the flanged models. Both are available in 1%" or 2" connection sizes. The 1¥4" size is usually specified to keep piping costs to a minimum. Fig- ure 8-12, level controller head orientation, gives, allowable orientations for both models. Orienta- tion of control arms is the piping designer's respon- sibility and access to the control box must be pro- vided. Level Gage Level gages (also spelled gauges) show the lige uid level in equipment. They come in several styles and various lengths. Figure 8-13, liquid level gage types, shows five common types. Everytime a level controller is installed a level gage must be installed to cover the float range of the controller. Figure 8-14, level gage dimensions, supplies dimensions for level gages. Piping designers are concerned with the center-to-center dimension of valves which lo- cate their connections on equipment. Note the dif “visible glass” and “distance be- tween valve centers.” For a 60" Meat range le controller, visible glass of 60" minimum must be provided. This may mean multiple gages, as most es limit the distance between valve centers to 60". For the standard gage this limits the views img area to $5", not enough to cover the 60" float range. So two gage glasses are needed. Instrumentation 159 . 3) OT oR OTTO A bf vat FF i LA lesoow eosw fT) (2806w MR | yl 1 ram N | 3 A. i ‘Sorewed Connections \¥e" — 2" NPT — 600 1b. ASA rating "2000W iW 712506W RANGE FF MA FF MR FF MA 4 “7 27 7 32 a2 16 3818 M16 48 4 2h Care 50 24 6 6 30 6 30 e230 nm 2 38 7% 38 % 36 a4 Be 4 3042 8842 96 48 10248 8 48 120 120 60 128 60 12260 Figure 8-10. Level controllers ~ screwed connections, Courtesy of Masoneilan. 158 Process Piping Design Control of distillate and water levels ina gas and water separator (On applications where three fluid phases exist, such as ina gas-water separator, two level controllers are used: ‘one to control the interface level between the two liquids; the other to maintain the level of the lighter liquid, Transmission of level to remote recorder and signal lights Where the flow to a heator must be maintained at a rela- tively constant rate (within the limits of the storage ‘capacity available), a 12820 level transmitter is used to {transmit the level changes of a feed accumulator to a ccontral panel. A flow controller records on a single chart both the rate of flow which It receives from a flow transmitter located in the discharge line to the heater, and the level. This provides the operator with a contin: uous record of level and flow which permits him to adjust the flow rate to the existing conditions, A 485-0 se- uential switch, which is connected to three signal lights, ives five-position indication of level which can be seen at some distance. Level transmission and control of areflux accumulator Where the exchangers that condenso the overhead prod- ct from a fractionating tower are operated to produce a ‘reflux supply but no overhead liquid product, the 12800 20 controlier-transmitter maintains the level in the re- flux accumulator by controlling the flow of water through the condensers. The independent transmission system provides remote indication of level at the control station, where it may be correlated with changes in process re- auirements, Figure 3-9. Level controller installation diagrams, sheet 2. Courtesy of Masoneilan. Instrumentation 187 Control of product level fractionating tower reboiler ‘A woir in this kettle type reboiler maintains a constant level around the heating tubes, A 12800 level controller ‘operates a control valve to maintain the rate of draw-off fof the bottom product in accordance with the level ‘changes in the downstream side of the wolr, Control and transmission of crude tower level ‘A12607-20 side-and-bottom connected controller-trans- mitter is used on this high temperature ap Controls the valve in the draw-of line from the bottom Of the crude fractionating column in accordance with the level changes in the column. An independent pneu- ‘matic transmission system measures the level in the ves- ‘sel which is transmitted to a recorder located at a central panel. Control of feed rate by pneumatically setting the index of a flow controller ‘The feed rate through the heating untts is stabilized by fa flow controller. The 12810 level controller (with re- set) averages the level changes within the feed accumu- lator by pneumatically adjusting the set point of a flow controller. Figure 88. Level controller installation diagrams. Courtesy of Masoneilan, 156 Process Piping Design MODEL 12800 ‘TOP _AND BOTTOM ‘SCREWED CONNECTIONS MODEL, 12005 TOP AND SIDE ‘SCREWED CONNECTIONS MODEL 12000 SIDE AND SIDE SCREWED CONNECTIONS. MODEL 12808 SIDE AND BOTTOM SCREWED CONNECTIONS MODEL 12403 TOP VESSEL FLANGED CONNECTION MODEL 12806 SIDE VESSEL FLANGED CONNECTION Figure 8-7. Level controller types, Courtesy of Masoneitan. Instrumentation rorave tse, TORQUE TUBE ROD AN TORQUE ARM BLOCK 155 Eats PROCESS FLUID FROM INSTRUMENT TORSION oF TORQUE TUBE ANGULAR MOTION TO INSTRUMENT FREE END OF TORQUE TUBE Figure 8.6, Torque tube subassembly. Courtesy of Masoneilan. In example € the liquid level has increased to 14” and the scale weight is reduced to 1 pound. The 14" increase in liquid level has decreased the displacer weight by 2 pounds. As the net weight of the displaceris decreased, the net load on the spring is reduced in direct pro- portion to the water level increase. In this case the water volume displaced by the 14 increase in level is equal to approximately 56 cubic inches, a weight of 2 pounds. Using an accurate spring scale, the scale could bbe calibrated in terms of level, thus providing a simple and accurate level indicator for liquids of known specific gravity. This type is limited to equipment open to the atmosphere but forms the basis for all level controller design. For accurate operation in pressurized containers, a frictionless seal was developed, which is now commonly called the torque tube. Figure 8-5 depicts the torque tube design. The torsion spring or torque tube replaces the spring scale shown in Figure 8-4. The torsion spring can be designed to indicate net weight or level as shown previously. igure 8-6, 2 torque tube subassembly, is an exaggerated sectional view of an actual liquid level controller. The angular motion in a typical design is from 4 ° to 5°. This angular motion is used to actuate instruments which transmit air signals pro- portional to level changes for pneumatic indica tion, recording or controlling. Figure 8-7, level controller types, shows the various types available from Masoneilan Interna- tional, @ world leader of control instruments. Con- trollers are available with flanged ends also. jure 88, level controller installation dia- grams, shows installations for reboilers and crude towers and an application for flow recording con- trolling. Figure 89, rams, sheet applications. Figure 8-10. level controllers—serewed connec tions. shows models available for screwed piping. 1 controller installation dis shows installations for three other 154 Process Piping Design ‘tow Panter Tee 0 uate wren aa acto Wigs Ts wera Sa Figure 8-4, Theory of displacement type controller Courtesy of Masoneilan Level Instruments Level controllers are manufactured in several types. Some, such as the ball type, are located in- side the equipment and some are located outside the equipment in a float cage. The ball type needs ‘only one connection to project the ball float inside and flange up the controller. However, if mainte- nance is needed the equipment must be shut down so that the controller can be removed. Float cage controllers are located outside the equipment with their own cage and two valved connections to the equipment, allowing mainte- nance with equipment under pressure, For this rea- son, float cage controllers are most often selected by designers. The extemal level controller is made in dis placement, constant displacement, variable dis placement and interface types. The most common. one is the variable displacement type. In this type. the displacer always weighs more than the displaces at full immersion. Although the displacer rises and falls with level changes, its movement substantially less than the actual level movement. WATER LEVEL Figure 8.5, Torque type picture. Courtesy of Masoneilan. The difference in movement is dependent on the crosssectional area of the displacer, the liquid’s specific gravity and the stiffness of the supporting spring or torque tube. When a body is immersed or partly immersed in any liquid, it loses weight equal to the weight of the liquid being displaced. Figure 8-4, theory of displacement type controller, illustrates a method of using this principle for level measurements in vessels open to the atmosphere. The dimensions, volumetric displacement, weight ‘and change in weight of the displacer in this example are the actual values used in the 14” range controller. ti each picture a 2.25" diameter, 14” long displacer is shown. In example A the displacer is suspended by a spring scale having a range of 0-5 pound, and the liquid level is even with the bottom of the dis- placer. The full weight of the displacer is supported by the spring scale and is 3 pounds. In example & the water levet has been raised to 7”. The displac now loses weight equal to the weight of the liquid displaced (1 pound) and the net weight shown on the spring scale is 2 pounds. While the liquid level has risen 7", note that the displacer has risen very litte Instrumentation 153 Figure 8-3. Detall of staggered 45° orifice taps. For sizes 16" and larger, orifice runs get to be # piper’s nightmare. One solution is to replace orifice flanges with a venturi tube which needs only a few feet of straight-run pipe upstream. Another solu- tion is straightening vanes installed in the line up- stream of the orifice flanges. When meter run lengths become excessive and expensive to provide, consult the instrument engineer for an alternative method. Six diameters of straight-run pipe are to be pro- vided downstream of orifice flanges. In some cases this may be reduced to four diameters but six should be the design basis. Orifice flanges may be installed in a vertical pipe run for liquid flowing up or down and for vapor flowing down, Horizontal meter runs are pre- ferred and should be provided where feasible. For many years, only horizontal runs were allowed. To- day moder instrument engineers realize that pip- ing configuration costs often outweight the slight advantage of the horizontal meter run. All account- ing meter runs are to be horizontal. Orifice Flange Taps It is preferable to locate orifice flange taps hor izontally for liquid Now and vertically for vapor flow. Steam service falls between the two and each company has ideas for tap location, so no orient tion is standard, Many companies have settled on taps located 45° off the vertical forall services. No error can be made with this plan. Orifice flanges have two taps in each fange that are 180° apart. A further im- provement is to locate taps 45° from the vertical but staggered 90° apart. See Figure 8-3 for details of staggered 45° taps. For vapor service the two taps above horizontal would be valved and the two taps below horizontal would be plugged. With liq- uid service the two lower taps would be valved while the upper taps are plugged. This is highly advantageous in critical services where orifice taps ‘must employ flanged valves. When the two taps are located side by side, flanged valves will need offset piping to clear, ‘The staggered tap approach will not work with an orifice valve manifold, a manifold prefabricated with valves especially designed for orifice tap serv- Orifice flange rating is 300 pound minimum because a wide flange thickness is needed to allow taps to be drilled. Flanges are erected, bolted and hydrotested prior to insertion of the orifice pla When the plate is inserted a gasket is placed on both sides and the Manges are then rebolted, This results in a gap, shown in Figure 8-3. caused by the plate and two gaskets. Thick flanges for the taps and this gap result in a need for longer bolts, a fact often overlooked by piping people. Pipers must also leave about 15" clear trom and piping. 152 Process Piping Design Figure 8.2, Pressure recording controller diagram. At the control station, the specification break from C to A is carried through the downstream block valve. Should the control valve stick in the open position and the 4” downstream block valve should be closed it would have to withstand the pressure in the C line. Specification breaks at con- trol stations should be downstream of the block valve and the by-pass as shown. Flow instruments Flow instruments encompass flow meters, rota- meters, sight glasses and orifice meters among oth- ers, Orifice flanges cause piping designers the great- est problems, especially in the larger sizes. Many orifice flanges, or meter runs as they are commonly called, are critical to a plant's operation and are designated “accounting meter” on flow diagrams. Flow accuracy is critical in them and all possible upstream straight-run piping should be provided to ensure this accuracy. Most meter runs, such as a FRC which records and controls flow, are not so critical. At the FRC meter run the flow is set by hand to flow a certain volume. This volume is re- corded and if the proper amount is not going through the line the flow is adjusted manually to correct it. Meter runs containing orifice Manges have lengths established by the American Gas Associa- tion (AGA) based on the configuration and diame- ter ratio between the orifice plate hole diameter and the pipe size. Piping designers assume a mini- mum diameter ratio of 0.7 o 0.75 to determine ‘minimum upstream straight run of pipe. This a sumption is conservative in most cases and results in a straight-run upstream length greater than ne essary. The AGA curve might specify 27 pipe dia- meters upstream with a 0.75 diameter ratio. With a 10” line size. this would require 270" or 22'-6" of steaight-run pipe upstream of the orifice Manges. When this length is not practical, consult the in strument engineer. The actual diameter ratio can be calculated, which may be 0.56. Using this ratio, the AGA curve will reduce the upstream require- ment by several feet Instrumentation 151 Always leave 2’ clear from a thermowell to allow insertion of the instrument. A thermocouple in a large line may require more distance. If the design- presented with this problem, he should check the thermocouple length and leave ample room. This brings up the most prevalant error com- mitted by piping people. They quite often orient thermowells for thermocouples so that they point horizontally into a walkway or platform area. The piper considers only the coupling, and he wants to make the connection accessible. It looks good on paper. Then the instrument installer comes along and inserts @ thermocouple that sticks out 18” into a 3" aisleway or platform. After saying a few words about the piper’s background, the field crew has to plug another coupling and install a new one to par- allel the aisleway or platform. Thermowells for local temperature indicators are often mislocated by pipers. Again pipers must consider what will be inserted into the thermowell. To properly locate the TW coupling, the designer must know the temperature indicator type. For the backmounted or “T” type indicator, the designer should never locate the coupling pointing above the horizontal. This would force the thermowell’s glass to be pointed up, which will accumulate wa- ter on its face and eventually rust out the face. In ‘common piping language, “never point them to- ward the moon.” Other types of temperature indicators are the bottom-mounted type and one type that rotates on a head. The rotating type costs a little more but hhas many advantages. Other Temperature Instruments A. board-mounted temperature indicator will ‘employ a thermocouple. Electrical impulse wire(s) will transmit the signal to the control room instru- ment panel. The receiving instrument converts this signal to a readable indication which is either visu- ally observed (an indicator) or is recorded with pen and ink on a chart (a recorder), Recorders and indi cators may also be located near the pipe or equip- ment. Capillary tubing is used to transmit signals to many local temperature instruments. It is a facto- Fy [soso ar] 20120 < ls 6 o. 2 S00 assembly showing tor green 2 mtoterra? Tr bors, plates ¢ chonneh tobe ZDimennans of 10" arg preferred preferred Yer Sebasing Bop holes Ta be LO far $2 carbon shoe! bully wap Seah Gap nfo feed) elevate terms aff necessary bart fr tea welded to reiteh entre potedadrwise Iprestigore the wattecvasset fon gictrton Gere Dict be talons nof te lcate tg perce Feo eat (0 vipa hace haortootl Spaniel Catlatled thamate Cater tan Catalans basee oN 19° wane on prejechod cog of micioned procs wifip rpanincm, | elie on OF Sebel aly bel nat oreo Figure 7-16. Vertical vessel pipe guides. Courtesy ot Fluor Corp. Process Piping Design ] Figure 7-14, Vertical vessel pipe supports. Courtesy of Fluor Corp. Vessels 143 So" Min Tees oes! Unless ofpernrce shown Metse: Ae seca be wane ih tte So erect SM, Sih eB, cnet mf 34 To Sat oe omit 284 Te see Bete te o2 Ser ered et penahed ye TEESE ott NN eerie ty te laddee © platform bs oa In ete Bes es ie a lcs Sg Figure 7-13, Oavits for vertical vessels, Courtesy of Fluor Corp. 142 Products Products of fractionating towers are collected from the overhead vapor stream, the bottoms out- let and the side cut streams. The first fractionating, tower in a refinery is usually the crude tower. Crude oil is heated to a temperature of 750°F or more and sent to the crude tower. It enters the tower “flash zone,” the vapor area below the bot- tom tray, but above the normal liquid level. ‘The crude entering the tower has been partly vaporized due to the preheating. As it enters the flash zone it is both liquid and vapor. The liquid portion partially flashes, or vaporizes, and the heavier fractions remain in a liquid state and fall down to the liquid portion of the column, As the flashed vapor rises up through the trays, a tempera- ture level is reached where the heavier fractions condense and become liquid. Lubricating oils and heavy oils collect in the lower trays. A few trays higher, the fuel oils are condensed out of the va- or. PPT igher yet, Kerosene is condensed. Near the top the gasoline components drop out of the va- por, depending on the design temperature of the top of the tower. The methanes, ethanes propanes and butanes remain as vapor and exit the crude tower at the top, going to the overhead condenser and accumulator. To capture the other products a draw-off noz~ zle must be installed at the appropriate tray. These nozzles will drawoff the desired product and possi bly send it to a side cut stripper for further frac- tionation. Gasoline which is drawn off a crude tower is, called “straight-run gasoline.” For many years, gas- line was made this way, and with a few additives it was commercially marketed. Now, very few crude columns have a straight-run gasoline cut. This cut would be too low in octane rating for modern automobiles. Also, it would not produce enough gasoline for each barrel of crude oil to be economical. To meet these needs for economy and high per- formance. new and better processes were devel- oped. To produce more gasoline per barrel of crude. oil, cracking and polymerization were developed. racking is the making of gasoline out of heavier fractions by changing their molecular structures, Polymerization does the opposite, making gasoline out of lighter fractions by changing their molecular Process Piping Design structure. Reforming is another process which ac- tually makes a better gasoline, improving its antik nock rating. Every year new methods for improving the marketable yields of crude oil are developed. Each new process must be studied by the modem piping designers, foreach one offers a new challenge Vertical Vessel Davit Figure 7-13 shows a vertical vessel davit. This is 2 device used to raise heavy objects from grade to the desired platform or to lower vessel parts to grade, The davit should be installed on towers which are over 30’ tall if there are removable parts in the tower. Davits should be oriented so that they will drop their load into the “drop area,” the clear open area at the back side of the column, away from the main rack. Very large diameter tow- ers may require two davits. The swing of the davit must reach every platform which services a man- hole to pick up a tray part and then must be swung around so that the part can be lowered to the drop Vertical Vessel Pipe Supports Figures 7-14 and 7-15 depict pipe supports and pipe guides for vertical vessels. Pipe attaching to the vessel nozzles is heavy and the nozzle is not designed to carry this dead load. Pipe supports are attached to the vessel shell, as near the nozzle as possible, to carry this load. Pipe guides are located below the pipe supports, at very wide spacing, to keep the pipe from swaying and putting moments on the vessel nozzle. Figure 7-15 defines this spac- ing. Locating pipe supports is the piping designer's responsibility. As he designs the piping on a tower, he must define locations of pipe supports. Typical locations of pipe supports are shown in Figure 716. The piping designer must also locate the pipe being supported in relation to the vessel. As shown in Figure 7-16, a minimum clearance of 1'-0" must be maintained between the vessel steel and the pipe steel. This dimension is the “L” dimension referred to in Figure 7-14. The Type LI pipe support is to be used for sizes 2” through 10" for “L” dimen- sions of 12° to 20", ete. For large lines and long “L” dimensions, utilize the Type L4 support which requires special design. Vessels 141 The temperature connection has a thermowell that projects inside the vessel and the designer must know the projection dimension and the downcomer clearance dimension to locate the ther- mowell so that it will miss the downcomer. Tae liquid sample conneetion has no internal projection 0 it may be oriented any place in the downcomer area, The thermowell is normally located 2” above the top of the tray. If the well is too long the location may be raised and the thermowell could be angled down about 45° to reduce the horizontal projection. When this is done, the bottom of the well should be set about 2" above the top of the tray. Vapor sample and temperature points are to be located behind the downcomer in the vapor area of the tray, Since all of these connections must be main- tained or operated, they must have permanent ac- cess, either by permanent platform or ladder. Most designers will make them accessible from a ladder as platforms are expensive, Tray quantity and location requirements will be shown on the mechanical flow diagram. The designer will orient as specified. Other instrumentation which requires orienta- tion may be the level controller (LC) the level gage (LG), the pressure indicator (PI) and the relief valve or pressure safety valve (PSV). The LC and LG are to be located so that any incoming liquid or vapor will not disturb their function. A good way to accomplish this is to lo- cate them next to the nozzle causing this turbu- lence. The velocity will then be directed toward the vessel center and away from the instruments. The PI should be located in the vapor part of the tower so that any liquid head will not be re- flected in its reading. Other Nozzle Orientations Probably the largest and most critical nozzle is the reboiler return, This connection will govern most nozzle and tray orientations. The reboiler re turn is feeding vapor and liquid to the tower. The liquid will drop and the vapor must go evenly up to the bottom tray to start its upward journey. For one pass trays, this nozzle should be located paral- lel to the downcomer and the top of the nozzle will be set about 1'-0" below the bottom tray. Nev- er locate it perpendicular to the seal pan. The velo- city coming in may blow the liquid out of the seal pan and cause loss of seal. Then the vapor could by-pass the bottom tray via the downcomer area. This would mean the bottom tray would be oper- ating at only partial efficiency and it might not even make the product for whick the tower was designed—all because one nozzle was improperly oriented. If the tower has two pass trays, the bottom tray should have side downcomers. Then the re- boiler return should be located parallel to both downcomers and equidistant between them, Should the bottom tray have center downcomers, locate the reboiler return parallel to and immedi- ately below the downcomer seal pan. The vapor will low evenly to both sides of the above tray and there is no way the seal could be blown out For a liquid and vapor flow (called two-phase flow) internal piping may be necessary to reduce velocity and direct the flow. For this case, the bot- tom half of the internal pipe will be cut out and an end plate fastened at the extreme end. This will direct the liquid down and the vapor will flow out and up to the bottom tray. Liquid draw-off nozzles may be needed at one ot more trays. These nozzles are used for taking various “cuts” or draws of a specific hydrocarbon. ‘The best location for these draw-off nozzles is op- posite the downcomer in a small draw-off pan 1o- cated immediately below the tray for one pass trays. To locate this nozzle in two-pass trays, make it draw liquid from a tray that has side downcom- ers. Build a trough in the center of the tray and locate the nozzle to draw liquid from this trough, It is preferable to-make this draw with the nozzle parallel to the trough. If the vessel is very large, two separate draw-off nozzles may be needed, one at each end of the trough. The piping connecting, the (wo nozzles should be symmetrical to the point of connection to the one line going down the tox~ If the nozzle cannot be located parallel to the side downcomers, a draw may be made at the ce ter of the vessel with intemal pipe running from the trough to the draw-off nozzle. 140 x \-@) (Vapor) sarsc. |__| on (Vapor) ~T 7] Thermowell Type inst. TL TW, TR, Ete ee) aia" Sc, | iWiguidy (tiquia} ‘Typical Flow Diagram Call Out Normal Location Orientation Range eo for Liquid Points \Vapor Connection Points Located Behind Downcomer ‘Area Liquid Connection Points Normally at Downcomer A <®) Top ot Tray “a1 Pk CafhS_p« Process Piping Design™ Thermowell Length of Accessibility Moy Necessitate Tangertial Connections. Orientation Range for Vapor Sample Conns, or Temp. Points (— Topof Tray Elevational G@_ Range A tor Vapor Sample Connect 6" or Thermowell Instruments |Top of Tray Weir ELEVATION Figure 7-12, tnstrumentation on vertics vessels. Courtesy of Fluor Corp, (Panupuee) vopewua}o ajzz0U S:a0014 “LL-g 2614 139 21220N so}1090U eps 10 4810091014), 91z20N paed pind seq a1Bus, seq aj6uis seg om D 1es80q yonow vores Psion wBnoxn vonses eesap yonons vores Vessels soipaiu} adid vayyn 20 Aue papinoid aq ies S008 Aemueyy Aes. shea ajgenowey Process Piping Design S504 OMA 91220N xnUOu D jes89q yonosp uonsog ueia @ ‘ds09 son] Jo ASauNOD “uoH (8,004) 1D (9s89q yBnoua uonseg eum ‘Acie feusonsy ——, aj2z0u sss001g “LL aunty (eo UAL) D ass2n ybnowp uonses, _ Uuoj#007 iewion, Vessols 137 Bes ew mens ie rein caDoEe RUNG ae iow sex TYPICAL FROWT APPROACH LADDER, CAGE “PUTEGRM FORTH HD € HORZ VE3IELS pia oman Ramet ees cece a 0 Mae Figure 7-10. Typical ladder and platform details, Courtesy of Fluor Corp. 136 Process Piping Design as are | A Ei PS AoaRe Figure 7-10. Typical ladder and platform details Vessels 135 Tower Ladders and Platforms Ladders and platforms on vertical fractionating towers must be layed out by the piping designer as, he orients the nozzles. Platforms are to be provided at each manhole, usually three or four per tower. Other platforms will be needed for access to ctiti- cal instruments or operating valves. Some operating companies require platforms to be located at each flanged nozzle so that they could easily tighten bolts should a leak occur. Others require no plat- forming in clean service; they believe the cost and maintenance is too high for the few times the plat- forms would be used. They feel it is cheaper to erect temporary scaffolding. Some feel they can elevate a workman with a crane to tighten bolts. Before trying to lay out platforming, the designer must thoroughly know his job specifications. At a minimum, the author suggests @ platform at each manhole. Instruments should be located for access from the ladder. Where this is not possible, platforms will be provided for instrumentation. Ladders should be caged if they are over 20'-0" above grade. The maximum continuous ladder run should be 30'-0". This means the ladder should be offset every 30-0", and the designer will supply an “offset platform” at these points. The author also suggests that all ladders and platforms for vertical vessels should be galvanized. ‘This costs about 5¢ per pound more but will save countless paintings over the years, and the ladders and platforms will always present a neat appear- ance. Figure 7-10 shows typical ladder, cage and plat- form details for vertical vessels. Note that ladder rungs are spaced every I’-0". A rung should be lo- cated at the top of each platform for easy entrance and exit, Cages are omitted for the first 8-0" of the ladder from grade or one originating at a plat- form, Cages are also partially omitted at a side en try platform for 8'-0 Platforms at towers should be located 2'6" be- low the manhole centerline. They should be cor structed of "thick checkered floor plate except for areas of heavy snow load, where grating should be used. Grating should be avoided where possible asa workman's tools coutd fall through and might hit personiiel below. Platforms for towers should be 30" wide plus the 6” clearance from the vessel ob. Process Nozzle Orientation Figure 7-11 shows some basic orientation possi- bilities for some process nozzles, whether they are located in one or two pass trays. The reflux nozzle in the single pass tray has a baffle shown inside the vessel. This will reduce the incoming velocity and assure even distribution over the top tray. The type “B” reflux nozzle is used when the piping layout forces the orientation to be in the downcomer gen- eral area. Then the nozzle will be elevated higher and an intemal distributor pipe is required to drop, the liquid on the back part of the tray. If the serv- ice is corrosive, a pair of breakout flanges are add- ed to the internal pipe to make replacement easy. ‘This type of installation is costly and is to be avoided Orienting reflux liquid to the two pass tray re- quires a piping manifold internally above the top tray. Liquid must be allocated evenly to both sec- tions should the tray have center downcomers as shown, Should it have side downcomers, the reflux could dump in the center and flow to the sides without any intemal pipe. Liquid feed nozzles are shown for single and two pass trays. Agsin, the object is to introduce liquid to the tray with the most even flow possible over the tray. Liquid feeds usually enter the tower at or above the middle tray. For a two-sized vessel, the liquid feed is located in the conical transition piece, giving added liquid to the larger diameter trays. Instrument Connections Location of instrumentation on towers is a cri- tical item and requires great thought. The designer must understand the function of the instrument, its operation and how often the operator reads or services it. Figure 7-12 shows some instrument to- cations ‘A temperature indicator (TI) may be needed to check the temperature of either the liquid or the vapor. Unless the designer knows the instrument's purpose, he cannot properly locate it. A sample connection (SC) may also be designed to take a vapor or liquid sample, Liquid sample and tempera- ture points should always be located where there is flowing fluid. Since the greatest amount of low ‘occurs in the downcomer area, this is the place to locate these connections. 134 through. A bubble cap was connected to the standpipe which forced the vapor to make contact with the tray liquid. 2. Valve trays are in the most common use today. Stamped out by big presses, these trays come with small valves attached to them which allow vapor traffic. They are made in sections wide enough to permit passage through # manhole and are installed in these pieces, usually 17" wide. They rest on a tray support ring welded to the vessel wall. These trays are usually bolted to this support ring. 3. Sieve trays are perforated flat plates. They are inexpensive for small diameter vessels but large diameter towers must have exten- sive supports for these trays. Sieve trays are used for heavy hydrocarbon fractionation. All trays have foam on top of the liquid. The height of the foam will vary with the process. In- temal piping will interfere with the foam and should be avoided where possible. Foam may rise a foot or more above the tray liquid. Any horizontal pipe extending into it will serve as a dam. There are cases where the designer must have internal piping to properly distribute the incoming liquid on the tray. These will be shown later in this chapter. To make fractionating towers work, the hot liquid must be retained in the bottom of the tower, drawn off, heated and vaporized and returned to the tower in a large vapor inlet nozzle. This vapor then starts its passage up the tower, making con- tact with the liquid on each tray, losing some tem- perature and some heavier hydrocarbons at each tray but vaporizing some lighter hydrocarbons from the liquid flowing down the tower. Reflux Liquid The liquid enters the vessel at the top tray and the nozzle must be oriented to assure that the lig uid will flow evenly on the tray surface, This liquid is called “reflux.” If the velocity is high an inlet baffle may be required (see Figure 7-11, Tyre A"). The liquid is cool when it enters the top tray. As it flows down each tray it makes contact with the warmer rising vapor and some of the heat is retained. So each tray operates at a different Process Piping Design temperature, getting a little hotter as the liquid comes down the tower. The liquid in the bottom of the tower may be 700°F, while the vapor leav- ing the top of the tower may be only 200°F. Tower Temperature Gradient Since tower temperature is different at each tray, the tower rate of expansion will vary depend- ing on what part of the vessel you are considering. To determine this expansion, the piping designer will develop a tower temperature gradient and will calculate the expansion from grade to several points on the tower. This is the only way to deter- mine if the piping to the tower is flexible enough to withstand the growth of the tower. Figure 7-9 also shows the two pass tray. This type of tray has two downcomers which alternate from center downcomers to side downcomers, Note that the one pass tray has only side down- comers. Generally, the larger diameter towers will have two or more passes. Tray types and the number of downcomers are determined by the tray manufacturer. Engineering, contractors send the tray vendor a specification outlining the requirements of @ particular tower. ‘The tray vendor calculates the required service, de- fines the tray type and guarantees the performance of his product. Most tray suppliers have the right to approve the designer’s nozzle orientation and any internal pipe arrangements. ‘igure 7-9 shows possible location for man- holes. The single pass tray offers great flexibility for menhole location. The manhole may be located on any tray with a wide orientation range. The two pass tray has a limited location. The manhole could not be located on a tray with center downcomers coming down from above. They would block en- trance to the vessel since the downcomers would drop in front of the manhole, So location of man- holes is limited (1) to every other tray and (2) to an area between the two side downcomers. Manhiotes are used to gain entry (0 vessels for maintenance personnel and for replacement of vessel intemal parts such as tray pieces, demister parts and internal piping, Access to the tower from grade. is usually from a road on the side opposite the pipeway. so manholes are to be located on the tower side opposite the main pipeway. Vessels 133 Manhole Orientation Possible Orient. Vessels Group for Best Design Normal Location Pen Pan ay manhole | Hoots Maninote ay Trays i BS ‘Downcomer Section through Vessel ¢ Section through Vessel @ Two Pass Single Pass rear half of vessel away from pipeway, with all manholes on or about the same centerline ‘Consideration shall be given to raising or lowering manholes one tray to provide the most economical ladder and platform arrangement. Figure 7-9, Manhole orientation, Courtesy of Fluor Corp, Process Piping Design 132 “diog son jo Asauinog “Azmadid yBnowys uornoes jeaiGAy “gg 22n614 Vessels EE PaEs a 12 Dl # is — waves nores +) eae Far] seaeoo} eel teseee SoCIeS Ta ated ong cones LPT ig RE en axes, Soa eect Siete al ed Slo Flap SLT TALE Gi ce eo ow ae reat pe Rati tants eta, SEES Sopher coo Sebi see Te i ante nerfs G8 i ities BCE Bin, tet acaba emecetete Figure 7.7. Typical saddle details 130 Process Piping Design WF co TvDIeAL SADDLE DETAILS EXCLUSIVE OF MARE BA, tb (300 | EEE | eRe] Figure 7-7. Typical saddle details. Courtesy of Fluor Corp. Vessels 129 swinging cover. That’s a good way to start a fire in the plant! Saddle Details Figure 7-7 is Fluor’s typical saddle detail for horizontal vessels. H is the width of the “wear plate” which is continuously welded to the outside of the vessel to protect the vessel, distributing the load over a large area of the shell. “Ribs” are verti- cal plates added as reinforcement for vessels of a heavier load. As the load gets larger the ribs get thicker. Piping Arrangement Figure 7-8 shows how a section across a typical pipeway might look. The pump suction line, 44, coming from the horizontal vessel must not be poc- keted but still must be routed above the aisleway, C5. Other points of this figure will be discussed in other related chapters. Vertical Vessels Fractionating Towers Vertical vessels are many and varied. Reactors are usually vertical; separators may be either hor- zontal or vertical and fractionating towers must be vertical. There are countless other vertical vessels, but we will cover the ones that designers come in contact with most. Fractionating towers are the inexperienced de- signer’s Waterloo. At an employment interview tie applicant will be asked if he can orient a tower. In other words, can the designer locate all the nozzles correctly around the circumference of the tower and in the proper elevation, including all manholes, instruments, ladders and platforming where re- quired, skirt connections and all the other connec- tions pertaining to the monster. To do this, the designer must have a good knowledge of the vessel trays. Trays are the horizontal plates which are lo- cated about 2” apart and always seem to be in ex actly the place where the designer wants to put a nozzle. + The most common types of trays are called ‘one pass” and “two pass.” Three and four pass trays are also used and become even more difficult to lay out. What does the designer need to start orienting a tower? Mechanical and utility flow diagrams ‘Vessel outline drawing. Plot plan drawing Job data such as customer specifications, platform requirements, etc. 5. Instrument data on LG, LC, PSV, ete. 6. Tray design such as number of passes, di- mension of downcomer area and tray spac- ing 7. Line list showing pressures, temperatures and whether the fluid is liquid or vapor PeRe When a designer orients a tower he assumes the responsiblity for the tower and its related equip- ment. This responsibility includes the equipment coordinates, location of tray downcomers, piping equipment ‘connections, instrument connections, manholes, ladders and platforms, and the necessary pipe supports and guides on the tower. Manhole Orientation Figure 7-9 shows the single pass and the two pass tray and possible locations for manholes. The downcomer is the vertical part of the tray which extends above the horizontal tray plate to form a dam, forcing liquid to have a constant level on the tray. The downcomer also drops down below the liquid level of the tray below, forming a vapor seal. Tray Types ‘Trays come in several types, all with the same general purpose—to fractionate out lighter hydro- carbons from a liquid. The heavier hydrocarbons will remain in their liquid state and flow down the downcomer to the next tray. The lighter hydroca bons will vaporize and flow up through the holes i the tray plate, making contact with the liquids on that tray. Since the downcomer drops below the ievel of liquid on the tray plate. vapor cannot by-pass the tray. and since vapor is light it must flow up through the bottom of the tray. Tray types a 1. Bubble cap trays were used for many years but are now obsolete. A standpipe was at- tached to the tray for vapor to pass 128 “DIP au anos 0 pay Yer nse snes nowy eine — pepuig wus nae 7 et SSIES, Le Process Piping Design BERRA Ce “OTR aus maf uh RE WHE cet Bo hee O® RoUAL paar ie | [a focerr ena] ren oo feeu se Wan [ayreenas | 4 88 ra So fee | rata sa te whan jaro" Say eran Maunous cove Hue Sash san) aaa se fa tng fu ver [es wmng [ar went iia ‘SPN ies oq eseun “REE ae, Figure 7-6, Manhole davits and hinges. Courtesy of Fluor Corp, routed to the end away from the pipeway and the liquid outlet is on the pipeway end. Dimensions shown are to locate nozzles and to outline extremities of the platform. The vessel group must show this data on their vessel drawing and on their platform detail drawing. Dimensions will appear on the piping layout drawing but will not necessarily be shown on the finished piping drawing. Final piping drawings will show the plat- form drawn to scale and piping will be dimen- sioned as required. MOTE: AEE veadet Ketmatir GeAWmus FoR uO # PANT CRMUTATON we (es sok \ um mao ‘Manhole Davits and Hinges Figure 7-6 shows Fluor's standard_ manhole hinge and davit details. As the cover gets larger and the Range rating increases the davits get larger. These blind fa wy. An 18"-300 pound blind flange weighs 390 pounds! ‘The piping designer will always locate hinges and swing a are from the hinge to make sure the blind flange will open wide. He does no¢ want to locate small instrument connections behind the 127 Vessels om agg Figure 7.5, Horizontal vessel, elevation above 15"-0". Courtesy of Fluor Corp. 126 Process Piping Design Maximum Available Dimension Access Ss Be Tengentat vol fl Liquid Outlet () Water Draw per Flow Sheet Process Requirement Normal “D""= 8 + Insul. +9"; Min, “A” = R, Max, 2 2 Elevation Figure 7-4, Horizontal vessel, general arrangement. Courtesy of Fluor Corp. Vessels nections. These manways may be 18" OD pipe with WN flange and blind, with hinge or davit as required. Hinges should be used for manholes mounted on the side of the shell. Davits work bet- ter for top mounted manholes. Any manhole which is top mounted and hinged should have a “hinge stop” installed to keep the blind flange (manhole cover) from slamming down on the vessel shell. The hinge stop should be set so that the co- cr will open only 135°. Horizontal Vessel Below 15'-0" Elevation Figure 7-3 isa piping plan of a horizontal vessel located below 15/-0" elevation. No platforms are provided. The manhole is located in the head, op- posite the pipeway, near the inlet. The anchor sup- port is located on the end near the pipeway. The LC and LG are shown installed on a “bridle.” A bridle is a fabricated piece of pipe which has a liquid and vapor connection to the vessel. The liq- uid level inthe bridle isthe same as in the vessel, as Tiquid will seek its own level, Instrusnents then are connected to the bridle Bridtes Bridles have a definite use but are costly and s0 should be specified only where required. In most cases it is much cheaper to install LC and LG con- nections on the vessel and eliminate the bridle. When bridles are mandatory, they should always be installed “self-draining.” The lower connection, in the liquid section of the vessel, should be located about 6” above the botiom of tite vessel. Never locate the bridle connection on the bottom of the vessel. It will accumulate anything that may enter the vessel and stop-up the bridle, and the instru- ments will not function. The author remembers a case where a clogged bridle was found to have old rags in it. No one could offer an explanation as to where they came from. Miscellaneous Connections The connections shown in Figures 7-3 are MManhole, A-Inlet, P-Pressure Gage, V-Vent, 8: Liquid outlet and L-1 and 2 are the bridle conne tions. The PS is a pipe support, built up from the 125 vessel to support the inlet line. This vessel has all liquid coming into it so there is no vapor outlet. Grade Mounted Vessel Figure 7-4 shows a general arrangement for a horizontal vessel which is grade mounted. Its height is determined by the elevation necessary to clear the piping out of the bottom of the bootleg. A bootleg is installed to separate and draw off wa- ter. Since water is heavier than hydrocarbons it will drop out in the boot and can be seen in the boots LG. It will then be drawn off through the LC valve Some similar designs use a manually operated draw-off valve. This would be a globe body valve used for throttling. The operator would view the gage glass on a regular schedule. As more water accumulated in the boot, he would slightly open the globe valve and and draw off the water until it was below the viewing area of the LG. With the manual design, the LG is visible while the draw-off valve is operating. With the automatic design, the LG is visible while the control valve by-pass is oper- ating, Bootlegs are located as close to the calm end of the vessel as possible, away from the inlet end. This gives ample time for the liquid to settle to the bottom part of the vessel and drop into the boot. Note the different possible locations for the manhole. The most desirable location is noted by 1.5 in Figure 7-4. Also shown dotted, the manway could be located below the centerline, making it easier to get in and out of the vessel. This is called a “hillside” connection and the welding is riuch more expensive. Use this only where dropping the manhole is specified by the customer or where do- ing so would eliminate the need for platforming. ‘Also note that the bridle bottom nozzle is spe- cified as tangential. It will be self-draining, Piping Arrangement for Elevated Vessels Figure 7-5 depicts 4 general arrangement for a horizontal vessel wich is elevated above 15'-0". The platform shown is at an elevation of 125'-3", 253" above the grade elevation, The manhole is located on top of the vessel, with a hinge and hinge stop. Platforming extends all around the manhole, enabling the bolts to be removed. Also located on the platform is a control station, PIC. The inlet is