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MultiphaseFlow

QuestionswithAnswers

Chapter2

1) With the help of neat sketches discuss the flow patterns observed in vertical and horizontal
heatedtubes.

Ans:RefertoFig2.3&Fig2.4alongwiththeassociateddiscussion.

2) Also discuss the probable reasons for the differences in flow patterns in a horizontal heated
tubeascomparedto(i)verticalheatedtube(ii)horizontalunheatedtube.

Ans:(i)Influenceofgravitywhichleadsforasymmetricphasedistributionandstratificationof
thetwophases.

(ii)(a)Departurefromhydrodynamicandthermalequilibrium
(b)Presenceofradialtemperatureprofile

3) Gasliquid stratified flow in a horizontal pipe encounters a vertical T junction. How do you
anticipatetheflowpatterntochangeaftertheT?

Ans:AsthestratifiedgasliquidmixtureencountersaverticalT,someamountofgaswillenter
thesidebranch.ThisreducestherelativeproportionofgasinthemainarmaftertheTandis
expectedtocausegasliquidbubblyflowafterthetwophasemixtureencountersthejunction.

4) Whatisfilminversion?Whenisitencounteredintwophaseflow?

Ans:Thephenomenaoffilminversionoccurswhenatwophasemixtureunderstratifiedflow
encountersareturnbend.ThisisillustratedinFig.2.11(a).Underthiscondition,thefilmonthe
innerwallswhiletravellingthroughthe1800bendflowsalongtheouterwallafterthebend.The
filminversionofbluekeroseneisevidentinFig.2.11(a).

5) Withthehelpofneatsketchesdescribeamixedflowpattern(neitherseparatednordispersed)
for(a)gasliquidflow(b)liquidliquidflow.

Ans:GasliquidflowSlugFlow
LiquidliquidflowThreelayerflowwithlighterliquidonthetop,heavierliquidonthebottom
andamixtureofdropletsofthetwoliquidsinthecentralportion.RefertoTable2.1.

6) A distillation column in a petroleum refinery plant operates with a mixture of crude oil and
natural gas as feed which is fed by a pipeline into the feed tray of the column. Due to some
reasons,therefineryisprovidedwithanincreasedsupplyofrawmaterials(crudeandgas).In
order to handle the increased supply, the plant manager had two options (a) t install a
distillation column with a capacity to handle large quantity feed and (b) to install another
column along with the existing one, introduce the previous quantity of the feed in the old
column and divert the extra quantity to the new column. From cost considerations, the
management decided to go for the second option. With that option, they just needed to
requiredquantityoffeedintothenewcolumn.Theseinstallationswouldcostlessandrequire
less time to start the operation. Accordingly, the necessary changes were made. The new
columnwasinstalledintheplantsiteandthetotalfeed(crude+gas)wasdividedintotwoparts
by a T junction and eachpart was fed into the respective distillation column. It was expected
that the plant would run smoothly after this. However, after a few days it was noticed that
neitherofthetwocolumnswereoperatingpropertyandtherewasadrasticfallinefficiencyof
theexisting column whichwasoperating finebeforethenewventurewas takenup.Youasa
newmanagementtraineeofthecompanywascalledupontolookintotheproblemsinceyou
hadacourseofmultiphaseflowinyourcollege.Youwereaskedtoinvestigatetheproblemand
propose a possible solution to it. You found out that the columns were not getting the
composition of the feed they were used to handle and this occurs because there is
misdistributionofthetwophasesattheT.YouwereawareofthisfeatureoftheTjunctionfrom
yourknowledgeofmultiphaseflow.Accordingly,yousuggestedareviseddesignofthepipeline
so thatthe problem can be alleviated.Present schematics of the original and revisedpipeline
layoutinordertoensuretroublefreeoperationoftheplant.

Ans:


7. Usingrelevantflowpatternmaps(BakeretalforhorizontaltubeandHewittandRobertsforvertical
tube) evaluate the most likely flow pattern occurring for a steamwater system flowing in a 2.54cm
diameter(vertical(b)horizontalpipewherethesystempressureis70Bar,themassqualitiesare1%
and50%andthemassfluxesare(a)500Kg/m2secand(b)2000Kg/m2secrespectively.

Solution:
ForVerticaltube:
For 1st Case

W W1 W2

G1 G2
A
A

Here G1 G2 G 500kg / m 2 sec


G2
1
x 1%
0.01
G
100
G2 0.01G

G2 0.01 500 5kg / m 2 sec

G1 500 5 495 kg / m 2 sec

In70Bar,wegetsaturationtemperaturefromstemtable=255.90candvg=0.027382m3/kg
andvf=0.0013514m3/kgand g 36.520 kg/m3 and g 739.98 kg/m3
W1 1u1 A1

A
A
1u1 1 1u1s 1 j1

G1

G12 12 j12
1 j12

G12

or f j
2
f

495

G 2f

kg / m

sec

739.98 kg / m 3

Similarly

331.1238142 kg / sec m

g jg2

Gg2

kg / m

sec

36.520 kg / m3

0.684556407 kg / sec2 m
ThereforefromfigurewegetflowpatternisBubbleslug.

For2ndCase:

For G = 2000 kg/m2 sec and x = 50% = 0.5 we get


G2 = xG = 0.5 2000 = 1000kg/m2-sec
and
G1 = (1-x)G = 0.5 2000 = 1000 kg/m2-sec

Now

g jg2 2 j22

G22

Gg2

1000

36.520
27382.2563 kg / Sec 2 m

and f j 2f

G 2f

2f

1000

739.98

1351.387875 kg / sec 2 m

ThereforefromfigurewegetflowpatternisAnnular
ForHorizontaltube:
1stcase

Forpressure70barfromfigureweget 4.8 and =2.3 for G = 500 kg/m2-sec and x = 1%


= 0.01
G2 = Gg = 495 kg/m2-sec

G f 495 2.3
1138.5 kg / m2 sec

and

Gg

G2

5
1.04166 kg / m 2 sec
4.8

Therefromfigurewegetflowpatternisslug
2ndCase:

For G = 2000 kg/m2-sec and x = 50% = 0.5


Weget G1 = Gf = 1000 kg/m2and
G2 = Gg = 1000 kg/m2sec

G f 1000 2.3 2300 kg / m 2 sec


G f

1000
208.333 kg / m 2 sec
4.8

ThereforefromfigurewegetflowisDispersedBubblyflow.

Chapter3

1.) Derive a relation to express (a) x, the mass quality in terms of volumetric quality and the
density1and2ofthephases.(b)slipratiointermsofandonly(c)j,theoverallvolumetric
fluxintermsofinletvelocityofsaturatedliquid(ulo)toaevaporatingtube,themassqualityx
andthephasedensitieslandv.

(1a)

1 x 1 vG 1 L

vL
G
x
1 x

1 L x
G

G x g L x L x

G
L G L

Qg
(1b)

Ug
UL

Qg 1
A
1

QL
1
QL
A 1

(1c)

j jL jG

W
QL QG WL
Wv W v

G L L G G
A
A L A G A
A
A

W 1 x vL xvG

A
A
A
W
1 x vL xvG
A
W
1 x vL xvG
A
xv
Wv
L 1 x G
A
vL

v
U F 0 1 x G
vL

v
U F 0 1 x G
vL

U F 0 1 x G 1
vL

(2) Estimateinaheatedtubeinwhichevaporationosoccurringintermsofx(massquality),ulo(inlet

velocityofliquidtobeevaporated), u gj (driftvelocity),phasedensitieslandvandC0thedistribution
coefficient.Assumethedriftfluxmodeltobeapplicableforthevaporliquidmixture.

QG WG vG
x vG

QL WL vL 1 x vL

x vG x vG
x vG

.
1
1 x vL
1 x vL 1 x v L

x vG
x vG
or 1

1 x vL 1 x v L

xvG
x vG
1 x vG
xvG
1 x vL

x vG 1 x vL xvG
1 x vL xvG
1
1 x vL
1 x vL

1 x vL
1

x
v
G

(3)Find inaheatedtubeinwhichevaporationisoccurringintermsofx(massquality), u L 0 (inlet

velocityofliquidtobeevaporated), u gj (driftvelocity), L , G (phasedensities)and C0 (distribution


coefficient)assumingdriftfluxmodeltobeapplicableforthetwophasevaporliquidmixture.

jg

Solution:Fromdriftfluxmodel, u g

Dividingbyjthroughput,

Or,

C0 gj
j

Or,

C0

u gj
j

ug
j

jg

jg

(1)

C0 j u gj

C0

u gj
j

Inequation(1)

W x

WG

QG
G
G
G
xL
x L

W
x
x
1

W
W
x
1

QG QL
x
x
x

G
L
L
G
G
L
G
x

j jL jG

W 1 x Wx W 1 x x Q L
W
QL QG WL

L A
G A A L G A
A
A L A G A

1 x x

G
L

Atinlet,mixtureisallliquidwith W WL , Q QL

Au LO L
x L
L
1 x x u LO 1 x
A L
G
G Substitutingindividualtermsinequation(1)weget:

x L

G x L G
C0

u gj


uLO 1 x x L
G

C0 C0 x C0 x L gj
G uLO

1 x x L
G

x u
C0 1 x L gj
G uLO

1 x x


x L
G

1 x x L
G

xL
G 1 x x L

L
G


x L
G


C0 x L 1 C0 gj
uLO
G
G
x

L
L

1
u

C0 gj
C0 x G

uLO
L
G

x
u

C0 x 1 G C0 gj G
u Lo L
L

x
u gj
G

C0 x L
C

uLo
L

4)Waterat10atmentersastraightevaporatortube.Ifthevelocityratioofwatertovaporis

constantat2.0andmassfluxis2X105kg/hr(m2),estimatethevoidfractionandmomentumfluxata
qualityof0.1.Assumewater=903.18kg/m3andvapor=3.6142kg/m3.

u2
2.0 G T P 2 10 5 kg / hr ( m 2 )
u1

P 10 atm ,

x 0.1

w ater 903.2 kg / m 3
GTP x

u 2 Q2 A2
2

G
u1 Q1 A1
TP (1 x )

1 (1 )

x 1 1

1 x 2

steam 3.6 kg / m 3

Substitutingthevaluesof

2.0

u2

, x and 1 ,weget fromthefollowingequation


u1
2

0.1 903.2 1

0.5 3.6

Momentumflux= G1u1 G2u2 G 1 x u1 xu2

u1
u2

Q1 g 1 x

A1 1
Gx

1 x 2
x2

Momentumflux G 2

1 1 2

Chapter5

1) Averticaltubulartestsectionisinstalledinanexperimenthighpressurewaterloop.Thetubeis
1.016 cm ID and 2.134m long and is uniformly heated with 100 KW power. Saturated water
entersatthebaseat(400)psiawithaflowrateof450kg/hr.Calculatethetotalpressuredrop
andcomparewiththemeasuredvalueof8psia.

100

DL
P 1000 psia 68.0 pqv

Heatflux

Fromsteamtablev1 0.001347 m3 / kg

v2 0.02795m3 / kg
h12 1531.34 KJ / kg
v12 0.026603m3 / kg

Massflowrate= 450kg / hr

dh
dh D
D

dz
dz
W

dx dx dh D D 100
100
.

0.2432m 1
dz dh dz Wh12 Wh12 DL 453 1531.34 2.134
3600
G

W
453

1552.095kg / m2 s
A 1.016 102 2 3600

DL W eh xe
12

DL
Wh12

DL
Wh12

100
DL

100
100

0.5189 xe 1.0
453
Wh12
1531.34
3600

2C f G 2
dp
v1 xv12

D
dz F
C f 0.005 Re LO

p F

DG

87.1231.1

2 0.005 1552.095

0.001347 2.134
1.016 102
2

41745.397kg / m.s

2.134

0.2432 0.0266

6.0621 psi

g
9.81
dp


dz g v1 xv12 0.001347 0.24322 0.026603
9.81
0.001347 0.006469 2.134
ln

0.006469
0.001347
kg
3670.208 2 0.5329 psi
ms

dx
dp
2
G v12
dz
dz ace

p ace 1552.095
33260.2

0.026603 0.2432 2.134

kg
4.829 psi
ms 2

p total 11.424 psi

Since p total issmallcomparedto 1000 psia assumptionofconstantfluidpropertiesarejustified.


Checkthatexitsteamisnotsuperheatedbycalculating xe .Checkforcompressibilityandflashingeffects
byevaluatingtheterms

dvg
dp

3.8 103 ft 3 / lb psi

xat

x 1
0
p h

dvg dv f
,
dp dp

3.9 104 psi 1

2 104 psi 1

x
,
p n

dv f
dp

at x 0
at x 0.5

2.Derivetheexpressionofpressuregradientforahomogeneoustwophasemixtureforappreciable
effectofkineticenergy.
Consideringunitmassoffluid,theenergybalanceequationforsinglephaseflowisasfollows.

1
d u 2 dU d ( zg sin ) d ( pv ) dq dw
2
(i)
Kineticenergyinternalenergygravitationalpressureenergyheatworkcontentenergywhereu,U,z,p,
vandrefertothevelocity,internalenergy,lengthofflow,pressure,volumeandangleofelevation
respectively.
Now,thereisnoworkcontent dw 0 andinternalenergychangecanbegivenby

dU dq dF pdv (ii)
Where dF istheirreversiblefrictionalenergylossperunitmassoffluid.
Substitutingineqn(ii)ineqn(i)weget,

1
d u 2 dq dF Pdv d ( g sin z ) Pdv vdP dq
2
1
vdp d u 2 dF d ( g sin z )
2

(iii)

Dividingbothsidesbydzweget,

dp
d 1 2 dF
d

( g sin z )
u
dz dz 2 dz dz
dp u du 1 dF g

sin
dz
v dz v dz
v
v

Now,

1
v

Thussubstituting

(iv)

1
weget,
v

dp
du
dF
u

g s in
dz
dz
dz

(v)

Thiscorrespondsto

dp
dp
dp
dp

dz
d z acc d z f d z g

IntwophaseflowaccordingtoHOMOGENEOUSMODELuandineqn(v)shouldbesubstitutedwith

uM and M .

dp
du
dF
uM M
M
M g sin
dz
dz
dz

(vi)

Wheregravitationalpressuregradientis

dp

M g sin g sin / [ xv 2 (1 x ) v1 ]
dz g
g sin / ( v1 xv12 )

g sin
( v1 xv12 )

and v1 and v2 arethespecificvolumeofphase1and2respectively


Frictionalpressuregradient

dFM
dp

M
dz
dz f
AccordingtoFanning,headlossduetofriction h f

hf 4 f

L u 2 Pf F

D 2g
g
g

WhereFisenergylossduetofrictionperunitmassoffluid.

4 fL u 2
D 2

Forunitlengthofpipe
F

4 f u2
D 2

Now,fortwophaseflow u = uM

4 f M uM 2
FM
D 2

GM

Now,

uM

FM

4 fM GM 2
4 fM 2
2
G x v2 (1 x )v1 (vii)

2
D 2 M
D

Differentiatingbothsideswithrespecttozweget,
dFM 4 fM GM 2 d
2

x v2 (1 x)v1
dz
D 2 dz
dx
4 fM GM 2
dv
dv
2 x v2 (1 x)v1 x 2 (1 x) 1 v12

2
D 2 M
dz
dz
dz
2
dv
4 fM GM
dx
dv
( xv1 xv12 ) x 2 (1 x) 1 v12

D
dz
dz
dz
M

dFM 4 fM GM 2 (v1 xv12 ) dv2


dv
dx
x

(1 x) 1 v12

(v1 xv12 ) dz
dz
D
dz
dz

(viii)

Now,variationofspecificvolumevwithrespecttozisduetopressure.
Therefore,

dFM 4 fMGM 2

dz
D

dv1 dP
dx
dv2 dP
x dP dz (1 x) dP dz v12 dz

Pressuregradientduetoacceleration

duM
dP

uM M
dz
dz acc

uM

WM
M A

duM d WM WM d 1 1 WM dA

dz
dz MA A dz M A2 M dz
duM WM WM d
WM dA

xv2 (1 x)v1 2

dz
A A dz
A M dz
(ix)
2
dv
dx GM
dA
dv
(v1 x v12 )
GM 2 x 2 (1 x) 1 v12
dz
dz
A
dz
dz

uM M

dv dp
dv dp
dA
dx GM 2
(v1 xv12 )
GM 2 x 2
(1 x) 1
v12
A
dz
dp dz
dz
dp dz
Nowcombiningthreepressuregradientstermsweget,
2
dp g sin 4 fM GM

D
dz v1 xv12

dv2 dp
dv1 dp
dx
dv1 dp
dX
2 dv2 d
x dp dz (1 x) dp dz v12 dz GM x dp dz (1 x) dPp dz v12 dz

GM 2
dA
(v1 xv12 )
A
dz

g sin 4 fMGM 2
dx
dx G 2
dA
v12
(v1 xv12 )

G 2 v12

v1 xv12
D
dz
dz A
dz

dp


dv
dz total 4 fMGM 2 dv2
dv
dv
(1 x) 1 GM 2 x 2 (1 x) 1
x
1
D dp
dp
dp
dp

Whenthereistoomuchflashingthen

x x(h, p )
dx
x
dx
|P dh
|h dp
dh
P
dx dx dh dx dp

|P

|h
dz dh dz dp dz
So,bysubstitutingweget,

g sin 4 fMGM 2
dx dh
dx dh G 2
dA

GM 2 v12

v12
|P
|P
(v1 xv12 )
v1 xv12
D
dh dz
dh dz A
dz

dp


dz total 4 fMGM 2 dv2
dv
dv 4 fGM 2 v12 dx
dv
dx
|h GM 2 x 2 (1 x) 1 v12
|h
(1 x) 1
x
1
D dp
dP
D
dp
dp
dp
dp

Now,

dx 1
where h12 molalenthalpyofvapourisation

dh h12

Forhorizontalevaporatorgravitypressuregradientisabsent,then,

v dh GM 2
4 fMGM 2 v12 dh dh
dA
(v1 xv12 )

GM 2 12

D
h12 dz dz
h12 dz
A
dz

dP


dz total 4 fMGM 2 dv2
dv 4 fMGM 2 v12 dx
dv
dx
dv
|h GM 2 x 2 (1 x) 1 v12
|h
(1 x ) 1
x
1
D dp
dp
D
dp
dP
dP
dP

3. Liquidevaporatedfromaninletconductionatsaturatedtemperature x 0 toavapour liquid


dx
mixturehavingamassquality x .Foralinearchangeof x overlength L const , derive an
dz

expressionofthepressuredropoverlengthL.

Asderivedinchapter5,

dp 2 fTP G 2
dx g sin

v1 xv12 G 2v12
dz
D
dz v1 xv12

or

2 fTP G 2
dp
dz

0 dz
D
L

v xv dz G v
2

12

12

kdz

g sin
dz
v1 xv12

2 fTP G
2f G
g sin dz
v1 L TP v12 kzdz G 2 v12 kdz
D
D
v1 xv12

x
g sin L v12
2 fTP G 2
2 f G2
v1 L TP v12 L G 2 vn kL
ln 1
D
D
xv12
2
v1

4. Saturatedwateratarateof300kg/hr(m2)entersthebottomofaverticalevaporatortube2.5 cm
diameterand2.0mlong.Thetubereceivesaheatfluxof 2x105BTU/hrft2 andtherearenoheat losses.
Calculatethepressuredropforinletpressuresof 350psia. Assumehomogeneousflowwitha constant
frictionfactorof0.005.
Assumehomogeneousflowtheory,proceedsimilarlyasproblem1
Equatingrateofheataddition/unitlengthtoheatflux,

dqe
D heatflux
dz

dh D
D
4
dqe
d

(ForconstantW)
W
h
2
dz
w
dz
dz
D GD
G
4
Forsmallpressurechangesh h1 xh12

xh2 1 x h1

h h1
x
dx 1 dh 1 4

h12
dz h12 dz h12 GD
dP 2 fG

D
dz
Neglecting

v1 xv12 G 2v12

4
dz
h12GD

or , dx

dx g cos

dz v1 xv12

dp
,areachange,flashing,compressibilityeffects
dz

g cos
dx
G 2 v12 dz
2f G
dp
p dz TP v1 xv12 dz v1 xv12
dz
0
dz
D 0
0
0
L

2 L

2 fTP G v1
2 f G v12
dz
dx
L TP
xdz g cos
G 2 v12 dz

D
D
v xv12
dz
0
0 1
0
2

4
zc
hG 2GD

4
z
h12GD

C=0fromBCs

2 fTP G 2 v1 2 fTP G 2
4 L2
dz
G 2 v12 4

v12
g cos

dz
4
D
D
h12GD 2
h12GD 0
0 v
z
1
h12GD
L

v12
v 4 L g cos Gh12 v12 L 4 L
2 fTP G 2 v1 L 2 L

G 12

ln 1

fTP G
D
h12
h12 D
Gh12 D
4 v12
D

v12 1.3064 ft 2 / lb vl 0.01912 ft 2 / lb h12 794.7

B u
p 1.02 psi
lb

p smallcomparedtopressure,soassumptionofconstantfluidpropertiesjustified.
Checkforcompressibilityeffectsandconfirmexitsteamisnotsuperheated.

xe

4 z
0.605
Gh12 D

Forcompressibility&flashingeffects x x h, p

x
0
p h

x 0

3.9 104 2 104 psi 1 atx=0.5

x

p

At x 0.6

v xvg 1 x vl

x vg vl vl

v vl x vg vl
v

vl x

v
v
x
v
v

g
l

g l
p
p h p h p h

xvlg vl
vg
v
x
vlg x
p h
p h p h

AnairwatermixtureflowsthroughacircularpipeofcrosssectionA1.Ithasanozzleofcross
sectionA2atthecentre.Thepressureattheupstream,throatanddownstreamsectionsarep1,
p2 and p3 respectively. Assuming incompressible homogeneous flow, derive the following
equationswhereGisthemassfluxand1and2arethedensitiesofwaterandairrespectively:

G 2 A1 A1
p1 p2
1 1 x 1
1 A2 A2
2
2

1
G 2 A1
p1 p3
1 1 x 1
2 1 A2
2
Clearlystateanyadditionalassumptionsmade

Chapter6

Problem1Airwateratindividualmassflowratesof50kg/hrflowthrougha3cmdiameterpipeat270C
and1.2atmpressure.Whatistheoverallvolumetricflux.Ifthedriftfluxis3m/s,whataretheaverage
velocitiesofthephases?

Solution:

W1 W2 50 kg / hr
A

0.03

T 27 0 C
P 1.2 atm

1 1000 kg / m3

j21 3 u2 j .(1)
u1

W1
..(2)
1 A 1

u2

W2
...(3)
2 A

j j1 j2

Q1 Q2 W1
W

2
A A 1 A 2 A

3 u2 j

.(4)

Fromequations(3)and(4),find and u2 .Substituteinequation(2)tofind u1

Problem2Showthatdriftfluxisindependentofthemotionoftheobserverduringconcurrentflowof
twofluids.
Solution:
Letfluids1and2moveatvelocitiesu1andu2.Lettheobservermoveatvelocityuindirectionoffluid
motion.
Therefore,fluidvelocityisobservedbyobserver=u2 ' u2 u

u1 ' u1 u

j21 j2 1 j1 u2 ' 1 1 u1 '


1 u2 ' u1 ' 1 u2 u1

Similarlyforobservermovingatvelocityuoppositetodirectionoffluidmotion, u2 ' u2 u and

u1 ' u1 u .Inthiscasealso j21 1 u21


Problem3
Sketch j2 vs. asafunctionof j1 and j1 vs. asafunctionof j2 andidentifytheconditionfor

flooding,cocurrent&countercurrentflows
Given

j12
n
1 .
u

Solution:

j2
j21 j2 j21

j
j2
j

j21 j2 j ..(1)
dj21
j
d
Again, j21 u . 1 .(2)
n

dj21
n 1
n
u .n. 1 u . 1
d

n
u
1 1
1
Forflooding,curveofeqn(1)istangenttocurveofeqn(2).

dj dj
21 . 21 1
d 1 d 2

ju 1 .
1 1
Or,
1

Conditionforflooding
n

j
j1
21 y mx c
1 1

j1 j j j21

j2

Problem4

j
u

2
1
Forwhatvalueofnwillbelinear?Howdoesdriftvelocityof2dependson
?
n

Solution:

j
u

2
n0
For
1 j2 u
0

Now,

u 2 2 u

Driftvelocityofcomponent2=terminalvelocity.
Thus,
u2 const f
Or, u2

C0

j2 j21
u u

0
j
j

Chapter7

Problem1:Derivetheexpressiontoestimatepressuredropforflowofboilingwaterinstraightpipes
(noareachangeinpipe)wherethewaterentersthepipeundersaturatedconditionsandwaterand
steamflowsunderstratifiedconditions.

Solution: Fromeqn(7.27), theequationforpressuregradientis:

dp
1 d
g sin 1 1 2 FW 1 FW 2
W1u1 W2u2
dz
A dz

dp
dp
dp
=
dz g dz f dz acc

..(7.27)

Thefrictionalpressuregradientcanbeexpressedintermsoftwophasemultiplieras:

2 lo

dp

f
dz TP

dp

dz f lo

4
dp
or ,
w
dz FTP D
dp
2 lo .

dz Flo
3

2 lo . wlo
A

G2
4 1
2 lo . f lo .
l
D 2
2 2
G2
lo f lo .
l
D

2 G2
. f lo . 2 lo

D l

L
2 G2

dp
f lo . 2lo dz
dz
dz FTP
D l

0
0
L

2 f lo G 2 L 1 2

lo dz
D l L 0

Sincequalityincreaseslinearlywithdistance(derivationbelow),x=0atz=0and
x

2 floG 2 L 1 2
dp

0 dz f D l x 0 lo dz
TP
L

The relationship betweenlengthandqualitycanbe expressedby consideringtheenthalpybalance of


theflowsituation.
Let betheheatflux.Thereforetherateofheatadditionperunitlengthis

dqe
D
dz
Fromenergyequation

dqe
d
W h
dz
dz
dh D
or ,
dz W

dh
h12
dx p

And h h1 xh12
Now,

Or,

dx dx dh
.
dz dh dz
1 dh

.
dh dz
dx
D

Wh12

D
D 2Gh12

4
DGh12

Fromtheaforementionedexpressionof

dx
, itisclearthatqualityincreaseslinearlywith distance.
dz

Theaccelerationpressuregradientcanbeexpresseda:

1 d
W1u1 W2u2
A dz
W2 2
1 d W12

A dz 1 A1 2 A2
2
2
1 d W 1 x W 2 x 2

A dz 1 1 A 2 A

Nowsince A isconstant, G isconstantand

1 d
W1u 1 W2u2
A dz
2
W 2 d 1 x
x2
2

A dz 1 1 2
2
d 1 x
x2
G

dz 1 1 2
2

1 d
W1u1 W2u2 .dz
A dz

d 1 x 2
x 2
G

dz
0
dz 1 1 2
L

1 x 2
x2
2
G

1 1 2 0

Substituting the expressions for individual components of pressure gradient, the pressure drop for
lengthLis
L

w .S

dp
P dz
dz
A
0
0
L

1 d
W u W2u2 1 1 2 g sin
A dz 1 1
0
L

x
1 x 2

2 flo .G 2 L 1 2
x2
2
g

sin

dz
G

lo
1 1 2 dz
D l x 0
1 1 2

Problem2. Twoincompressiblefluidsareflowingunderseparatedflowthroughanozzleinhorizontal
orientation.Expressthepressuredropofthetwophasesystem PT .P intermsof P1 and P2 , the
pressuredropencounteredbyeitherofthefluidsiftheywouldbeflowingalonethroughthenozzle.
Solution: For separated flow the momentum balance equation for flow of the individual components
perunitvolumeundersteadystateconditioncanbewrittenas:

du1
dp
b1 f1 ...........(i )
dz
dz
du
dp
2u2 2 b2 f 2 ...........(ii )
dz
dz

1u1

.
T

P
1

Since the two component separated flow is accelerated rapidly through nozzle, body force and
frictionalcomponentscanbeneglectedascomparedtoinertiaterm.Thus
Fromeqn(1)

du
dp
1u1 1
dz
dz

Andfromeqn(2)

dp
du
2u2 2
dz
dz

or

du
du
dp
1u1 1 2u2 2
dz
dz
dz

Oronintegration,

or PT . P

12u12 22u22

2 1
2 2

or PT . P

1 12u12 A12 1 22u22 A22

2 A12 1
2 A22 2

or PT . P

W12
W22
1

2 A2 (1 ) 2 1 A2 2 2

1 (W1 / A) 2
1 (W2 / A) 2

2 (1 ) 2 1 2 2 2

1
1 G2 2
G12

2 (1 ) 2 1 2 2 2

Nowifeitheroffluidflowsalonethroughthenozzle,

P1

2
1 G12
And P2 1 G2
2 1
2 2

1 G12
P1
2 1

(1 ) 2 ..........(iii )
2
G1
PT . P 1
2 (1 ) 2 1
1 G22
P2
2 2

2 ..........(iv)
PT . P 1 G22
2 2 2

Fromequation(iii)weget

(1 ) 2

P1
PT . P
1/ 2

P1
or (1 )
..........(v)
PT .P
Andfromequation(iv)weget

P2
PT . P
1/ 2

P2
or
..........(vi )
PT .P

Addingequation(v)andequation(vi)weget
1/ 2

1/ 2

P1
P1
(1 )

PT .P
PT .P
(P1 )1/ 2 (P2 )1/ 2
or 1
(PT .P )1/ 2
or (P1 )1/ 2 (P2 )1/ 2 PT .P

1/ 2

or PT . P [(P1 )1/ 2 (P2 )1/ 2 ]2

Problem3Developtheseparatecylindersmodelforstratifiedgasliquidflowassumingturbulentflow
andaconstantfrictionfactorforbothphases.

Solution: Letgasflowinacylinderofeffectiveradius rg andliquidflowinacylinderofeffective radius

rl

rg

ro

rl

ro

fg
f g g jg
jg
1
dp dp
g

ro
5/ 2
dz dz g rg

2

Where f g istheconstantfrictionfactorforthegasphase

g 2

dp

1
dz
5/ 2
dp

dz gasonly

or

5/ 2

g 2

Similarly

l 2

1 5 / 2

or

1 12
l

Thus

2/5

1
2

g

2/5

1
Therefore, 2

g

1
1 2
l
,
2/5

1
1 2
l

2/5

2/5

Or

2
g

2/5

1
2
l

2/5

Problem4
Forflowthroughapackedbedofsphereswithdiameterdandvoidfraction ,deducethevaluesof
andandusingtheCarmanKozenyequationforthefrictionalpressuredrop

f f f1
fs f2
duringviscousflowthroughvoidspacebetweenthesolid

p 180 f j fo 1

d2
3
z F
2

jisthefluidfluxrelativetotheparticlesandistheliquidfractioninthe3solidliquidsystem.
fo

Subscriptsfandsrefertothefluidandsolidrespectively.
Solution:

Inonedimensionalformthemomentumequationperunitvolumeofindividualphaseis

u
p
u1
u1 1 b 1 f1
z
z
t

u
p
u2
u2 2 b2 f 2
z
z
t

Now,forsteadystatecondition

u1
u
0, 2 0,
t
t
Ifweneglecttheinertialeffectthen u1

u1
u
0 and u2 2 0
z
z

Ifweneglectbodyforcethen

b1 0 and b2 0
Thenfrommomentumequationweget,

p p
f1 F f 2 (1)
z z

Theforce f 2 onparticlesismadeupoftwoparts,oneduetofluid, f 21 andtheotherduetothe

f 22 particles.

.
Thus

f 2 f 21 f 22

Butforce f1 onfluidisonlyduetoparticle

So,

f1 f12

Therefore,fromequation(1)weget
2
f j fo 1
f12 f1 180 2
.(2)
d 3
2
180 f j fo 1
f 2 f 21 f 22
3 .(3)
d2

Now, F12 =equivalentof f12 perunitvolumeofwholeflow.

1 f12
f12

F21 equivalentof f 21 perunitvolumeofwholeflow


=

f 21

1 f 21

F12 and F21 forcesareentirelyduetomutualhydrodynamicdragandsinceactionandreactionare


equalandoppositewehave.

F12 F21

or , f12 1 f 21
or , f1 1 f 21
or , f 21

. f1

2
180 f j fo 1

d2
1
3

180 f j fo 1
2
d2

Now,fromequation(3)weget

f 22 f 2 f 21
180 f j fo 1 180 f j fo 1
.

3
2
d2
d2
2
2
180 f j fo 1 2

3
d2

180 f j fo 1

3
d2
180 f j fo 1

3
d2
2

Problem 4 Using the results of the previous problem, deduce the fluid flux necessary to cause
fluidization in a bed with void fraction and estimate the pressure gradient through the bed in this
case.
Solution:
Inafluidizedbedparticlearesupportedbyanupwardflowoffluidaroundthemandinterparticleforce
arenegligible.Mathematically

f 22 0

For steady state flow, neglecting the inertial term, the momentum equation per unit volume of the
individualphasebecomes,

b1 f1
And b 2 f 2

p
0 .(1)
z

p
0 . (2)
z

where b1 1 g , b2 2 g

f j fo 1
d2
3
180 f j fo 1
f 2 f 21
d2
2
2

f1 f12 180

Thereforeeqns(1)and(2)become,

j 1
p
=0.(3)
1 g 180 f 2 fo .
z
3
d

j 1
dp
2 g 180 f 2 fo . 2 0 .(4)
dz
d

Subtractingeqn(2)fromequation(1)weget

2 1 g
or , j fo

180 f j fo 1 1
1
. 2
d2

d 2 g 2 1 3
.
180 f
1

Andfromequation(1)weget,

p
b1 f1
z
1 g
1 g

180 f j fo 1
3
d2

180 f
d2

1
.

d 2 g 2 1 3
.
180 f
1

1 g 1 2 1

g 1 1 2 1 1
g 1 1 2 1 1
g 1 1 2

ApplyingLockhartMartinelliassumptiontoannularflow

Dl

Al
1 4

A
D
4

D
l
D

(1)

or

D
1
Dl

(2)

Substitutingthevalueof ineqn(1)weget:

1
2
l

n2

Dl

2( n 2)

Dl

D

n 5

(3)

Chapter8

Problem1:Airwatermixtureflowsina3mlong5cmdiameterpipeanddischargesat94.7psia.
Assumebubblyflowunderturbulentconditionsat270c,calculateinletpressureforavolumetricflowof
Jl=0.15m/sandJg=4.5m/satatmosphericpressure&temperature.

Solution: j21 U gj

j2
j21
1

jTP
j2
j2

j1 j2 U gj

(1)

Asperchangesdownthepipe, j2 willchange
Assumingisothermalexpansion, j2

pa
( j2 ) | pa (2)
p

Checkforsonicflow>con.Choking
Then pexit patm

du2
du
dp
G1 1
G2
dz
dz
dz acc

Acc.

u2 , u1 fromequation(1)inequation U1

j1
j
U2 2
1

U 2 j1 j2 U gj
j1 j2 U 2 j

U1 j1

j1 U 2 j

Only j2 changesdownduct

dU g
dz

du1 dj2
j1

dz
dz j1 U gj

dj2
dz

j1 dj2
dp

G
G

2
1

j1 U 2 j dz
dz acc
dj
Forsmallintervals, 2 foundbydifferentiatingeqn.(2)
dz
dj2
pa dp
( j2 ) pa 2
dz
p dz

j1
dp
G2 G1

j1 U 2 j
dz acc

pa dp
( j2 ) pa 2
p dz

Friction

2 fTP G j
dp


D
dz f
fTP 0.005
G 1 j1 2 j2
j j1 j2
dp

g 2 ( ) 1
dz g
2 fTP Gj / D g 2 (1 ) 1
dp

pa
dz
1 G2 G1 j1 /( j1 U 2 j )( j2 ) pa 2
p

a2

dp
for a 2 1
ve
dz acc

Flowsupersonic
Notpermissible.

Pexit adjustuntilchokingisreached& a 1
Conditionofchoking


j1
Pc2 Pa ( j2 ) Pa G2 G1

j1 U 2 j

Problem2:Forannularflowpattern(GasCore+Liquidfilm),deduce fn( ) for l2 fn ( )


Solution:Annularflowcanbeanalyzedbyseparatedflowmodel.
Averysimplemodelofseparatedflowcanbedevelopedbyassumingthatthetwophaseflow,without
interaction, in two horizontal separate cylinders and that the areas of the cross sections of these
cylinders add up to the crosssectional area of the actual pipe. The pressure drop in each of the
imaginedcylinderisthesame asintheactualflow,isduetofrictionaleffectsonly,andiscalculated
fromsinglephaseflowtheory.
Therefore,

dp
dp
dp

dz FTP dz liquid cylinder dz gas cylinder

Al
Ag

Dl2 crosssectionalareaofliquidcylinder

Dg2 crosssectionalareaofgascylinder
4
Where Al Ag A crosssectionalareaofmaincylinder

and aretheshapefactor.

A D 2 , D Diameterofmaincylinder
4

Now

dp

dz f ,liquid cylinder

2C fl
Dl

lU l2

W
l l

Dl
Al l
2C fl lWl 2

Dl Al2 l2
2C fl

2C fl Wl 2
Dl Al2 l

W2
2
K Re l n 2 l
Dl
Al l

Now Re l

lU l Dl
l

Now Wl lU l Al
lU l
Re l

Wl
Al

Wl Dl
l Al

n
2 Wl Dl Wl 2
dp
k

dz liquid cylinder Dl l Al Al l

Wl 2 n .Dl n
2
.k . n
Dl l .( Al ) 2 n .l

2
.k .
Dl

Wl 2 n .Dl n


.
4

2 n

. Dl2

n
l

2n

. l .

2 n

2 n n
2kWl l n 2 n 1 4 2 n
.Dl

2 n
. l
4

2 n n
2kWl l n 2 n 5
.Dl

2 n
. l
4

dp
dz
FT . P
2
Now l
dp
dz
Fl

G 2 (1 x 2 )
2
dp
or
f
.
.

l
dz Fl D l

W2
2
k Rel n 2l
D
A l

, G (1 x) l
A

2 G (1 x)
k

D l

W2
. 2l
A l

Wl

G (1 x) A

Wl 2
2 Wl D
.k .
.
D l Al A2 l
Wl 2 n .D n
2
.k . 2 n n
D A .l .l

ln n
Wl 2 n
2
.k
.
.D
D 2 2 n l
D
4

2n n
2k .Wl l n 1 4 2 n

D
2 n
l
4

2n n
2k .Wl l n 5

D
2 n
l
4

dp
dz
FT . P .
l2

dp

dz
Fl
dp

dz liquid cylinder

dp
dz
Fl

2 n n
2 k Wl l n 2 .Dln 5
2 n
l
4

2 n n
2 k Wl l .Dln 5
2 n
l
4


2
l

n2

D
. l
D

n 5

Intheexpressionof l2 ,niscomingfromexpressionof f l
Forlaminarflown=1
Ifwetake =shapefactor=1,then

15

D
l
D

D
l
D

2
l

2
Dl
Dl2
2 4

D
D2
4

A
l
A

2
l

Al

Problem3EstimatetherisevelocityofairbubblesinH2Oforequivalentradiusof0.25,1.5,0.85cm
given

l 1g / cc, l 0.01 poise


.
7g0 d981
y ncm
e / sc2m

Solution:AllthebubbleslieintheStokesregion

1 2
d g b g / b
18
611624.72 d 2 m / s

3.823 m / s r 0.125 cm
15.29 m / s 0.25 cm

550.46 m / s 1.5 cm
176.76 m / s 0.85 cm

Problem4FindrelationbetweenQ1andQ2forfloodinginapipeofradius25cmassumingbubbly
flowwithn=2and
u 1 .5 m / s
Solution:
ForFloodingCondition,

u
.n 1 1 1
1

2
2

or , 1.5
1 1 1
1
or , 3 11 2

or , 3 1 2 3
or ,

1
3

j21 u 1

0.0478
3.14
2
0.5 0.19625
4
Q Aj21
2
C0 Q1 Q2
A

Q1 0.0054 0.4226Q2 0

Problem5:
Whatisthevelocityofsoundinahydrogenwatermixtureat6894.7KPa,210C,andwithmeandensity
640.7kg/m3?Repeattheproblemwiththepressureas3.44KPaandtheradiusofthebubbleas1mm.

Solution:
Meandensity=640.7kg/m3

g f

640.7
2
f 1000 kg / m3

g 281.4 kg / m3
Taking 0.5
Thevelocityofsoundinbubblymixturecanbecalculatedfromthefollowingequation.

C2

1
g 1 f
2
2
f Cf
g Cg
C f Cg ; g f
Theabovecasebeapproximatedas

Cg

1 g

Now, C g2 rg RT forarapidcompress

R 8.314 Jmol 1 K 1
T 294 K
rg 1.4 for diatomic H 2 gas
Cg2 1.4 8.314 294
Cg 58.49

Cg

1 g

58.49

1000

0.5 0.5 281.4


C 62.05 m / s.

Atlowpressurethesonicvelocitycanbeobtainedbyfollowingequation

Cg

1 g

70 103 N / m
P 3.44 KPa
Rb 103 m
C 61.64m / s

2
1

3PR0 4

Problem6:

Ina10cmsdiameterCountercurrentflowbubblecolumn,itwasobservedthatfloodingoccurredfor
thefollowingmassfluxesofcarbondioxideandwaterin(Kg/hr/m2)

W f

73305

48870

24435

Wg

185.7

205.54

234.57

Comparetheresultswiththeoreticalvaluesat 15 Psia, 210 C.


Solution Letusconsiderbubblerisevelocitythroughinfinitemedium u isindependentofbubble
inregion4

sizei.e.,

0.25

g
u 1.18

f
0.1909m / s

Now, j21 u 1

j21 j2 j
Again,

j2 j u 1

j2 j u 1

Now, 2

PM 101.325 44

1.823kg / m3
RT
8.314 294

Wehave G2 185.7 Kg / m2 hr

185.7
m3
j2
1.823 3600 m 2 .s
0.0282m3 / m 2 .s
Similarly, j1

73305
0.0203m3 / m 2 .s
1000 3600

j 0.0485m3 / m2 s

Now, j2 j 1 u
n

0.0485 j 1

1.53

0.1909 0.0282 0

Aftersolvingthisequationweget,

0.1412
Now,weknowthatatfloodingpoint,

dj21 j21 j2

d
j21 u 1

dj21
n 1
n
u n 1 1

d
n
n
u 1 1
1
u 1

j21 j2

n 1

1 n

dj21

d
dj
j21 j2 21
d
dj
j21 21 j2
d

j2 u 1 u 1
n

n 1

1 n

1 n
n
u 1 1

u 1

n 1 1 n
j2 u 1

j2 u 2 n 1

n 1

j1 j21 1

dj21
d

u 1 1 u 1

1 n
n
n
u 1 u 1 1 n
n
u 1 1 n
n

n 1

u 1 1 n
n

So,far 0.1412

j2 0.1909 0.1412 1.53 1 0.1412


2

1.531

5.4406 103 m3 / m 2 .s
G2 35.70kg / m 2 .hr
Similarly,

j1 0.11856m3 / m 2 .s
G1 426834.35 Kg / m 2 .hr
So,farothercasestheoreticalmassfluxesareshownintable

G1

kg / m .hr
2

G2

kg / m .hr
2

426834.35

389878.22

338020.6

35.70

47.429

68.56

0.1412

0.1650

0.2007

Problem7:
Acontainsiliconefluidhasaviscosityof5000CPasurfacetensionof21dynes/cm,andadensityof1
g/cm3
.Whatistherisevelocityofslugflowbubbleinstationaryliquidinverticalpipeswithdiameters0.25
cm,1.2cm,12.5cm,and24cm.
Solution:

f 5000CP 21 dynes / cm f 1gm / cm3


Neglectinggasdensityincomparisontoliquiddensity
Eotvosnumber

N EO

gD 2 f g

gD 2 f

2.916 3.37

Inverseviscosity

D2 g f g f

Nf

D g

0.25 980 1

5000 102

0.0782 2

ArchimedesNo.
3

N Ar

2 f
f g
2

21 2 1

2
2
50 980
3

1.229 103

Properlygroup,

1
661375.66
N Ar 2

Now,

K1 0.345 1 exp 0.01Nf / 0.345 1 exp 3.37 NE0 / m


For,0.25cmdiameterpipe

K1 0.345
u K1 f

gD f

5.4cm / s

Diameter

0.25

d cm

1.2

12.5

24

Eotvos

NEO 2.9167 67.2 7.2917 103 26880


InverseViscosity 0.0783 0.823 27.6699 73.6199

N f

K1 1.4315 10 5 0.0075 0.1903 0.3042

u __ 0.2572 21.0624 46.6528


(cm/s)

25 25 21.58 15.32

Problem8:
Whenalongbubblerisesinatubeclosedatthebottom,thevalueofjaheadofthebubbleisnotzero
becauseofexpansionofthegasinthehydrostaticpressuregradient.Abubble0.00016m3involume
isinjectedintoacolumnofwater30.5mhighina0.0254mpipe.Ifthetemperatureis210Candthe
pipes is closed at the bottom and open to the atmosphere at the top, how long does it take after
releasebeforethebubblebreaksthesurface.
Solution:
Bubblevolume= 0.000lbm3

Ltube =30.5 m
D=0.0254m
Now,initiallywhenbubblerisesfrombottomoftheliquidcolumn,

Bubble volume D 2
4 0.000lb


2
Tube volume
D 3.14 0.0254
2

Where filmthickness

D 2

0.315
D
2

Now,consideringasinglebubblerisesthroughastationarywatercolumnfrombottomtotheupward
direction.Whenitgetsalongshapeafterrisingcertainheightwecanwrite:

Bubble volume D 2
LTB

Tube volume
D LTB LIS
2

Foroneunitcell,

filmthicknessisverysmallincomparisontoD

LTB
0.315
L
LTB 0.315 30.5 9.6075m

Column

f 1gm / cm3 70dynes / cm

1CP ,

Neglectinggasdensity.

EotvosNo.

N EO

gD 2 f

D g

Nf

N Ar
Y

90.3224

2 f
f 2g

1
1

1.267 104

187082.86

1
2.857 1011
2
N Ar

m 10

0.01 N f

3.37 N EO

0.345

K1 0.345 1 e
1 e m

0.3198
u 15.95cm / s

So,timetakeforbubbletobreak
9.6075 102
S
15.95
60.23

1min 23s

Problem9:
Whatistheminimumtubesizeinwhichlargebubblesofairwillriseinstationarywateras300C
a) Onearthb)inaspaceshipforwhichg=0.003048cm/s2
Solution: Bubblewillnotrisewhenthereissurfacetensiondominatingeffect

N EO 3.37

i.e. gD 2 f g

3.37

Onearth, g=980cm/s

Neglecting g

gD 2 f

3.37

3.37
g
3.37 70
D2
980
D 0.49cm
D2

Onspace, g 0.003048cm / s

gD 2 f

3.37

3.37 70
0.003048
D 278.19cm
D2

So,minimumtubesizeonearth=0.49cm
Minimumtubesizeonspace=278.19cm

Problem10:

Aliquidmetals 300dynes / cm; f 5 g / cm 3 , 0.02 poise fillsa 0.0095 mdiameter


horizontalpipe.Itisderivedtoblowgasthroughthepipetothemetalandsolidifyitasauniformfilm
0.0127cm thickonthewalls.Whatgasflowrateshouldbeused?

Solution:

300dynes / cm f 5 g / cm3 0.02 poise D 0.0095m 0.0127cm


Theavailableflowareaforgasinthetube

Ab D
2

0.95

3.14
0.0127 0.671cm 2
2

D2

3.14 0.952
Areaoftube A=

0.708cm 2
4
4

vb
A 0.708

1.0558
j Ab 0.671
j
vb

0.947

2
0.02 2.80 107
f
D f
0.95 5 300
2

Fromfigure

j f

3.2 103

j 48cm / s
vb 48 1.0558 50.64cm / s
Qg 35.90cm3 / s

Chapter10

1. Discuss a commonly used technique for measuring volume average void fraction of a flowing
vaporliquidmixture?Whatarethedrawbacksofthetechnique?

Quickclosingvaluetechnique
Drawbacks
i) Finite Time required to close down the values. This may cause changes in system
hydrodynamics.
ii) Finite Time required to bring system back to steady state. So not possible for a continuous
operatingplant.
ii) Notsuitablefortransientmeasurements.

2. How can area average and chordal average measurements of void fraction be converted to
volumeaveragevalues?

Areaaveragemeasurementsofvoidfractionisthevolumeaveragevalueforinfinitesimallength
of the test section. So several area average values at different axial lengths gives the volume
averagevalue.Whenvoidfractiondoesnotvarywithlength(fuliydevelopedflows),bothare
equal.
Chordalaveragevalueisconnectedtoareaaveragevalueeitherbymathematicalmanipulation
orbytheuseofmultiplebeams.

3. Whydoesoneneedtoknowthevoidageprofileinadditiontotheaveragevoidfractionofagas
liquidmixture?

Voidage profile gives an estimate of the distribution of voids in the flow passage. This
adequatelydescribesthestructuresoftheflowfieldandidentifiessitesofactivetransportand
reactions.

4. Whatarethedrawbacksofphotographicmethodsofflowpatternestimation?

Refertosection10.3,part1

5. Suggest a suitable arrangement (shown diagrammatically) of the conductivity probes for


distinguishingbetween(a)bubblyandannularflowinverticalpipes,(b)plugandslugflowin
horizontalpipes,(c)stratifiedandannularflowinhorizontalpipes,
Theprobesignalforbubblyandannularflowareasfollows

6. Stateanythreelimitationsoftheradiationattenuationtechniqueforestimationofvoidfraction
andsuggestwaysofminimizingthem.

Refertosection10.2.1
7. Stateanytwolimitationsoftheconductivityprobetechniqueforgasliquidsystems.

i)Needsaprioriknowledgeofflowpattern


ii)Doesnotworkforgascontinuouspatterns

8. State the principle and the specific application of (a) infra red absorption method (b)
Electromagneticflowmeteringtechniqueforestimationofvoidfraction.

a)IRabsorptiontechniquebasedonthedifferentialamountofabsorptionofIRraybythetwo
phases.Specificallysuitableforhighvoidfractionflows.
b)Electromagneticflowmeteringbasedonprincipleofindependentmeasurementofaverage
liquidvelocity (u L ) fromwhich canbecalculatedas (1 )

jL
forlowqualityflows.
uL

Specificapplicationforliquidmetalsystem.

9. Formeasurementoftwophasepressuredropwhenaregasfilledlinespreferredtoliquidfilled
ones?
Forlowoffsetvalueatzerop
10. Whataretheadvantagesofliquidfilledlinesingeneral?

Lesschancesofgasingresssinceliquidtendstomeetthemanometerlinesandpumpingaction
islessseveresinceitisincompressible.

11. What arethe advantages anddisadvantagesofdifferentialpressuretransduceroverabsolute


ones?
Refertotext,page
12. Defineliquidholdupforgasliquidsystems.

Refertochap4

13. Discussbrieflythedifferentwaysofexpressingliquidholdupandoneconventionaltechniqueto
measureeachofthem.

Refertochap4

14. Withthehelpofaschematic(i)showthelocationofthedifferentprobesand(ii)mentionthe
characteristics of the probe signals which distinguish between the following gasliquid flow
patterns:wavyannularandbubblyinverticalflow(b)churnandbubblyinverticalflow

(b)

15. Howcanthefollowingmethodsbeusedforflowpatterndetectors:
Averagepressuregradient(b)transientpressuresignal

Refertosection10.3subsection3

16. (ii)Stateasuitabletechniquetomeasuretheinsitucompositionoftwophaseflowunderthe
followingconditions:(a)Highqualitysteamwaterflow(b)watercontentofmargarine
a)Infraredabsorption
b)Microwaveabsorption

17. DiscussthePSDFanalysisforflowpatternidentification.WhatarethedifferentPSDFsobtained
forgasliquidtwophaseflowinverticaltubes.
Refertosection10.3subsection3

18. Whataretheproblemsofusingdifferentialpressuretransducersformeasurementofpressure
dropintwophasesystem.

i)Allproblemsassociatedwithambiguityintappinglinecontentasdiscussedformanometers
ii)Slightfluctuationsduetorigvibrationcanalterreadings
iii)Pressuresmallerthanoffsetcannotbemeasured

19. Howcanwemeasurethevoidfractionduringsodiumliquid/vaporflow?

Electromagneticflowmetering

20. Discusstheacousticmethodofvoidfractionmeasurementandstateitsproblems.

Refertosection10.2.7

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