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The Last Will


of Metropolitan
Constantine I of
Kiev and the Kanon
At the Parting of the
Soul from the Body

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Andrey Yu. Vinogradov

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National Research University Higher


School of Economics (Moscow)

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Mikhail S. Zheltov

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SS. Cyril and Methodius School of


Post<Graduate and Doctoral Studies
(Moscow)

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Abstract
The article puts forward the suggestion that the mysterious last will of Metropoli<
tan Constantine I of Kiev, in which he ordered that aer his death his body should
be torn to pieces by dogs instead of receiving a proper burial, was inspired by a
very specic literary text. This text is still used in the Orthodox Christian tradition;
it is known as the hymnographical kanon At the Parting of the Soul from the
Body. While nowadays this kanon is used in the course of an ordinary liturgical
rite, in the 12th century, when it rst appeared, it was used among some Byzantine
intellectual and ascetic circles as a particular element of personal piety. The 12th
century is exactly the epoch of Constantine's activities, and the description of
funeral procedure given by this kanon is very close to the last will of Constantine.
The kanon At the Parting of the Soul from the Body has close ties to another
hymn of roughly the same epochthe Penitential kanon wrien aer the 5th
chapter of the Ladder of John Climacus. Both kanons conceal a didactic story
under the structure of a hymnographic paern. What is more important, both are
from the very beginning intertwined with a distinct illustrative program: each
monostrophe is accompanied by a specic picture, which discloses the contents of
the text. These comics<like stories have no parallel among other Byzantine ka<
nons. Finally, both kanons witness the growth of the inuence of Palestinian and,
more generally, Eastern ascetic traditions on the monastic practices of Constanti<
nople and its surrounding regions. This inuence was associated, most of all, with
the Evergetian movement, with its strict disciplinary and fasting rules, etc. Metro<
politan Constantine, who was an outstanding representative of the Byzantine
intellectual elite of those times, should have been acquaintedat the very least!

Slovne

2014 1

Andrey Yu. Vinogradov, Mikhail S. Zheltov

with this movement. Moreover, the conicts of the bishops in his circle with the
Russian princes concerning the fasting discipline suggest that Constantine was
trying to introduce the new Evergetian ascetic standards among the Russians.
Thus, the literal adherence to the provisions of the kanon At the Parting of the
Soul from the Body at the funeral of Metropolitan Constantine should be inter<
preted as a sign of his full condence in his ideals.

Keywords
Metropolitan Constantine I of Kiev, Russian Church history, Byzantine hymnogra<
phy, liturgical studies, funeral rite, Byzantine monasticism, asceticism, Byzantine
manuscript illumination, private apocalyptism

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