Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 19

# I

..

. . , .
. .
,
, .
, Mathematica. . Mathematica. .
: .
: .
26 2012 .

, , .

1
1.1
, , , .. . , . ,
: , e, . . . . .
.
X Y . X , x X -

" I"

)
f (x
y=

x
X
. 1. .

y Y . y = f (x), y = y (x), f : X Y ,
f

X Y .
X , , E = {y : y = f (x) , x X}
(. . 1).
,
Y . , f (n) = 2n n 2n , f : N N, ..
Y = N.
E = {m : m = 2n, n N}.
y = f (x)
x X y Y , y x.
A X f : X Y

## f (A) = {y Y : (x) x A y = f (x)}

Y , A. ,
E = f (X), X f .

f 1 (B) = {x X : f (x) B}
X, B,
B Y (. . 2).
f : X Y , : Y = f (X) (

" I"

B
O

)
x
A

f (x

f (x

f (A)

y=

y=

x
f 1 (B)

. 2. .

## ) (x1 , x2 X) f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) = x1 = x2 (

).
1. ,
x X y Y ,
y Y x X.
. . , x X. y = f (x) Y
y . y Y .
x X, , y = f (x),
x .
. , f (X) Y . y Y . x X: y = f (x).
, y f (X). , Y f (X). Y = f (X).
x1 , x2 X f (x1 ) = f (x2 ) = y. y Y , y , , x1 = x2 .
X Y , ,
(). , Ox Oy y = x3 ,

(. . 3, )).
, , y = x2
Ox Oy,

y (0; ) : y (. 3, )). Ox Oy

" I"

y = x3

y4

y = x2
y2

y3
x 1 x2

O
y2

x3 x4

y1
)

x
y1

y2 y1

y1

y2

. 3. ) , ) .

.
X R, Y R, x X ,
, y Y , .
. .
= {(x, y) : y = f (x) , x X}.
, y = |x| , . 4, ).
, , N. n
an R, .. an = f (n), f : N R. , .

, , . 4, ).
1) , , .
1.2
1.2.1
. ?
. , , ,
.. , ,
.

" I"

5
y

x
O

. 4. : ) y = |x|, ) .

:
lg(a + sin3 x + arctg x)
,
y=
1 + x2

1, x < 0,
y = 0,
x = 0,

1,
x > 0,

(1)

(2)

y = 1 + x + x2 + . . . + xn + . . . ,
y = cos(cos(. . . cos x . . .)).
|
{z
}

(3)
(4)

, ,
, .. ,
.
,

. , (, -
),
. , (1) a.
(. ).
1.2.2
, , , . , -

" I"

-, ,
.
.

, ,
.
1.2.3
,
, ..
.

.

, , , .
1.2.4
,
.

.
, ,
. , ,
, , , , , .
,
( , , ).
1.3
f (x) D X R,

(M R) (x D) f (x) M.

" I"

, y = x2 .
f (x) D X
R,
(m R) (x D) f (x) m.
y = x2 .
f (x) D X R,
, . , , .
f (x) D X R,
(x1 , x2 D) x1 < x2 = f (x1 ) f (x2 ) .
, . , y = x3 .
f (x) D X R,
(x1 , x2 D) x1 < x2 = f (x1 ) f (x2 ) .
, . , y = x3
.
. .
y
y = f (x)

g(x1 )
f (x2 )
g(x2 )

y = g(x)

f (x1 )
O

x1

x2

. 5. f (x) , g(x) .

D R ,
(x D) x D.

" I"

f (x) D X
R,
(x D) f (x) = f (x) .
. : y = x2 , y = cos x.
f (x) D
X R,
(x D) f (x) = f (x) .
. : y = x3 , y = sin x.
f (x) > 0 D X R,
(x D) (x + D x D) = f (x) = f (x + ) = f (x ) .
, , .
f : X U , g : U Y
h : X Y : h (x) = g (f (x)), x X. -: u = f (x),
y = g(u). h f
g.
. 6. , h
, f g.
h = g(f )
Y
x
y = g(f (x))

f
u = f (x)

. 6. .

. 7 , .

" I"

x
. , x u = f (x).
. y = g(u)
, , x . f (x) = x2 , g(u) = sin u h(x) = sin x2 .
, .
u

u = f (x)
f (x)

y=u

y = h(x)

x
O

f (x)

g(u)

y = g(u)

O
g(f (x))

## . 7. y = h(x) = g(f (x)).

, f : X Y , X R, Y R f 1 : Y X,
(x X) f 1 (f (x)) = x

(y Y ) f (f 1 (y)) = y.
, f (x) f 1 (y),
.
, , f (x) = 10x g(y) = lg y X = (, ) Y = (0, ), g(f (x)) = lg 10x = x
f (g(y)) = 10lg y = y.
f (x) = tg x g(y) = arctg y
X = (, ) Y = (, ), , tg arctg y = y,
arctg tg = arctg 0 = 0 6= . X
X = (/2, /2) .

" I"

10

, f (x) f 1 (x)
.
1.4

,
. .
1. : y = x , R.
2. : y = ax , a R, a > 0, a 6= 1.
3. : y = loga x, a R, a > 0, a 6= 1.
4. : y = sin x, y = cos x, y = tg x, y = ctg x.
5. : y = arcsin x, y = arccos x,
y = arctg x, y = arcctg x.
. 8 9, , ,
.
y

y = x2

y = 1.5x

. 8. : ) , ) .

,
, . , . .

" I"

11

y = sin x
y = arcsin x

x
1

1
2
)

. 9. : ) , ) .

,
.
,
( ).
(1). (2)
,
. . . , . . . . (3) ,
. (4)
. , .
2)
Mathematica , .

" I"

12

1)

- ,
-, -, -
. , - , . ,
.
, . 10, ).
, , , . , t. ,
( ) .
. 10, ).
i

O
O

u
)

. 10. : ) - .. , ) .
2)

Mathematica
.
.
xa , ax ,
:
h 1 3 i
h
 1 3
Print 00 52 = 00 , 52 ,00 , 00 ,HoldForm
,00 , 2 = 00 , 2 ,00 ,
,00 = 00 ,
3
3
i
2 //N = 00 , 2 //N
 1 3
1
2
5 = 25,
= , 2 = 2 , 2 //N = 8.82498
3
27

## , 2 Mathematica , , 2 //N . HoldForm Mathematica ,

h
3 i

3 
3
1
1
1
1
. HoldForm 3
3 , 3 27
.

" I"

13

:
(1)3/2
I
(1)2/3
(1)2/3
, Mathematica
- . , ,
Mathematica . , Mathematica
, ,
(I ), . :
(1)2/3
-0.5 + 0.866025 I
- . 1? , Mathematica
, . , .
?
- :
1/3
(1)2
1
Needs RealOnly,
Mathematica :
Needs["Miscellaneous`RealOnly`"]
General::obspkg: MiscellaneousRealOnly is now obsolete. The legacy
version being loaded may conflict with current Mathematica functionality.
See the Compatibility Guide for updating information. > >
, Mathematica, , RealOnly
.
, RealOnly , Refine, Reduce, Assuming ..
,
, RealOnly.
:
(1)3/2
Nonreal::warning: Nonreal number encountered.
Nonreal
(1)2/3
1
, ,
. - !
C Plot[f,{x,xmin ,xmax },options] Mathematica . f , , {x,xmin ,xmax }
- , options ,

" I"

14

. f {f1 ...,fn }, ( ,
).
y = x2/3 :
Plot[x2/3 ,{x,-3,3},AxesLabel {x,y}]
y
2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

-3

-2

-1

## AxesLabel . , ->, Mathematica

.
: RealOnly Mathematica !
Log[b,z], b , z ,
b. , Mathematica ,
, .
:
Log[10,1000]
3

: Sin sin, Cos cos, Tan tg, Cot ctg.
:
Sin[/3]

3
2
Sin[/3]//N
0.866025
, Degree,
, , Esc deg Esc . :
Sin[60 ]

3
2
, .
Mathematica ,
. FromDMS:

" I"

15

## FromDMS[00 2030 1.45\0000 ]

20.0504
:
Sin[% Degree]
0.342847
Mathematica ,
:
Tan[/2]
ComplexInfinity
( , Mathematica
).
, Plot :
Plot[{Sin[x],Sin[2x],Sin[4x]},{x,, },AxesLabel {x,y}]
y
1.0

0.5

-3

-2

-1

-0.5

-1.0

## : ArcSin arcsin, ArcCos arccos, ArcTan arctg, ArcCot arcctg.

:
ArcCos[1/2]

3
, :
FullSimplify[ArcCos[1/2]/Degree]
60
, :
ArcCos[0.9]/Degree
25.8419
. ,
, DMSString:
DMSString[%]
25500 30.9579500
, ArcCot, arcctg,
, . ,

" I"

16

ArcCot[-1]

4
arcctg [0, ], ArcCot [/2, /2],
, ArcCot[0]= /2. :
Plot[ArcCot[x],{x,3, 3},AxesLabel {x,y}]
y
1.5
1.0
0.5
-3

-2

-1

x
-0.5
-1.0
-1.5

, , arcctg. Mathematica , , .
, Mathematica : . f[x_] = expr, - f[x_] := expr, x_ , expr
, , , x.
expr , . expr
, .
. :
iex[x_]
1 + 2 x
iex[y +
1 + 2(2

= Expand[(1 + x)2 ]
+ x2
2]
+ y) + (2 + y)2

iex, . :
, - , Mathematica, . ,
x , .
, , ,
, .. , 1 + 2 x + x2 . y + 2,
x ( ) y + 2.
ex, :

" I"

17

## ex[x_] := Expand[(1 + x)2 ]

ex[y + 2]
9 + 6y + y2
, , ,
Mathematica .
.
x y + 2
: , y + 3
. .
, iex ex .
.
.
, , arcctg x = 2 arctg x, :

arcctg[x_] :=
- ArcTan[x]
2
arcctg[-1]
3
4
, . :
Plot[arcctg[x],{x,-5,5},AxesLabel {x,y}]
y
3.0
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5

-4

-2

. Mathematica , .
y=

1
.
lg(4 x2 )

Mathematica :
1
f[x_] :=
Log[10,4 - x2 ]
,
, . ..
, : lg(4 x2 ) 6= 0, 4 x2 > 0. Reduce[expr,vars,dom],

" I"

18

expr ,
, ; vars , ; dom , : Integers, Reals
Complexes. .

Reduce[Log[10,4 - x2 ] 6= 0,x,Reals]

## -2 < x < - 3 || - 3 < x < 3 || 3 < x < 2

, Reduce x,
0; Mathematica
. , :

    
X = 2, 3 3, 3
3, 2 .
.
Mathematica Interval (),
.
, ? , ( ),
-. ,
1
/. x -> Interval[{-1, 1}]
x2
Interval[{1,}]
1/x2 (1, 1), (1, ).
Mathematica, /., , x Interval[{-1, 1}].
(2, 2), ,
:
1/Log[10,4 - (Interval[{-2,2}])2 ]
1/Log[10,4 - (Interval[{-2,2}])2 ]//N
h
n Log[10]
oi
Interval {, 0},
,
Log[4]
Interval[{, 2.2250710308 },{1.66096,}]
, , , ,
: E = (, 0) (ln 10/ ln 4, ). ln x x, Mathematica Log[x]. e 2,72, . , , .
Mathematica (. 11):
1
f[x_] :=
Log[10,4 - x2 ]
Plot[f[x],{x,-2.2,2.2},MaxRecursion 15,PlotRange {-3,4},
AxesLabel {x,y}]
MaxRecursion , x = 2 x = 2.

. PlotRange
y.

" I"

19
y
4
3
2
1
-2

-1

x
-1
-2
-3

. 11.
Mathematica
:
f[x_] := Sin[x]
g[x_] := x2
h[x_] := f[g[x]]
h[2]
h[2]//N
Sin[4]
-0.756802
Plot[h[x],{x,-5,5},AxesLabel {x,y}]
y
1.0

0.5

-4

-2

-0.5

-1.0

## [1] .., .. . . .: , 1984, . 63-69.

[2] .. . .: , 2000.
. 1. . 100107.
[3] .., .., .. : . :
, 1981, . 5-20, 60-79.