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. 1881 .


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18 2014



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$0,5-1,0 .

0,1-0,3 .

~ $75 .

~$3-4 .


$3-4 .

: $30 . 2014 $95 . 2015.


2014 6-7 .

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-2014.
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VS

( , ) ,
:
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.

,
- .
2013 . 49,4 % (
- 2012 48,7%).
$294 .,
$52 .

$
20.6

15.2


30.3

67.9

http://economy.gov.ru/minec/activity/sections/foreignEconomicActivity/201407107
http://expert.ru/russian_reporter/2014/24/



2000
10


.
-
- 2014

-

100 .
50%

2008
(EFIGE) 7 : ,
, , ,
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:
http://iims.hse.ru/rfge/

7%

6%

23%

13%

9%

5
6

12%
11%
9%

7
8

10%

1. ; 2. , ,
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; 6.
;
7. ; 8. -,
; 9.
.

( )
16%

20%

10-19 .
20-49 .
50-100 .

8%
24%

101-249 .
250-499 .

16%

500

16%



,
.

.

20%.

,
.

20%
.


5%,
8%,

.

60.0%

52.0%

50.0%

39.8%

40.0%
36.5%

30.1%
30.0%
26.4%
24.5%
24.0%

23.7%
20.7%
20.0%
15.5%
13.7%
10.4%

9.9%

10.0%

7.2%

12.7%
8.9%

0.0%

<100 .

100-500

>500 .

: - 2014


( )


60.0




.

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.
NB:

()
.

50.0

20.0
10.0
0.0

22.7

28.2

20
10.1
10
0

<100 .

100-500

>500 .


()

40
27.1

27.9

30.0

43.19

30

35.5

40.0

(
)
50

48.3

43.8

. .
..

29.8
28.8

37.1
38.7
48.9
37.8
33.7
43.8
43.2
0.0

10.0

20.0

30.0

40.0

50.0

: - 2014

60.0




30.0

32.0

34.0

36.0

38.0

42.0

44.0

46.0

48.0

50.0

40.1

40.0

36.8

43.3

48.5

46.3

: - 2014

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NB: , ,
.


50.0

55.0

60.0

65.0

70.0

75.0

80.0

56.2
61.3
65.5
66.5
74.9
75.4

: - 2014

3.7%

4.3%

31.6%

10.1%

(, ,
IPO)

10.7%

17.9%

, ,

36.4%

18.5%

27.8%

8.2%
0.0%

5.0%

10.0%

15.0%

20.0%

25.0%

30.0%

35.0%

40.0%

- ,

. ,
- ,
..

140

120

100

80

60

40

20

0
1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013


25



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