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2001

316.482.5:316.74:80(470+571)
66.3(2)6
41

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316.482.5:316.74:80(470+571)
66.3(2)6

Language and Ethnic Conflicts.


: http://pubs.carnegie.ru/books/2001/07am1
"
"
Carnegie Corporation of New York Starr
Foundation. "
.
,

.

ISBN 5"88044"191"1

Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2001

........................................................................................................................................................................................... 5
................................................................................................................................................................................................. 6
. (
) ............................................................................................................................................................ 15
.
................................................................................................................................................................................... 34
. :
................................................................................................................................................................. 58
.
.............................................................................. 86
.
............................. 99
.
........................................................................................................................................................................ 115
................................................................................................................................................................................ 138
Summary ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 141
................................................................................................................................................................ 149

ontents

About the Authors ...................................................................................................................................................................... 5


Introduction ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 6
Oleg Aronson. Conflicts and Communities (Concerning the Political
Function of the Utterance) ................................................................................................................................. 15
Andrei Zdravomyslov. The Transformation of Meanings in
the National Discourse ............................................................................................................................................ 34
Victor Schnirelman. The Passions Around Archaim: the Aryan Idea
and Nationalism .............................................................................................................................................................. 58
Yana Streltsova. The Russian Language and Education Problems in
the Integration of the Russian Diasporas in
the Newly Independent States ........................................................................................................................ 86
Olga Khristoforova. National Stereotypes of Communicative Behavior
and Their Impact on Interaction Between Ethnic Groups ............................................. 99
Vladimir Malakhov. The Symbolic Production of Ethnicity and Conflicts ......... 115
Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................................................... 138
Summary ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 141
About the Carnegie Endowment ........................................................................................................................ 149

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49
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140

ummary

This book has been prepared under the Ethnicity and Nation"
Building project of the Carnegie Moscow Center on the basis of presen"
tations made at the seminars of the Language and Ethnic Conflicts
working group. The publication fills in a gap in the studies of interethnic
relations and ethnic conflicts in Russia and the CIS. The authors focus
on ethnic conflicts viewed from the angle of their links to language. The
role language plays in the emergence, development and description of
ethnic conflicts is analyzed from different viewpoints.
The authors represent a variety of scholarly disciplines: there are eth"
nologists, sociologists, political scientists, philosophers and culturologists.
This diversity of academic backgrounds enables the authors not only to
consider different aspects of the interaction between language and eth"
nic conflicts but also to analyze the context in which this interaction
arises and manifests itself, be it a sociopolitical, sociocultural, regional,
educational or mythological context. The range of subjects is broad in"
deedfrom a purely theoretical analysis of the basis underlying the dis"
course of ethnicity and conflict to a description of the role of the Russian
language in the integration of the Russian diasporas in the near abroad
countries. In between are a study of the changes in the vocabulary of the
national discourse, a description of verbal differentiation and language"
based identification processes, a rationalization of certain national stere"
otypes and mythologems, research into the dichotomy between stereo"
types of individuals communicative behavior and language"based aware"
ness, analytical identification of the semiotic nature of ethnicity, an anal"
ysis of the symbolic production of ethnicity, etc. Although this research
is confined to local specifics of the problems under discussion, all of them
are related to the Western discourse on nationalism, identity and lan"
guage.

141

Summary
The Introduction by co"editor Ilya Semenov aptly covers specific prob"
lems raised by different authors and builds them into the more general
picture of relations between language and ethnic conflicts. The author
highlights the importance of the books subject for todays Russia and for
the entire post"Soviet region with its dynamic changes over the past dec"
ade. In the Soviet Union, language served as an effective means of social
mobilization and of the shaping of a Soviet people. Rhetoric steeped in
ideology was used by the Soviet government to create and maintain a
symbolic field of values and identities. The collapse of the USSR weak"
ened and changed this field. The author points to the importance of the
role played by language in decoding symbols. The change of the sociopo"
litical situation from Soviet to post"Soviet gave rise to numerous socio"
cultural distortions; these had an impact on both the relations existing
among social agents and on the conceptual definition of these relations.
The social and theoretical dismantling of the Soviet ethno"cultural con"
figuration destroyed social and psychological self"identification and made
it possible to activate latent dimensions of identity. The ethnic resource
began to play a more important role in sociopolitical relations, in organ"
izing and mobilizing social forces. Ethnic movements took form and
gained considerable influence, seeking to revise political, social, economic,
cultural and language"related realities. Latent ethnic conflicts, all of them
differing in terms of their participants and manifestations, burst into the
open in Abkhazia, Nagorny Karabakh, Ferghana, Osh Region, Trans"
Dniestria, Ingushetia, Northern Ossetia, Chechnya and elsewhere. Un"
der these circumstances, language often turned into an arena of political
and social struggle, acting not only as a culturally distancing factor but
also as a tool for the creation of social and conceptual constructs.
The book opens with Conflict and Communities by Oleg Aronson.
The article deals with problems which come under the category of polit"
ical ontology. The author shows the boundaries and common grounds of
various forms in which a conflict is expressed in language terms within
the framework of government discourse; he offers a possible alternative
based on the concept of community, an idea being developed by J.L. Nancy
and M. Blanchaut.
The article is an attempt to shift the emphasis from the origins or
grounds for conflicts to the methodological problem of the theoretical
utterance with respect to a conflict. Can the political aspect of a theoret"
ical discourse be opposed? Can a conflict be considered in non"political
terms? In replying to these questions, the author demonstrates the possi"

142

Summary
bility of thought as an action opposite to politics. We can see a thor"
ough analysis of the generic (scholarly) foundations underlying the
discourse on conflicts and an effort to establish the procedure for han"
dling a dynamically latent conflict. Any political language, no matter
which policy it expresses, is inseparable from the vision that a certain
form of violence is inherent in our world. An analysis of theoretical ut"
terances of ethnologists and political scientists convinces us, says
O. Aronson, that neutrality is unattainable, that there is always a kind
of irreducible (political?) residue in the language; in a sense, this residue
can also be viewed as the beginning of this very analysis. The author
tries to evade the semantic pitfalls of political language. Any political
language, whatever political views it expresses, is essentially inseparable
from the idea that some form of violence is present in the world. An at"
tempt to distance oneself from the general and total in this language, an
attempt to analyze (or trace an analytical methodology for) a conflict in
a different way, is a complex task set by the author for himself and for the
reader.
In order to illustrate one form of political violence, O. Aronson cites
the example of Latvia where the actual issuance of non"citizen pass"
ports establishes a language"based, legal framework for a lack of rights,
thereby making it possible to control the conflicting community by us"
ing various levers of dialogue, agreement and concession. Like politics in
general, todays politics is oriented on something held in common, even
though this common ground is worded in the mildest of terms (you
possess rights, your rights are laid down in the law that protects you be"
cause you are part of a certain community). An analysis of the founda"
tions underlying the discourse of conflict enables one to single out the
methodological framework of a universalist intellectual position; this
framework covers almost all the techniques of conflict resolution. Pro"
ceeding from this universalist position, even when promoting plural"
ism, one upholds a certain principle of organization for such pluralism.
One of the central ideas of O. Aronsons articlethat a political lan"
guage and its intents are present in the ethnic and national discourseis
also shared by Andrei Zdravomyslov, author of The Transformation of
Meanings in the National Discourse. The article starts with the assertion
that the national discourse does not unfold by itself but forms part of
the political discourse.
However, A. Zdravomyslov believes it would be a grave error to re"
gard the national discourse merely as a cover in the struggle for power.

143

Summary
Identifying the cornerstones of the national discourse, the author
emphasizes the flexibility inherent in the semantic characteristics of some
general concepts. A vague and nebulous meaning prompts a reassessment
of truths, mythologems and theoretical constructs which are taken for
granted both in everyday and in scholarly language and which are con"
nected by the common idea that the national origin is unchangeable and
that national interests are immutable.
There are two contexts in which the nationalities issue is considered
theoretically: the first appeals to the community and its national inter"
ests, the second is a context of personal identification. This explains
the difficulty of arriving at an express definition of the nation: both dif"
ferent authors and the same author at different times may treat this con"
cept in a different way. As an example, Zdravomyslov cites the transfor"
mation of Pitirim Sorokins views.
Zdravomyslov stresses the ambivalent meaning of self"designation
one of the triune aspects that constitute the national community. The
meaning of such self"designation is different for different individuals,
groups and historical periods. The character of these semantic differenc"
es is projected onto the nationalities problem and onto the national dis"
course of academic and everyday language. The vocabulary of the nation"
al discourse is changing, and the meaning of its terms is broadening (we
are dealing not simply with a quantitative expansion but also with an
increasingly variegated set of meanings). The intensive nature of such
change vividly manifested itself in the turbulent state of the Russian lan"
guage during the last decade of the 20th century.
In addition to personal identification, national identity, too, has a
number of practical manifestations which allow to describe it in con"
crete terms. The more important of these include verbal self"identifica"
tion, mastery of the language, experience related to involvement in events
of importance to the nation as a community and socialization within a
given national culture.
The author singles out a number of problems giving rise to inner per"
sonal and social conflictsverbal differentiation; language"based iden"
tification; the correlation of practical aspects connected to ones per"
sonal experience and social actions; and mastery of the nations cultural
tradition.
Any national culture is based first and foremost on language, and
national identification includes mastery of this language as a fundamen"
tal prerequisite. In this sense, the Russian language is the absolute basis

144

Summary
of Russian culture, of Russianness, and the most important tool of the indiJ
viduals socialization in the Russian cultural tradition. This leads to an
extra"ethnic understanding of national identity, an understanding im"
plying the incorporation of members of other ethnic groups into the
Russian nation.
To try and illustrate his idea of the emotionally polyvalent national
feelings playing an enormous role in modern history, A. Zdravomyslov
waxes positively poetic. Apart from the language and the cultural tradi"
tion, it is very hard to find a core which unites the entire Russian people.
A supporter of the relativist theory of the nation, A. Zdravomyslov
insists on a rationalistic interpretation of a nations symbols. In conclu"
sion, he says that rationalization of national stereotypes remains a par"
ticularly essential task because it assists national cultures in attaining
more profound interaction.
Rationalization of certain national stereotypes and mythologems is
the subject of Victor Schnirelmans The Passions Around Archaim: the
Aryan Idea and Nationalism. The reality of everyday life is not simply
full of objectivizations: it owes its very existence to them. According to
P. Berger and T. Lookman, we are constantly surrounded by objects which
denote others subjective intentions. The problem is to correctly under"
stand what a given object denotes, particularly if it was created by peo"
ple whom I did not know sufficiently well personally or did not know at
all in face"to"face terms. Any ethnologist or archeologist will gladly con"
firm that such problems exist Archaim offers a convincing proof of
such problems arising in the course of interpreting instrumental and sig"
nificative uses of objectivations. The attempts at deciphering its symbolic
meaning and defining its instrumental functions have produced a great
number of myths and nationalist speculations V. Schnirelman describes
in his article. As an objectivation, Archaim is a semiotic system of materi"
al artifacts, and any semiotic system is a language. In this case, language is
a broader term than a simple verbal system. Therefore, the passions around
Archaim are nothing but a desire, on the one hand, to decipher and trans"
late the message built into a system of material artifacts and, on the oth"
er, to use the results of this translation and decoding to substantiate or
support various theoretical constructs and practical actions.
The fascinating description of how national symbols are called into
question and, in the final analysis, are recognized as legitimate by arche"
ology and ethnology will enable Western readers to take a new look at
the Soviet and post"Soviet awareness of nationality and ethnicity.

145

Summary
A. Zdravomyslovs idea of the Russian language as the basis of Russian
national culture is supported, buttressed and illustrated in Yana StreltsoJ
vas article The Russian Language and Education Problems in the IntegraJ
tion of the Russian Diasporas in the Newly Independent States. In this
article, the idea is considered in the context of the Russians in the near
abroad adapting to their new and dynamic ethnocultural environment.
The language problem is the problem of preserving the national identi"
ty of the Russians living in the near abroad. Despite several well"writ"
ten theoretical studies which proclaim integration as the model of dem"
ocratic social development in the newly independent states, the current
language policy of these countries is extremely contradictory.
Yana Streltsova describes and analyzes the present situation in the
educational system of the CIS and the Baltic states. The overall assess"
ment is dismal: The reckless destruction of the Russian"language system
of information, education and culture in the CIS and Baltic countries has
led to a significant drop in the general and specialized educational and
academic level in these states. Russia is trying to do what it can to influ"
ence the language"related situation there: witness the Russian Presidents
Decree referring to the restoration of the status of Russia as the chief
center of education in the post"Soviet region as an element of national
strategy, the Resolution of the Council of the CIS Heads of State approv"
ing the concept of a CIS information space and the establishment of Rus"
sian information and cultural centers in the CIS and Baltic countries.
Research into the Russian"language policy pursued by Moscow in the
post"Soviet region is highly topical now. Specifically, new areas of lan"
guage differences have arisen: in the Internet, the Russian language is
beginning to promote integration as the dominant language of web sites
in the CIS countries.
Naturally, the language problem is also a long"term factor of instabil"
ity and social conflict. Apart from the integration"oriented initiatives and
the solutions proposed and furthered by Russia, there are also opposite,
isolationist trends. All this prompts us to search for new and better ways
of smooth interethnic contacts. One of such possible ways involves new
analytical approaches to intercultural communication within the frame"
work of ethnosemiotics and ethno" and psycholinguistics.
In her article National Stereotypes of Communicative Behavior and
Their Impact on Interaction Between Ethnic Groups, Olga Khristoforova
cites ethnolinguistic studies to note the dependence of the nature of eth"
nic interaction on the distinctive aspects of linguistic awareness. The

146

Summary
methodology of her research proceeds from the assumption that inter"
cultural communication is a case where awareness functions in anoma"
lous (pathological) conditions and consists of a contrasting compari"
son of different cultures awareness concepts and stereotypes in thought
and behavior. Discrepancies between stereotypes of communicative be"
havior and linguistic awareness often lead to misunderstanding and to
interpersonal and interethnic conflicts. This is clear from the tensions
existing between the indigenous ethnic groups of Northwestern Siberia
and Russians living in the same areas. These tensions are described by
O. Khristoforova who analyzes their underlying contrasts. The commu"
nicative behavior of the representatives of traditional cultures is an im"
portant component of linguistic awareness. The study of the distinctive
communicative behavior within the Siberian cultures is based on a thor"
ough analysis of both the means of communication and of the rules gov"
erning their use. Despite the extremely high semiotic status of non"ver"
bal means of communication in the cultures of the northern ethnic
groups, the thinking of indigenous people is highly reflective because it
is constantly modeling the behavior of the counterparty even in simple
social situations and even if such counerparties are imaginary natural
beings.
The data presented by the author clearly demonstrates the need for
integrated ethnolinguistic research of the communicative behavior of
Russias ethnic groups. If we seek to avoid provoking new and to settle
the existing ethnic conflicts, we should understand the distinctive con"
tent and functions of language in the form of interacting systems of ver"
bal and action"based codes.
The Symbolic Production of Ethnicity and Conflicts by Vladimir MalaJ
khov is devoted to the identification and analysis of the semiotic nature
of ethnicity. Assuming that ethnic identity has a symbolic nature, the
author, as a dedicated constructivist, is working on a new conception of
ethnicity and identity. Among the tasks and results of this effort is an
attempt to reassess the nature and causes of ethnic conflicts. In the sym"
bolic production of ethnicity, two ways may be identifieddiscursive and
non"discursive. The discursive way includes both a narrative aspect (the
oral tradition) and a scholarly aspect (empirical material arranged by
means of historiography, sociology or political science). In this case, lan"
guage is regarded as a means of production and the main channel of com"
munication in the reproduction of ethnicity. The way the author treats
language as a means of production and reproduction of ethnicity is im"

147

Summary
portant not only for the former Soviet Union but also for the world com"
munity at large.
In conclusion, Martha Brill Olcott, the books co"editor, notes that the
diversity of the studies makes it possible to form a picture of the new
trends arising in research into the problems of ethnicity and nationalism
in Russian science today. These studies both shed light on the role of
language in the formation of identity and demonstrate a more vigorous
involvement of the Russian social sciences in the global academic dis"
course on the problems of ethnicity and nationalism. M. Olcott main"
tains that the Russian social sciences are currently going through the
stage of transformation. Integration of Russian social studies with the
global academic trends promises, on the one hand, to enrich Russian sci"
ence and provide Western scholars with a better understanding of the
role ethnicity and nationality played under the Soviets and, on the other,
to demonstrate the significance of these forces for the modern post"Sovi"
et identity.
The book is testimony to the way the new generation of Russian schol"
ars reassesses the Soviet and post"Soviet identity experience from the angle
of nationalism and language and critically appraises the theoretical foun"
dations of the social sciences as such.

148

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149



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