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9

GSM
1989 GSM
(European Telecommunication Standards
Institute - ETSI) GSM 1990
. 1991 .,
1993 . 36 GSM 22 .
GSM
, , . 1994 .
GSM 1.3 . GSM
Global System for Mobile telecommunications
.
GSM ISDN
.
ISDN 64 /
, .
GSM
RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

126

(bearer) ( )
ISDN. , GSM,
300, 600, 1200, 2400 9600 /.
GSM
. GSM
SMS (Short Message Service
).
GSM
roaming), , (call
forwarding), (call waiting), (multi-party
conversations ), (barring)
() .

Um

(MS)

A-bis

(BTS)


(BTS)

(MSC)

CM

CM

MM

MM

RR
RR

BTSM

RR
BTSM

DTAP
BSSMAP

DTAP
BSSMAP

LAPDm

LAPDm

LAPD

LAPDm

LAPD

SCCP

MTP

GSM

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

BSSAP

127

CDMA
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
, 8 15 ()
.
(spread-spectrum).

, .

LEC (local exchange carrier ).
CDMA
. CDMA
:

Anti-jamming (,
CDMA);

Ranging ( );

Secure communications (
).

CDMA ,

. CDMA
.
( ) ,
(pseudo-random
code sequence). ,
.
CDMA
.
CDMA .
TIA (Telecommunications
Industry Association) IS-95.
CDMA BSSAP - DTAP BSMAP
( BSSMAP GSM).
CDMA .

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

128

BSSAP

BS

MSC

DTAP
BSSMAP

DTAP
BSSMAP

SCCP

SCCP

MTP

MTP

BSSAP

CDMA

BSAP BSS Application Part

BSSMAP - BSS Management Application Part

DTAP (GSM) Direct Transfer Application sub-Part

BTSM Base Station Controller to Base Transceiver Station

DTAP (CDMA) Direct Transfer Application sub-Part

RR Radio resource

MM Mobility Management

CC Call Control

SMS Short Message Service


OSI.

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

129

BSSAP

INAP

ISUP

IS41/MAP

TUP

VLR

AUC

EIR

HLR

TCAP

GSM/CDMA

B-ISUP

BSSMAP

DTAP

DUP

BSSAP

BTSM

SCCP

LAPD

GPRS
GTP

UDP

SNDCP

IP

GMM
SMS
NM

X.400
MTP3

Frame Relay

V5 PSTN
V5 Control

LAPv5
MTP2
V5

NS-Network

V5 Link Control

V5 Protection

LLC
BSSGP

SS
MM
RR
CM/CC
SMS

MTP1

OSI

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

130

BSSAP
GSM 08.06 http://www.etsi.org
MTP SCCP
MSC (Mobile Services Switching Center)
BSS (Base Station System).
SCCP, BSS Application Part (BSSAP).
- BSSAP
,
3 ().

,
BSS 3.
(
) ,
.

,
. BSSAP
:

Direct Transfer Application sub-Part (DTAP GSM L3)


MSC MS ( );
BSS.
MS-MSC
04- GSM.

BSS Management Application sub-Part (BSSMAP)


MSC BSS, MS ( ,
) BSS BSS .
BSSMAP
GSM 08.08.

BSSMAP ,
, . GSM
08.08 ,
(connection oriented connectionless)
.
DTAP. BSSAP,
3,
,
(subpart).
BSSAP .
1

()

DLCI

BSSAP
RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

BSSAP

131

- BSSMAP DTAP.

DLCI
DTAP MSC -> BSS
-.

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

132

BSSMAP
GSM 08.08 http://www.etsi.org
BSSMAP (BSS Management Application Part)
MSC BSS,
, .
BSSMAP
RR (Radio Resource), GSM 04.08
.
BSSMAP .
8

2-n

BSSMAP


1- , ( )
BSSMAP.


IE 1
(). IE ; IE
.

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

DTAP (GSM)

133

DTAP (GSM)
GSM 04.08, 08.06, 08.08 http://www.etsi.org
DTAP (Direct Transfer Application Part)
MSC MS.
DTAP BSS.
, MS DTAP
(Protocol Discriminator Information Element).
-
BSS MSC DTAP ,
RR (Radio Resource).
DTAP
MS ( MSC) MSC ( MS) -
.
SS7

SCCP MS .
DTAP .
8

N(SD)

1
2
3-n

DTAP


,
3. :
0000 ;
0001 ;
0010 PDSS1;
0011
SS;
0100 PDSS2;
0101 Mobility Management;
0110 -;
1001 SMS;
1011 SS;
1110 PD ;
RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

134


1111

, TS GSM 11.10.

/
(
).
, TI.

N(SD)
MM CM N(SD)
(send state). 7
0 . , 7
1, .


()
GSM L3.
.
(
) (

).

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

BTSM

135

BTSM
GSM 08.58 http://www.etsi.org
BTSM BSC BTS (Base Station
Controller - Base Transceiver Station) A-bis. BTSM
(Base Station
Controller) (Base Transceiver Station).
.

. BTSM Abis I- LAPD (
Measurement Result, UI).
BTSM :
8

3-n

BTSM


1- , ,
Transparent Non-Transparent, Radio Link
Layer Management ( ), Dedicated Channel
Management ( ), Common Channel
Management ( ) TRX Management.
.
8

G7

G6

G5

G4

G3

G2

G1

G1 G7
0000000
0000001
0000100
0000110
0001000




TRX

.
RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

136


.
().
8
EM

8 ( ).

( ).
0000 xxxx
0001 DATA REQuest
0010 DATA INDication
0011 ERROR INDication
0100 ESTablish REQuest
0101 ESTablish CONfirm
0110 ESTablish INDication
0111 RELease INDication
1000 RELease CONfirm
1001 RELease INDication
1010 UNIT DATA REQuest
1011 UNIT DATA INDication
0001 xxxx / TRX
0001 BCCH INFOrmation
0010 CCCH LOAD INDication
0011 CHANnel ReQuireD
0100 DELETE INDication
0101 PAGING CoMannD
0110 IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND
0111 SMS BroadCast REQuest
1001 RF RESource INDication
1010 SACCH FILLing
1011 OVERLOAD
1100 ERROR REPORT
1101 SMS BroadCast CoMannD
1110 CBCH LOAD INDication
1111 NOTification CoMannD
001 xxxxx
RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

BTSM
00001
00010
00011
00100
00101
00110
00111
01000
01001
01010
01011
01100
01101
01110
01111
10000
10001
10010
10011
10100
10101
10110

137

CHANnel ACTIVation
CHANnel ACTIVation ACKnowledge
CHANnel ACTIVation Negative ACK
CONNECTION FAILure
DEACTIVATE SACCH
ENCRyption CoMmanD
HANDOver DETection
MEASurement RESult
MODE MODIFY REQuest
MODE MODIFY ACKnowledge
MODE MODIFY Negative ACK
PHYsical CONTEXT REQuest
PHYsical CONTEXT CONFirm
RF CHANnel RELease
MS POWER Control
BS POWER Control
PREPROCess CONFIGure
PREPROCessed MEASurement RESult
RF CHANnel RELease ACKnowledge
SACCH INFO MODIFY
TALKER DETection
LISTENER DETection

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

138

BSMAP
TIA/EIA/IS-634-A, revision A
BSMAP (Base Station Management Application Part)
- (Radio Resource Management)
(Facility Management) MSC BS () BS.
BSMAP MS,
MSC BS. BSMAP (
3) DTAP
MS BS MSC
3, MS BS,
MS.
BSMAP .
8

2-n

BSMAP


1- , .
()
BSSMAP.


(IE) ,
. IE .
,
.

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

DTAP (CDMA)

139

DTAP (CDMA)
TIA/EIA/IS-634-A, revision A
DTAP (Direct Transfer Application Part)

MS . BS
DTAP, ,
MSC MSC,
-. DTAP
MS .
DTAP .
8

3-n

DTAP


()
. .
8
TI

TI

TI
, TI .
TI ,
TI.

TI
TI , .
TI
.
TI . TI
.

TI .

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

140


(CC, MM, RR).


DTAP.


,
(). IE .
,
.

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

RR

141

RR
GSM 04.08 http://www.etsi.org
- RR (Radio Resource)

( ,
.). RR
, () RR,
.
. , RR
BCCH CCCH RR (
).
RR .
8

3-n

RR


0110 RR.

(Skip identifier)
0000.


()
RR.
:
00111 xxx
:
011
ADDITIONAL ASSIGNMENT
111
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT
001
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT EXTENDED
010
IMMEDIATE ASSIGNMENT REJECT
00110 xxx
:
101
CIPHERING MODE COMMAND
010
CIPHERING MODE COMPLETE
00101 xxx
, :
RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

142

00001

00100

00011

00000

00010

110
001
111
011
100
000
101
xxx
101
010
111
xxx
001
010
100
111
xxx
000
001
010
011
100
101
110
111
xxx
010
011
101
110
xxx
000
010
111
100
101
110
11

ASSIGNMENT COMMAND
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE
ASSIGNMENT FAILURE
HANDOVER COMMAND
HANDOVER COMPLETE
HANDOVER FAILURE
PHYSICAL INFORMATION
:
CHANNEL RELEASE
PARTIAL RELEASE
PARTIAL RELEASE COMPLETE
Paging-:
PAGING REQUEST TYPE 1
PAGING REQUEST TYPE 2
PAGING REQUEST TYPE 3
PAGING RESPONSE
:
SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 8
SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 1
SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 2
SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 3
SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 4
SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 5
SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 6
SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 7
:
SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 2bis
SYSTEM IN FORMATION TYPE 2ter
SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 5bis
SYSTEM INFORMATION TYPE 5ter
:
CHANNEL MODE MODIFY
RR STATUS
CHANNEL MODE MODIFY ACKNOWLEDGE
FREQUENCY REDEFINITION
MEASUREMENT REPORT
CLASSMARK CHANGE
CLASSMARK ENQUIRY

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

RR

143


IE .
,
.

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

144

MM
GSM 04.08 http://www.etsi.org
MM (Mobility Management)
(

). MM

(Connection
Management CM).
MM .
8

3-n

MM


0101 MM.

(Skip identifier)
0000.


()
RR.
. 8
( ), 7
.
0x00
xxxx
:
0001
IMSI DETACH INDICATION
0010
LOCATION UPDATING ACCEPT
0100
LOCATION UPDATING REJECT
1000
LOCATION UPDATING REQUEST
0x01
xxxx
, :
0001
AUTHENTICATION REJECT
0010
AUTHENTICATION REQUEST
0100
AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE
RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

MM

0x10

0x11

1000
1001
1010
1011
xxxx
0001
0010
0011
0100
1000
1001
xxxx
01

145

IDENTITY REQUEST
IDENTITY RESPONSE
TMSI REALLOCATION COMMAND
TMSI REALLOCATION COMPLETE
:
CM SERVICE ACCEPT
CM SERVICE REJECT
CM SERVICE ABORT
CM SERVICE REQUEST
CM REESTABLISHMENT REQUEST
ABORT
:
MM STATUS

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

146

CC
GSM 04.08 http://www.etsi.org
(CC)
CM (Connection Management).
.
- ,
SETUP RELEASE COMPLETE.
CC.
CC
,
MM. CC
.
.
:

"mobile originating" "mobile originated" (MO


) ,
. "mobile terminating"
"mobile terminated" (MT )
, .
CC :
8

3-n

CC


0011 CC.


()
. .

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

CC

TI

6
TI

147

TI
, TI .
TI ,
TI.

TI
TI , .
TI
.
TI . TI
.

TI .


8 ( ), 7

. CC :
0x00
0000
.
0x00
xxxx
:
0001
ALERTING
1000
CALL CONFIRMED
0010
CALL PROCEEDING
0111
CONNECT
1111
CONNECT ACKNOWLEDGE
1110
EMERGENCY SETUP
0011
PROGRESS
0101
SETUP
0x01
xxxx
:
0111
MODIFY
1111
MODIFY COMPLETE
0011
MODIFY REJECT
0000
USER INFORMATION
1000
HOLD
1001
HOLD ACKNOWLEDGE
1010
HOLD REJECT
1100
RETRIEVE
RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

148

0x10

0x11

1101
1110
xxxx
0101
1101
1010
xxxx
1001
1110
1101
0100
0101
0001
0010
0110
0111
1010

RETRIEVE ACKNOWLEDGE
RETRIEVE REJECT
:
DISCONNECT
RELEASE
RELEASE COMPLETE
:
CONGESTION CONTROL
NOTIFY
STATUS
STATUS ENQUIRY
START DTMF
STOP DTMF
STOP DTMF ACKNOWLEDGE
START DTMF ACKNOWLEDGE
START DTMF REJECT
FACILITY

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

SMS

149

SMS
GSM 04.11 http://www.etsi.org
SMS (Short Message Service)
GSM PLMN Short
Message Entity (Service Center)
TS GSM 03.40. "MO" - Mobile Originating
( ) "MT" - Mobile Terminating ( )
.
SMS .
8

3-n

SMS


1001 SMS.


()
. .
8

TI

6
TI

TI
, TI .
TI ,
TI.

TI
TI , .
TI
.
TI . TI
.
RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

150


TI .



.
:
00000001
CP-DATA
00000100
CP-ACK
00010000
CP-ERROR


IE
(). IE .
,
.
SMS relay .
8

2
MTI

3-n

SMS relay

MTI
, :
(321)

RP-

000

ms->n

RP-DATA

000

n->ms

001

ms->n

001

n->ms

RP-DATA

010

ms->n

RP-ACK

010

n->ms

011

ms->n

011

n->ms

RP-ACK

100

ms->n

RP-ERROR

100

n->ms

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com

SMS

101

ms->n

101

n->ms

RP-ERROR

110

ms->n

RP-SMMA

110

n->ms

111

ms->n

111

n->ms

151

(Message Reference)
RP-ACK RP-ERROR
RP-DaATA RP-SMNA.


IE
(). IE .
,
.

RADCOM, Ltd., 1999, . BiLiM Systems Ltd., 2000. http://www.bilim.com