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19.00.01
, ,

. . , . ..

2001

1.

.
1.1.
.
1.2. .
1.3.
.
1.3.1.
.
1.3.2. .
1.3.3. .
1.3.4. .

6
10
19
19
29
45
54

1.4. .
1.5. .

62

2. .
2.1. .
2.2. .
2.3. .
2.4. .

75
75
75
78
85

73

3.
.
3.1. .
3.2. (
).
3.2.1. .
3.2.2. .
3.2.3. .
3.3.
( ).
3.3.1. .
3.3.2. .
3.4.
( ).
3.4.1. .
3.4.2. .
3.4.3. .
3.5. .
.

92
92
93
94
95
96
99
100
102
121
121
122
123
127

146
148

159

.
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1.
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1982; , , 1995; , 1996 .). ,
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, .

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.. (1973-75/2000):
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Wahlverwandtschaften (, 1912, .28) , , ,


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1970).
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(, 1902). ,
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10

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1.2. .
, . . ( .
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, , : , (, 1902). , , 1950-
() . , , (),
, (, , ),
. (1981).
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(Treisman, 1969, p.283; ..).
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1950- . (., ., Neisser, 1967). , , (Keele & Neill, 1978, p.3),
, , .
:
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, . . , -, ,
, -,
, -, ,
(Egeth & Yantis, 1997).

11

(1) , ; (2) , (Keele & Neill, 1978).



(., ., Neisser, 1967), ,
, , . , : , , . (. , , 1995); (),
, . (Kahneman, 1973);
,
(. Neumann,
1987). , ,
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1970- . . (1981), , ,
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, .
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, , -

12

. , . (. , . ) (.
. , . ) ,
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. :
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: (1912), (1902) (1898) (., Arnell, in press; Di
Lollo et al., 2000; Mack & Rock, 1998a,b; Shapiro & Terry, 1998; Vogel et al., 1998 . .),
, , , (enabling consciousness).
, , , , , , . .
, , , : , , , , .
, () , (, 1902, .169). :
,
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-,
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13

, ( ,
), ,
. . , , , (. Neumann, 1987).
?
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, , (Shapiro & Luck, 1998; Wolfe, 1998
.).
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14

, , .
, (Gopher, 1994; Kahneman & Treisman, 1984; Lavie, 1995):
, . . , . . , (Yantis & Johnston, 1990),
. , ,
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, (Lavie, 1995).
, ( ),
. , :
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, .

, , , - - , . ,
,
, , ( ) ( ,
..) ,
(. Rolke et al.,
2001; Vogel et al., 1998).
.

15

(1987; Treisman, 1993; .: Palmer, 1999). :


, , .
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. . , , , (Duncan & Humphreys, 1989; Shapiro et al., 1994). , : (1) , ; (2) ,
(),
; (3)
, .
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16

( , ,
). .
, ,
, . ,
. , , , 1960- . (Kahneman, 1973).
, ,
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, . , . , , ,
(Neumann, 1987). , , ,
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) , (
, ..),
, , : capacity is
limited because Capacity is limited* (p.361). , ,
, .
,
: ,
() ( ),
(Kahneman, 1973) (Navon & Gopher, 1979, 1980) , -

, (.)

17

(-) (Arnell, in press). :


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, (Navon & Gopher, 1980).
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Gopher, 1979, .234).
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/,
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. . 1970-,

18


, , , .. (Keele & Neill, 1978).
. ,
, (Neumann, 1984).
, , .
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.
, : , (), (, , 1995). ,
, (., Duncan et al., 1994). ,
, (, ), , , , ,
(. , 1950; , 1928).
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19

(
).

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, (Posner, 1986, p.78). , ,
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, , () ,
,
.
(Rapid Serial Visual Presentation,
RSVP; ) .
1.3.
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1.3.1.
.
. .
?
,
1970- .

20

(Sperling et al., 1971), , ,


,
.
/
(, , , ..) ,
, 4 30 (. : Rabbitt,
1978; Reeves & Sperling, 1986; Shapiro & Terry, 1998 .).
15-20 (. Shapiro & Raymond, 1994; Shapiro & Terry, 1998), ,
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(., Jiang & Chun, 2001; Jolicoeur, 1998; Jolicoeur et al., in press;
Ross & Jolicoeur, 1998), ,
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,
(Rabbitt, 1978).
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, , 2-3 , 10 (Estes, 1978).
, ( ,
, -

21

).
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. , , ,
, ,
, ,
(Rabbitt, 1978).
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(., , 1976). . , , ,
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1983) , (,
, ) . , , ,
100 .
, (, ),
(, 1987; Treisman, 1993) . , , , .
. . , , ,
-

22

(Keele & Neill, 1978). .


; . .
, . . , (
) (Botella & Eriksen, 1991, 1992). ,
, , , , .
(1987), (Virzi & Egeth, 1984).

(Intraub, 1985) (Potter, 1976). ,
, (, ) , , .
, : , , ,
. , ,
, , , , (
), , .
.
, , , . /

. , , ,

23

,

. , () , , . ,

(Navon & Gopher, 1980), , (Keele & Neill, 1978). , /, , ,
( ) , ,
.
(Broadbent
& Broadbent, 1987). , .
, ,
400 , 720 .
(Kanwisher, 1991; Kanwisher and Potter, 1990), , , . , ,
, , , , . ,
, .
, (Bavelier &
Potter, 1992).

( ) .
. (Weichselgartner & Sperling, 1987).

24

, .
( ) -,
. .
,
(.. 400-450 ),
. ,
- :
, .
:
, , (. .1.1). , , .
------- -1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8
|
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). ,
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25

,
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, , , ,
, ,
() .
, , ,
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, , , , , , , , . . . ,
/ (Shapiro & Arnell, 1994, p.159).
, ,
(Raymond et al., 1992).
.
, , , . . , ,
, ,
(., Arnell & Duncan, in press; Botella, 1998; Egeth & Yantis,
1997; Hoffman, 1999; Jolicoeur et al., in press; Palmer, 1999; Posner & Di Girolamo, in press;
Shapiro & Luck, 1998; Shapiro & Raymond, 1994; Shapiro & Terry, 1998; Wolfe, 1998 .).

, ,
,
(Kawahara, Di Lollo & Enns, in press).
. -

26


. , , ( ) , ,
,
.
, 1987 (Broadbent & Broadbent, 1987;
Weichselgartner & Sperling, 1987)
. . (1978), , , ,
1977 .
(. Botella & Eriksen, 1992; Broadbent & Broadbent, 1987). , , ,
. ,
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.
60%. ,
34%.
,
54%,
17%. :

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. , , , , , , . ,
, , -

27

, , ,
(Rabbitt, 1987). , . ,
. (Reeves & Sperling, 1986; Sperling & Reeves, 1986; Weichselgartner & Sperling, 1987),
.
1992 , . , . .
,
, , , ,
, (Raymond et al., 1992).
. , , (Shapiro & Terry, 1998, p.310).
: , , , , .
, .
.
,
11 .
. . : ,
180-360 ,
+2, +3 +4 . ,
:
, %


120

(Raymond et al., 1992, p.583).

100

80
60
40

. -

20

, -

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

7-14 .

8
,

1.2. (Raymond et
al., 1992).

28

. : 8 ,
( ). . ,
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),
;
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U- (. .1.2).
(.
.1.2). , +2 +5
.

, , .
() (Chun & Potter, 1995; Raymond et al., 1995; Shapiro et
al., 1994 .). , , (. .1.2). , .
1.3.2. .
-

29

. ,
, , ,
(Deacon & Shelley-Tremblay, 2000; Kanwisher, 2001; Luck et al., 1996; Niedeggen
et al., 2000; Rolke et al., 2001; Shapiro & Luck, 1999; Vogel et al., 1998 .).
, (., ., Shapiro & Luck, 1999; Shapiro & Terry, 1998),
.
, ,

, .
, (Chun & Potter, 1995; Raymond et al.,
1992, 1995 .), (, ) , /
(., Duncan, Martens & Ward, 1997; Jiang &
Chun, 2001; Peterson & Juola, 2000; Shih, 2000).
, (Chun & Potter, 1995; Rolke et al., 2001; Shapiro, Driver,
Ward & Sorensen, 1997).
--- . , . . (Duncan et al., 1994).
:
. ,
, ,
.
, . , , .
(., Duncan & Humphreys, 1989) : .
, -, , -, .

30

.
45-60 0
900 ,
. .
, : ,
100-300 , .
300 . , ,
. , . , , , ,
.
. -- (McLaughlin et al., 2001).
,
, .
, ---,
, (McLaughlin et al.,
2001; Isaak et al., 1999; Shore et al., in press),
(Arnell & Duncan, in press; Brehaut et al., 1999; Peterson & Juola, 2000; Ward et al., 1997).
, , ,
(. ).
,
: ,
() , , (Giesbrecht & Di Lollo,
1998). ,
(-, ).
-

31

. , .

( ,
), ,
, . . . . (Chun & Potter, 1995;
Potter et al., 1998). , ,
,
, , , , : , . , , , .
.1.1.
, . . ,
,
, , , ,
, .
(Kawahara, Di Lollo & Enns, in press). ,
: . , , , ; , , , . , , ,
, -

32

, . ,
,
.
: ,
, ,
. ,
. (., Jolicoeur, 1998).
1.1.

(1 , 2 , ).

:

(Chun & Potter, 1995; Maki, Frigen &
Paulson, 1997 .)
:
(Raymond et al., 1992, 1995; Grandison et al., 1997; McArthur et al., 1999;
Marois et al., 2000).



(Chua et al., 1996; Isaak et al, 1999;
Lahar et al., in press).

(Shapiro et al., 1994).

, . American Psychonomic Society (2000),


(.
Arnell & Duncan, in press; Shore et al., in press).
, ,
(
), .
, .
,
/ .
( ) ( ): ,

33

, (Chun & Potter, 1995; Maki, Couture,


Frigen & Lien, 1997; Peterson & Juola, 2000; Place & Boujon, 2001; Shih & Winstone, 2001)
(Chun & Potter, 1995; Raymond,
Shapiro & Arnell, 1995).
: , , ()
(,
),
9-11 (Maki & Padmanabhan, 1994).
. .
, ,
(Shiffrin & Schneider, 1977).

. -
(Raymond et al., 1992), (Chun & Potter, 1995), (Shapiro, Caldwell & Sorensen,
1997), (Moroni et al., 2000),
(Shapiro & Raymond, 1994) .. ,
, (., ., Treisman, 1993) , (Joseph et al., 1997;
Kawahara, Di Lollo & Enns, in press; Nakama & Egeth, in press), (Krope et al.,
1998), (Ross & Jolicoeur, 1999).

. , , , , (Breitmeyer & Ogmen, 2000; Enns & Di Lollo, 2000;
Palmer, 1999). , :
, , (Brehaut et al., 1999; Giesbrecht & Di Lollo, 1998). , ,
(Breitmeyer et al., 1999; Brehaut et al., 1999; Ehrenstein et al., 1997;
Enns et al., in press; Giesbrecht & Di Lollo, 1998; Grandison et al., 1997; Kawahara, Di Lollo
& Enns, in press; Seiffert & Di Lollo, 1997),
,

34

.

(Shore et al., in press; Kawahara, Enns & Di Lollo, in press). (Enns et al., in press). .1.2 .
1.2.
.


(., Duncan et al.,
1994)


(Kawahara, Enns & Di
Lollo, in press )


(Chun & Potter, 1995)


(Giesbrecht & Di Lollo, 1998)

.
, , , /, . , ,
,
: , (Maki, Couture,
Frigen & Paulson, 1997; Shapiro & Luck, 1999; Shapiro & Terry, 1998).

, ,
(. ) (Arnell & Duncan, in press; Jolicoeur, 1998, 1999a,b,c; Jolicoeur
& DellAcqua, 1998; Ross & Jolicoeur, 1999; Wong, in press).
, , .

35

. . , : , (-)
, . ,
(bottlenecks), : ,

(Soto-Faraco et al., in press), ()
. .
?
. , , , , .
1.3.
.

Duncan et al., 1997;


Mondor, 1998;
Soto-Faraco & Spence,
in press;
Goddard et al., 2000;
Tremblay & Jones, 2000;
Arnell, Trangsrud et al.,
2001
Potter et al., 1998

-
-
Jolicoeur & Arnell,
1995, 1999;
Jolicoeur, 1999c;
Arnell & Larson, in
press Arnell,
Trangsrud et al., 2001
( -)
Duncan et al., 1997;
Potter et al., 1998;
Soto-Faraco & Spence,
in press;
Arnell & Larson, in
press Arnell,
Trangsrud et al., 2001
( -)

-
-
Soto-Faraco et al.,
in press

,

(Hillstrom, Shapiro &
Spence: . Johansen-Berg & Lloyd,
2000)
,
,
(Hillstrom,
Shapiro & Spence: .
Johansen-Berg
& Lloyd, 2000)

,
, (. .1.3).
, ,
, , ,
, (Arnell & Jolicoeur, 1999), (Soto-Faraco & Spence, in press), (Potter et al., 1998)

36

(Arnell & Larson, in press) , (Goddard et al., 1998, 2000).


, .
, - : (Arnell, in press), , , , .
.
. , U- J . ,
.
,
(lag-1 sparing), (Shapiro & Raymond, 1994 .).
(Arnell & Larson, in press)
(. 1.3.3). : , , ,
, ,
, ,
. . ,
: , (., Jolicoeur, 1999c), (. Mondor, 1998). J , (Visser et al., 1999; Peterson &
Juola, 2000; Shih, 2000; Weichselgartner & Sperling, 1987), ,

, , , (Arnell & Duncan, in press; Jolicoeur, 1999a,b,c).
. , . .
100 , -

37

, (attentional set switch) : (1) (, ); (2)


(/); (3) ; (4)
, (Visser et al., 1999). ,
(U-
/ ) .
, (Serences & Awh, in press; Peterson
& Juola, 2000; Arnell & Duncan, in press; Shih, 2000; Arnell & Larson, in press; Potter et al.,
1998). ,
. , ,
, : ,
+1, ,
. , (. .1.3).



/ .

1.3. .

, ( ),
:
1. ( ) , ,
.
2. : ,
150 (Arnell & Jolicoeur, 1999; Peterson & Juola, 2000).

38

.
,

(Kawahara, Enns & Di Lollo, in press).
3. - : (Shapiro et al., 1994) (Mondor, 1998),
.
, , (Shapiro et al., 1994).
, : , , (Arnell, in press; Arnell & Jolicoeur, 1999).
4. (Ehrenstein, 1997;
Breitmeyer, 1999; Raymond et al., 1992; Shapiro & Raymond, 1994; Seiffert & Di Lollo,
1997; Grandison et al., 1997 .).
5. () ,
(Arnell, in press; Chun & Potter, 1995; Ross & Jolicoeur, 1999).
6. () (Enns & Di Lollo, 2000;
Enns et al., in press; Giesbrecht & Di Lollo, 1998; Jolicoeur, 1999b; Kawahara, Enns & Di
Lollo, in press).
7.
: ,
, (Kawahara, Di Lollo & Enns, in press; Potter et al., 1998;
Visser et al., 1999). , , . (Jolicoeur, 1999c).
, . , , , ( ) / , -

39

.
, ,
, .
, (Chun &
Potter, 1995; Maki, Couture, Frigen & Paulson, 1997).

: / .. (
,
.) -,
, , ,
(*), 7 .
, (Baldo & Regato, 2000).
. .
, ,
, , ,
,
(Shapiro et al., 1994).
,
: (, ), (Raymond, Shapiro & Arnell, 1995).
, .
: , , , (Moroni et al., 2000,
p.2779).
: (1) (Chua, 2000); (2)
(Grandison et al., 1997; Ehrenstein et al., 1996; Enns et al., in press;
Breitmeyer et al., 1999; Brehaut et al., 1999; Seiffert & Di Lollo, 1997); (3) , : -

40

, , 25, 3 (Shapiro et al., 1994).


, . ,
, , ,
(Ward et al., 1996). . , ,
(Jolicoeur, 1999a). .
,

(Marois et al., 2000). .
, , , , ,
, ,
- , , (Ward et al., 1996).
, . . , .
. , ,

, ,
(McLaughlin
et al., 2001; Shore et al., in press).
---
- . ,

. () ,
. , ,
,

41

.
, (McLaughlin et al., 2001).

(Shore et al., in press). , , (., Grandison et al., 1997; Seiffert & Di Lollo, 1997),
,
(
).
, ,
, . , . , . , . , 4 9 , ,
, , ,
(Breitmeyer et al., 1999). . . :
,
, , 88% , ,
(Peterson & Juola, 2000).
. . , (. :
Shapiro & Raymond, 1994).
, ,
(Arnell & Larson, in press .). -

42

,
.
, , , : , , , , (Kawahara, Enns & Di Lollo, in press),
. ? , ,
, . , , ,
, , , ,
. ,
(. Posner & Di Girolamo, in press). ,
(Arnell, in press; Potter et al., 1998; Soto-Faraco &
Spence, in press .).

, , , , .
, , ,
, , .
(., ., Arnell & Duncan, in press) (
, , , ). 1970- . . . (Navon & Gopher, 1979,
1980), , , / , , / .
,
.

43

,
, (,
, ) . , ,

(Schacter & Buckner, 1998,
p.185) (Chua et al., 1996; Duvuru et al., 1996; Luck et al., 1996; Maki, Frigen, Paulson, 1997;
Martens, 2001; Niedeggen et al., 2000; Rolke et al., 2001; Shapiro, Driver, Ward & Sorensen,
1997; Vogel et al., 1998; . Deacon & Shelley-Tremblay, 2000; DellAcqua &
Grainger, 1999), :
(Shapiro, Caldwell & Sorensen, 1997; Shapiro & Terry,
1998), (Awh et al., 2001), (Anderson &
Phelps, 2001; Frese et al., 1999). ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
(Rolke et al., 2001; Shapiro, Driver, Ward & Sorensen, 1997; Vogel et al., 1998).

.
. , , ()
, . , :
P100, , N400,
, (Rolke et al., 2001; Vogel et al., 1998), P300, , , ,
(Rolke et al., 2001; Shapiro & Luck, 1999; Vogel et al., 1998). , P300

(McArthur et al., 1999).
(fMRI) , -

44

( ), (Marois, Chun & Gore, 2000).



: , ,
.
/ , ,
.. ,
( ),
, (, 1973).
, . ,
. , , .
. , , , ,
. ,
(Husain et al., 1997, p.154). .
, ,
, ,

(McLaughlin et al., 2001).
, :

, , ( 15%
, ),
.
, , (Maciokas & Crognale, in press),
: ,

45

(Goddard et al.,
1998). (Maciokas & Crognale, in press; Lahar et al., in press),
(Tuck et al., 1999; Hari et al., 1999), (Goddard et al., 2001), (ADHD) (Hollingsworth et al., 2001), (Husain et al., 1997; Shapiro & Luck, 1999) (Moroni et al., 2000). (Anderson & Phelps, 2001).
.
1.3.3. .
,
, .
: , . ,
,
, (, ). : ,
,
(, 1987; Treisman, 1993), . (Shapiro & Terry, 1998).
, .
, ,
. , . , . ,
. . ,
. -

46

. . .
, , : . , . . .
. , : ,
, , ,
, .
,
,
( : ,
. ),
( : ,
. ) (Maki, Couture, Frigen & Lien, 1997;
Maki, Frigen & Paulson, 1997; Wong, in press). ,

.
,
( , )
, -
(. Brehaut
et al., 1999; Giesbrecht & Di Lollo, 1998; Jolicoeur, 1998 .).
, (., McLaughlin et al., 2001).

, (Reeves &
Sperling, 1986; Weichselgartner & Sperling, 1987; Raymond et al., 1992) .
(, , ,

47

) . , ,
, ( ,
) .
(Raymond et
al., 1995; Shapiro & Raymond, 1994; Shapiro et al., 1994; Shapiro & Terry, 1998).
(Shapiro et al., 1994; Shapiro & Raymond,
1994; Raymond et al., 1995)
, ,
-

, , . , , ,
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1998). ,
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Ward, Duncan & Shapiro, 1996). ,
,
, , .

, , .

-, , ,

48

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& Paulson, 1997; Rolke et al., 2001; Shapiro, Driver, Ward & Sorensen, 1997; Vogel et al.,
1998). , , ,
, , ,
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Paulson, 1997; Shapiro & Terry, 1998 .). , . (Isaak, Shapiro & Martin, 1999; Raymond, Shapiro & Arnell,
1995; Shapiro, Caldwell & Sorensen, 1997; Shapiro & Raymond, 1994; Shapiro, Raymond &
Arnell, 1994; Shapiro & Terry, 1998), , . . (Chun,
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49

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Kawahara, Di Lollo & Enns, in press; Kawahara, Enns & Di Lollo, in press). -

50

(Di Lollo et al., 2000; Enns & Di Lollo, 2000)


: , , , , ,
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51

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52

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DellAcqua & Crebolder, in press; Ross & Jolicoeur, 1999),
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53

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. (Isaak, Shapiro & Martin, 1999; Raymond,
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(Enns et al., in press; Maki, Couture,
Frigen & Lien, 1997; Peterson & Juola, 2000; Shapiro & Terry, 1998; Shih, 2000), (Jolicoeur, 1998, 1999
a,b,c; Jolicoeur & DellAqua, 1998; Ross & Jolicoeur, 1999) (Duncan et
al., 1994) (Arnell, in press; Arnell &
Duncan, in press; Arnell & Larson, in press; Arnell, Trangsrud et al., 2001).

,
(Di Lollo et al., 2000; Enns & Di Lollo, 2000; Enns et al., in press; Kawahara,

54

Di Lollo & Enns, in press; Kawahara, Enns & Di Lollo, in press),


. (1981).
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1.3.4.
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Wong, in press) ,
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55

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.


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:

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56

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Iverson & Hurdelbrink, 2001; Jolicoeur & DellAcqua, 1998; Jolicoeur, 1999a; Jolicoeur,
DellAcqua & Crebolder, in press).
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57

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58

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59

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60

(Di Lollo et al., 2000).


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61

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62

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63

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0
0

3.2.
.

.
( ),



(., Kawahara et al., in press). -

, ,

28 , .
+6
, (
) , . , , , . ,
.
. ,
, ,
, . , ,
( : ) . ,
,
, . , , . (
) ,

99

, . , ,
, , : , ; , , .
, , , , ,
( ,
).
,
.

, ( , , ,
), ,
( ). ,
, , , ,
, .
(#), ,
, , , , , ,
, .
3.3.
( ).
:
(1) , ,

, .
, , .
(2)
( . . ) .

100

3.3.1. .
:
. . 21,2 .
. .
. 24 , 16 8 . 4
: 2 ,

, ,
.
(.
3.2.2). , , ( #). 4-6 ( , ). :
(1) : ( , ) 5-6 ,
, ,
( ).
105 : 25 ,
, +1 +4, 5
6 , ( +5).
, . Difflet Punchlet, .. .
(2) : 4-6 , . Difflet Punchlet.
. 1.1.1 1.3 I.
, , , -

101

7-8 ,
.
, 6 , . . (Chun & Potter, 1995),
+5. , . . ,
( )
120 , 5
, (Peterson & Juola, 2000).
:
(1) : 70 .
Seqgen ;
(2) : 210 , ; 105 105
( );
(3) : 70 , .
,
350 .
12 24 . ( )
. 24
,
(4-5-6). .
, , .
( I).
(1) (2)
, , (Weichselgartner
& Sperling, 1987; Raymond et al., 1992), (Baldo &
Regato, 2000). (1)

102

(2) ,
.
, , ,
. , , ,
, ,
,
. .
,
,
,
. . , , , () , ,
(Ward et al., 1996; .
Jolicoeur, 1999a). , . , ,
, (,
, ),
,
; , , , ,
(Botella et al., 1992). , , , (Luck & Vogel, 1997).
3.3.2. .
( 70
, 70 210 )
. ,

103

.
89% ( 1400 ),
96,19% ( 4200 ) 90,43% ( 1400
).
. ,
,

, %

(F(1,38)=45.69; p<0.0001), (F(1,38)=48.30; p<0.0001) .


90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0

, : , (
3,18% ), - 5

, (

2,55% ). -

-3 -2 -1

, , 3.3. .

, -

.
(. .3.3). , ,
, ,
.

(, : ):

/ - ().

, ( ).

, .

().

,
, ( ).

() ( 3 +5) .

104

, ,
:
I. ( ):
-

( , ).
II. ( ):

(/ , );

, , ,
;

.
III. ( ):

- ( );

: .

(4,79% ) (27,77% ). 0.36. ,


( ) , ,
() .
16- ,
(. .3.1).
: ,
. ,
.

105

3.1.
.

20,44%
(17,12%

13,43%

3,4%

9,5%

1,05%

2,92%

3,36%

8,63%

0,96%

2,48%

0,22%

0,35%

0,52%

I.
, ,
. .
1. . , ,
. , () , ,
, , . , - ( 20,83% , ), , ,
. , 8 20 (,
210,
: ). 3 .. ,
, , ,
( , ..). , ,
: (Holcombe et al., 2001; Raymond et al., 1992). ,

( ),

106

2. , .
,
, (. Botella & Eriksen, 1992), ,
-
. , . , -
(, , , ),
-, (, 3 20 ,
..). ,
, , (clustering), (Reeves & Sperling,
1986). 1 (. ).

( ) 42%. 52,5%, 31,7% ( ),


, , 19,3%. , 51% ,
. , (F(1,38)=19.83; p<0.0001), .
,
. , , ,
, , , .

107


(. .3.3.9 III) 4- 5- 6- , ( , ). ,

, %

5- ( ).
100

80

60
40
20

(
)


( )
1


(.
.3.4). -

100%,
-

3.4.


.

, , ).
, .
, ( ), -

, %

120

100

80

60

.6
.17

40

.
(.17) -

20

0
0

3.5.
.

(.6)
,
( ).

108

.3.5 .

+3 ( 9%) +4
( 12.5%). , .
, : +1 +4 (t=2.81, p<0.011), +2 +4 (t=3.31, p<0.004).
, +4
, .

, , ,

. .3.4 , ,
,
(
), +3 , +4 -

, %

80

( ).

60

5-.
40

6-.

20

, +5

0
1

3.6.
5- 6-
.


() 5- ,

6-

(. .3.6).

109



: [1] , ,
, , / ; [2] -, ; [3] , (

, %

100

80
60

..

; [5] -

40
- ..
20

0
-3 -2 -1 0

); [4] -

- .

; [6] - .
,

3.7.

.

, , , .
,
(. .3.7). (
/ - ) , . , , +3 ( ,
). /-, , +3 (F (1,18) = 6.46, p<0.012): - +3
+4, , .

-

+1 ( F(1,18)=6.08,
p<0.018 F(1,18)=4.84, p<0.034, ): ,

110

, , 67% .
, - , , 76% , , , 81% (, ,
).
,
. . , .17
+2 +3 , - (. .3.8). :
, ( 2 20%,
1 60-70%). ,
, ( ) ,
( ).
,
, . ,
%

.17

100
80

60

40

20


:
-

0
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

3.8.
.

,
, ( ,
).


. , , -

111

( ) , . ,
, , , , (, 1989). (
5-6 , , , , ,
),
. , (
). (1) (2),
(1977), ,
.
( = 0.107, <0.119). , , . (. .1.2 I) ,
, (,
172 30% ,
1 35% ), (, 17
45% , 164
5% ).
.
I. (Weichselgartner & Sperling, 1987; Raymond et al., 1992; Baldo & Regato,
2000).
,
U- , .3.9. +2 +3
(. . 3.3.6 III). +6 +4 +5 ( ), -

112

, %


60

50

+1 (
+1 +6 ; -

40
.

30

, +1 -

20

10

+4 +5).
-

0
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

, -

.
(Raymond et al., 1992), -

3.9. .

. , , .
.3.10.
,
,
(. ).
,
,

, %

50

(
40
.

30

200 ) (Chun & Potter, 1995; Shapiro


& Raymond, 1994; Shih, in press),

Raymond et al.,
1992

20

10

(Raymond et al., 1992;

0
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

3.10.
. (1992).

Weichselgartner & Sperling, 1987).


, . .

:

, ,

113

, (Shapiro & Raymond, 1994, .174), ,


(Holcombe et al., 2001).
II. , ,
, . ,
(. .3.9). (. 3.4). , , , , ( -1) (F(1,38)=6.62;
p<0.014), , (F(1,38)=6.51; p<0.015),
+2, , ,
(F(1,38)=12.62; p<0.001). ,
+4 (F(1.38)=5,27; p<0.027),
+5 (F(1,38)=9.89; p<0.003) +6 (F(1,38)=15.33; p<0.0001),
. , , +3,
, , .
, , ( 3 +6) , ,
, ( , ..)
. ( 70 ) 17 26.35 .
, ,
(F(1,38)=6.08, p<0.01). ,
( ), .

114

, %

120

100

80
60

40
.

20

0
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

, -

3.11. , .

(. .3.11),
-

(Cattell, 1886). ,
( 0) :
,
.
,
, , .
3.12. ( 1) ( 3): .
1

80
70
60
50

40

30
20
10
0
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

, %

, %

16
70
60
50
40

30

20
10
0
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

, . ,

(., ., .16 .3.12). (., ., -

115

.1 .3.12).
.
.
. ( , , ), ,
, .
, , .
, , : ,
() . , , ,
. , (.4). , .
3.2.

( , ).

,

(
,
)

19 (95%)

5 (25%)

10 (50%)

1 (5%)

15 (75%)

10 (50%)

.3.2
,
, , , , . , , .
, ,
. , ,
, ,
:

116

(.1), (.11). , ,
: , (.15);
, (.17). , , , , , : ,
(.15).
, , ,
(. Kawahara, Enns & Di Lollo, in press; Kawahara, Di Lollo & Enns, in press;
Visser et al., 1999): , ,
(.18). ,
(.4), (.7).
,
: , ,
(.14).
( ) , , . ,
. : , (.3). ,
: ,
(.6).
, , ,
, , : , , -
(.4). , , , ,
, . , : ,
, , , ,
(.9). , ,
. , , , ,
.

117

,
, , ,
, (
).
-, : , , , ,
(.1). , , .
: , (.4),
; , ,
.
, (
), . , , , , , : , //
(.6); (.10); / / , (.16); , : - , , : ,
- (.18); , , (.2);
, (.4);
, (.7). , ,
. , ,
, ,

. , (.13), ,
(.14).
. , . , :
, - (.1). , -

118

, , , , . , . ,
( ), : (.2).
, ,
. , post factum, : ,
(.4); , (.7);
, (.11);
, (.15);
, , ,
, : (.8). , ,
(.11); , -, , (.8).
.
, , , , - :
, (.1). ,
,
, ( ).
, . ,

: , (.3);
- , , ,
(.12); - ,
, - , (.12).
, , (88.3% ),
, , :
, : , . ,

119

, (.11).
, ,
, ,
: ,
, , (.2); ,
(.9). - . ,
(.11). , ( , ) :
, (.2). , , : , , .
(.11); , :
, , (.19).
, (.6). ,
:
31% ( 52.53%
14.38%), 240
480 ( ).
, , , , , , , : , , , , - (.4). ,
, .
,
: , , (.3). , ,
,
(.5). ,
: ,
, ,

120

(.12). (.9). , (.14).


, , , (16,92% 16,34% , ).
, 50% ,
, , 50%
, . , : ,
, , ,
(.2). , , . :
, (.5). ,
, (.18). :
, (.20). :
, . , , (.1). :
. - (.5).
, ,
. , , , . , : ( ); , (.12); , , (.18). , , , . , ,
(. 3.2),
.
, , , , .

121

3.4. ( ).
3.4.1. .
, :
() , , .
(
)
. ,
, . .
,
( )
.

. -, ,
. ,

, , , .
, ( , , ), . .
. 5000 (Weichselgartner & Sperling, 1987),

280 36 (. .3.9). ,
,
, ,

122

, .
350 , . 210 ,
, , 105 . , , ,
, (
), ,
.
3.4.2. .
:
. . 22,4 .
. .
. 10 , 7 3 .
.
, .
8,3 .

, ,
, ,
. ,
, , ( ), (
).
:
(1) : 70 ,
Seqgen ;
(2) : 210 , 105
, ,
105 . .
(3) : 70 , -

123

.
350 .
, .

( ) , ,
350 . (. I). 175 .
, .
.
.
12
. .
3.4.3. .

, 70 ,

, %

( 89,71%
50

92,29% ,

40

700 ,

30

). -

20

,
-

10

0
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

3.13.
.

(Weichselgartner

&

Sperling,

1987;

Raymond et al., 1992; Baldo & Regato,


2000) (. .3.13). -


+2 +3 (. . 3.4.9 3.4.10 III).
(: ) , , , -

124

.
; 3 ( ),
+2 +3 ( , ). , 1
, +6 ,
, , .


18.5 70 16.7 70 ( 0.24 0.26). , 70 17 ( 0.24). ,
,
, ( 0.38).
, %

60

50

40

30

20
10

.
,
: 94.1%

0
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6

91.3%

3.14.
() .

, , -

, . +2
+1, +5 +6, +3
+5 +6,
.
: +2 +1

125

+5, +3, +2 +1, +5


+4 (
. 3.4.7 3.4.8 III).

0.24
0.17 . , (F(1,18)=4.89, p<0.04). ,
(
, , ).
,
,
.
, (.
.3.14). -, +4
70 .
: 27.72% 31.95% .
,
, +4 (. 3.4.6 III).
-, , ,
.
, - ,
,
. : .
.
,
. , , , (Shapiro & Raymond, 1994). ,
, +5. , , -
, ,
. -

126

(+5
+6 ),
. , , .
, ,
. 350 : ,
, , .
, ( , ) . ,
.
.

( ).
, , ,
, ,
, . (
, , ), ( ) ,
, , , .
, ,
,
. , , .
, , . , ,
(.. ). : , ,
18.69% ( 3500 ).

127

, , . ( , ), ,
, , .
, , ,
. , ,
, , . , , , , .
, : ( , ),
. , , ,
, , ,
: , . , , , :
, , . : ,
: , . ,
. ,
:
, , , , .
+2 +3
.
3.5. .


( ) , . (,

128

1975, 2000) .. (1966, 1997), , ,


, , (Raymond et al., 1992, 1995; Shapiro et al., 1994; Chun &
Potter, 1995; Jolicoeur, 1998, 1999a,b,c .). ,

.
, , , ,
, , . , ,
, . , ( ), ,
.
,

. .. (1983).
.. , ..
, ( ). , . -
,
, , .. ( ) , , .. , , , (, 1983, .176-177),
. , .

129

( ..) , ,
,
( , .172).
,
, . , , , , ,

, ( 150 ) . /

(. , 1976)
,
( ).
, . , , , , ,
, . , ,

, (, , ).

: , , . , : ,
- (,
) , , , , . -

130

, ,
.
+4 . , ( , ) . , , , . , , ,
(
), ,
(Giesbrecht & Di Lollo, 1998 .),
, . , +4 ( ).
, , , , , , , , (., , 1983).

(1) (2) .
(, ) ( )
. , ,
(, 1976).

,
..
, ,
.

131

, (Kahneman, 1973; Pashler,


1994), , , /
(. 1.3.4).
, ( ) .
, ,
. ( / )

:
20, .
12,
(Hari
et al., 1999).
10 ,
,
2-3 (, 1950; , 1928).
,
, , .
, (
), .
,
,
, (Chun & Potter, 1995).

, -, .
, , , . -

132

, , , , ( , ). , , . (McArthur
et al., 1999; Vogel et al., 1998 .). , ,
.
(, 1967) .
( )
: , , , . , : ,

, .
, ,
, .
, , , , .
;

(,
: ,

).
. , 95%
, , .

133

, , , , .
. , ,
, . , , (
, ), , . 75% .
, () , :
. ,

( ) (, 1971, .16), : , ,
, , . ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
, , , , .
, ,

, , , ( )
( ).
,

134

,

. ,
37.5% ,
,
, .

, :
, . , ,
,
.
, , ,
( +1), +2 (240
).
(
),
. .
, .
, , ,
.
(word identification point) ,
, (.,
., Tyler & Marslen-Wilson, 1986). , +4 (
) +5. , , ( ): .
, , , . , , ,

135

, , . -
, . ( /), , .
, , , . , .
+4 (
)
, , ,
. ,
: , 4-5 (Luck & Vogel, 1997).
.
(1912)
. (. , 1978). , ,
, , .

,
(+5) ,
, (500
+1 +4 100 +5).
,
, . , , . , , ,
(Giesbrecht & Di Lollo, 1998).

136

, , .
, . , ,
.
, , , ( ) ,
. ,
, . ,
.
.
, ,

.. . , (
) .. .. .
, , . ,
, , .
, .. , , :
( ) ,
(, 1997, .54; ..). , , . ,

137


.
, , +1 ,
,
71,3%,
47,9%. , , ,
, . ,
, , , , , , . ,
,
. ,
:
. , .
, ( )

. , , , .
,
, , , .
, , . (
) .
, , . , ,

138

, ,
(.
, 1978, .97).
,
,
. ,

,
.

. ,
, , . ,
, , , , . , ( ) (sustained attention)
(., , Duncan et al., 1994). ,
.
, , : , . , , . , ,

139

,
, (, 1912).
,
. ,
,
.
, ,
, , , . , ,
,
. , ( ) ,
, ,
.
, (Raymond et al., 1992) , ,
.
, .
,
. 50%, ,
( ) . , .
, .-. (Shih, 2000), , , ,
. , , -

140

, ,
150 . , . , .
(Duncan et al., 1994),
, , ,
, ,
, .
,
( ), , ,
, , ..
, , ,
, .
(Chun & Potter, 1995; Potter et al., 1998),
. , , .
, . . (Arnell & Jolicoeur, 1999; Jolicoeur, 1998, 1999a,b,c; Jolicoeur et al., in press):

, . , ,
. ,
,
, . ,
. ,
- (Di Lollo et al., 2000).

141

, , ,
, . , .
(Raymond et al., 1995; Shapiro &
Raymond, 1994; Shapiro et al., 1994 .), ,
, , ,
. ,
(. Treisman, 1993). ,
,
( ), ,
.
, , ,
. ,
( , )
,
. (Shapiro & Terry, 1998), , . ,

.
(Di Lollo et al., 2000; Enns & Di Lollo, 2000; Giesbrecht
& Di Lollo, 1998 .),
, , ,
() , . ,
, , .

142

,
(Enns et al., in press).
,
.
,
. , , (Kawahara, Di Lollo & Enns, in press; Kawahara, Enns & Di
Lollo, in press), ,
.
, , ,
,
,

( ).
, , , .
,
( )
, . , , ,
.
,
(
).
, , , (.,
., , 1982; , 1999).
, .. (1966) .
. , -, , , - -

143

(., ., , 1996).
,
(. Kanwisher,
2001).
.
- , .
(Di Lollo et al., 2000).
,
, (Marois et al., 2000;
McArthur et al., 1999; Rolke et al., 2001 .), . ,

(Palmer, 1999; Shapiro et al., 1994 .), , ,
(., Shapiro & Terry, 1998; Sperling, 1996;
Vogel et al., 1998). , , ,
( ), ,
, , .
,

, , ,
(), ,
, , (.. , 2000, .221,
..).
,
(Dixon & Di Lollo, 1988), ,
,
(Potter, 1976), -

144

, - (Baddeley,
1996) , , ,
, .. (.. , 2000, .221) . , ,
, . ,

(, 1912).
(McArthur et al., 1999),
200 500 (,
, ). , , ( ) , ,
. :
; , ; , .
,
, (,
), .
.
, ,
, .

,
, . -

145

: [ 30-40 , (Peterson & Juola,


2000)] [100-200 : (Broadbent & Broadbent, 1987; McLean et al., 1983), (Chun, 1997b; Kanwisher, 1991), -
(Kanwisher, 2001),
(Shih, 2000)]
, , , , ,
.
,
, , .
[ 300 ]
,
.
, , . , 4-5 (, ,
, ). ,

, ( ) .
: , . ,
. , , , , ,
(. , 1996).


, -,

146

.
, , , ,
.
, -,
, , -, , , .

.
1. , , , . . , , ( ).
2.
. ,
, .
3. .
, , .
4.
(Raymond et al., 1992).
5. .
, -

147

.
6. (120-360 ) - .
,
, , .
7.

, , . ,
, , .

.
8. , ( ,
),
. , , , .

148

1. .. (1997) . . .: - , :
. 608 .
2. .. (1966) . .:
. 349 .
3. . (1977) . .: . 412 .
4. .. (1982) . .: - .
-. 336 .
5. . (1950) . / .: . . .:
- . . . 289-321.
6. . (1912) . / .: . . .
.174-191.
7. .., .. (1974) . .: - . -. 100 c.
8. .. (1976) . // . .6. / . .. . .: - . -.
.48-56, 115-124 ().
9. .. (1983) . // . . .: - .
-. .62-64.
10. .. (1983) . // .. . / . .. . .: - . -. .165-177.
11. .. (1983) . // ,
. . II. . .400-401.
12. .. (1999) . // . . 2-. / . .. , .. .. . .: . .417-441.
13. .., .. (1970)
. // . No5. .36-52.
14. .. (1989) ()
. // . VII
. .: . .51.
15. . (1902) . .-. 370 .
16. .. (1928) . - . .: . 104 .
17. .. (1938) . // .
No8. .108-122.
18. .., .. (1995) . .: . 352 c.
19. .. (1961/2000) . // . / . .. , .. . .: . .465-475.
20. .. (2000) . .-: .
608 .

149

21. . (1978) : . .: . 320 .


22. .. (1975) , , . .: . 304 .
23. .. (1973-75/2000) . .: . 511 .
24. ., . (1974) . . 552 c.
25. .. (1973) . .: - . -. 374 .
26. . (1981) . .: . 230 .
27. . (1985) . .: . 159 .
28. .., .. ( )
. // . 2001. No5.
29. .. (1987) . .: - . -. 90 .
30. .. (1989) . // . VII . .: . .70.
31. .. (1971) - .
. .: - . -. 19 .
32. .., .. (1993)
. // . 14. . No2. .51-62.
33. . (1996) . .: . 600 c.
34. .. (1976) . // . .6. / . .. . .:
- . -. .31-33.
35. . (1898) . / .: . . .. .86-116.
36. . (1987) . / . No1. .68-78.
37. .. (1979)
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