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2009

681.5
32.965; 32.815
93

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, 2009. - 308 .
ISBN 978-5-7511-1926-3




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681.5
32.965; 32.815

ISBN 978-5-7511-1926-3

.. , .. ,
B.C. , 2009

V.G. Viskub
V.l. Siryamkin
V.S. Shidlovskiy

HIGH-PRECISION DEVICES AND


SYSTEMS OF AUTOMATIC CONTROL

Tom sk state university publishing house

2009

UDC 681.5
LBC 32.965; 32.815
V93

This edition is realized with the


finance support o f Russian founda
tion fo r basic research on the project
09-08-07047

Reviewers:
Doctor of technical scince, the professor, the honored scientist
RF, member of the Academy HSIAS V.S.Titov (director of de
partment computer technology of Kursk polytechnic university);
Dr.Sci.Tech., Doctor of Economics, the professor Y.M. Osipov
(director of department UNESCO of Tomsk state university of
control systems and radioelectronics).

V93

Viskub V.G., Siryamkin V.I., Shidlovskiy V.S.


High-precision devices and systems o f automatic control.
Tomsk: Tomsk state university publishing house, 2009. 308 p.
ISBN 978-5-7511-1926-3

In the monography theoretical bases are stated and practical rec


ommendations for creation of elements and control devices of highprecision systems of automatic control are given.
For specialists in the field of control systems, it can be useful to
students, post-graduate students, engineers and scientific workers,
which concerned with subject of automatic control.
UDC 681.5
LBC 32.965; 32.815

ISBN 978-5-7511-1926-3

V.G. Viskub, V.I.Siryamkin,


V.S. Shidlovskiy, 2009


...............................................................................................................12
1. -
.................................................................................................................13
1.1. .................................................................................... 13
1.2. -
............................................................................ 14
1.3. .................22
1.4. -

................................................ 31
1.5. ..................................................................................................... 42
....................................................................................................... 44
2. -
..........................................................................................................46
2.1. ............................46
2.2. .......................................................... 53
2.3.
......................................................60
2.4. ..................................................................................................... 68
........................................................................................................68
3. -
69
3.1.

.................................................................................................. 69
3.2.
...............................................................74
3.3.
- ........................81
3.4.
............................................................................ 100
3.5. ............................................ 108
3.6. ....................................................................................................123
......................................................................................................124
4.
.....................................................................126

4.1. .......................... 126


4.2.
...........................................................................................136
4.3. ......................................................................... 144
4.4. .......................................................................149
4.5. .........................................................157
4.6. ....................................................................................................163
...................................................................................................... 164
5.
.......................166
5.1. ..................................................................................166
5.2. ...................................................... 167
5.3. ............................................. 172
5.3.1. ............................................................................. 172
5.3.2. ...............................................................................176
5.4. ........................................................................181
5.4.1. - .......................................................................................181
5.4.2. - M atLab.............................183
5.4.3. -.................................... 185
5.4.4. -...................................................................................... 192
5.4.5. -.............................................................. 194
5.5.
........................................................................... 196
5.6. ( )............................................ 199
5.6.1. ........................................................................... 199
5.6.2. ........................... 200
5.6.3. ..................................... 202
5.6.4. ...................................... 203
5.6.5.
.................................................................. 205
5.6.6. ..................................... 206
5.6.7.
( 74ALS 157/ 157)............................ 209
5.7. ( )............................. 210
5.7.1.
..................................................................... 210
5.7.2. ..................................214

5.8. -
............................................................................215
5.9. ................................................................................................... 220

......................................................................................... 220
6.
,
............................................................................. 222
6.1. -
222
6.1.1. .........................................................................222
6.1.2.

......................................................223
6.1.3.
.................................................................... 229
6.1.4. -

231
6.1.5. .......................................................234
6.1.6. ..............................................236
6.1.7. .........................................................................237
6.2.
-
.............................................241
6.3.

.............................................................................................264
6.3.1. .........................................................................264
6.3.2.
.......................................................... 266
6.4.

...................................... 273
6.4.1. .........................................................................273
6.4.2.
.............................. 274
6.4.3. ........................................................... 276
6.4.4.
- ......................................................... 278

6.4.5. ........................................................285
6.5.
.............................................. 288
6.5.1.
, ,
........................... 288
6.5.2, ..................................297
6.6. ....................................................................................................299
...................................................................................................... 301
....................................................................................................... 304

CONTENTS
Introduction ............................................................................................................ 3
Chapter 1. Precision optics-mechanical scanning sy stem s......................... 4
1.1
...................................
introduction c o n c ep t............................................................................................ 4
1.2. features o f precision optics-mechanical scanning systems ................. 5
1.3. the comparative analysis of various types o f scanning unit .............. 13
1.4. optics-mechanical scanning unit with a magneto electric drive and
high-precision measure of moving and scanning systems on their basis .22
1.5. conclusions.................................................................................................33
L iterature............................................................................................................. 35
Chapter 2. The mathematical description of optics-mechanical
scan ators.................................................................................................................36
2.1. Mathematical model o f bidimentional scanning unit .......................... 36
2.2. Calculation o f elastic connections o f scanning unit ............................ 43
2.3. Dynamic characteristics o f scanning uint with a magneto electric
drive.......................................................................................................................50
2.4. Conclusions .................................................................................................58
L iteratu re............................................................................................................. 58
Chapter 3. Control of optics-mechanical scanning unit ........................... 60
3.1. Basic features o f control high-precision optics-mechanical scanning
unit with magneto electric d riv e ......................................................................60
3.2. Linearized control system o f scanning unit and influence nonlinearity its e le m e n t........................................................................................... 65
3.3. Application o f methods o f optimization and adaptation in control
systems o f scanning u n its ................................................................................. 72
3.4. Application o f compensatory methods in control systems
o f scanning units ................................................................................................91
3.5. Multidimensional scanning sy stem s....................................................... 99
3.6. C onclusions...............................................................................................114
L iteratu re........................................................................................................... 115
Chapter 4. Hardwired realization of control systems o f opticsmechanical scanning units .............................................................................. 116
4.1. Interferenced measure o f m o v in g .......................................................... 116
4.2. Digital devices o f comparison o f control system o f the scanning
units.................................................................................................................... 126
4.3. Devices o f correction .............................................................................. 134
4.4. Devices o f control ....................................................................................138

4.5. IBM in the scanning systems ................................................................. 146


4.6. C onclusions............................................................................................... 152
L iterature............................................................................................................153
C h ap ter 5. Synthesis controlling and com puting devices for system s of
autom atic c o n tr o l............................................................................................... 155
5.1. Introduction co n cep t.................................................................................155
5.2. Generalized conceptions o f automatic d ev ice s....................................156
5.3. Classical abstract automatic devices .....................................................161
5.3.1. Automatic device o f Mili .................................................................. 161
5.3.2. Automatic device o f Mur .................................................................. 165
5.4. Structural automatic devices .......-...........................................................170
5.4.1. T-automatic d e v ic e ............................................................................. 170
5.4.2. Realization o f the / -automatic device in MatLab system ........... 172
5.4.3. Programm realization o f the -automatic device ..........................174
5.4.4. Af-automatic d e v ic e ............................................................................ 181
5.4.5. Realization o f the M-automatic d e v ic e ............................................183
5.5. Operations o f a capture o f derivatives and integration from boolean
fu n ctio n s.............................................................................................................185
5.6. The multiplexer (selectors o f datas) ......................................................188
5.6.1. The general co n c ep ts.......................................................................... 188
5.6.2. The base multiplexer with two inputs .............................................189
5.6.3. Multiplexer with four inputs .............................................................191
5.6.4. Multiplexer with eight inputs ............................................................198
5.6.5. Transformation o f a parallel code in a successive.........................194
5.6.6. Forming o f logical function...............................................................195
5.6.7. Example o f employment o f four multiplexers with two inputs
(IS 74ALS157/HC157) ................................................................................... 198
5.7. Demultiplexers (allocators o f d a ta s)......................................................199
5.7.1. Demultiplexer with one input and eight o u tp u t............................. 199
5.7.2. Synchronizable dem ultiplexer.......................................................... 203
5.8. Binary structurally-reconsructed control sy ste m ................................ 204
5.9. C onclusions............................................................................................... 209
L iteratu re........................................................................................................... 209
C h ap ter 6. A pplication of high-precision algorithm s of control in
navigation systems, m echatronic and diagnostic of the loaded
m a th e r ia ls .............................................................................................................210
6.1. Extremal correlation navigation systems ..........................................210
6.1.1. Introduction co n c ep t...........................................................................210
6.1.2. Generalized iterative scheme o f correlation algorithm o f images
comparison different dimensions and chromaticity .................................. 211
6.1.3. Correlation comparison o f three-dimension stereo images .........217

10

6.1.4. Employment in CENS structurally-reconfigurable adaptive


algorithms based on boolean m athem atics................................................. 219
6.1.5. Bases o f metrology o f CENS............................................................ 222
6.1.6. Bases o f designing of CENS............................................................. 224
6.1.7. Application o f CENS..........................................................................225
6.2. Correlation systems of technical sight o f analog and analog-digital
types of bidimentional images comparison ................................................ 229
6.3. Method o f measuring of relief surface for research processes of
deformation and valuation of loaded materials condition..........................253
6.3.1. Introduction concept........................................................................... 253
6.3.2. Automated system for measuring relief surfaceo f materials
253
6.4. Employment of spectral analysis o f surface images for investigate
processes o f fatigue failure on mesoscale level........................................... 262
6.4.1. Introduction concept........................................................................... 262
6.4.2. Optical methods o f research o f fatigue failure
on mesoscale level............................................................................................263
6.4.3. Technique o f researches..................................................................... 265
6.4.4. Results o f researches o f normalized energy
of Fourier-spectrum o f capacity..................................................................... 267
6.4.5. Discussion o f results........................................................................... 274
6.5. Intellectual medical systems for diagnostic and treatment o f man. ..277
6.5.1. Processing of color images in optics-television systems of
recognition, navigation, technical and medical diagnostics...................... 277
6.5.2. Automation o f infusion techniques.................................................. 287
6.6. Conclusions............................................................................................... 289
Literature............................................................................................................291
Conclusion............................................................................................................ 292

11


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B.C. - v.shidlovskiy@gmail.ru

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Vol. 3131. P. 2-10.

45

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mgl(px
J

, J zo (4 x ) 2 4 y

= wBSu ix; = L

48

at

m s l(? y

>

+ /;

di
M y = w BSn iy ; y -q<py = L + iy RH .
,
.

2 { J xo - J z o ) 4 x % V y

( J xo - d 20

)( * f <py

---------------------------- , ----------------------------- d xo d HK
J xo
.
.
.

tO

m gkVx

>

+ J HK

J XQ + J HK

_ My

mgltyy

Jyg

jy Q

M x = wBSn ix ; x -qq>x = L ^ - + ixRH;


at
di
M y = w B S u iy \ -qcpy = L + iyRH .


,
.
,
.
, ,
. .

.


[1].
J z
0 (. 2.2)
z, .

49

. 2.2.

, , ,, z t , , z
. = 1,
= 0. z ,
l m=lyi= 0. z
N Az = N Bz = 0 .

N Ax+ N B x= I(q>)2 + P co& y,

/ -^ ;

N Av + n Bv =
8
-

- N Axa + N Bxa = 0 ;
N Aya - N Bya = 0 .
N Bx = N Ax\ N A y = N By

N Bx = ~

^()2

2g L

8 c s! j N B = - (/ + g sin tp ).
J

2g


= - / .

50

()2

PI

COS(D + C ,

Jz

.
1
t = 0 = (0, ( = 0 , = cos 0 .
^2


2 P I,
() = ~ ( - ).
^Z

N Bx = Z T T \( 2 P l2 + g J z ) cos - 2P I 2 cos 01;
2gJz L
J
( p / 2 - g J z )sin ;
2gJ2

By

N Ax = Z T T \ (2P1 2 + gJz ) cos - 2 P I 1 cos 01;


2 gJz L
J
N Ay

J z ) sin(P ,

2g j z

,
,

.

[2].


. .

.

.

,
,

.

, , , ,
51

, , ,
.

.
,
,
,
.
,

.


.
-
( ),
. , , .

, .
-

52

,
, ,

.
. 2.3. ,
;
^ , ,
; g x = g y = m gl.

2.2.

O'' (. 2.4).
. 2.4 .
, 0 2 -
. J 3 -
- O '; J p -
; 9, -
.
( ) ,

(3 + ? 2 ) + //0 cos(9 <) - mpalQ( 9 ) sin(0 ()


- 1 /0 (0 - ) + (w3gS + tnpga) sin <j>- c(0 - ) = >;
( / p + wp/ 2)0 + // cos(0 - ) - /(0 - ) sin(0 - ) +
+/ /0 8(0 - ) + mpgl sin 0 + (0 - ) = Q0,

. 2.4.

53

Qy, Qg - ,
, 0 ,

= 5 + d,

~ EJ

, J - ).
,
,
- .
, 0, , , ~ 0,

+ 2 ^ty + mpalQ + (m-3g8 + mpg a ^ { p - c ( Q - t y ) = 0 ;
(J p + // 2 ) + mplaip + mpglQ 4- (0 - ) = Qe .
, [5],

+ 120 + + 120 - 0;
21 + 22 + 21 + 22 = > ,

= J 3 + 2; = mpal\ a 2l = m pal\ a 2 2 = J p + m pl 2;
\ i m2g b + mpga + ; c12= -c ; c21 = - ; c22= m pgl + c.

(11 22- 12)^ ~ ( 1122+ 2211- 21212). + ( 2212 )= 0
X - .
8 = d ~ 0 12, 21 .

+ + 120 = 0; 220 + 21 + 220 = 0 .

* 22 ~

220 + ( 0 - ) = 0; + ( - 0 ) = 0 ,
= J 3; 22 = J p + 12 .


,
+ an Q+ cn g>+ cn Q+

54

=0;

21 + 220 + 2| + 22 + 2 = ,

s - , .

+ )*(22. t 2, + 22) (^12^ ~^^12) =
-
.
, 12 = 21 = 0,
+ Sjcp + c(tp - 0) = 0 ;

220 + + ( _ ) =

,
, ,
,

J , S 2<|>CT = 2 [6(S) -

]-

;
[ 0 ( ) - ( )] ,

BSn
o L

uL

( 5 ) ,0 ( 5 ) -
; J 2, J\ -

; U(S) -
; g u g 2 -
; S -
.

55


. 2.5.

wBS1

g \Ru

W (S ) = -

c-4 , qwBSn J x | (g-, + g 2)L J2 | JjL

LJ\J2 v 5 ,
* ,* A

8 l 2RH

g \ 82 RH

S 3+

g \RH

1.5
g \Rh
( g l + 82)^2 1 J\ s 2 + i.g\+ g 2 ) 4 wBSn | L s + 1

L g \g 2
g\ \
RH
L j Rx( ,
->

W (S ) =

wBSn B 2
.//_. B||.V ,/|

j .S' vvB.Sn g 2

+[^2 (^1

+ qw BS{, (, + 2 )s + l 2^H


as 4 + bs3 + cs2 + rfs +

+ o s, + p j ( s 2 + .? + ) ,
= ; + = ; p + 8 + a y = ; a + = .



. ,
,


W {S) =

()
u (s)

.
|Vj2S 2 + 2 ^ 115' + l ] [ r 225'2 + 2 \{T 2S + l ]

56

^
w B Sn
=

I ---- ,
{giiJx+Ji)

I _ w BSn 4
gi . t
1 2, V J , + J 2 2

w BS^qJ^
2 Rn g 2 (Jj + 2) V

g 2 ( J i + J 2)
/ 2


-
.


.
,

.
,
,
, .

[4]:
W{S) = ()
U{S)
( r 3' ) V + 2 ^ 5 + 1]
\ j 2S 2 + 2 ^ T XS + 1] \ t 2 S 2 + 2 ^ 2 T2S + 1] [ t 2S 2 + 2 ^ T 3S + 1



( ,
) .



(J x + J 2) S 2<p(S) =

U( S)

q S ^ (S )

SL +

SL ~/^|_j

wBSn


dj2"'
_ u
y _
uwBSn
nryuun
= = 0;
= g<P
d t2
dt

Rv

57

,
.

W( S) = (^)

*
T 2S 2 + T ? S 2 +T3S +

U( s )

_ (J, + J 2) - L r _ q - w - B - S n + g - L
T'

S R

* *

w * *Sf j m ^

t/] + J

L /R H (~ 10 5 ),
, ,
.
W( S) =

(5) _

TfS2 + 2 ^ 5 4 1

U(S)

/ i + J 2 . t
1 4wBSn
g
wBSn
--------- > s i - - ------ - .
, - - -
8
2 g /? H \j -f\ + -^2

Wn 1 g
J\ + ^2

0= '

51 = 07 [

,
.
1 qwBSn
-----= -------------------


.
, -

58


( V( S)= 6 TX2 S 2 (/, + ^ 2) ' s 2 '

g 0.
W( S) - (5)
U( S)
S(T S + 1)

; - & 4 > & .


wBSn q



:
(5 ) = ^
= -;
I(S)
S
- tV^ 11 ,
i/j 1/2

/ ( 5 ) -

.
,
,
.
.

-
.

.
,
,
.

.

4(4) + (3) + 2(2> + 1(1) + = 0

59

(0) = ; (3) () = (2)() = (1) (0) = ;


<() ^() = ^() = ^() = ^() = 0.

.

[3],

(2) + 6[(1) +&0 = 0

,
:

1~~

{2 - 4)
2
'2.@yCi2 ci3 2*.ciy @4

2 0~

0(32 - , 4)
2
2
2.ciyci2 ci3 ^tciy 4 c[qCi3

2.3.



,
.


A ( p M t ) = U(t ) ,
( ) - , ,
; = - ;
dt
< , - .

. ,
,

(2 2 + 2^ + 1) (0 = u ( t ) .
() = U0 costot

60

(0 =

^ o 6 ^ 0 cosM + V)

\j/ - (/).


. ,

.

,
- R
(. 2.6),
J q. J q, ,
,
, ,
.
, ,
,

j ; Sc .
J
5

- .

B jScn R 2 /2

0 .

61

. 2.6.

R, J0, Sc, , j , ,
. 2.7.

. 2.7. -

J 0 =

62

R,
Sc, .. ,
.
R
, ,

,
R , J n ,
Sc. Sc, ..
, .

Sc
)
, ,

.
.
( )
,
, .
,
,
. ,

63

,
,
,
BjSeitR2

2 ( 0 + 55/3/ 2 )
,
,
15 5

1

W nSc

_ 20
53
= ^
R
R q,

Sco
__^ _

'
/fo


S,

2 '

nR^p

S eo/ S c 2.

2 Bj
Bj
=
= '

2 R
4/3, ..

64

4/3
.
7/?3 _
Sc J 0 -<-< .
= 3L
R
/ = I -5.
/ = 2

4Jo
I
5

_ 2Jo /
=


.. _ 2 Bj

..

15

Bj

R'

_ >
5pR '
,
_^ = 4 / 3 . = 2 _



.
.
pi 2,
2 /,
Sl} vr. ,
,
~

Pi w ; N 2 = j \ s l p 2 ~ w

,
,

65


.


dt = cmd 9 + c S Q d t,
- ; -
; - ; 0 -
; -
; S - .
-

/

.
/

_=_L
A
OSJnn rJ>
B
uw
2 \

; 5 ;
w - ; J
; / -
.


-
:
1.
, ,
,
.
, , , .
.

66

2.
, ,
.
.
3. .
, .

, , ..

, .

,
,

.
4. .
5.

,
,
.
6.

L / Rn .
7.

.
8. ,
.

.

.

, ,
.
,
,

.

67

,
.

2.4.


,
.
, .
,
, ,
, ,
, -
, , ,
, ,
.

-
,
,
.

1. .., .., B.C.


. .: , 1972. 342 .
2. / .. , .. , .,
; . .. . .: . ., 1988. 431 .
3. ..
. .: , 1970. 63 .
4. / .. , ..
, .. . .: , 1980. 198 .
5. .., .. . .2:
. .: . . . ., 1954. 595 .

68

3. -

3.1.
-

-

(10 3%) ,
.

.
-
- .

,
-, , ,
.

.
, ..
.
-
,

,
,
( 5 . ) [4].

,


.

:

.

,
. ,

69


.
,
.

.

.
,
.
,
,

.
,
, .. ,

, ,
>.
.
,
.
( )
, , .. ,
.
, ,
, .

, ,
. ,

,
. ,
,
.


.

, .

70

,
,
-
.

,
, , ,
, , ,
, , ..,
.

,
, (),

.


. ,
,
,
, , ,

.
, -
,
,
. ,
,
.
,
.
,
,
,
,
, .


: , , .

71



,
.


.

, ,
.
,
.

.

,
, .

, ,
, - .

,
.
,
.
,
,
,
.
, ,
,
- - - ,

. ,
,

.

. 3.1.

72

. 3.1.

: (), (),
(), ()
().
,
.
.

, - .

.
- - ,
- - ,
- .
, .
g(t) , -
. g(t)=
= , , -
g(t) = vt, - .

, .
,
,
.


.
, [3].

,
:

73

<p(5)
U (S )
0.069 /

[(0.07)25 2 + 2 0.07 OAS + 1] [(0.0005)2S 2 + 2 0.0005 0. IS + 1]



(5)
(5 )

0.069 .

[(0.07)2S 2 +2- 0.07 0.45 + 1]


4>(S)

Q-069pa%

U (S)

[(0.07)25 2] '

3.2.




,
.
(. 3.2)
,
.

. 3.2.

74




^, (S) = ----------------
S 1 + 2 ^2T2S + T22S 2

- .
- ,
,

= .
,
,
-
, ,
, .
, KQ,
).


.

,
.


.

. , 28
,
.
.

75


, .
,
, , .
. ,
.
,
.


. ,

.

1

-
.
,

,
( T 2S 2 + 2 +1 )(T2S 2 + 1%2T2S +1) + K yK ^ K cS

toa


, -

. / . .. . .: .
, 1972. 4.2. 432 .

76

q(A) =

(2 + 22 + 45& 7;2) ^ - < 22 -1


g(t) = vt, - , ..
.
-

.

T 2S 2 + l ^ S + \

W3(S) = - ^ ----------- -------------,
1 + T 2S 2 + 2 ^ 5 + 1

= 6 ;
2 t J >+ K K ueK c

=-

2 T ^ \ +K m


7 f ^ i + 2 ^ J 3^ + cp = ^ 3 d t2
dt
1 + ff

vt .


(0 =

\ + .

2^ cos

t 2 ^ T 3 +

- ,+ 2 j |r 3 sin V TTj

<

77


1 + ^

- .

= .

W\(S)
,
.
,
.
.

.
[1].

, .
-

.
- . 3.3.

. 3.3.

Wk(S)
.

78

T X 2S 4
<=

+ 2 ^ )S> +(2+2+ 4 ^ 2T J 2) S 2 +

7 f r 22S 4 + { 2 ^ T X + 2 ^ T j t ) 5 +(12+7722+ 4 ^ 27;2) S 2 +

? +(2 + 2422 )S +1 + K 0K CS - K QWk (5)


+(2^7; + 2^22)S + l + K qK qS + 0
Wt(S) . ,
Wk (S) - Kk . , 1- 0 = 0 ,
.
Wk(S) = [ + K k2S . ], 1

1- 0 1 = 0;

2^,7; + 2422 + 0 - 0 2 = 0 .

1, 2
. ,

Wk(S)
k l + TS
^ ~
\ = K \
+ l.
(S)
(T 2S 2 + 2 ^ {T^S + l)(T2 S 2 + 2 ^ + l)(TS +1) +
+K0K CS(TS +1) - K 0K klS T - K 0K ki - KQK k2S.
, Wk(S)
1- 0 1 = 0; 24,7; + 24 22 + + 0 - 0 - 2=

.
,
,
.
.
, ,
. 3.3,
, g(t) = vt, v - .
Wk (S) = K kv + 0.

.

79


[1]:

W^ S ) - T 2S 2 + 2 ^ T S ~ l '
, g(t) = vt
,
+ 2^ + = v

(
() =

v
\
-4
-* - - 2 ^ \ + ,co s - t , 2 - +2sin ^1 - 7*
/

- .

e(f) = g (? )- (7) ,
d&/dt = 0.
j,e2 ,
(. 3.4).

, / , 2 /
.

.
. ,
, .
.
,
.
, :
.

80

t
. 3.4.

-


,
.

3.3.
-


- .
1,

, c o s ^ T + S ^ + Cj cos( cq2t + 82) = 0 ,
5 ,,5 2, , , 2- , ; ;

,, 2 -

1 - ., .
. // II
. .: , 1965.
. 140-154.

81

,

.
,
,
.

, .

,


.
,

[11].
g(t) = /


\]'2(.')

'

1 - , .
tn ()


2(1 + /2)

max = -----------2

_ 1/2


J, emax

82

, . 2,
, . ,
80 2.2-10 5 -2
= 0.4 .
0.1 '. -
0.1 . ,
- 200
[4].

tn -
; 0 -
; tp .
1(3 2.5 .
3.1 -1 ,
6.2 .

- , -


,
[5].
.
/ :
tn 1:
t p = t n +


t = min(/;i + *-)


.
. 3.5.

83

. 3.5.

-
,
.

, 3.2.


.

g
.
,
, .


, Um.

,
. ,

.

Um ,
, .
\Jm

84

, ,
.

,
. ,
, .

. ,
, -
,
.
( ), , ,
.
,
, .
. 3.6, 3.7
(
()), - (-) (
Wx( S ) ) () (
W3(S)) Um = 20
Um = 10 .
(20 ).

. -
.
( Um = 2 0 )
.
- .
- Um = 20

. , Um =10
.
, , - .
. 3.8
-
W ^S)
(2 = 0.0001 ) Um = 20 .

85

................

I ................ "......
5000

?
lsUMHI

............... I
2<1

2>

( )

,------

()

. 3.6.
(Um = 20 ): - ; - - -; -

m-[H-4 iut MiH ( )

; ------------- -;

. 3.7. (U = 10 )
( U - 20 ): - ; - - -; -

86

0,02S

(MW5
I '---------------- ,---------------- 1
<1

> 1

'

i
lflH IU

-"I-.

'

"t

2 <HHH)

<* K ll l ji l o r c M flil)

. 3.8. -

, -

.
- .
,
, ,
, .

,
,
, (
). ,
,
. ,
, ,
.

,

.

. ,

87


,
.
(218
),
, .
.

.
, , , ,
-
.
t?
,
.
, ,
,
,
.

.
,

,
.

(. 3.9).
().

:
^

s>0

<0;

> 0

>0;

= 0
8<0

>0;

8<0

<0.

. 3.10.

. , ,
,


, .

,
,
8.
,
. .
, ,


q (A) = ^ f - - ( 1 + ) /4 2 - 1 + ( 1 - ) / 2 5 - 8 2 ,
|_2
Umw = t/max; -
.

\ ) =

2U

^ -( 1 - ) ( -5 -0 .5 ).

8 ,
2U
2U
q(A) = (l + a ) ; q \ A ) = ^ ( 1 - ) .

. 3.9.

89

. 3.10.

J(A) = 2 ^ ^ / ( 1 + 2)

, ,
* = arctg

1-
1+


5 2^

1+ +

+ 1= 0 .

,
:
Re (*)(! - ) + Im Wo6(j<o)(l + ) = 0 ;

90

Im W* ( j a ) ( l - a ) -

Re W'* U<o)(l + a ) = A ,

Re Wa6 ( /), Im Wo5(/to)


= 2UmmK yK A .


0 90
1 - 1 ,
1 0
\J (A )I = 4 ^_ 0 \j{A)\
= 2 7 2 - ^ ^ - , I

1
lmm

0 -1 |>/(-^)|


.
Um /,
.
Umm
. /
.
,
A(Umin),
A U min)
.
. ,
t/ = 0.1
Umin = 0.06 ,

(t4iax =0.001 ) Um\ = 0.0006 .
/min= otf/max
(7max = 0.2 0.4 . 3.11.
= 0.4.
, .
{ 2 Umm = 0.23 i/max
4-5 . 3.12.
,
0.0001
.

91

. 3.11. = t/max/^min

1*1
. 3.12. UmsK

v -
g(t) = vt .
{/ ; = a t/max.

( )
(5) - Umm Tk,S + 1

92

<p{S) = KyK ^ K m

2 T 2S2


(7> U mm t
tM,
. ,
,
' = Cy[lFmax U

- .

,
[4, 15].

:

^''

> 0;

>0;

> 0;

<0;

= 0;

6 < 0;

<0;

< 0;

>0.

- ^

. 3.13, 3.14
.
,
, /,
Umm, .
.

.
. 3.15

(

^ ( 5 ) , UW
SK = 0 .1 5 , Umin = 0.05 ) (" =0.01,

= 12) . , 200
. ,

43

. 3.13. :
g(t) - ; <() -

. 3.14. :
g(t) - ; (^) -

94

( )
. 3.15. ()
()


,

.
- , ,
, ,
, ,
, , .
.
,

,
. , ,

- ,
, ,
, .
,
,

,
.

.

95


,
.

, ,
. ,

.
, [12].
,
.
,
.
,
. ,
-
,
.
,
.
.

,
. ,
.

~ \
=

' 0

XI

0
0

g\ = [1000] .

_~ 0

- .

**

1
0
0

0
1
0

0
0
1

~" ~0 '
+ 0
0

-^ -? -?

'Si = [ ]

1
1

1
1

0
0
0

96

,
.
,
,
.

= +

(|,2?
\

' 0
n "1
I /

g -B z,

z - ; - [000&].


J = ,

= ; > 0; + = - Q ,
Q - .

,
0

-0

-a f

-*?

I Pis P ia

\4

- ?

- ?

= -Q -

Q .
, ,


[12]:
z - - sign ,

97

h .

.
.

,
.

z = - / sig n
- \
= - ,
X - .


h .
. 3.16.

,

.

. ,


.

, ,
, .

98

|
. 3.16.

99

3.4.


,
.
<(?) u(t) (?)
.
A Jl &J2 . , 2.3,


(J 1+ A J1){J2 + A J2)Ra S \ x (S) + (, + /, )qwBSn S \ (5) +
+[(/[ +

+ g 2) + 8 2 ( + ^1)]^2(^) +

+qwBSa (g { + g 2)S<9x (S) + g lg 2Rnq x {S) = wBSng ,U x(S).



* .
,
. = + ,
J lJ 2RuS 4(px (S ) + J^qwBS^S2 (S)+ \ J 2RU(g[ + g 2) +
+g2^H-/ l ] 5'29 T (S') + ^ w5S'n te l+ ^ 2 )S,9A'(S')+ g ri^2^H9A'(-S') +
+(A JtJ 2+AJ2J, +AJ lAJ1 ) RnS \ x (S ) + A JiqwBSn S \ x (S) +
+ [AJ2R h (gl +g2 )+A.Jlg 2Rll ] S 2=wBSn g 2Ux (S)+wBSng 2A U x (S).

[(AJ, J 2 + A J2J , + AJ,AJ2)R hS 4 + AJ.qw B SnS2 +
+ [?2 + ,)* + /, 2 ]5 2] ^ ( ) = wBSng 2AU x {S).
AU X {S)

100

/ . / 3 + /\/,/| * /| / 2 j /^||' + /V/ r/utf.V, j'


w BSn g 2
+ [ /2 ( , + g 2) + A y,g2J?H]5

^(5) = /*(S).

BSug 2

, ,
,


. ,
.

.
,
+ J 2)RH<px ( t ) Ux (t)w BSn qg>x (t)w BSn g(px (t)RH,

AJRH -x{t)
(0 = wBSn

.
A J (>;) .

= kBip .
, ,

(/| + J 2 )^ ( 0 =
= [ (0 + ] wBSn -g<py (t)N B S n + - gg>x (t)RH.
:

wBSn

wBSn


-
.

101

-


[6]. ,
,
.

,

.
-

,
- :
W (S) = ------ --------------.
S(T2 S + 2 ^ 2T2S + 1)

- :
Wk(S) = 2 ,
.
Tk2S 2 + 2 + 1

(. 3.17)

_ E (S )
G(S)

[Tk2S 2 + 2$kTkS + l - K k][T 22S 3 + 2 ^ T 2S 2 + S


\ 28 + 2'%2T2S 2 + S + K~](T2S 2 + 2 ^ kTkS + \)

E(S), G(S) -
.
(5)
, ( (t))
. . 1-
2 K ( \ - K k fc 2T2+(Kk- \ ) + 2 K K kTk
v * ----------------- g (t)+...
(0 = ^ - g{t)+---- ^------

,

.

W](S) (. . 3.17)

102

( * = 0.4)
g(t) - 4000; (. 3.18).
, 2.
,
.

. 3.17.

()
. 3.18.

(. 3.19).
N N ^,
- ^ .

, [10]:
=

= I t g 2 = ( L g / c o s l y j t g l q ) , ,

103

L() - ; L
.
( = 0 . 0 ,
( ,
.

Jo
0 - ( = 0).
,
,

=>. + =

2( + ,)

cos 2


tg2(yy + y k ) * 2 ( y y +<pk).
N

. 3.19.

104

. 3.20.


>2 ( + *)

cos 2(

= )2


* = 9 ,( c o s 2 < p ,-l).


. 3.20.


:
dx

2d<px

L0

dt

dt

(2;[)2



<pt .

.

105


(. 3. 21) [4].

. 3.21.

,
.

.

,
.
,
.


[ ( ^ S 2+ 2

+ l ) ( r 22S 2 + 1%2T2S + 1) +

+Kx K yK o6K m ] y ( t) = Up.





[(7;22 + 21 + 1)(222 + 2 +1) + ] ) =
= K o6K 3CK yg (t) + K rK o6Wk(S)g(t).

. 3.22.

106

. 3.22.

W{( S ) ,

=0.005, = 12. , Wk(S) - 0

K kS

,
1 TS

. j 2
Uf ,

g(t) = v t (v =10000 ) ,
. UP = 0.4
9 . ,

18
. ( U ? )

W2(S)
/
,
.
.

107

3.5.

,
, , z
|, . 3.23.
1.4.

.

.

[13].
(. 3.23)

Wgx, Woy , ;
W0Z,W0] ~
;
Wpx,Wpy,Wpz
, , z;

Wi h , WUy -
;
, , , ~ .
]( ),\ ( ) -

, .
F2x , Fly ,
-
. / 2, /

.

108

2
&

d>

2
&
2

4)
&

..

>>

109


& x = g x - *;

= Fu

= [Wpxxn + F2x (, , [ )]Wox; Xi = Wnxx ;


.Vi = wn ;

= g y - y> e y n = F \y ( ); = [ W p y Eyn + ^

(*1, \ W a y \

Z z = g z ~ Z z = K z Wp z^z+f z\ = ^ (1+) + / ; =

(x,y).


,

e x = g x ~ x - , X = w pxw m e x ;

Z y = g y - y > y = WpyW0yZy
X = g x ~ Z> Z = WpZWOZEZ; = K ^ g n

+ WpxWm )x = WfaWmg x ;
(1 + fVpyfVoy)y = WpyWoygy(1 +WpzW02)z = Wp7Wozg 2; = 10^ .
-
[Q
V + W W )

o'

0 +^ )

(1 + WpzWOI)

W
W

W W

Wpz WOZ

W\

,

,
. ,

110

()
.
,

, .
,
,
.
,
.

, , .

,

.

.

.

= - a ix b]x + ; = - - 2 + .

F\ = (*,>0 = 0 .
, ,
V:
V = x 2 + y 2 =F2( x ,y ) .

.

, .

. ,
, .

. ,
.
, ,
.

111

,
.

, ..
, ,
.

, .
,
-
.
,
.

( ) F(x,y) = 0
, :
x = x(t); y = y ( t ) ,
t .

- ,
.

.
.

,
,
.

, .. .

,
,
,
,
. , [2]

.

.

112

.

V.

v ^ = v c o s a ; Vj, = v s i n a .
^ ,

v co sa
.

v s in a
S = -

, - .
( )

- s cos a - s* sin a ,

-sin 2 a .
2 K xKy
,
. =
,
.
[14] R

2
V ( z >

= R 1 - ,11 + 2( sin + cos ?) + 1 1 +

R
R
kR )
[R J
2

+
z k () ~ sin t + z y cos oof --------- .
2R
,

.


[8]:

113

f
f
Q1T19fY
e*(0 = v \ h x( t ) d t - ] h y {t)dt ,
_0

v - ; hx(t), hv(t)
; - .

( C y )
sin^2

= V<CX-

, -
.


.
, .. ,
.
,
2 vb
v2. ,
, .
,

= v2 cos 2 - Vj cos a , ; k v y = v2 sin a 2 - vx sin a , .
,

. , .
, = v(cos a 2 - cos );
,, = v(sin 2 - sin a,). ,

. [2],

,
.
,

, , , ,
,
.

114

, .. .

, , , ..
, .
.
.

,
,
.
.

. 3.24. -

-
g(t) . 3.24, V3 - ; -
; - .
g(t) = kt
. , g(t) = 10000?
Wj(S)
30 , 0.035 . -
60
17 . 0.083 . ,
.
.

115

,

.



.

. 3.25.


,
/
,
. [8]

. (. 3.25)

5 = sin ,

5 ,
.

. 8
,
, ,

116

.
.
, ,
,
,
.
,
,
. ,
= (tg )- ,
r| = x c o s a + y s in a .

= cos a + sin a ,

- x s i n a - y c o s a .

= = 0 ,

= = 0 .


. ,
,
.
[9]

.
,

:

. .

,
= - a lx - c lx + blux ;
y = - a 2y - c 2y + b2uy ,
-

117

1
2

-
0

0
2.

- ,

0 ' xi
2
0

~2 2

+ .1

0
_
0

0
0

b2.

Xj
0

1.

X,

w=

1 0

..

w - .
- x tga ,


. = * + Bg,
. - ; g(t) -
;
=

"0

" "
_

0 .

= x s i n a - y c o s a = [sin a O -c o sa O ]

r| = x c o s a + y s i n a = [cosaO sinaO]
,
.

118

*1
sin a

-c o s a

*2

sin a

-c o s a

cos a

_2 _

__

sin a

sin a

cos a

1
.


ei

sin a

-c o s a

X,

sin a

-c o s a

*2

=
1

cos a

sin a

cos a

sin a

X,

= A-

x2

det4 0,
sin a
( A '):

sin a

-c o s a

cos a
0

sin a

-c o s a

cos a

sin a

JV

A_

,2
( - q sin*1 2 cos2 )

6, sin

( - , sin2 - 2 cos2 )
1s

- b 2 c o sa ^ . V

(q cos a sin + 2 cos a sin a )

(q cos a sin + 2 cos a sin )

119

sin a

cos

cos

sin

^2

^2

"0 \
" 0 0' Hi
+
+
-2_
q _2_
sin

cos

bx sin

-cos

- 2cos

sin

7.

, .
= ~ - 22 ~ \ ~2 >

= 2 ;
2 = ( - ) + ( 2)2 .
/,,
.
(
)
=

= 00

bx cos


, = 2 = 0 ,

+
?

0 1

+
./ L _2.

sin

cos

-c o s

sin

b2 sin

120

\ = / + + .

= \ - | .

= b0g + k3Af] + 4 ,

Aii = ( / - ) . Ar\ + (L - 4)].
3, ,
.
. 3.26.
,
.
,
.
,
.


.
g(t) .
,
, .


,
,
.
,
.

121

122
. 3.26.

3.6.
- :
- (10'3 %) ,

,
;
- ;
-
;
- .

.

,

.
-


,
.


,
,
, .


, .
,
, ,
,

,
.

,

.

123




.
,
,
.

1.

-
/ .. , .. , .. , ..
// . : . 1981. 9. . 29-35.
2. ..
. .: , 1964. 366 .
3. -
/ .. , B.J1. , .. , .. .
// . : . 1979. 2. . 77-81.
4. .., .., ..
. .: , 1984.
135 .
5. .., .., ..
// .
: . 1981. 12. . 14-20.
6. .., .., ..
//
. .: , 1981. . 117-118.
7. .. .
.: , 1976. 183 .
8. ..
//
. : ,
1963.. 148-161.
9. .
. JL: , 1990. 128 .
10. .. -
. JL: , 1977. 600 .
11. .. ,
.: , 1966. 390 .
12. .., ..
. .: , 1984. 64 .

124

13. / .. , .. , JI.A.
. // II
. -, 1978. . 260, 261.
14. / .. ., .. ,
.. ., .. . .: , 1985. 206 .
15. Patent specification N 1324241. Otto Robert Frisch, G raham Stewart,
Brandon Street. Recording information on a recording medium by
means o f a steered light beam. P. 1-5.

125

4.
-

4.1.


( )
. 4.1 [17].
-

. 4.1.


.
-,
. -
,
, .
.
- ,

.


.

126



- Su + 5 1+

^ >

5 - ,

; 8 - ,

; , 2 -
();
. - .
[17],
5 = 4 |r ,

2| s in ,

\, 2 .
,
g

11------- .

= a rc s in

4 (,+ 2)
,

, (
)
=

a rc s in

16(, + 2)
, , . = 0.6328 ,
\ = 2 = 40 ,

0.1 . .

-

.


:
2nAf

127

-
; f - ; ;
- .

- -

,
.


1{) = /, + 12 + 2/ / , / 2 cos 0 ( ),
0() =

- ; - X
; X - ; I \ , h -
.

,

/ = /s in 2 n :(v //)^ = / s i n to ? ,
I - ; v -
,
; / -
; -
.
2

. 4.2.

,

.
.


,

.
,

128


.
,

.

. 4.2.

t /!

'

U nop
U (i>m

"

'-

,|'' 1 1
| \ 1 / i\i 1 1 1

U nop

~ U i

11 11

11 11 1

l - l + l

'a V

1 '

. 4.3.

. 4.3
,
, 1
.

129

,
- .


.

, /2:
, = ^4sin(2jur//); 2 = ^ c o s ( 2 x x // ) ,
.
,

.
/ 2
- [20].

, ,
-. . 4.4
d
,
. ,
= (1 + ik) ( -
, -
), ,
. d

2 = ( 1 - ) 0 + (1 + / ) ,
- ; -
; 2 ,
, .
,
,
.
,

N .

\. 1
,
130

, 1.
1
/ 2 .
1

. 4.4.


:
- ;
,
; - .
[ 19] ,
-
30",
5
-1 0 . -
30'.


() -
(. 4.5):

- ; - ; -
; - .

- .

,
.

. 4.5.
-

. 4.6.

-
-
. , -
, ,

132

. ,

,
, .
.

,
(. 4.6).
,
, ,

.

. 4.6 [16]

1-2

.2

R - ; -.

,
, .
,
[9]

=1.000294
0 760 . .; - ; t
.


.
,
,
.

, ,

133

, ,
.

, , ,
.
.
, ,
,
.

,

/. ,
,
.
,
,
.
,
,
.
.
.
.

( )

[18].

,
, ,
.

-
[7] . 4.7.
,

.

-
. ,

134

, ,
,

.
,
.
,
.
, ,
.

0 |1*

J.IV M t-lll 1,1

.11,|
[' ioiui I . ,
---

jop

I ii-.Htlili.
cm- t'untii
I

i o j. u k i p i r u 'c k 'i i l i

iipcipi'ppiuniui ir. II.


. 4.7.

135

], 2 - ; 2 / ; .
,
4/ ., .
= ( N + A N ) k / 2 , N -
, .. ,
. A N
.



.
[18]
. ,
.

. ,
,
45.
,
.

.

4.2.


- ,
- .

,
, .

.

-
. ,

136


( ), (
),

.


, ,

. ,
,
.
.



.
,
.
.
1
,
(. 4.8).

, .

2,
.
2,
- .
2,
- , ,
,
1,
( 1)
.

1 .. 525056 , . . G 05 19/18. /
.. , .. , .. ().-2040477/24; 03.07.74;
. 15.08.76. . 30. 3 .
137

l lH >4

II O IIIIK M It

1 0 4

. 4.8.

I'l l ltlM lt

138

,

,

.
.
, .
,
, , ,
1 .
,
, 10... 0, 1
.


+U, 0, -U ,
.
,
,
, .


1. 2
, .


,
. 2
,

.
2.
-

2 .

, -
1.

, 2

139

,
,
,
.

2.
,
, ..
.

,
.
.
-
[12].
, .

.
.
.

.
. 4.9
.
.
.
,
.

,

, .

.

140

141

. 4.9.


. , -
. 6 4- .
8 .
.
8- 4-
. 12-
6- .
8- 12- 6-
.
.

.

.
, . 4.10, [4].
,
.

0 , ().
,
. ,

0 , ,
.
-
() .


,
0.
.
, ,
, .


- ,
- .

142

. 4.10.



, ,
.
1 . 4.11.

. 4.11.

1 .., .., .
. .: , 1970. 424 .
143


,
, .. ,
.
i j . .

, .
,
2 > , .

3,
5 < 3 < 2 - | - 4 +5,
4 - , 5 -
.

.
,
,

.

4.3.


.


, ,

.

= sin a t,
- ; - ,
.
u(t), d u / d t = cos t, ..
,
, .

144

,
, ,
.

. .


.

, .
. 4.12 [21].
4
- 4 - = A T /2co(sin (at)2 + AT772co(cos to?)2 = K T I2a>,
T - ; -
.

. 4.12.

145

,
.


. ,

-

dy 1 .
dy2 .
signy2 signp,
at
at

= /oasin oof sign ( sin oof) + /cocos cof sign (cos oof).

, .
.


.
, ( 32%).


,
.

,
/
.

-
.

.
, ,

, .
.

, .



146


- . -
.
,
,
.
, (1 ),
,
. ,
,
.
,
[3],

. ,

, - , - [15].

2 3- .
RC .
(. 4.13) ,
,
.
.

. 4.13.

147

,
,
.
.

.


,
.
,
, ,
.
,
,
.

.
,
,
. t =
( - 1 ) :
Vf[nT] = f [ n T ] - f [ { n - l ) T ] ,
- .


V 2f [ n T ] = V f [ n T ] - V f [ ( n - l ) T y f [ n T ] - 2 f [ ( n - l ) T ] + f [ ( n - 2 ) T ] .

.
.
[10]
t =

g [ n T ] = S7g[nT] +
v

V 2g[ nT]

v 3g [ r ]
3

148

, , ,

.
.

.

4.4.
,
.
, ,
. 4.14. : -
; - ; - ; ; X - .

0, /, / .
-
,
.

. 4.15. ,
+ - . R-S
, +
. R-S
> 0 . , +,
- ,
.
< 0 .
.

,
.

. 4.14.
1
&

&

Sgn 8

. 4.15.

150

Umax Um\B
,
.
,
. 4.16 [6]. ,
,
,
.
( )
,
. .
,

.
.
,

. 4.16.

151

,
.
. ,
,
,
,
.

.
,
. ,
.

,

. ,
. 4.17 [5],
.

. 4.17.

152


, .
( ', ")
, ,

. ,
,
.

.
.

.
. 4.18 [1].
:
.

,
- .
,
,
.

.
,
.

.
,
.
,

,
,
.

, ..
.

153

. 4.18.



.
,
. ,
,
, -
. ,
,
.
,
,
.
,
. ,

. ,
,
, ,
154

,
.
, ) ,

.
.

,
.
,

. ,

.
.
,
,
, .. ,


.

- ,
, , ,
[8]. . 4.19.
-
.

,
.
,
, .
, :
90 90.
,
.

155

. 4.19.


,
,
, .
,
.
,
,
.
,


.
.

.



.

,
.

.

156



, 4

.


.
[2].

4.5.

,
.
.
,
,

,
.
,
,
.
.

.

.
,
.

,
, , ,
. ,

,
.

,
. -
, - .

157

-
,
, ,

. - ,

.
, , ,
.

(
)
,
.

,
.. , ,
,
.

.
, -
,
. ,
,
.
, ,

, , ,
,

.


, .
, .. ,

.
, , [13],
,
.

158

,
.

,
,

.


,
.
,

.
,
, ..

,
. , [13]
,
,

. ,
.
-
.

.
:
,
,
. ,

T = T o + Z ( A^ tg a ) ra.
0 - ; - 0 . \ . . .
, ,
;
tg
.

159


, -
.
, ,

,
..

,
, ,
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
.

.
, ,
.. ,
. .

.
,
,
.
.

.
,
.
, . ,
,
.
,
.

.
, ,
.
,
, .

160


, ,

.

.
. 4.20.
WH(S)
,
(T3S + \)J(T4S + 1 ), .

( Z- )
_ X(Z) _
G( Z)

^) ( Z) W( Z)
1+ ^ ( Z ) wH( z y

(S)

W +1)

S 2(T4S + l)(T22S 2 + 2$2T2S ) + i y

W dS)

. 4.20.



\
K ^ / T ^ S 2 .

,

161

.
, ..
. [10]

,


/: (1 + s)
7 = 1 _________

WH(S) =

5 2 (1 + 7;5)


7}, ,
.
X, ,
,
+ j x. X)
7= 1

W <JX ) = -

d -A f).
(jxf +
1=1
g - , .
, ,

0 7 ,.

W(jk) = -

1 -
2

1 + '.

T = t r < .
*+1

[10]:
m 1
I.

7=1

1
'LirZK

,=1 7]

1
---- (- ^ < -----------2 ,=g+i
+1

- 1.5.
:

162

0
^ 1 ](-1)
/ 1 ]

^
- r + H Ti ^ JL : ; ; < _ ; =
2
0
+1
/ + 1

( 1/7) - .
, 0,
,
, :
, = 0 .0 4 1 0 ,^ = 0.15, 2 = 0.00013 , ^2 = 0.07, = 0.0033 , 4 = 0.0005 ,
50 .

. , ..
, ,

,
. ,


. ,
,
[14].

4.6.


.


, ,
,
,
, , ,

.
, ,

,
,
- .

163



, . ,
,
,
-,

, ,

.
,


,
, .

1. .. 862154 , . . G 06 15/14.
/ .. , .. ,
.. , .. (). 2873212/18-24; . 05.12.79;
. 07.09.81. . 33. 3 .
2. .. 1005106 , . . G 06 15/22.
/ .. , .. ,
.. , .. (). 3320286/18-24; . 27.07.81;
. 15.03.82. . 10. 4 .
3. .. 450108 , . . G 01 23/00.
1 .. , .. , B.J1. ,
.. , .. , .. , .. ().
1879416/18-10; .05.02.73;. 15.11.74. . 4 2 .3 .
4. .. 541165 , . . G 06F 7/04.
/ .. , B.JI. , .. ().
1968751/24; . 29.10.73; . 30.12.76. . 48. 2 .
5. .. 625220 , . . G 06 11/00.
/ .. , .. , .. , B.J1. ,
.. .. , . , .. ().
2483268/18-24; . 10.05.77; . 25.09.78. . 35. 3 .
6. .. 686045 , . . G 06 15/22.
/ .. , .. , ..
, .. , .. (). 2604740/18-24; .
17.04.78; . 15.09.79. . 4. 2 .

164

7. .. 794644 , . Kji. CJ 06 15/22.


/
.. , .. , . . , .. , .. (). 2706581/18-24; . 04.01.79; . 07.01.81.
. 1. 3 .
8. .. 898472 , . K j i . G 06 15/22.
/ .. , .. ,
B.. , .. , (). 2933423/18-24; . 30.05.80;
. 15.01.82. . 2. 3 .
9. .. . .: - , 1966. 210 .
10. .. . .: ,
1976. 575 .
11. .., .., ..
// . 1975.
5 . . 90-91.
12. .. . .: , 1967. 81 .
13. / .. , .. , .. . // . 1991. 1.
C. 68-74.
14. - / .. , B.J1. , .. , ..
// . : . 1979. 2. . 77-81.
15. .., ..
. .: , 1973.
16. .., .., ..

// . 1982. 6. . 151.
17. / .. , ..
, .. .; . .. . .:
, 1980. 198 .
18. .., ..
// . 1998. 6. . 65-84.
19. .., ..
// . 1976. 1. . 227-229.
20. 90
/ .. , .. , .. .
// . 1977. 4 . . 210,211.
21. .
1229326, 1967.

165

5.

*
5.1.

.



.

[4].
- , ,
,
.
,
,

, ,
, ,
.

,
,
[9].
,


,
, .. ,
.

:
(),
;
,
, ;
;
.

166

,
-
,

,
, ,

.

,
, Cell System [10],
, ,

.

5.2.
- ,
,
. -
- XX
,
.


, .

,
.
( ),

.
, ,
,
.
,
, . ,
.

,
.
, ,

167


, .
.

,
. ,
.
,
,
(MJ1M).
,
.

.

.

( )
, ,
.

[3].

: , , ; ,
, ( -).

{X} { } .
L = 1.
- ,
DA ~ { A i ) , i = \ , L ,
{X,.} { i'}, L > 1.
X
D6 c { X } x { Z } Z \c i{ X } x { Z } -
( ),
8 ^ )
D & D x , (-).

168

-
D a .
- : ,
.
-
, Z.
.
-

.
-
.
,
( ),
.
,
1 ,
.

-.

,
()
() . -
:
.

.

,
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.. ,


.
,
,
.
,

169

, .
,
,

.
,
.

.

.
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,
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2) ;
3)
,

;
4)


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;
5)
( );
6) ,
,
.

,
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, ..
, ,
, .

, . , ,
:

170

1) : -, - ;
2) :
, ;
3) :
;
4)
: , ,
;
5) : (
, , , .)
;
6) :
;
7) ( ,
);
8) :
[10].
,
.

,
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, ,
.
, ,
,
- .
,
.
.

,
.
,
, .

, (),
.
, -
,
.

171

5.3.
5.3.1.

A = { X , Y , Q, q ( t ) , y ( t )},

(5.1)

X - ; Y -
; Q ; y(t)
; q(t) .

? 0 ) = /[? (* -1 ) * (0 ].

(5.2)

t - (1 = 0, 1,2, ...),
, , ,
; q{t) (.. ),
t; q(t 1) -
; x(t) - t.

y(t) = q>[q(t-l), (1)].

(5.3)


.
:
= {,...,}.

(5.4)

= {1,..., }.

(5.5)

(5.3). ,

.
(. 5.1) [7].
t -

(5.4); Q , ^-
; q ^- ,
Q; y t - . t
/- (5.5).

172

. 5.1. : X t -


Q.
, Q,
y t .
, , ,
, Q,
xt , -
.


b (. 5.2).
Q, ,
: 0 1.

Y
. 5.2.

.
\ 2,
(
).

173

.
.
( Y)
Q = 0, . . . = 011011,6 = 000111.
\ = 2 = \ , , X - 0,
= 1. = 1 ( - ), Q
.
Xi = 2 = 1, Q = 1, X = 1, = 0, = 1, - = 0, 2 = 1,
= 1, = 0 , = 1 , = 1 . .
(. . 5.2) ,
, \
2, Q - (5.6), . .
, ,
.
= X xX 2Q + X xX 2Q + X xX 2Q + X xX 2Q =

J-K
Flip-Flop

. 5.3. MatLab

. 5.3-5.5
MatLab.

174

175

. 5.4.
b

. 5.5 . (SM )

5.3.2.
,
, (5.1).
y(t).
y(t) (5.3),

y( t ) = q> [q(t-1)],

(5.7)

.. y(t)
[7].
,
. 5.6. I ,

. JK Q ( -
).
. , , D, ,
,
Q.
Q Y .
x t . ,
, \ Q.

176

2. ] + 2.
Q.
2, Q
\ \ + 2 + |, - | \ + 2 + 3 1+

. .

. 5.6.


:
/ i = l, </< 18;
f 2 = 1, 8 < q < 23;

(5.8)

./ = 1 , 12 < q < 27,


q - , Q.
,
.
, ,
. . 5.7-5.9
MatLab.

177

178

. 5.7. MatLab

"> .


&
a.

Li_

&

<a

V. J2
Li-

~ Air

Qa.
if

0 .

?
*E

-=> A.

f T

0 -

179

. 5.8. , JK -

t ft

i i

. 5.9.

03
0 3 0 0 0 =
i i

180

i
T
^

5.4.
5.4.1. -
,
.

. ,
- [8].
- z , , z2 z3; -, \ ,
- /, / 2 :
\ f i ~ y \z\z2 + (>'i + zi + z 2)x z 3;

(5.9)

I/2 = y & z 2 + ( y l + z l + z 2) y 2.
-
(. 5.10),

f:

. 5.10. ,

/\ = 1 + ( 1+ 0 + 0)1 = 1,
= r i0 0 + ( y , + l + 0 ) y 2 = 2;

f\ = 110 + (| + 0 + 0 ) 0 = 0,
/ 2 = , 00 + (, +1 + 0 ) 2 = 2;

181

) , -

= > ' | 1 + (

[ =

) 0 1 1-

+ 0 + 1) Jcl = >'i +

^ 0 1 + U +1 + 1)

= 2;

=
[ = ^ l0 1+ (+l + 1+ I)j2 = 2

) 1 0 0- * = 1 0 0 + ( 1 +1 + 0 ) 1 =
| / 2 = j 'l i o + ^ i + o + o ) ^ = 3 w
) 10 1- \ ^ = ^ 00 +

+1 + 0) -^ = ,

1 = ^ + {1+0 + 0 ) 2 = 1 2;
) 1 1 0: - * 0 + 1 + ')*1 = *.
( = + + + = 1 + 2
) 1 1 1-

= ^ + ( ' + i + i)* o = >

1 = ^ + ^ + + = y t + 2- ,
. 5.11.

182

-1

-3

. 5.11. -

5.4.2. - MatLab

, .

[10].
-
Cell System,
Sim ulink (. 5.12)

183

File

Edit

View

Simulation

cS

Format

Tools

5 ._

Normal

D isp la yl

R unning

100%

in

T = 173842.001 VariableStepDiscrete

. 5.12. 7-

. 5.13. T-struck

184

<>

-
MatLab.
.
T-struck,
1, 2 ; z
fl f2. Constant
.
, - .
Display. . 5.13
T-struck.

5.4.3. -

,
[5].
-
,
,
.
- ,
. ,
- () if,
then, else ( goto ) ,
.
. switch

,
,
, .
switch, -,
,
[5].
SWITCH- ,

- .


, [6].
, , 2,
Zj, z2 z3 0

185

1. - .
,
. 5.14-5.21.
{, z, z2 .
{.
- 1, 1. ,
0, - z , .
Z, 0, 1,
z2 ,

1 .

. 5.14.

. 5.15.

. 5.16.

. 5.17.

186

. 5.19.

. 5.18.

. 5.21.


-,
f x / 2 .
, -, 5.1.
5.1. -.
#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>

\\
\\

.......

//
int , 1 ,y2 ,fl ,f2 ;
int z 1 ,z2,z3;
int i;

\\
\\

//---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------void aut(int x,int y l,in t y2,int z l,in t z2,int z3) \\ ,


{
\\
in tsl,s2 ,s3 ;
\\
sw itch(yl)
W
{
\\ 1
case 0:

187

sw itch(zl)
\\
{
\\ z l
case 0:
switch(z2)
\\
{
\\ z2
case 0:sl= 0;break;
case l:sl= l;b re ak ;
}
break;
case l:sl= l;b re ak ;
}
break;
case l:sl= l;b re ak ;
}

//-------------------------------sw itch(sl)
{
case 0:s2=0;break;
case 1 :
switch(x)
{

\\
\\

\\
\\

case 0:s2=0;break;
case 1 :
\\
switch(z3)
\\ z3
{
case 0:s2 =l;break;
case l:s2 =0;break;
}
break;
}
break;
}
sw itch(yl)
{
case 0:s3=0;break;
case 1 :
sw itch(zl)
{
case 0:

\\
\\ 1

\\
\\ z l

188

switch(z2 )
\\
{
\\ z2
case 0:s3=0;break;
case l:s3= l;break;
}
break;
case l:s3=0;break;
}
break;
}

//-------------------------------switch(s2)
{
case 0:
switch(s3)
{
case 0:fl= 0;break;
case l:fl= l;b re a k ;

\\
\\
\\
\\

}
break;
case l:fl= l;b re a k ;
}

//

-----------------------

sw itch(yl)
\\
{
case 0:
sw itch(zl)
{
\\
case 0:sl= l;b reak ;
case 1 :
switch(z2 )
\\
{
\\
case 0:s l= 0;break;
case l:sl= l;b re a k ;


\\ 1
\\
z l


z2

}
break;
}
break;
case l:s l= l;b re a k ;
}

//--------------------------------

189

sw itch(sl)
{
case 0:s2=0;break;
case 1 :
switch(y2 )
{
case 0:s2=0;break;
case l:s2=l;break;

\\
\\

\\
\\

break;
// ...............................
sw itch(yl)
{
case 0:s3=0;break;
case 1 :
sw itch(zl)
{
case 0:s3=0;break;
case 1 :
switch(z2)

\\
\\ y l

\\
\\ z l

\\
\\ z2
case 0:s3=0;break;
case l:s3=l;break;

}
break;
break;

//-------------------------------switch(s2)
{
case 0:
switch(s3)
{
case 0:f2 =0;break;
case l:f2 =l;break;

\\
\\
\\
\\

break;
case 1 :f2=l;break;

190

printf(%2d ,fl);
printf(%d,f2 );

\\ fl
\\ f2

//--------------------------//
void main()

\\

{
clrscr();
x| 0 |
0I 0I 1 1 1
printf(
y l| 0
printf(
0|
1 1 1
1 1
printf(
01 1
y2 | 0
printf( ======
fl ,f2
|\n);
printf(zl,z2,z3|
printf(:
\\
for(int z l= 0;z l< 2 ;zl++)
\\
for(int z2=0;z2<2 ;z2 ++)
for(int z3=0;z3<2;z3++)
{
\\
printf(% 3d,zl)
\\
printf(%2d,z2)
printf(%2d,z3);printf( |);
\\
for(x=0 ;x<2 ;x++)
\\ , 1 ,2
for(y 1 =0;y 1 <2 ;y 1 ++)
for(y 2=0 ;y2 < 2 ;y2++) {
\\ , ,
aut(x,y 1 ,y2 ,z 1 ,z2,z3);
\\
printf( I); }
\\
printf(\n);
}
p rint f( = = = = = = |======
getch();

= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = I\ ) ;

191

X
yl

z l

22
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1

:
:
:

0
1
0

!
S
!

& 0
0
1
1
0

1
1

!
0 :
0 !

1
0
1
0
1
0
1

0
1
1

1
0

1
0
1

1
1
0

1
1
1

: 0
:
; 1
; 00

01

10
00
10
10
10
00
11
01

11
01
11
11
11
01
11
01

:
:
!

fl ,f
00
00
00
00
00
00
00

@0

i 01
! 01
1 01

01
1 00
i 00
i

! 01
i 01

; 00
: 00
{ 10
{ 10
! 00
: @
0
! 01
i 01

i 01
: 01

11
1 11
5 01 1 10
; 01 ; 00
: 1 i 10
! 01 s 00
i

01
11
01
10
00
11
01

. 5.22.

, 5.1,
. 5.22.

5.4.4. -

, (
) h ,
, .
cell-
:
= (A Z2 v z3)(z, v z2 v z3) v O, v z, v z2)xz3 v y 2z, z2z3;
/2 = (Plzl v *z,z3)z2 (z, V z2 V z3) V
v[y, V (Zj V z2 )(z, V z2 v z3)](y3 V z,z2z3),
x, y u y 2 - ; z h z 2, Z3 - ;
f u f i ~ .
:
1) Z] = 0, z2 = , Z3 = 0 (. 5.23, )

\ f 2 = 21
2) Z] = 0, z2 = 0, z3 = 1 (. 5.23, )

192

[ . / ; = . vp

=;
3) z\ = 0, z2 = 1, z3 = (. 5.23, )
[/I =

1 =;
4) Z] = , z2 = 1, z3 = 1 (. 5.23, )
\ f ~ 2

1 = ;
\

5) zi = 1, z2 = , z3 = (. 5.23, )
[ =*
\/= \*
6) Z] = 1, z2 = , z3 = 1 (. 5.23, )

f/i
1

>

= y , y 2i

7) z\ = 1, z2 = 1, z3 = (. 5.23, )

=,

1 = vj 2;
8) , = 1, z2 = 1, z3 = 1 (. 5.23, )
j / i = 3 ,i.

1 =>'. v^z,
&

J' i

&

. 5.23. ,

193

5.4.5. -
. 5.4.3
SW ITH-
.

(,
. programmable logic device, PLD),
,
.
,
().
,

.
[2]:
- CPLD (. complex programmable logic device -
)
- (.
macrocells),
;
- FPGA (. field-programmable gate array)
- (DSP),
, ( ,
( )) .
FPGA ,
, CPLD.
,
, VHDL (Very high speed
integrated circuits Hardware Description Language) [2].
,
.
,
, ,
.
- VHDL. (or), (and), (not),
VHDL (Gate)
:
, , .

194

. and o r
. , and :
and <nam e><list o f arguments>
and myand(out, in i, in2, in3);
// and ,
// myand
and (out. In i, in2);
// and .
,
VHDL,
,
.
n o t .
- , ..
, :
not (out, in);

VHDL- ,
.
VHDL, -, 5.1.
5.2. , -
LIBRARY ieee;
USE ieee.std_logic_l 164.all;

\\
\\ ,
\\

ENTITY m_aut IS
\\ m-aut
PORT( x, y l, y2: IN S T D L O G IC ; V
z l, z2, z3: IN STD LOGIC;
f l , f 2 : OUT STD LOGIC);
END m a u t;
ARCHITECTURE m -struct OF m aut IS
\\ VHDL m-struct m aut
BEGIN
PROCESS

195

SIGNAL s 1,s2,s3,s4,s5,s6,s7,s8
: STD_LOGIC;
SIGNAL vl,v2,v3,v4,v5,v6,v7,v8,v9,vl0: STD_LOGIC;
SIGNAL zl ,z2_,z3_
: STD LOGIC;
BEGIN
OR o l(s l,z l,y l,z 2 );
N O T (z3 ,z3 J;
AND al(s2,sl,x,z3_);
AND a2(s3,yl,zl_,z2);
AND a3(s4,z3,yl);
OR o2(s6,s3,s4);
NOT(z2,z2_);
OR o3(s5,z3_,z2_,zl);
AND a4(s8,s6,s5);
N O T ( z l,z lJ ;
AND al0(v6,z3,z2,zl_);
AND a5(s7,y2,v6);
OR o8(fl,s2,s8,s7);
AND a6 (v l,z2 ,zl,y l);
AND a7(v2,x,z3,z2,zl_);
OR o4(v3,vl ,v2);
AND a8(v4,v3,s5);
OR o5(v5,z2,zl_);
AND a9(v7,s5,v5);
OR o6(v9,v7,yl);
OR o7(v8,v6,y2);
AND al I(vl0,v9,v8);
OR o9(f2,v4,vl0);
END PROCESS;
END m-struct;

5.5.

,
,
. ,

,

,
.

196

/ (jc,,

..., xn)

[ 1] / ,-
=
,

, 2, . _ , , 1, ..., ) / ( , , 2, . _ , , 0

/ ( , , 2, , 1,

/ ( , , 2, , 0,

, ),

) - ; -

.
- f / (,. , (. ,
,. , ,2,

(. ) /

xit

, , , ..., -
^ , ^ ,
^ :
d kf
5(; | , , 2 , ..., 1()

- E (
# . ,Z
j,
Z
i* j , i* S , j * s

, 5,

!' *2? j

,. ,

d kf
f
... dxjdxj dxs
dxj1 12 ... ,

/
,.11,.2... ,.i

*-1/

. V. .11,2 ... .1/

/
. 5.24
.
1

. 5.24.

197

1 , 2 -
, ;
3 ; 4 - ; 5
, ; - ; 7 ; 8
.
[1] J{x),
/( )/ , = g ( x ) , g(x)
:
f ( x ) = \g {x )d x v

,. ,
,
,
m- .
g(x) /-
) , =(1|,..., ,. ). f ,^,..., ,. )
(. ,..., , .
, ,
:
d g (x ) d g (x ) ^
,I

d g (x ) _ Q

,<2

, g(x)
, :
J g {x)d xii = . g ( x ) h l (x).
/,()/,. = 0 ,
,

,()
,.

'2

/,()

v . . . v -----------= 0.

'

h\{x) ,
.

198

J J g ( x ) d x tidxh = Xhx h g ( x ) 0 x(i A, ( x ) h 2(x)


d h 2(x) / dxi2 = 0.
,
f

(. ,

( h t(x))
J ...J J g { x ) d x i dxh ...dxim = ,. x h ...x,._g ( x ) 0 x,2...x,._ A ,(x) 0 . . . 0
, W A .W ,
Jf I (.
....1 ') l i ,..., lm
V
<1
x t
x 2 - ( x i

f / (11. . . )

( . 2 ~

,..., ) /

1 .

5.6. ( )
5.6.1.
5.5,
.

Cell System
.
, ,
,
, .

(SELECT),
(ADDRESS). . 5.25,
.
; ,
.

. ,

199

,
, . ,
, Z
, / 0 (..
Z ); , Z
.. , ,
N
. .

. (DEMUX)
:
.

. 5.25. :
- ; 6 -

. 5.25,6
. ,

. , , ,
. ,
,
1 N , ..
.

5.6.2.
. 5.26
/ 0 1, S. -

200

, S, ,
,
Z . ,
:

I QS

I XS.

(5.10)

S = 0 (5.10)

Z = / 01+ / , 0 = / 0 ( ),
.. Z / 0, ,
, ,
. 5 = 1, (5.10)
:

= / 00 + /,1 = / 1 ( ),

.. Z /

s

. 5.26.


,
: ( , , 10 )
(, 4.77 )
. ,
. 5.26,
10 /, 4.77 1\.

(SELECT), .. ,
Z, -
.

201

5.6.3.

,
. 5.27. ,

,
S\ S0.
.
, / 0 S {S 2 , ..
Z ,
5[ = 0 S0 = 0. . 5.1 ,
.
5.1.

S1

5,

0
0
1
1

0
1
0
1

Z = I0
Z = I\
Z=h
Z=h

so

. 5.27.


; , -

202

.
,
.

5.6.4.
. 5.28
74ALS151 (74151).

. 0 ,
S2, S 1 S0 , ( / 0 / 7)
Z. = 1,
Z = 0
.

203

20 4
. 5.28. 74ALS151

5 .6.5.



( ),
.
,
, ,
.
74131

. 5.29.

,
,
. ,

205


, ,
. 5.29.
X,
.
S2 .S) ,S0 (..
= 8) , 111
.

,
- Xi .. Z ,
,
.

5.6.6.

,
.
,
,
,
.
. 5.30 .
,
. ,
S0, Si S2, ..
, Z.
(. 5.2) = Z
. , /

. Z
= 011, 100, 101 110, ..
/ 3, / 4, 15 / 6 (
).
Z = 1 , / / 2 / 7
.

206

. 5.30. ,

5.2.

,
.

207

,
. ,
(. . 5.2),

Z = ABC + ABC + ABC.



,
, .. .
,
.

(, 74151)
.

(. 5.3).
5.3.

s2

Si

So

*0

^
11'*

^5

208

5.6.7.
( 74ALS157/HC157)
74A LSI57
,
(. . 5.26). . 5.31
, . 5.4,
II

S it

If

1-i

. 5.31. 74ALS157

5.4.

Za

Zb

zc

zd

ha

hb

he

hd

ha

hb

he

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209

5.7. ( )
5.7.1.
. 5.32 ,
. 1
,
, .
, S2S1S0 = , 0 ,
I 0.
, ,
.
(. 5.5) .
, . 5.32,
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, .
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/
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.
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;
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.
210

. 5.32.

, <90
(.. ),
. ,
A 2,A i,A o ,
/.

211

5.5.

s2

Si

So

07

0 .4

. 5.33, ,
2 1 =

0.

j , 0 ,
.

212

.51-------- 1-------- 1--------1------- 1--------i-------- 1------- 1-------1


5 -------- I--------I-------

Oo

I------- 1
------- I--------1
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0
-5

1------- 1------- 1------- 1------- 1------- 1------- L_

O-f1 7 I q

.5I------------- J------------- -l-------------J_ _

. 5.33. :
- 74ALS138
(

, );

- A i A\A q=

213

, 0
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5.7.2.

. . 5.34
74ALS138,
.

,
..

. 5.34.


. ,
S2SiS0 = , /,
0 , S2S]S0 = 101 0 5.

214

5.8. -


, ( )
,
- .
,
,
,
,
.
.
,
,
()
.
[3],
, , ..
,
.

, . 5.35.

. 5.35. : J14 - ; - (
); - ; - ;
A j - (/ = 1,2,...,)

215

.
(. 5.35)
, = 2,

> ai > 0 ( = 1, 2) ,

(5.12)

' = / 1 + / 2, ; [ 0 >1] (/ = 1, 2),


2 - ; , - ;
- .
f 0, 1
(. 5.36)
x x(f) (1) x 2(t)

h2h4 = 0 (. 5.36, )

h2h4 = 1 (. 5.36, )

= h lh i v h2h4, b = h2h 3 v h xh A\
h x = sgn(sgn(x,) - 1), h 2 = sgn(sgn(x,) + 1);
h3 = sgn(sgn(.v) - 1), h 4 = sgn(sgn(.v) + 1);
s = x 2(t) + x x( t ) ,

216

(5.13)

. 5.36. -
( )

hj (j = 1, 2,
4) ; s -
; sgn(yl) - ,
:
1 > ,
sg n (^) =

- ,
- 1 < 0.



s > 0, Xj > 0,

[(3 s < 0.

(5.14)

JI4 ,
,
, (5.12)

2
( - (a2ty V +

2 (*F, 0 = (- 2 / ) * 2 (4, 0) +

217

( (-2^)' - 'F ) ^ ,

(5.15)

(5.16)

(5.15) (5.16),

= , < (. 5.37, ) = , > 0 (. 5.37, ).
l 2
1

t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t
t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t

4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4
4 i 4 i i 4 4 i i 4 i i i i 4 4
I 4 t * I i 4 4

i f f * i t * f f 11 * t f f
4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4

U JJJJJ_LLLLLLU J
t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t t

1

um urn

. 5.37.

. 5.38. , )

218

'

(5.11) = 9 7 .7 .
\ = 2 = 1/97.7.
g 1. ,
= 0.7 flicp = 7
.
(\ = 1, 2 = 0,
= ) ,
7 S,
tg(c) .
, 01 = <*> *[0..7] (. 5.38), ,
= 0 .7 = 7 = 2.91.

. 5.39. :
- ; -
( 1 - s , 2 - ds/dt); -
( / - , 2 - )

(5.16) jc2(T , ()| = = -0.201.


^ ( , 0)|/ = = 2('1/, ?)[^ = (3:

219

^ (

2)2, 0)|=

~ >
1

.. < -1 3 .5 5 .
= -13.6.

/ = 7 = 0.7,
: = 2.91, = 13.6.

. 5.39.
, ,
,

,
.

5.9.
", ,


.
1. ,

.
2.
.
3.
.
4. ,



,
.

1. ., X. / .
. .: , 1986. 400 .

220

2. .., .., .., ..


. -/: , 2008. 398 .
3. .., .., ..
. .: , 1985. 320 .
4. .. . .: -
. .. , 2005. 512 .
5. .. SW ITCH-.
. .: , 1998. 628 .
6. ..
:
. ... . . . ., 2004. 195 .
7. ., . : , 1998. 4.1.
114 .
8. .. 1476456 . . . G06F7/00. /
.. , B.C. (). 4124982/24-24; .
26.09.86; . 30.04.89. . 34. 8 .
9. .. .
. :
, 2007. 192 .
10. .. .
. : , 2006. 288 .

221

6.

,

6.1. -

6.1.1.
- (),

()
( ),
,
,
[7, 8, 9, 14].

,
.
, ,
,
,
( ),
. ,
,

,
, ..
[18].


u = arg extr R ( F ], F 2 ( )),
R ; Ft - ; F2( ) - .
. 6.1.

222

. 6.1. .

: -
; -
; - ; -
; -
; - ; . -
. :
, , ,
. .

6.1.2.


()
: ,
, ,
(), (. 6.2).
. ,
,

.
, , () (),
- (),

223

.
.
-
- ( ,
, ( )),
( )
(, , ).

,
(, ), ,
.

.
: ,
[8].
[13,14].
:
1- - -
() ;
2 - - ;
3- - (
,
,
);
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, - -
);
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);
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(, , .)
[7, 8, 9, 14]:
SnT
I
ST
= - ^ ; , = ; = - ^ ; AS = &TW- S aT,
s

^
S , S3 -
; 5- ; I ,
1 - ( ) .

224

,
( ) :
, < ; , < ', ; \ < Ks ; A S < A S *1,
, , A S 0- ()
,., l , A S " ,
( K s , K t , K s , ).
, K s, , \ , A S . ,
, :
- , - .
, Ks, , \ , A S
- .

:
1- K s < K s , K e < , \ < '
AS < AS0;
2- K s > K s , > , \ < '
A S < 5, ;
3- K s > K s, > , fC s > '
A S > A S ;
4- ,
, ,
,
;
5- ,
,
;
6- , K s > K s, A S > A S i].
K s, , 0,, AS
.

225


3
Q,

305 ^5
1 i
ei a9

x
S

|
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30
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~ x
s

QS3J 4g s3 2<
5 *.
i
0
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1 |
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226

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3

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8
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a 2%
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. 6.2.

5ss
t

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-
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.

[9].
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) , [7].


[14].

[14]. ,
,
[14].
,
[7, 14].
, .
,
. 6.2.
[1, 2, 11].
,
.

,

( , ) [14].

. [14].


[14].
,
,
,
[ , 15]. ,
, -
[10].
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, ) ,

2 27

().
,
[7, 14].
.

,
() [14].
.

(..
).
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() [14,
23]. ,
.

.
() [23].

(,
,
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[14, 23].
,
.
.
:
^1

15

) =

] i ^ 2 (-*2 >

) = ^2

^2

, , - ,
; Flc , F2C , F1H, Fm ,
,
, > 0 , Flc > 0 ,
> 0 , i = 1.2. ,
, -,
,
, ,
, , ,
,
. -,

228

,
.

()
. ,
,
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S

[ ^ 2 (-*2*) 2 {22
[(',,'), (2('2, 2 ) - ,
, ; ,0, ^ 0) , ,
, ,

, ; 3(% ',|')- ,

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, ^',|') -

6.1.3.


, ,
[14].
,
.
.
(. 6.3) XqYZ, X\0 \Y\Z\, X1O1Y2Z2,
, ( 0 \ 22
).

229

. 6.3.

. 6.3 , ,
2 , .
()
\ () 2, -

[14]: , = 2 - ( 2,2) , ( 2,2) -
,
z(x,y). (2,2)
.
( 2,2)
, ,
= arg max J ( p ) ,

J ( p ) ,
.
J ( p )
J{ P ) = \ F { (xi, y l)F2 (x2, y 2,p)dxdy ,

230

F{ ( , ) , F2 (2, 2, )

; ,

J { p ) .
,
: ,
,
( ).
.
, ,
, ,
() .

6.1.4. -



( ,
..) ,
,
.



. ,
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, 2n-2s, ,
.
,
.
, :
,
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),

231


.
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(
).
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232

C'J

i , j = l,...,N ,
I

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N
, - :
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=1

- -
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,

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( )
.
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233

,

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6.1.5.

.
,

: (,
), (,
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),
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, ),
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,

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234

. ,
1 1C, (
) -

.

, , , ,
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. ,
( )
.
8gJt, 8 , ,
:
5 ^

s V x ; 5 gy =

Scy = Cgv + HtSVx >

Sc* + 5 W

i 5 cx =

= lx ~ 1

* + *8 >

l y lyy,

5a , 8 - ,
; 8

, 8 - ; \\ix ,

; lx, I
( ),
; /

, / -

; -
( );
-
; , & - ,
; lx , I -

XOY, . ,

XOY,
- .
,
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,
[9].

( ),
.

235

6.1.6.

()
() .

,
, , , .

.
.

- (). (
, )

.
,
,
(
) (
) . (
)
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, , , > 5, ( , 5 -
); , .

21
N ( a 2)
() . 20
20 = cx trA (a 2) ,
. N ( a 2)
(2) = (2) + (2) =

236

( 2) , (2) -
() ; 2 -
, ,
() ; 2
; , 2)

,
, ,
.
,
- ,
.
,
,
0 =

^ ^ 0 8 2

1 + 1 2

mi ) =

^ ^ ( 1 2

\ +

18 2

+ 1 2 4> .

N K- ; jV3-
; ^, 2
;
; - , .
.
,

.
- , .
,
,
.

(),
, , .

237

6.1.7.

.
()
:
1 ) ,

(, -, ; -, ,
);
2 ) , ;
3) ,
;
4) , , ;
5) , ;
6) ,
.


.
,
65
.
,
.

,
,
.
.


, .


.
,
. -
,
,

238

( )
.

,
.



, , ,
-
.

:
X T = X Ti+ X 0 - Yr = YTi + Ym ,
X Ti, YTi -
'- ; , Ym - '- .
X 0i, Ym,
.

+ ( 1 - P ,) |7 ,,|> a ,.

Pjjg

, 0 1, > 0 .

.

, ,
.
,
,

,
.
,
. . 6.4, 6.5
N (. 6.4, , , 6.5, )
N n (.6.4, , . 6.5, 6)
, ;

0.1 R 0.5

239

20 . .
6.4, 6.5 , ,
, ,
0.2% 0.3
. . 6.5
(. 6.4, ) (. 6.5, 6) ,
;
() 5 . . 6.5 -

, 0.2%
R , 0.3
. . 6.4 6.5 ,


.
t Ny

N ji

0,285

% R

0, 1%

. 6.4. () ()

f Ny

'

. 6.5. () ()

240

- , ,
0.5; 1; 5; 25 ;
- 0,1~%
;
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-
360 ;
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6.2.
-


(),
( ).
, ,

:

, ; , b
.
,
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,
[7, 8]:
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^, = ^ c o s a + r js in a , r|, = p c o s a - ^ s i n a .

(6.2) :
(6.3)
= cos a + ), sin a ; 13 = %, sin a + rij cos a .
(6.3) ,
, , .
, (6.2)

(6 .4 )

,
241

Xl

* , Y?

, X \ ,

;0 0, , 0,

(6.5)

5^ = 5^ = 0 ,
,,, rjj,

(6.3).
(6.2) ,
:
= X 2 cos - Y 2 sin ; , = sin + 2 cos .
(6.6)
(6.6) ,
, Y 0, 0, , 2 = Y2 = 0,

(6.7)



(6.1 ).
,

,

.

,
[8]:
Ai = (Zi + Z 2) - (Z3+Z4); 2 = (Z2+Z3) - ( Z x +Z2),
(6.8)
Z| - Z4 - ,
.
(6.8) Ai , 2 ,.
(6.8) ,

, /2.
, /2 ,
, = (Z2 + Z2) - (Z,+Z4); 2 = (Z ,+ Z 2) - (Z, +Z4),
(6.9)
(6.8), (6.9)
, /2,

8^, = |; $ = (6. 10)
(6.10) :
|,
,

5 ^ ,, 5 ,

242


, \ Z4, ,
.
,
(6.1), (6.3), (6.7).

[7, 8],
. 6.6.

. 6.6. ,

. 6.7. - ,

243

:
(), (), (),
(),
(), (), (),
(), (),
(), - (), (), (),
(),
(), (), (),
(), (), () ().
.
: (
),
, ()
%, ) ,
Oj, ,, |.
. -40.
,
. ()
( ) .
,

.
-
.

,
.

.
604 .
- ,
.
, J m
, .
J T
.

().
2. 2
.

244

.
IIII.

,

2
(360 30.

. UT
Um , . ,
A U = U Um, ,
. |A t/| > 5 ( 5 - ),

.
"I"
0 360
. 360,
""
, 2.
|AU| < 8'
( 5 ' ),
. 20 - 23 .
,

30.

.

. ,
()
, |, ^, ^. ^,
, .
()
. , ), ?, ;

.
15 .
:
.

245

() ,
( )
. .
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. . 6.8
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, 12

4.5 10"2 10"3 . ,
.
()
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. , * = = 0.3 - 3.0%
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30

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1
1 1
1 I

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20

1
1

1
1------- _____1

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]
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1
t
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. 6.8.

( )
, 3- .
. 6.9 1 2,
()
() "".
: = 3.3 - 7.3, = 2.5^8; = = 4 -
6% , 0.03 .

246

50

()

'l
\

30

/ 2 _
20
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ducm
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20

30

50

. 6.9. ,

.
. 6.10 1 2,
() () X .
,
. ,
, , .

X. = (0.4 - 2.0)
10"3 , 0.02 .

247

. 6.10. ,


,
,
, .

:
1. ,
, - .
2.


.
( )
, .
: (
), ( 8 )
(
36 36 ).

20 98 120
48 98 151 .
, , () , , ,
. 30.
. 6.11, 6.12 ( ) 6.13
( ).
.

248

.


.

, .

,
.
,
,
, .
/

| | | |

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\ 5 5 %
'=0,?\2
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lap

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11)

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1
1
1

ip

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. 6.12. ,

249

dUiM

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<*= 1,112,3

fo - 0.+ 2,9

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>

/
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80

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1

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loo

. 6.13. ,


() (,
, ) [7, 8]. . 6.14
/ (X,), F2 (2) J ( Q , F , (AT,), F2 (2) . 6.14, , ,
. . 6.14, ,
, ),

,

. . . 6.14, ,
,

.

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6.13, , ,
.
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. ()
)
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- ,
.

250

, (
)

.
|,

(.)

JO -

X/

()

01

L
a

X/
;

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. 6.14.

. 6.15 J (,)
( )

251

( 1), ( 2)
( 5). . 6.15,
( /), ( 2) ( 3)
. , , -,
( ),
; -,

.

. 6.15. J (4)
() ()

&

&

1 2

0,1

02

05

0,4

5)

. 6.16.

252

. 6.17. J (

. 6.16,
' ( % )
( 1) ( 2)
KF .
KF ,
. ,
, KF
, ' .

KF, (
0.7 ),
Ks = S J S 3 ( Sx -
, 5, - )
= L g /L jirm Lg - ()
, , - ()
). . 6.16,
Ks . 1 1
, 2, 2
( - Ks,
' ). ,
, K s < 0,19
< 0.35 ( ,
)
(, Ks = 0.21
).



, , -
( ,
, .. ,
). . 6.17

253

J (|),
( : /- ; 2-
; J - ).
, 3 ,
1, 3
2.
-
, , ,
,

.
. 6.7.
: (),
(), (),
(), (),
- (), (),
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2), (), (),
(), 1, 2 ( 1, 2), (), (),
(), 1, 2 ( 2),
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1, 2 (1, 2),
|
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(), ().
,
.
. :
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( ). ,
.

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254

.
.
36 36
.
TIIT 2 .
2,
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S

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|, ,
2 .
, .
,
. |, ,
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); '
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2, .
2
, ' - , , ,
. ,

255

, , |, ,
:
&/(,,r f , *) > d t
^ * + .= ^
St]

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ri +A, = ]+

6|

(6 . 12)
ri*-Ai =-_

- ,


,

d ^,d * ,
,

',

, d * , d~ , d*

.
(6.12)
,
,
.

, [14].
:
.
,
(
), .
. 6.18-6.26,
: , -
, , ,, , , -
. 30.

256

. 6.18. -

6,0

i-iM x-ahy '


1'--0 2 * < - - ( 1 ^

5-'1%
3 ,0

/ /

V /'

2
1

~ \ 0 /
/ /
5 ,0

~
3, 0

-'%
6,0

/ X

-3 ,0
. 6.19.

257

560

160

dU5M
)
1--{<;5,1(8
2?0 2-itUHOr1i\6;*.04
3-!. 6 d ^ P r i >5*
*{

/
(

ducm
( )
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360

90

160

. 6.20.

* = =0+,5%

< = <=1<4%

'

,/
/
-8,0

''
4,0

/
/

-4 ,0

/ *
/
. 6.21.

258

0,35

0,50 0,75 i.00

. 6.22.

< \

\
^

<1

0,25 0,50 0?5

iOO

. 6.23.

259

. 6.24.

. 6.25.

' -'^
.
0,4

4.0
= & = 0 + 5,0%
7.
= 0,0

/
/
/
/ /
/ /

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303



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VISKUB
V iktor G avrilovich
Doctor o f technical sciences. Professor, director o f department
o f Institute o f the government, right and innovative
technologies (Moscow). Author more than 100 scientific
works.

305



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300 60 .

SIR Y A M K IN
V lad im ir Ivanovich
Doctor o f technical sciences, professor o f Tomsk state
university, member o f the Russian Academy o f Natural
Science. Director o f interuniversity educational research and
production center Technological management o f Tomsk
State University. The Professor o f Tomsk polytechnic
university. Author more than 300 scientific works and 60
inventions.

306


. 50 .

S H ID IO V S K IY
V iktor Stanislavovich
Candidate o f technical sciences, reader o f Tomsk state
university o f control systems and radioelectronics department
o f automation and management electronic system. Author
more than 50 scientific works.

307

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