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2.
A.P.S.C.F. ` 2011 : \ d\T
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5
35
43

51
69
70
75
77
82
86
90
92
95
157
157
158

163
168
176
176
177
178
178
180

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1
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(Context)

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b+~+~. us |uT + #{ , s+< $< u\\ V #+ `2009 Right To Education
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$<qT b+<& nedsy T q #s \T m|{| &T #|
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#+ n<j\T, y{ $es\T (Section in the Act and its details)
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dH 19, 25\qT <w |T= $es\qT b+<T|ssT. M{ |\\ d+KqT { +&*q

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


b<jTT\ d+K, bsX \ ue q+, ><T \T, ed ks\T, keT, $< d+es+ bsX \
|~H\T, u<H >+\ d+K, b<jTT\T ys |#j *q |>+\ d+K yTT<\>T
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eT+q $<H s]dT+ ~.
(2) dudH (1) |s+ bs |D[qT, eT+q $<H s]+#| &T, nB n&$ T
d+d +~ n+X\qT |]>Dq rdT+T+~.
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(b) u\\ ds eTTU_e~ s>*.
(c) u\\ Cq+, keTs\T, H| D\qT |+b+~+#*.
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(e) |\\ qT +<+> #dT y] nqTyq $<H se\T, |]X<q , qT>=q&+ yTT<\>T
X +B $<H\T, <s |< T HsT y*.
(f) #sD k< yTq + es u<H e< eT+ u\\ euw> +T+~.
(g) uj
T +, +<q e+{ y{ qT+ u\\qT $eTT+ #d ysT eT uy\qT d#> e ] +#+
dV jT|&*.
(h) CH u\\T ns+ #dT q $<q+, < nqsTT+# keTs\| s+s deT> eT+q+
s>*.
| b<$ T $< |P] nsTTqT < MsD
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mTe+{ usT | VsT e\dq neds+ <T . (2) u\T&T < u* b<$ T $< |P]#d q
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|+ C #ksT .
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sY.{.`2009 ` u\\ n_e~ (RTE-2009

- Child Development)

n_e~ #+<&+ nH~ |\\ V. u\\ V J$+# V, d+s+ #& V, u>keT|


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yesD+ * +&&+ . u <, |eT|PsyT q d# yesD+ * +&&+ , |\\ n_e~ &&
8

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


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ds eTTU_e~ u\\ V\ D+ ns+ #dT y*q nedse TT+~.
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<w |{ $< |D[\T, bs |D[\T, eT+q $<H\T +&\ RTE-2009 d++~. n$:
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<: deq+, d#, ku+, keTy<+, y <+, |CkeT+ yTT$.
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bsX \ nH~ u\\ deT> m<T>T<\ @sT #dq +<+. |\ @< keTs n_e~|s &+
<s > < = $wj \ |]$TyT y{ k~+#&+ e\ > $< jTT \ + Hsy s < T . u\\
c\T, d \ T y] n_e~|] # s+>\qT >T]+, y{ bZH #jT &+, n+<T nedsy T q
sb\qT bsX \ sV+q|& u\\ ds eTTU_e~ sT>TT+~.
u\+ |\\ m<T>T<\ && <X. deTjT+ |\\ u V]+#$<+ > bsX \
yesD+, |rsT +f, ~ |\\ | re |u y #| u\\ n_e~ s~dT + ~. n+<T u\\
ds eTTU_e~ s>& nedsy T q n s+> se\T sV+#&*. +<Td+ +~ s+>\|
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u\\ Cq+, keTs\T, H| D\T, $\Te\T, yK sT\T, d+|P]> |+b+~+#&+


(Development of children knowledge, abilities, skills, values and attitudes to the
fullest extent)

u\\ Xs, eqd, k+|T , H , yT<|s, uy<>, k+<s dV e+{ n+X\


n_e~ u\\ ds eTTU_e~ nqe#TqT. u\\T d> nu d+#&+ , uj
T sV yesD+

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


u>keTT\e&+ <s u\\ ds eTTU_e~ k< eTeT+~. u\\qT u$ e T bsT\T> sb+~+
e T Jeq $<H &&< $<. u\\ Xs, eqd n_e~ &&TqT> bsX \ se\T
+&*. u\\ n+sZ X \ qT, keTs\qT y*rd $<+ > u<H u dq |jT \T sV+#*.
1. u\\ Cq+ (Kno wledge):

~ de#s+ <T. |d \ < > & T \ $wj C| + +#T= ] n|C| &+


<T. |d \ |X \, yT\qT > & T / d& y T {sTT e+{$ #d sjT&+ <T. CqeT+f > qTuy \
<s+> eT #q\ qT+& <$ +#~. ~ ueq ne>Vq e#T. deTkk<q e#T
k<sD s D + <s drsD e#T. Cq+ nH~ n du \ +&<T . j du
duy { +T+~. { uw <\ T sjT&+, nqTuy \T sjT&+, H<\T sjT&+, $\T,
> j\T e+{ eeVs sb +f >D + d\T, d++<\T s|D\T e+{ s|+ +T+~.
dq T ueq\T, ne>Vq, d<+\T, k<sD \ e+{ sb +T+~. k+|T + eqe d++<\T,
eqe JeH |u $+ #d n+X\qT >T]+#&+ , $\Te\ $se+, #{\T, ke TuT, e+{
sb +T+~. { Cq sD+ ]H HsT e&+ ]+< u$+#*. $e]+#&+ , #~$+#&+ ,
#d sjTeTq&+ e yjT &+ e+{ nss V $<H\ <s Cq sD+ sT><T . +<Td+ \T,
bC \ T, nHwD\T, qT>=q&+ e+{ X +B $<H\ <s u<H u dq |jT qT nse ++>
sV+#*.
CqeTH~ de#s+ b+<&+ <T. Cq+ #q\, nqTu T\ d+>eT+, {| & + , |qXsD
#dT e&+ <s |\y &T b+< de#s eTq+ Cq+ n sT # u$ksT . CqeT+f ~ <T.
CqeTH~ $<] e&~ <T. ~ nqTue + <s djT+> ]+#TH~. |\\ T djT+> |
#TsT q b bw+ eT+ eTT #d, #d CH b+<*. u\\T $wj <sTT+| #d
C| + #dq $wj \qT |X \ <s q<TqT> ] #| +#&+ Cq+ <T. B <s |\y
$<e+T #jT &+> u$+#e TT. HsT H $<q+, |< T \T ueq\| de#s d]+, $Xw + ,
k<sD ] +# +&*. bsX \ $<+ > |s |+#*, bV+#*. CqeTH~ jT$T \+
|P]> e>*> ~ <T. eqeyT< u+&>s <sTT+| #d~ eyT $< <T. $<] |]o\q,
nqTu T\, #q\ <s Cq sD+ #dT +{&T.
Cq+ $$< T\ +T+~:
1. $wjT d++< |]Cq+ (factural knowledge) C\T, s#H\T, de#s+, |<C \+.
2. ueq\|sy T q Cq+ (conceptural knowledge) $$< ueq\T, ueq\ de#s+
3. |< d++~ Cq+ (procedural knowledge) - s, |< T \T, $$< |< T \T, Cq sD+
#dT e&+.
4. Meta cognition - djT ne>Vq, eTq+ @$T{ m HsT +THeTT nH <| ne>Vq.
u+$TH yT eTVXjT T |s+ @<H ueq| Cq+ +<+f < b\&+, ] q
10

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


<q +~q uw < #| >\&Z + , ueT ^jT&+, u>\T >T]+#&+ , <| ne>Vqe
sjT&+, |]o*+ qy<T #jT &+, $esD e&+, ] #| &+ yTT<q $ #jT >\>*. HsT =H
< |j +#>\ >*.
Cq+ q<+f $ #jT >\>*.
` ne>Vq (understanding)
` $j>+ (application)
` $Xw D (analyses)
` d+Xw D (synthesis)
` eT+q+ (evaluvation)
` d+#&+ (creation)
2. u\\ keTs\T (Competencies/ abilities):
keTs + n+f #jT >\>&+ n ns+ . deTs *e+&&+ n ns+ . e{&& + n+<] edT+ ~.
de#s sT \qT n& \TdTe&+ deTs . nf sjT&+ n+<] edT+ <. q neds+
d+ <sU dT sjT>\>&+ deTs . D+ eTq+ keTs\qT ns+ #dT y*. n+f H| D+ #+~q
CH keTs +> u$+#*. keTs \T k<sD+> du duy { +{sTT. $ eqdy T q $.
#q\T L& +{sTT. bsX \ $< <s |\\ T $$< du \ qT HsT +{sT. M{ <s j
du \ |\\ T @$T k~+#*? @yT+ #jT >\>*? nH~ eTTK+. n+<T | du s> y> j
du \ duy { k~+#*q keTs \qT s]+#sT. { M{ |\\ +<s k~+# #&&+ eTq
u< . +<TqT>TD+>H qq bs |d \T =H*. M{ ds q $j+#*. nq> bs\
eT< , bs\ +< q keTs <] nuk\qT |\\ T k++> sd #&*. > & T e+{ y{
#d sjT& w~+#*. #d y] keTs_e~ sT><T . +#&+ , #d #&&+ , n< jTq+
#jT &+, bZq&+, k++> sjT&+ <s keTs \qT |\\ T b+<TsT. +<Td+ b<jTT\T
y] |D[qT, bs |D[qT sb+~+#T= q d+d< u<H u dq |jT \T sV+#*.
|\\ T mH n+sZ X \ T, keTs\T * +{sT. $< jTT eTTK XjT + u\ +&
dV yTq X \ qT n_e~ |s# & y T (capabilities or innate abilities)
u\\ n+sZ X \ T, keTs\T:
n+sZ X \ T | u\T/ u* +{sTT. $ =] $<+ > n_e~ #+~e+&*.
M{ |P]ksTT n_e~ #d eT+ X \ T, H| D\T >\ e\ qT j sT #jT &yT bsX \ |eTTK
se +.
` +#&+
` |]o*+#&+ , b\&+, d]+#&+
` }V+#&+
11

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`

u< \T b*\T >T]+#&+ , #| &+


eZ] +#&+ , +#&+
n+#H yjT &+
sD s\T, dr]+#&+
|+#&+ , |]\q\T #jT &+
sD\T #| &+
jTe\T @ss#& + , k<sD ] +#&+
$Xw + #&+
d+Xw + #&+
#jT &+/d+#&+
&&+ , b&+, n_qjTq+
dH+> e ] +#&+
deTk |]cs\T d+#&+
ssD
se&+
|]s\qT |j +#&+
eqd \T @ss#T e&+
ueT\T, |{\T ^jT&+
| X \ T b+ =+ n_e~ #+~ |\\ +<] +{sTT. y{ |P]> e~|s # & + , |\\ |P]
keTs+ yTs | X\qT (capabilities) qT e~ |s#&+ bsX\\T, b<jTT\T #j*+~
b<jTT\T eT du u>+>H M{ |+|<\, n_e~ q se\T |D[# k~+#*.
3. H| D\T (Skills):
|dT b{ ||+ #+ qq dyqT deTse ++> m<Ts=qT |\\ T |<] +#*q keTs
H| D\T. H| D\T du <s+> e#T n du n+sZ + > +&$ e#T.
H| D\T eTTK+> s\T> +{sTT.
1. #H H| D\T (Thinking skills)
2. ke H| D\T (Social skills)
3. ue|ks H| D\T (Communicative skills)
4. djT+ sVD H| D\T (Self management skills)
5. |]X<q H| D\T (Reserch skills)

12

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


#H H| D\T:
k<sD+> eTq uw ucH| D\T, $CqXd+ |j H| D\T eZs D ,
b\&+, |j >\T, ue |ks H| D\T, |]\q\T, nHwD\T ssD yTT<\>Ty{ >T]+ =+
ne>Vq +~. H| D\T nH$ eqd| s y T q $. nq> #DyT q $. +# $<+ y$ < qT
|<] +# H| D+ *Z +&&+ . M{H #q H| D\T (thinking skills) n+{sT. $ |< q+> H\T>T
s\T.
1. |d+~+#&+ (Reflection)
2. VT<+ > +#&+ (Analytical thinking) n+f ydy \T >T]+ sD\T #| >\>&+ .
3. VQD + $Xw + #&+ n+f @ $wjT + >T]+#H $_q D #| >\>&+ , deT]d
e{&& + , <H $u~ d e{&& + $$< s\ yX \T qT>=H $<q+ eT]jTT y{
|j H\T >T]+, y{ eT< d++<\ >T]+ e{&> \ >&+ .
4. dH #q\T (Creative Thinking): n+f qq |b<q #jT >\&Z + ,=$ dw+ #&+ ,
q sj
|{ + #&+ n+f H kq+ +f @+ #k&T ? n ds + >/ $Xd+
#| >\>&+ .
5. $eTsH #q\T (Critical Thinking): m+<T? @$T{? |+#&+ <s +|Cj
T &+.
HsT e&+ nH~ +#&+ <sH sT>TT+~. nu dq+ s>\+f $<sT\ qT ueq\|,
deTd\| +| #j *. +#&+ , #jT &+, nqTuy \ <s Cq sD+ sT>TT+~.
CH b+<& +#*. #+&+ <sH ne>Vq, $j>+, $Xw D
, d+Xw D
,
eT+q+ nH nTq H| D\ k<q sT>TT+~.
ke H| D\T (Social Skills):
` sT \qT >s$+#&+
` u< \T d]+#&+
` sT \ *d | #jT &+, |+#Te&+
` de+ deTV+ q u< qT s]+#&+
` djT $Xd+, qeT+ +&+
` T+ Jeq+, T+ d++<\| +
` |]ds\ eqsT\qT d~j>+ #dT e&+
` J$+ m<TsjT deTd\qT deTse ++> |]w]+#>\ >&+ .
ue |ds D H| D\T (Communicative Skills):
` u> $q+
` + e{& +
` #<e +

13

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


` #~$+~ ne>Vq #dT = |d+~+#&+
` >D b]uw |<C \+, d+\qT deTse ++> $j+#&+
` J$+ m<TsjT deTd\qT >D uw es>\>&+
` ueq\qT ne>Vq #dT e&+ eT]jTT deTd\qT k~+#>\ >&+ s $e]+#>\ >&+
` deTkk<q |< T \qT $e]+#>\ >&+ , sD\T \T|>\ >&+
djT sVD H| D\T (Self management Skills):
` eqd #\H H| D\T (, #T \T, y $$< |qT\T #jT +)
` deTjT b\q sVD (Time management)
` s>yTq Jeq $<H\T (Healthy life style)
` +q |\\ |esq
|]X<H H| D\T/de#s H| D\T:
|]X~+#&+ <s \TdTe+, $$< H| D\T k~+#&+ n$
` |+#&+
` |X \ <s+> |]o\q\T #jT &+
` |D[ eT]jTT de#s dsD
` d]+q de#s qy<T $Xw D
` qT>=q $wj \T ]bsT s|+ sjT+, |<] +#&+
| bsX \ q d\dt eT]jTT $$< n+s ]\+ se\ <s | H| D\qT |\\ +<]
n_e~ |s# *.
4. yK sT\T (Attitudes/ dispositions):
e\ T eT | eT]jTT de+| |<] +#, VsZ |]# n eTTKyTq eqe $\Te\T,
qeT\T, nqTu T\qT yK sT\T n+{+.
e\ T |<] +# eTTKyTq yK sT\T:
` u< rdTe&+
` *d |#jT &+ (Cooperation)
` dH (Creativity)
` V+, T (Curiosity)
` <qTu (Empathy)
` dV q+, zsT
` >se+ #|&+
` d+
` e T, |eT +
` bV+#&+ , |X+ d+#&+
14

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


` CsTT, XeT $\Tee+
$< nH~ CrjT n_e~, k+|T n_e~ k~+#~. u\\ n+sZ X \ qT >T]+
Xs, eqd, uy<>, <, $\Te\T, jTe\qT n_e~ #jT TqT> bsX \ #jT &+
<s u\\ ds eTTU_e~ k< eTeT+~.
|\* +<+> #dT = y] nqTyq $<H se\T, |]X<q , qT>=q&+ <s HsT y*
(promoting learning through explorations, discovery in a child friendly and child centered
ways)

nu dq+ n+f? (What is Learning?)


# eT+~ nu dq+ n+f |d + de#s |Hd|< <s |\\ n+~+#&+ ,
|X \ <s n+~+q de#s s&+ >H u$ksT . Be\ # bsX \ b<jTT&T
e\+ #| &+, $<] $ ns+ #dT = >TsT |Te&+ sT>TTq~. yde +> nu dqeT+f de#s+
ne>Vq #dT = nqTue + <s Cq+> esTe&+. nedsy T q | &T, d+<s+> CH
$j+#>\ >*. yTs ds q nu dq nqTuy \T b+<b e&+ e\q |\\ { $<q+ | eTs
es+Z |]d H\=q~.
<T $<y\ T |]X<q \T #d |\\ +<]q nu d+# X +< s|+#sT. B |s+
|\\ T d++> CH ]+#T>\sT. |\\ de#s n+<TuT + y] |PsCq+,
|PsqTuy\ CH ]+#TH+<T b<jTT\T d+<qs\T> k\us\T> (|d*fsY)
+&*.
k+|<jT+> u$dTq T b<jTT\T Cq<\T sT, |\\ T Cq>V \T sT. Cq s\T.
n+ b<jTT d#q |s+ q&T#T=H eTseTqw\T sT.
| n+X\qT |]o*d de#s |PsqTuy \ d+<q+ #dT = keTs\ |<T qT |T=
d+<sqTks+ $j+# X |+b+~+#Te&yT nu dq+ n #| e#T.

nu dq due+, |\\ T b HsT +{sT?


(Nature of learning - How children learn)

` |\\ T e\+ $q&+ #<e &+ <sH +& nH s |< T \ <s L& HsT =+{sT.
nq> nqTuy \T (Experience), |qT\T, \T #jT &+ <s (learning by doing) |j >\T
#jT &+ (experimentation), #s \T (discussion), n&>& + / |+#&+ , +#&+ , |d+~+#&+ ,
+ d + + > sj T & + , (asking / questioning, listening,thinking,
reflecting and expressing, one self) yTT<\>T y{ <s HsT =+{sT.
` V+> HsT e&+ nH~ |\\ +<] ku$+>H +T+~. n+<sT |\\ T HsT >\sT.
HsT =H keTs + |\\ +<] q~. HsT e&+ nH~ bsX \H >+& jT yesD+
L& sT>TT+~. nu dH yTsT>T|s# \+f | d]> s> >~ nu dH & jT \,

15

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

`
`

`
`

16

nqTuy \ nqTd+<q+ #j *. #jT &+ <s |]o\q <s, +#&+ <s u>T>
HsT +{sT.
ns >V +#&+ , ne>Vq #dT e&+, ]+> +#&+ , deTd\ k<q , nHw+#&+ ,
qT>=q&+, #s \T yTT<\>T y{ <s nu dq+ u> sT>TT+~.
|\\ T eqd+ >, Xs+ >, yT<|s+ > d+d<T \ T eTT+< & |+| nu dq+ sT><T .
Te+{ |]d T |\\ T bs\qT { |{ n| #Ts, de#s ne>Vq #dT sT,
J$ nqsTT+#TsT . L& Hs n+X+ | |\\ b<$ T ne>Vq < q
keTs\T H L& |\\ HsT =H $wjT + | nsTTw @s&TT+~. du q T wy T q ~>
u$ksT . { | d]> yT<|s+ > d+d<T \ qT #jT &+ eTq u< .
nu dq+ u> s>\+f q |X \ <s |\\ qT +| #j *. \T, deTd\T, bC \ T
<| |\\ qT e{&+ #*. #d+ ~, HsT =q~ ]bsT\ s|+ sjTeTH*. s> >~
|<] + #s |eTH*. #d |\\ T d+w+>, u>T> HsT =+{sT. Te+{ |qT\
y$ < +, dy\T (challenge) +T+~. $dT>T<\ +&<T . |qT\T #jT &+ <s HsT +THsT.
eq @> +T+~. |\\ T w+ > #jT &+ e\ y{, V+> bZ+{sT. HsT e&+
dT\u+ > *jT+&H sT>TT+~. |qT eT>+ nesT { n\] #jT &+ yTT<\>T
eTD deTd\T q+ e.
nu dq+ nH~ |]ds\ |\\ T |sd s |d+<H\ <s, |]o\q\ <s, de+ $$<
e\ ]| |sd s #s \ <s sT>TT+~.
|\\ T eTq |Ps Cq+ <s = Cq+ b+<& |jT ksT . Cq sD+ nH~ |\\ T
k++> |]ds\, e\ |sd s #s , |d+<q\ (interactive) <s sT>TT+~. |\\ +<]
|Ps Cq+ ysT ysT > +T+~. { = n+X\ | n+X\ ne>Vq #dT e&+ L&
ysT > +T+~. { |\\ T eT nu dq+ +&sT . |\\ Cq sD, q
nqTuy \T, \T, #s \ <s +|Cj
T &+ nH$ #j *.
HsT e& eTTKyTq ~ s> >~ yesD+, nq> uj
T sV yesD+. |\\ u <, |eT
bjT #|+#&+ , b<jTT&T |\\ *dbsTT ysT HsT HT #jT &+, e> + >
#| &+, *jT $wj \T n&>e T |\\ T |+#& bV+#*. s> >~ |]Xu+ >
+&*. q\\, #sT\ T |j + u~+#*. bs d++~+ $$< ueq\ ne>Vq,
= |X \T q\\ | sd, |X \| #]+|Cj
*. #s ]|q n+X\ b\Ty*. |\\ qT
bs+ #~$+, #s \T #sTT+#*. eTTKyTq y{ q\ \| sj*. Be\ |\\ T |X \
>T]+ ksT . yT yT\T k++> #TsT. sT \T #| q < $+{sT. s>
>~ HsT e&+ sT>TT+~. BH (interactive learning) #s \T, |d+<q\ <s HsT e&+
n+{sT. eT+ ke yesD+ s> >~ @s&TT+~. |\\ T eT n_bj\qT
d#> e ] +# neX+ +{ $<H\ <s \_dT + ~. n+<sT |\\ T #TsT> +{sT.

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


#s bZ+{sT. > \T, |j >\T, |]o\q\T L& #sTT+#&+ <s nu dH
Vu] + #d |\\ +<s eT>+ njTT #jT #T.
` HsT =H| &T | \T s>& + #T#dT +T+~. |\\ | \qT m #|&+ , +~+#&+ ,
sT b\&+ +#|s # & + e+{$ #jT L&<T . |\\ T #dq y{ @yT+ #Xs >T]+#*.
n_q+~+#*. ysT #dq | \qT |\ d]~<T H s> #s sV+#*. ds q ~ @<
b<jTT&T $e]+, |\* eTT sdq y{ d]b\TeT nH*. (competition) B e\
|\\ T HsT =H |jT eTd+ bZ+{sT. n< |> | \T y~ 'X' \T |{ m# |q+
eq, | m+<T ]+< >T]+#& T . | \T bjTq uj
T +/ qq ue+
e{&{ , *jTCjT &, |<] +#& eTT+<T ssT. Be\ nu dq+ +T|&T T+~.s>< T .
u>keT nu dq+ (Collaborative learning)
HsT e&+ nH~ ke |jT , sT \ e{&T , sT \T e{&~ $+Tq| &T,
#s bZ+Tq| &T, { y] *d |#jT &+ <s n|jT +>H nH $wj \qT >V dT+ {sT.
~ d+<s+> L& +T+~. k<sD+> |<\ >, *< + &T\ < b<jTT\T eTT
#| &+ e n $wj \qT |\\ T HsT +THs u$dT+ {sT. = |\\ eTq+ @$T $wj \T
#b*? e\+ $ eyT |\\ \Tk? $T>$ |\\ m \TdT? n d |\\ T HsT =H
$<q+ u<| & T T+~. |\\ T eT { y] * &&+ , b&&+ , eTT#{+#&+ , #]+#&+ , y~+#&+ , *
|#jT &+e+{$ sb\ <s me> HsT =+{sT. $wj \T eT { y] #]+#&+ e\ y]
Cq+ $d y T T +~. sT \ *d HsT =H |< T |qT\ <s *+#e#T. ~ u>keT
nu dH &&TT+~.BH bZq&+ <s HsT &+ nqe#T.
|\\ T m HsT =+{sT?
#q nu dH eT\+. eqd Xdy \ T, $<y\ |]X<q \ |s+ |\\ HsT >*q
X n+sZ + > +T+~. ~ |T H d+$TdT+ ~. |\\ T k<sD+> |]ds\ <s edTe \
|sd s |#s \T ]| deTejTdT\T, |<\ dV s+ HsT =+{sT. bsX \ b<jTT&T *+q
d+<syT q nse +yT q \ bZ |PsCq+ <s+> qq CH ]+#T+{&T.
nsTT |\\ T HsT e&+ eTTKbqT bw+# |jT \qT \TdT=+<+. n$:
` +#&+
` |]o*+#&+
` |+#&+
` u>keTT\T e&+
` |sd s |#s s|& +
` s+s nHwD
` qT>=q&+
` #]+#&+

17

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


` |sd s+ uy\qT |+#Te&+
` u, yT<|sy T q \ bZq&+
` d+<]+#&+
s#H\T:
+`1 (Activity-):
< MT d > s w qT>=q+&.
|& e< qTq |< | #+ (Chain wheel) | qT n> yqT #+ e< qTq q | #+
(sprocket wheel) | qT |+&.
(|< | #| | d+U) : (q | #| | d+K) qT>=q+&.
BH eTq+ > sY w n+{+. k] |&qT |&+e\q yq #+ m ksT ]+<
>eT+ MT H{ |d + sjT+&.
+`2 (Activity):
+~ neT]\qT |]o*+ U\T |P]+|eTT.
12 G 22 G 22 R 32
22 G 32 G 62 R 72
32 G 42 G 122 R 132
42 G 52 G ( )2 R 212
52 G ( )2 G 302 R ( )2
62 G 72 G ( )2 R ( )2
+`3 (Activity):
+~ |{ q T >eT+, |P]+#+&.

18

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


+ n+f H{ L& # eT+~ b<jTT\T ss \T> n_bjT|&T + {sT.
< ` + n+f e\+ Xsy T q ~. nd\T nu dq|jT B m+{ d++<+ +&<T .
` \T 1,2 s> T \ eyT |j >s + . | s> T \ M{ |j +#&+ e\
mTe+{ |j q+ +&<T .
` + s] \\T, $<H\T, |* \ L& +&*.
` <s u<q e\ d\+ d\dt |P] #jT &+ k< + <T.
| n_bj\ nbV.
\D \T:
|\\ +q $<+> nudq+ y>+>, nse++> +&\+f ]w \D\T
+&*. <.
` #q\T s +#*.
` dy\T L& +&*.
` e> + >, , |P] s> #d~> +&*.
` VQ s> u<q |j >|& ~ > +&*.
` ksTT qT +&*.
` \+>, #sD
+> +&*.
` d s + >, bZq& |]=~> +&*.
` #sT \T, esT\ Mq ~> +&*.
` e KsT, KsT~> +&*.
|\\ d \ T, n_sT #T\T, nqTu T\T, sTTcsTTc\ <s+> bs+X\ e\ <s+>
\T eTT+< sb+~+#T= s> >~ *+#*. $ e> + >, T>, |P] s> |qT\T>
y*. \T *+#& eTT+<T \ m bZH *| d#q\T dw+ > n+<] nse TjT
$<+ > y*. \ bZH d+<s + |\\ T m bZ+THs >eT+#*. n+<s bZH
bV+#*. nedsy T q kjT+ n+~+#*. |\\ T HsT H rsTqT n+#Hyj *. HsT q n+X\qT
|\\ #]+#*. |\\ |d+<q\qT {#s Y q & ]sT #j *.
+`4 (Activity):
@<H d eTq+ HsT > #| &+ +& |\ djT+> + <s qTH bV+#*.
< Bs| T q+ jTT d+|Ps \ yX \eTTq d+ qT>=q&+.
BjTT deTTqT |\\ T Bs| T Hs edTe \qT djT+> |]o*+ ysT yTT< }V+q~
b b \TdT+{sT. $<+ > | Bs| T q d+|Ps \ yX \+ d (Net) e\ sb\T
j sT#jT &+ <s, eT]= \ <s $$< |Psueq\qT d+<q+ #dT + |\ djT+>
qT>=H*.

19

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


qT>=q&+ (Discovery):
sy T q nu dq+ |\\ Tq T qTeT&+|#d T + ~. dy\T L& +&&+ e\ |\\ T
#TsT> bZ+{sT. qq n+X qT>=HeTq | y] qHC *d eT]+ y>+ >
HsT H #dT + ~. ~ nse +yT q nu dH |]=\TT+~. |< e\ |\\ T u\Xdy \ T>
nqTu #+<TsT.
qT>=q&+ <s nu dq+ (Discovery learning)
<: u~+# s> bs |d \ bs+X\ qT>=q&+, nHwD\ <s HsT H neX+
q ueq\T/\qT >T]+ nedsy T q q #sT \T, esT\T #dT |\\ yT djT+>
qT>=q&+, nHw+#&+ <s HsT H neX\T |\\ *+#*. |\\ T bZH rsTqT ]sT #j *.
dH y*Tq |\\ qT n_q+~+#*.
+`5 (Activity):
` $$< $TrjT edTe \ |T q|]eD+qT |T q| jTH =\TksT . m+<T?
` Bs| T q+, deT|T q+, uT Cs | + , |s$ T&\ |T q|]eD+qT m qT>=+{sT?
nHwD (|]X<q ) (Explorative Survey)
+`6 (Activity):
|+ #T sT os\T A, B, C eT]jTT D \T e + |q >\e, Te+{ #T sTC\T
ABCD \qT eT&+{ ^d #T sT D\qT =* |{
q T +|+&.

|{ qT+& e @$T #| >\e?


sy T q \T |\\ \TdTy\q |q qT s*ksTT. ss \ D\ eT<q X*
de#s+ d+ nHwksT . de#s $yw k sT . |* +> k<sD s D
s>\T>TsT. eT
n_bj\qT < &|s # T +{sT. b<jTT\T $Xw D
|X \T n& |\\ nHwD, |]X<q <s
qT>=q $wj dVT+> s{*. Te+{ \T *+#&+e\ |\\T eT+yT
\TdTHeTq ueq \T>TT+~. bs|d de#s+ <s b+~q CH nqsTTksT. e~
|s# T +{sT.
20

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


nHwD <s nu dq+ (Learning through exploration):
<:
` nu dq+ nH~ X +B+> s>*.
` |\\ T eT #TT q ||+ # J$ nqTuy \T, T |\T n+X\qT nHwd qq
n+X\qT qT>=+{sT.
` ueq\T #| $ |\\ T HsT +{sqTe&+ <T. |\\ T #jT &+, |]o*+#&+ <s uy\qT
ne>Vq #dT y* < k++> qTy*.
` qT>=q nqTuy \ qT+& nHwD <s |\\ T djT ne>VqqT ]+#T+{sT. n< d+<s +
eTTKyTq s H| D\T, yK sT\T |+b+~+#T+{sT.
` b<jTT\T |\\ nHwD\T, qT>=q$ nse ++> +&T y] bVd >T dV s
y] n+~+#*.
` |\\ ys+ ys |\T qq $wj \qT qT>=q&+ nH~ y] eT+ |sDqT *dZ T + ~.
qT>=H n+X\T nu dq \\ #+~qy +&*. ~ | eqsT\qT *+#&+ , dy\T L&
+&&+ , nu dq \\ k<q |] +# |X \T yjT &+ e+{ y{e\ k< eTeT+~.
` b<jTT\T |\\ nu dH |P]> eTT nqTq s>\qT= \qT sb+~+#T=
*d ysT qq n+X\qT qT>=H d#q T sT. y] dHqT & #dq yssT.
` m| & |\\ T nHw+#\, = n+X\qT qT>=H\qT s]+#T |jT ks, < n| &T
ysT X<> j \ bZq&+, ndq nu dq+ s>& + eTq+ #&e#T. m| &
|\\ T nHwD, qT>=H+<T nqTeTky n| &T y eT nu dq+| |P] jT+DqT *
+{sT. eT ne>VqqT, H| D\qT, yK sT\qT eT neds\T, nqTuy \ >
Z T> n_e~
|s# T =+{sT. bs+ sd, < @ $<+ > \ <s, qTe&+ (Discovery) <s,
nHwD <s, Exploration <s |\\ T djT+ #d, #d HsT +{sT.
nHwD ` <VsD\T:
1. e C nq>H$T?
2. e yd+ m @s&TT+~?
3. nse + m @s&TT+~?
4. ds T @$<+ > @s&TT+~?

X +B $<

(Child Centred Education)

#<T e nH~ X +<+> |\\ T HsT H$<+ > =qk>*. n+f |\\ nqTuy \, y] #q\,
j o\ u>ke |<| yjT &+. +<Td+ b<jTT\T |\\ eqd_e~, y] n_sT #T\qT,
+\ qT <w |T u<H u dq |jT \qT |D[<+ > sV+#*. $ y$ < u] +>
+&, |\\ u, k+d, ke b<e \ b<q#$> +&*. |\\ n_bj\

21

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


$\Te#$> +&*. s> ><T \ u<H d+<s + > |\\ T |D
+ #TsT> bZ+ eT+
eTT HsT H neX\T n+~|#Te&+ |< q+ y*. b<jTT&T d\V<sT>, es<Z ] >,
k\u s> eeV]+#*.

|\\ due+| ne>Vq (Understanding Childhood)


` |\\ T $X+ q | edTe qT, <wj \qT \TdTy\H T +{sT.
T ku$+. |\\ +<] +T+~. B =qk+#&, |+b+~+#& |jT +
s>*.
` |\\ T X e++> +{sT (Children are energitic) |\\ T # Ls+& m| &T @<
| #dT + {sT. e{&T T+{sT. &TT+{sT. m+<T+f m| &T ysT V+> eT]jTT X
+{sT. B HsT e&+ |j +#*. \e++> Lsu{ dy\T L&q (challenging
learning tasks) @ | e+&, y] XX+> @ | #jT +& n\yTqT #jT L&<T
(Culture of silence and idealness).
|\\ T sT \ *d ke due+ *Z +{sT
|\\ T sT \ *d | #jT & w |& sT. |<\ *d +&{ y, |+&T>
n+<] *d +&\, |qT\T #j \ sT+{sT. bZq+ <s ke H| D\T n\e&TsTT
eq >| |, yTT+ s> | <s \T, bC \ T #sTT+#*.
|\\ T |X+ dqT, bV sT+{sT
|X+ d\T, bV+ e\ |\\ T u> T nu dq+ bZ+{sT. HsT e& |jT ksT .
eT+ |esq qT n\esTe& |jT ksT . eTqT >eT+#\ sT+{sT. b<$ T+> nu dq+
|X+ d, bV+H sT>TT+~. <+&q, uj
T + e\ HsT sT . #<T eqT+&, n+{ |<X + qT+&
<s+> +&{ |jT ksT .
|\\ T <+&qq $eTsqT, neeq |s# & d]+#& w| & s T .
|\\ T <+&q, neeq |s# & + , $eTs, uj
T |&+ , e#d e{&
+, sy T q d]jTdt
yesD w| & s T . M{ <s+> +{sT. n+{ e\ q w| & s T . <wksT .

dV|P] yesD+ (Child Friendly Environment)


|\\ T q+<+>, V< s + > HsT y*. uj
T +, & d#jT T yesD+ q#H
|\ $d+ u> sT>TT+< eTq+<] *d+<. |\\ n_bj\, n_sT #T\ q kq+
*+q| &T eyT ysT V< + >, q+<+> +&>\ TZsT. X +B u<H u dq |jT \T
*+ u<q |\\ T #TsT> bZH #j *. Te+{ yesD+ s> >~ *+q| &T
eyT n~ dV|P] yesD+ n #| e#T.

22

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


dV|P] yesD \D \T:
` uj
T + +& b<jTT&T |\\ d# , *jT ns+ $wj \qT + +& |\\ T
n&> yesD+ *+#&+ .
` |\\ +<s bZq&+.
` ksTT q u<H u dq |jT \T *+#&&+ .
` \T V+, |sD, d *++#$ +&*.
` b<jTT&T es<Z ] >, d\V<sT>, k\u s> , dVT& eeV]+#&+ .
` |sd s+, { y] <s HsT H neX+ +&&+ .
` n_bj* >s$+#&+ .
` &, <+&q uj
T sV yesD+.
` nqTuy \T, uy\T, n_bj\qT d#> e ] +# neX+ +&&+ .
` n_q+<q, bV+, |sD, neX+ e+{ y{ b<q +&&+ . yTT<\>Tq$.
B d++~+q s> >~ <VsD n<jT+H \TdT+<+.

\T, qT>=q&+, nHwD\ <s nu dq+ jTT neT\T ` u< \T


(Learning through Activities, Explorations and Discovery - Implementation and
Responsibilities)

s+< $< u\\V`2009 #+ nu dq+ nH~ \T, qT>=q&+, nHwD\


<s s>\ $dw+ > |s=+~. B neT\T #j *+~ ksTT s> >~ u<H u dq
|jT \T #|f b<jTT\T. = <Xu\T> <s u<q $<H\ >T]+ |\T se\
|\T y~\| #]+#Te&+ ]+~. bs |d \T L& <s |< <s+> sb+~+#&+
]+~.
1. s> ksTT \T, qT>=q&+, nHwD\ <s nudq+ ]> #d |P] u<
b<jTT\<. B b<jTT&T + eTT+< #s d++~+ |X \T, \T yTT<\>Tq$
d<+ #dT = s> >~ sy*. n+f b<jTT j , #<e &+, H{ sdTe+ nH$
n+ eTTKyTq $. nHwD, qT>=q&+, \ q <VsD\T |qT\T n$ #jT &+
<s = $wj \qT HsT HT b<jTT&T #j *. = \T, nHwD\T, bC \ T
b<jTT\T eT {+> H{ sj*.
2. s> >~ u<q m|{| & |]o*d b<jTT\ >T d\V\T, d#q\T y*q u<
d++~ bsX \ |< Hb<jTT~.
3. ]q nudH, |> y~\ s|+ mdt.m+.d. deyX\, eT+&\ksTT ]>
dMT deyX\ deT]+ #]+# u< qT |< Hb<jTT\T d]+#*.

23

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


4. bsX \\qT d+<]+# e]+> n~sT\T, $wjT |DT\T s> >~ u<q qT |]o*+
\T, qT>=q&+, nHwD\ <s nu dq+ +q $<+ > sT>TT+< < >eT+#*.
q es<Z s q+ #j *.
5. $<XK DIET, CTE, mdt.d..sY.{. ksTT u~+# b<jTT\ \T, qT>=q&+,
nHwD\ <s deTse +yT q nu dq+ @ $<+ > sT>TT+< *| / ne>Vq @s]# $<+ >
# { yT{]jT sb+~+ D qT sV+#*. D q+s+ nqTdsD j
T seT+ #|{ *.
bsX \ u<q nu dq |jT \qT |]o*+#*. D
+f be> b<jTT&T djT+
|s T& |$T+#*.

neT\T d\T (Indicators of Implemntation)


` b<jTT |D[, Teaching Notes |\\ qT #]+|# d |X \T, \T *|+#*.
` |\\ T n&T/ \Te esTd dss > Ls=q+& e\js+, ns es+, >| s# T >
esT +&*.
` |\\ T e\+ b<jTT&T #|~ $q&+ +& ` |+#&+ , #| &+, {y] #]+#&+ ,
>| |#jT &+, y~+#&+ e+{$ #j *.
` u<q |Hdq |< , HsT e&+, $q&+ <s +& #s \T, |+#&+ , \T #jT &+,
bC yTT<\>Ty{ <s s>*.
` |T +Te\T, n{dT \T, >]<y T , >|\t T, e|t\T, |{ \ T, |{\T e+{ eqsT\qT |\\ T
djT+> $jd HsT y*.
` b<jTT e< u<H keT, |\\ +<] e< nu dq keT +&*.
` b<jTT d+d< ` bs |D[ \T, |j >\T, bC \ T, &\ T e+{ \qT
dw+ > |s=H*. keT d]+#*.
` |\\ T ueT\qT, keT |]o*d, >D &\ T, uc& #TsT> bZ+, |j >\T
#d nu dq \ eT>+ y*.
` eT+q+ s+s+ > deT>+> sVd +&&+ , |> qy<T *+#*.
` bs+u |, Formative, Summative Assessment \ |\\ ksTT |> |+#&+ .

eTT+|

(Conclusion)

n<jT+ eTq+ $<V #+ b+<T|]q $<+ > nu dq+ @ $<+ > +&
\TdTH+. n> |\\ T HsT H $<H\T, V< s , dV|P], X +B yesD+ m
*+#e# \TdTH+. n+X\ |s=q $<+ > s> ><T \T s|~<T y*q neds+ +~.
HsT e&+ n+f e\+ bs |d + de#s $+ @y = |X \T n&, |X \ yT\T
> & T \T, d& yT{]jT #d sjTeT, $<+ > |\\ T +q $<+ > d+~+#s <s u>
24

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


HsT Hs u$+#L &<T . |\\ T nHwD\ <s, |]X<q \ <s <s |< eT+ yT
qT>=q& nqTe> +& u<Hudq |jT\T *+q| &T, |\\T y{ #TsT> bZ
nu kqTuy * b+~q| &T eyT HsT e&+ sT>TT+< u$+#*. ~X b<jTT\T dH,
|P], dV|Ps, d$T[ yesD+ * +& s> ><T \ |jT \qT ]+#Ty*.
RTE - 2009

- uj
T sV yesD+, e s D d# >T]+ |k$+q dq T, $es\T

(RTE - 2009 Related sections for Fear free Environment and Freedom)

s+<$ < u\\ V (sY.{..) #+ `2009 dH 17 +~$<+ > +~.


u\\qT Xs+ > + #+, eqd+ > y~+ #&+ w<+ .
` dH 17 du dH ( 1) |s+ @ u\T&T/ u*qT L& Xs L , eqd y~+ |\
>T]#jTs<T.
` dudH (2) |s+ dudH (1) n+X\ $sT<+ > |e]+qysT e e]+# <>
jTe\ <s+> eTD
#s >TssT.
` \Vq esZ\, |L\ |]d T \qT m<Ts=+Tq +<\ #+~q u\\T @$<y T q $e
>T]+&, b<$ T $<qT #|{ , |P]#j
T & mTe+{ ny+s\T s+& k d+d\ T,
j |uT \T $~> nedsy T q #s \T rdTy\ sY.{.. #+ dH 8, dH 9
s dTH sTT.
` u\\ V\T n$T+q|&T s #{\ |s+ n+f us d |s+ 1989 mdt.d.,
mdt.{\| <sH \ s< #+ |s+ rdTH #s \ sY.{.. #+ nes<$T *+#< T .
` dH 29 dudH ( 2) E |s+ bs |D[, eT+q deTjT+ uj
T +, +<q e+{
y{qT+ u\\qT $eTT+ #d ysT eT uy\qT d#> e ] +#+ dV jT|&*. dH
30, dH 31 |s+ u\\ V\ d+sD
CrjT MTwH, sw MTwH u\\ V\ |]sD

=s @sT #jT &sTT.


m+{ <+&q\T, $e \ T b e&+, uy\qT d#> e ] +# neXeTT+&&+ , nu dH
nqTL\yTq u\$T yesD dw+ #&+ , & +& \\qT k~+#&+ e+{$ uj
T sV
yesD+H k< +. uj
T sV yesD, e s D
| b<jTT&T, |< Hb<jTT&T
bT|&*.

uj
T sV yesD+ ` e s D d# ` neT\T
(Fear Free Environment - Implementation)

` |\\ #]+ jTe\T sb+~+#&+


` |\ eT+ |esq , kqTL\ <<+ | <w |&+ , |X+ d+#&+ .
` |\\ qT+& +# |* \qT, |esq \qT >T]+ y] d+|~+#&+ .

25

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


`
`
`
`
`
`

kqTL\ <<+ |+|<\ $$< ePV\qT neT\T|s# & +


] |> eTs=] b\be&+.
|\\ T |d+~+#& neX$Te&+.
|]$TT\qT $e]+#&+ , |> | dw e&+
nedse TsTTq| &T q neX*e&+.
$<sT\ |> >T]+ *< + &T\ #]+#&+ , k< yTq + es |\\ eT+, ysT #jT >*>
y{ >T]+ #| &+.
|\\ #]+ deTj q ePV\qT neT\T#jT &+.
kqTL\yTq X<# |+
|\\ T eT+> +& d+<s\T >T]+ y] yT#Te&+.
eT | ]+> |P]# d |\\ n<q| | *+#&+ .
d\ d+|T q\T, b\qT $d]+#&+ .
qTe $<+ > #j * n #| & <T\T HqT $<+ > #kqT n #| neX$Te&+,
q d# e&+.
#jT e<T nH <X\qT |j +# +&&+
|\\ ds <sD e{&& +
|\\ T eT+ eTT |]$TT\T @sT #dT H $<+ > bV+#&+ .
nedsy T q s> >~ @sT #jT &+.
$<sT\ &\ | d |+b+~+ y{ | d] #jT &+.
nse +yT q #q s +# |qT\qT *+#&+ .
|\\ T n_bj\T e| s # ue|
q neX$Te&+.
|\\ T #| +~ |P]> $q&+, y]| qeT |<] +#&+ .
<s u<q |< <s |\\ qT me> u>keTT\qT #jT &+.
|\\ wy T q n+X\qT bV+#&+ .
|\\ T+ H|< ns+ #dT e&+.

`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`
`

s+s deT> eT+q+`ueq\T`ne>Vq (CCE- Conceptual understanding)


|\\T deT> n_e~ k~+#\ +<Td+ bsX\\T u< eV+#* +T+<
sY.{.`2009 <s eTq \TdT+ ~. |\\ T Xs+ >, eqd+ >, H +>, uy<>|s + > n_e~
#+<*. +<Td+ bs $wj \ bT |\\ d \ T, $\Te\T, yK sT\T yTT<\>T y{ L& |\\ T
n_e~ #+<*.
26

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


s+s+ nq> (What is continuous)
bsX \ sV+# eT+H, $d ns+ |]o*+q|&T |\\ |sT>T<\ $k\
KyT q b<qee\d +T+~.
s+s+ n+f |\\ |> d+|T q, d+<s m|& eT&T (3) >+\ |
|]$T+ #jT +& b\| & |]o*+#& + . nq> s+s+ bsX \|\, y\T|\ |\\ Xs, eqd
$k\qT s# T > eT|< |]o*dTH eT |\ *jT+&H |]o*+#*. nu dq b\qT
>T]+ desD #s \T #|
& + <s b<jTT&T, $<] <s djT eT+q+ #dT >\>*.
deT>+ nq> (What is comprehensive)
nq> |\\ ds eTTU_e~. n+f |\\ Xs, eqd, H , CH s+>\ n_e~ n
ns+ . +<Td+ $<|D[ s+q bs , bs s n+X\qT $&$&> #& +& s +&+{
deq b<qqT e&yT . nq> uw, >D + , dq T, k+|T + e+{ $wj \bT \ T, |,
$\Te\T, s>+, Jeq H| D\T L& b<q e&+. ~ |\\ |sT>T<\, $k\qT bs+X\
<w H +& y] n_sT #T\T, yK sT\T, keTs\qT L& |]>Dq rdT+T+~. deT> $<
\ T, kV+, k+<s $y#q , #s , \+, d+^+ e+{ $wj nTq n+X\ u<q
e+&\ $<y\ T ddTH sT.
M{bT dH, $Xw D , ] n+X\ L& eT+q+ deq b<qdT+ ~.

|\\ deT> n_e~ n+f @$T{?


(What is Comprehensive Development of the child?)

$< <s |\\ d+|Ps $d+ k~+#\q~ $< \ + nsTTq|&T deT> n_e~ n+f
@$T{ ns+ #dT e&+ neds+ . bsX \ $< |\\ T Xs+ > m~> ejTdT eTT&|& q n+X+
{ $< Xs $k n+f |\\ T ejTdT q, s>+, mT, sTe e+& #d+<T
nedsy T q s>yjeT n+X\T, \+ y*. n> dV+, dV s+, dV qo\, zsT e+{
yK sT\T n\e&*. ] $y#q , dH #q\T |+b+~+#&+ , deTd\ +b+& m<TsT
* deTd\qT |]w]+# HsT sy*. eT+ yK sT\ e T n_sT *q e> ke u<
s]+#>\>*. M+{ <s $wjT |]Cq+ b+<>\>*. { deT> n_e~ n+f |\\T
bs |d \ <s+> CH ]+#Te&+ eyT +& Xs, eqd <>, k+|T , k+d
$k\qT b+<&+ . +<Td+ |\ Cq+, H| D\T, keTs\T, $\Te\T |+b+~+#*. {
bsX \ $< n+X\ nu dH+X\T> |+#*. |\\ deT> $k && n+X\
bs+X. M{ bs , dV bs nq $u< q + neds+ <T . bsX \ *+# nu dq nqTuy \
|\\ deT> $k &&$> e+&*. { $wj \+{ eT+q+ #j *.

27

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


CCE

b+<T?

(Why CCE?)

eT+qeT+f e\+ |\ T |&+ eyT <T. jT{, f]q |\ |sT m|&


k] |\\ keTs\qT |]o*+#&+ e\ y] nu dq n~ @$<+ >q dV jT|&< T . |> $<y T q
| |< |\\ T @ de#s m+ es >TsT |T>*>s |d T + < | y] $_q keTs\qT
\TdTe& |j >|& < T . eT+q+ |sT nH s\ |\ T sV+#&+ e\q |\\ T reyTq
& >TseTHsT. {|
& neX+ *+# | |< T \T, |\\ <>, k+|T $k\qT
eT~+|#jT & |j >|& e . { |\\ |> s+s+ deT>+> eT\+q+ #jT e\dq neds+
+~. |\\ T eTT |]o*+|&TTHeT y] *jT+& eT+q+ #jT &+ e\ e# |* \T
y] |qsu d+ *+#& m+>H &&sTT. uj
T sV yesD+ d#> eT+q+
#jT&+ e\ m|{|&T b\T >T]+ desD \T sV+#& M\T\T>TT+~.
bs $wj \bT |\\ ds eTTU_e~ d++~+q d \ T, n_sT #T\T, Xs m<T>T<\,
$\Te\T, yK sT\T, _sT n n+X\| ne>Vq *e+&, y{ |\\ n_sT , |>
\TdTy*. n| & eT+H deT>yT q ~> u$ksT .
CCE

\D \T

(Characteristics of CCE)

eT+q+ ` |\\ T de#s >TsT |T {| { |\ sjT& eyT < +q~


<T. s> >~ *+# nu dq nqTuy \T |\\ CH, eqd #\H, uyyX s+>\
rdT=# esT\qT eT~+|#d yTsT>T|s# & &&*. bsX \ $$< $wj \ s|+ n+~+#
de#s+ $wjT |]CH *+Z #& d]b<T. |\\ u$ J$ nedsy T q $Xc , dH
] #HX, djT eTD , ke+> dsT u T #dT e&+ deTd\ | dT+> |d+~+#&+ ,
|]w]+#Te&+ yTT<q Jeq H| D\T, keTs\T |+b+~+#&+ bsX \ u< (bH.d.m|t `
2005). $ bs |d \ <s k~+#& bsX \ bH sq se\T sV+#e\d e+T+~.
M+{ eTq+ +e s bs s n+X\T>, dV bs+X\T> u$dTH +. y{ q+ b<q
ebe&+ e\ |\ deT> $k u+ >+ \T>TT+~. n+<T# sw $< |D[ |+`2011
bs , dV bs+X\H $u< + +& n+{ bs+X\T>H u$+#\ (bdt.d.m|.t ` 2011)
d++~. { s+s deT> eT+q+ |\\ Xs, eqd, <>, k+|T $k\
deq b<q eT+q+ #j \ s +#Te&+ ]+~. D+ s+s deT> eT+q+
@$T dT+ < |]o*<+.
` |\\ CH, eqd #\H, uyyX H| D\qT |+b+~+#&+ , eT+q+ #jT &+.
` {| & , de#s >TsT |Te&eTH s> >~ |jT \ kq+ $Xw D #q\
k++> Cq sD+ #dT e& bV+#&+ , k++> eT #q\qT, uy\qT e| ] #T
#jT &+.
28

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


` eT+H u<H u dq |jT u>+> |]>D+ #&+ .
` eT+q+ <s |\\ nu dq keTs\qT u<H u dq $<H\qT yTsT>|s # T e&+ eT]jTT
s+s+ |]o*d desD\T #dT e&+.
` eT+q+ <s |\\ T b& HsT b THs \TdT= >T $<+ > u~+#&+ .
` u<H u dq |jT $<] +B+> k>+<T &&*.
s+s deT> eT+H u<H u dq |jT \ u>+> neT\T#j *. Be\ |\\
d+|Ps $k && $_q s> >~ n+X\T b+ es deTs+ > |j >|& T THsTT nH~
\TdTe& M\T\T>TT+~. s+s deT> eT+q+ bs , dV bs n+X\T nq $u< +
+& n+{ deq b<q *q n+X\T> >T]+ neT\T#j *.
eT+q+ nu dq+ n+s>+ > s+s+ ]> |jT > sV+#& q |D[qT
j sT#dT y*. eT+q duy\qT ns+ #dT y*.

eT+q+ due+

(Nature of Assessment)

HsT e&+ u>+>H eT+q+ (nu dq+ ]>| & eT+q+)


(Assessment as learning)

bsX \ *+# nu dq nqTuy \T |\\ deT> $k <V<|& $ > +&*. |\\ T


nu dq dyX\ bZ HsT +Tq|&T y] eT+q+ #jT & nu dq+ ]>|&T eT+q+
#jT &+ n+{+. <VsD |\\ T n+X+| s> >~ ]> #s \ bZq|&T ysT $wj
ns+ #dT e& @$<+ > |dTH sT, eT n_bj\qT @$<+ > e+ #dT H sT nH n+X\qT
b<jTT&T |]o*+#& neX+ e+T+~. d+<s + H |\\ d+<V \qT e #jT &
|jT + L& sT>TT+~. n+f |]o\q <s |\\ T @$T HsT HsT nH~ eT+q+ #jT &+
sT>T+<qe. nu dq+, eT+q+ ysT ysT > +& nu dq+ sT>TTq|& eT+q+
L& +T+~. m|{| &T |\\T eTqTeTT d]#dT+ HsTe& b<jTT&T
dV ]+#>\ T>T&T. ~ bs{y nddtyT +{. |\\ HsT e& + bC q|&T,
n~ #d eTq y~ d nqT nqT @+ HsT H& n \TdT+ ~. B{ $<] |> L&
\TdT+ ~. HsT e&+ |> \TdTe&yT e|q+ eT+q+.

nu dq+ =s (yTsT>T|s &) eT+q+

(Assessment for Learning)

s> >~ nudq dyX\ |\\T bZ HsT+Tq|&T y] |]o*d $<]


HsT+TH& <! @@ n+X\ +~|&TTH&T? @@ n+X\ eT]+ dVjT+ neds+
@ sy T q dV s+ n+~+qsTT HsT >\T>T&T? nH $wj \qT <w +#T |]o*+#&+ ,
u<q esT #dT =H+<T #s \T #|
& nu dq+ yTsT>T|s# & #d eT+q+ n+{+.

29

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


k<sD+> eTq+ eT+q+ d+ |]o*+#&y , | sV+#&y #dT + {+. | \qT
<s+> #dT = $<] @ @ n+X\ dV s+ nedsy >T]+ #s \T #|
& + <w |&+
s>< T . nu dH yTsT>T|s# & eT+q+ |]o*+q s yTsT>T|s# & dV s+ n+~+#&+
m+ neds+ . |\\ HT|d \qT, +{| |]o*+q|&T |\\ T m& | \T #dT H sT? m&
+~|&T THsT n \TdT+ ~. B{ |\\ T m HsT +THsT nH <| b<jTT
ne>Vq edT+ ~. ~ bs{y nddtyT +{.

nu dq+ jTT eT+q+

(Assessment of Learning)

|\\ T j $wj \qT b+es HsT Hs *|< nu dq+ jTT eT+q+. $<sT\ T
$$< nu dq \ bZ+ $$< ueq\qT, eeVs sb\qT, |j
H| D\qT b+<TsT.
|\\ T b+~q CH =+\+ s |+ #&y T nu dq+ jTT eT+q+. ~ |\\
esT\T, >&T\ s|+ |<] eTT+~. ~b<jTT\T < uVw\ < s +&+{# eT+q+
#jT &TT+~. $<q+ #eT+~ $<sT\ T k] $<+ > eT+q+ #jT &sT. k<sD+>
sY |Pss TTq sT y sV+# |\ T nu dq+ jTT eT+q+qT *jTCksTT. ~ |\\ nu dq
k<q| T~ sj |{+# |<. nq> ed, nsy], d+es+ |\T y{
<VsD\T. ~ dyT {y nddtyT +{.

eT+q+ #j *q n+X\T (1`5 eT]jTT 6`10 s> T \T)


(Areas of Assessment (1-5 and 6-9 classes)

b<$ TksTT (1`5 s> T \T)


` |<e T uw \T>T/s
` >D +
` |]ds\ $Cq+
` +^w
` \ T, k+d $<
` s>, yjeT $<, j>, <q+
` |, +|PsY $<
` $\Te\ $<, Jeq H| D\T, yK sT\T
q bsX \ ksTT (6`10 s> T \T)
` |<e T uw
` ~rjT uw
` rjT uw
` >D +
30

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


`
`
`
`
`
`

keqXd+
k+|T Xd+
\ T, k+d $<
s>, yjeT $<, j>, <q+
|, +|PsY $<
$\Te\ $<, Jeq H| D\T, yK sT\T

y{ eT+q+ #j *?

(What to assess?)

uw\T:
1. $q&+, + e{&& +
2. #<e &+,ns+ #dT |d+~+#&+
3. k++> sjT&+ (djTs#q )
4. |<C _e~
5. dH e s D , |X+ d
6. uwqT >T]+ \TdTe&+
>D + :
1. ueq\ ne>Vq, deTd k<q (Problem Solving)
2. sD\T #| &+`s|D
(Reasoning and Proof)
3. e s D (Communication)
4. d+<q+ (Connections)
5. b< +`<osD (Representation-Visulisation)
|]ds\ $Cq+
1. $wje>Vq
2. |+#&+ ` |]\q\T #jT &+
3. |j >\T, |]o\q\T
4. de#s H| D\T
5. ueT\T, e|\T ^jT&+, qeTH\T j sT#jT &+
6. yK sT\T, |X+ d, J$ $j>+
$Cq Xd+
1. $wje>Vq
2. |+#&+ ` |]\q\T #jT &+
3. |j >\T, |]o\q\T

31

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


4. de#s H| D\T
5. ueT\T, >|\t T ^jT&+, qeTH\T j sT#jT &+ <s ue|ks+
6. k+<s dV ` yK sT\T |X+ d Je y$ < + ` J$ $j>+
k+|T Xd+
1. $wje>Vq
2. $wj #~$ ns+ #dT e&+, yU+#&+
3. de#s H| D\T
4. deTq, ke n+X\| |d+<q
5. |H| D\T
6. dT + ` |X+ d, yK sT\T
\ T, k+d $<
1. s+>T\T yjT &+, \T ^jT&+, n\+]+#&+ , qeTH\T ueT\T j sT #jT &+
2. {H>yT, z]>$T, T, n*\ T
3. H{\ T, @+\ q{+#&+ , =]j>|,
4. b\T b&&+ , y<|]s\ $j>+, q+ ` k sb\T |<] +#&+ , yTy T
5. eTq d+d, \ T, kV+
s>, yjeT$<
1. d> bZq&+ jTeT +<q \T b{+#&+ , &d], | H| D\T
2. j>, <q+, k{, > & , mH.d.d.
3. T+ d++<\T, u <, |<e T
4. s>+, bw Vs+, eT+ Vs| n\yT.
5. e> , |]ds\ |]Xu , eT+ n\yT
|, +|PsY $<
1. qeTH\T edTe \ j , |eTTT, keT $j>+.
2. e\ de\ $j>+, y\ bZq&+ (n+s ]\yT se\T, u< \T
s]+#&+ )
3. +|PsY <s+> HsT e&+
4. +|PsYqT $j+#&+
5. ke se\T, XeT<q+
$\Te\ $<, Jeq H| D\T
1. eT+, #&T $#D
Cq+, desq
2. sC+> $\Te\T

32

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


3. dV q+, <jT , < qTu yTT<\>T e> $\Te\T
4. JeqH| D\T, #H H| D\T
5. b<jTT\T, dV <jTT\T bsX \, |uT dT\ | ds q yK sT\T * +&&+ .
CCE

` m eT+q+ #j *? ` $<H\T

(CCE How to assess? Procedures)

s+s deT> eT+q+ u>+> bsX \ sV+# eT+q $<H\T |\\ qT


d+|Ps+ > |]o*+ qy<T#d$> +&*. b<jTT\T s> >~ |\ jT |\\ qT |]o*d
#d n+X\bT eqT>+ > \ee<T \ sV+# eT+q+ L& nedsy T . $
ys+, |, ed, ]q sb\ L& +&&+ neds+ . nsTT @ eT+q $<q+ nsTTq|{
e# |* \qT { @ <] ] ] b\L&<T . n+f eT+q+ |\\ T b HsT HsT?
@$T HsT HsT? nH n+X\T |]o*+#&+ bT HsT q n+X+ ds + > +&+<T L& eT+q+
&&*. CqeTT, ne>Vq $j>+, $Xw D , qq d+<s\ dsT u T#dT e&eTH n+X\uT
n_sT #T\T, yK sT\T, <>\T, | d \ T, Xs b<T>T<\ s>sy T q $wj \TL& +>
eT+q+ #j *. $<y T q eT+q+ s +&T s\T.
1. sD eT+q+ (bs{y nddtyT +{)
2. d+>V D eT+q+ (dyT {y nddtyT +{)

sD eT+q+

(Formative Assessment)

s> >~ *+q nu dq \ |\\ T bZ+Tq| &T, u<q sT>TTq| &T $<]
@ $<+ > HsT +TH& |]o*+ qy<T #jT &+ <s |\\ nu dH yTsT>T|s# & w#j
T &
sD eT+q+ n+{sT. sD eT+q+ nH~ uj
T sV yesD+, |\\ ds>
* nu dqqT y>e ++ #dT & |] +#~. b<jTT&T |\\ |> s+s+ |]o*d nedsy T q
d+<s\ b<jTT&T |\\ dV jT]> * d]~~ eTT+<T q&|+ #*. e\+ esT\T,
>&T\ s|+ +& |\\ y] keTs\ k<H d >T \qT $esD+> *| y] ds q
d#q\T d\V\T bV+ nu dH yTsT>T|s# & sD eT+q+ dV jT|&T T+~.
s> >~ ]> #s \T, |\\ de<H\T, bs+ eT< eT]jTT es q |X \T, nuk\ >T]+
#]dTq | &T |\\ T #s bZ # de<H\T, |\\ T sdq HT|d \T, s> |, +{| ,
bC | q T\T, T |qT\T yTT<q y{ <s+> |\\ T @$T HsT Hs, m HsT +THsH~
b<jTT&T n+#H yjT e#T. BH sD eT+q+ n+{+.
u<H u dq sT>TTq deTjT+ s+s+ |& u d b<jTT, $<] eTqT eTT d]#dT H
M\T*dT+ ~. nedsy T q esT\T #dT e& &&TT+~.

33

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


sD eT+q+` \D \T:
u<H u dq sT>TTq|& |\\ T b HsT +THs |]o*+#&+ .
nu dqqT yTsT>T|s# T e& s+s+ ]>~ (on going assessment)
nu dH yTsT>T|sT dT+ ~.
nu dq+ b sT>TT+~ nH $<q+| <w |&TT+~.
n+sZ + > ss TT+#Tq |< T \T, \\| |u e+ #|T+~.
n_e~ |s# e \dq n+X\qT >T]+#& |edT+ ~.
u<H |< T \T, $<H\T yTT<q e s+s+ esTe& Mq ds + *e+T+~.
|> d+ |jT dT+ ~.
|sd s+ HsT e& M\T*dT+ ~.
d ksTT |]o\q.
|\\ & \T, HT|d \T yTT<q k<H \ <s eT+q+ sT>TT+~.

d+>V D eT+q+

(Summative Assessment)

$<] u<H u dq |jT \ <s HsT =q n+X\qT yTT+ > eT+q+ #jT & d+>V D
eT+q+ n+{sT. $ sT yTT+ |P]nsTTq s < s] bs|D[ |Pss TTq sT y
|\\ k<q qT |+ # |< . |< $<] qT #~$q sT<s @$T HsT H&T?, m+ es
HsT H&T? nH n+X\qT |]o*+#&+ sT>TT+~. k<sD+> s (||sY ` |) |\ s|+
eyT sV+# d+>V D eT+q+ bs $wj \qT eyT |+ #&+ sT>TT+~. |\\ T
b+ HsT HsT n |+ #&+ . ]q, y] |] sV+# d+>V D eT+q+ $<sT\ T
y] k<q qT, esT\T, s+\ s|+ n+<Cd T + ~. rs k~+#s < eyT *jTCdT + ~.
$<sT\ T #~$q n+X\ ne>Vq #dT = d++> |\ sjTe\d se&+ e\ |\ |\ |
uj
T +, y\ +&<T . sV n+sZ eT+q $<q+ |\ |] |\\ eT< *> ny+# jT
b{ +Z #& |j >|& T T+~. B duy eT]+> +> ns+ #dT +<+.
~ nu dqqT eT+q+ #d |< .
k<sD+> sY, y] |\ s|+ HsT q yTT |d T + ~. nq> e d (Quarterly),
ns y] (Half Yearly) eT]jTT y] (Annual) |\ T s|& + .
$<|eD\ <s+> |\\ |> b<jTT&T djT+> j sT#dq | ||sY |]o*+#
| |< .
| sVD d+ b<jTT\T du y > s]+q $< |eD\ <s+> |X |+
sb+~+#Ty* ($wjT y us |{ \
qT (9e n<jT+) |]o*+#+&.)

34

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

APSCF ` 2011 : \ d\T

H|<+:
#<T ee&+ nH~ | &T >se|<y T q seT+ eyT . |dT + n~ b<$ T V
L&. b*yT+ ksTTes &&T |\\ +<sT HDyTq $<qT b+<&+ s+< $<V #+
2009 (RTE-2009) |s+ b<$ T V> e]+~. $_q d+d T\T, ucy$ < *qZ eTq<X+
n+<] $<qT n+~+#&+ >T]+ uss C+>+ dw+ > |s=+~. > sT <Xu\T> n+<] $<qT
n+~+#& eTq<X+ bH |< \T, se\T neT\T]>sTT, sT>TTHsTT L&! nsTTq|{
+qT dy seTT+<T edH HsTT. u\], &jT |\\T+&&+ HD|+
yT<q+ |+#&+ j+yT q u<H u dq |jT \T, |eD\ |sT n~ de#s us+
sTy q bs |d \T &, +<q, esT\T, s+\ |]$TyT T q eT+q $<H\T
n&T>+TTq $\Te\T, sEsE ybs <sD |sT>T yT D qysT s y T q #<T e\T, ysT
+sy T q #<T e\T b+<TTq $<yesD+, eT* edT \ =s yTT<\>T dyqT eTq+ >eT+#e#T.
eTq sh+ |]d L& +<T $_q+> @MT <T . M{ &T |uT bsX \ |\\ d+K >T eZ TTK+
|& + , de#s C| e TT+#Te&H Cq+> u$+#&+ , ]qT\T, n\d+UesZ\T, u*\T yTT<\>T
esZ\T s esZ\ deq+> $< b+< be&eTH n<q|deTd\T L& HsTT.
+{ |]d T \qT n~>$ T+#& us |uT + CrjT ksTT CrjT $<|D[ #+
`2005 (NCF - 2005) qT ussV nu dq+ (Learning without burden) nH y~ <s+> sb+~++~.
|\\ #<T e\T { $<H\ |]$T+ +&, nse ++> es\, HsT =q CH J$+

35

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


$j+#\, HsT e&eTH~ bs |d \ |]$T+ s<, +<q, b{ + n~>$ T+#
|\ $<H\qT d+d]+#\ CrjT $< |D[ #+ 2005 d++~.
n+X\bT |\\ +<sT HDyTq $<qT b+<& # <+ #d s+< $<V
#+ 2009 (Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act - 2009) neT\T e+~. bsX \ $<
\yT q e\ T b<jTT\T. b<jT sD+ |q H HDyTq $< <s|& +T+< b<jT
$< CrjT $< |D[ #+ 2010 (NCFTE - 2010) CrjT b<jT $< d+d (NCTE)
sb+~++~.
us+ $< y~, CrjT $<|D[ #+ (NCF - 2005), $<V #+ (RTE - 2009),
CrjT b<jT $< |D[ #+ (NCFTE) - 2010 |b<q\T, es<Z s \qT |]o*+q|&T
eTq sh+ bsX \ $< d+dsD\T #| & + nedse T u$+#sT. +<Td+ eTqsh+L&
sh $<|D[ #+ 2011 (State Curriculum Frame Work - 2011) qT sb+~+#& CrjTksTT
$wjT |DT\T |Hd \T, b<jTT\T, d#+ < d+| \ duT \T, $X$<\jT #sT\T yTT<\>T
y] d\V d+| , d] +> $T{ sh|uT + @sT#d+ ~. nf $$< d \ T, dV bs n+X\
#+~q 18 n+X\ |dT |]d $Xw + |b<q\ <s| \qT sb+~+#& = n+X
bdt>|qT L& jT$T++~.
y{ $es\T:
1. $< $wjT <s| \T (Position Papers on Subject Areas) :
1.1 uw ` ucu<q ` <s| + (Position Paper on Language and Language Teaching)
1.2 +>u <q ` <s| + (Position Paper on English Teaching)
1.3 $CqXd $< ` <s| + (Position Paper on Science Education)
1.4 >D $< ` <s| + (Position Paper on Mathematics Education)
1.5 k+|T Xd $< ` <s| + (Position Paper on Social Science Education)
1.6 |]ds\T ` nu dq+ ` <s| + (Position Paper on Habitat and Learning)
1.7 $< ` <s| + (Position Paper on Art Education)
2. eek| d+dsD\T (Position Papers on Systemic Reforms) :
2.1 $< \\T ` <s| + (Position Paper on Aims of Education)
2.2 eek|s d+dsD\T ` <s| + (Position Paper on Systemic Reforms)
2.3 b<jT $< ` b<jT e|s n_e~ ` <s| +
(Position Paper on Teacher Education and Teacher Professional Development)
36

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


2.4 nu dq+ =s eT+q+ ` <s| + (Position Paper on Assessment of Learning)
2.5 $< k+ ` <s| + (Position Paper on Education Technology)
2.6 $<|D[ ` bs |d \T ` <s| + (Position Paper on Curriculum and Textbooks)
3. sh d++~ eTTKyTq n+X\T (Position Papers on State concerns) :
3.1 $_q esZ\ $< (bdt.d., bdt.{., yTH ` u*\T ` d$T[ $<) ` <s| +
(Position Paper on Education for Diversities - S.C, S.T, Minority, Girls, Inclusive)
3.2 s> ` yjeT $< ` <s| + (Position Paper on Health and Physical Education)
3.3 us+u $< ` <s| + (Position Paper on Early Childhood Education)
3.4 | eT]jTT $< ` <s| + (Position Paper on Work and Education)
3.5 H ` $\Te\T ` eqe V\T ` <s| +
(Position Paper on Ethics, Values and Human Rights)
sh $<|D[ #+ 2011 eT]jTT 18 <s| \qT sb+~+#& +~ y~\qT
|]>Dq rdTHsT. n$.
sC+> +<q \T (Constitutronal) us sC+> |y eT]jTT 73, 74 e sC+>
desD\T.
CrjT $< |D[ #+ 2005 (NCF - 2005)
ussV nu dq+ y~\T (GOI - Report on Learning without burden)
s+< $<V #+ 2009 (RTE-2009)
b<jT$< ` CrjT $< |D[ |]~ |+ 2010 (NCFTE-2010).
CrjT $Cq MTwH |b<q\T (National Knowledge Commission Recomendations)
| y~\T #+~q, |b<q\ <s+> sw $<|D[ #+ 2011 (APSCF 2011) +~
d\qT |b~++~. M{ <s+>H $$< d \ T, dV bs n+X\ #+~q <s| \qT,
d\dtqT, $<|eD\qT sb+~+#sT. nf bs |d \qT <T ]+, eT+q+ eT]jTT |
d+dsD\T #|& sT. eT+ APSCF-2011 |b~+q sh << (Perspectives of the
State) eT]jTT APSCF-2011 \ d\qT (Key Principles) qT |]o*<+.

eTqsh <<+

(perspective of the State):

$<jTT b<$
T <X + |\\ +<] u< jTTyT q , VT<y T q , bsT\T> (Responsible and
Rational Citizens) j
sT#jT &+.

$<\\T B| |< q+> <wk ]+#&+ . nf |\\ T eT


d+d , d+|<j\T, ysd |X+dd, ke esT <V<|& e\T>
|\\ qT r]~<& + .
$<|D[ s|\
q |\\ jTT neds\T, ]\T +<_+<Te\T> +&&+ .

37

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


|\\
T HsT e&+ CH eT+ (Cognitive sequence in learning) +T+~. $<|D[qT

eT+ eT]jTT |\\ eqdk sTT\ <s+> sb+~+#&+ . |* \+f L& y{ b+<
|jT\qT |]|w #jT& n~ b<qe&+. Be\ |\\T e\+ de#s
C| e TT+#Te&++f y{ nse ++> b+<&+ , $Xw + #&+ e+{ H| D\qT b+<TsT.
CqeTH~ (knowledge) deT>yT + ~. B $$< d \ |sT $&Bd eTT\T eTT\T> n+~+#&e TH~
eTyTq ~. CqeTH~ CH keTs\ (Cognitive abilities) L&q<H~ ]y<+X+.
n+X $$< \\ k<q d+ nq> uc keTs\ k<q , >D keTs\ k<q , ke
dVqT |+b+~+#&, ] #q\qT e~|s # & , $Xw D \T eT]jTT ssD \T #jT &
$j+#e#T.
$<|D[ nH~ >o\yTq
~ (Dynamic). ~ bs |d \ |]$T+ s<T. ~ |]ds\T,
uV||+ #+ nqTd+<qyT |\\ T, b<jTT\ dHq T |+#& <V<|& *.
$< |D[bT, $<|]b\q, bsX\ #+~q n sb\ $+BsDqT
(Decentralisation) neT\T#jT &+.
APSCF-2011

eT* d\T (Key principles)

|\\
T eTq dV yTq Xk eTs\ <s+> HsT H |< q+> <w |&+ .
|\\uw eT]jTT de+ $$< sq Cq eed\qT >s$+#&+, y{ nudq+

$j+#&+ .
CH &jT{ J$+ nqTd+<q+ #jT &+.
{ $<H\ dd| \ &+ . y{ <T\T> |sd s |#s \T (Interactions) , bC | q T\T, nHwD\T
(Explorations), |j
>\T, $Xw D \T e+{ |< T \<s |\\ T nse ++> HsT e&+.
HsT e& bs |d \ |]$T+ #jT +&, |\\ deT> n_e~d+ $<|D[ q neX\T
*+#&+ . +<TqT>TD+> bs |d \ esT\T #sT \T #|
& + .
s+s deT> eT+H (Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation) neT\T #jT &+ <s
|\ qT ds ]+, u<H u dq |jT n+s>+ #jT &+. |\\ T b+ HsT Hs \TdT&
eT\+q+ #jT & <T\T |\\ T HsT & <V<|& eT+q $<H\qT d+d]+#&+
(Assessment for Learning).
bs |D[ $_q n+X\qT d$T[+#d , nse ++> HsT & M\T> ke sD
(Social constructivism), $<H\qT T\H / $eTsH (Critical pedagogy) u<H
$<H\
<s+> u<H u dq |jT \qT sV+#&+ .
|\\ d+d , nqTuy \T, k n+X\ s> >~ b<q *+#&+ .
38

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


sh <<+ eT]jTT \ d\ <s+> sh $< |D[ |]~ |+ 2011 qT sb+~+#sT.
~ +~ n+X\ esT\qT #sT \qT |b~++~.

bs|d\T:`
|{ es sb+~q bs |d \T dTesT 10 d+es\=k] esT\T #sT \Hq $.
eT*yT q esT\T HeTe+>H #T#dT HjT #| e#T. nf bs |d \ s|\ q <syT q
$<|D[ #+ < d \ y> <s| \T> >+ sb+~+#< T . B e\ bs |d \
bs+X\T e]qy>, $wjT neT], nuk\ y$ < #T#dT <T . nf bsX \ $<
#+~q d \ <s n+# \\T < d \ due+, |\\ due+ e+{$ bs |d \ s|\ q
|P]> |]>Dq rdT<T . nf bs |d \T |eD\ |sT n~ de#s+ +& sTysTT.
>D + , $CqXd+ e+{ d \ | s> T \ n+X\T +~ s> T \ #ssTT. ~ eqd+ >
L& |\\ usyT + ~. sw+ neT\T]q APPEP, DPEP e+{ se\e\ b<$ T
s> T \ bs |d \ =+es esT\T #T#dT H, ~ NCF-2005, RTE-2009, APSCF2011 |s+ eT]+ deT>+> es*q neds+
+~.
sh $< |D[ |]~ |+ `2011 M{ n~>$ T+ nse +yT q bs |d \qT sb+~+#&
+~ |b<q\T #d+ ~.
uw, >D
+ , $CqXd+ , k+|T Xd+ e+{ d \ bs |d \T sb+~+#& d y >
<s| \T +&*.
bs |d \T |\* +|# d, |\\
T eTq dV yTq X keTs\T $j+ HsT &
<V<|&*.
bs |d \T de#s+ sTy +&, |\
de#s d]+#, de#s $Xw + #,
ssD \T#d neX+ +&*.
|\\
T CH ]+#T& bs |d \T &&*. CH J$+ $j+#&
neX+ +&*.
|\\
T e\+ bs |d \ |]$T+ +&, n<q| nu dq+ d+ d+|~+| >+<\T, e>Cq T,
|\T, keT, de duT \ |sd s |#s \T ]> bs |d \T neX+ *+#*.
bs |d \ uw ds + > es*. HsT & uw nes<+ > +&s<T. VQuw
|]>Dq rdTy* (Multilinguality).
bs |d \ bs+X\T *+> $e $es<T. |\\
$Xd+ |+#, +|C d,
eqe V\ | dV |+#$> +&*. +<Td+ #HH| D\T nq> |d+~+#&+
(Reflection), $eTsH+> +#&+ (Critical thinking), VQD +#&+ (Dialectical thinking), dCH+> +#&+
(Creative thinking), ue|ksH| D\T (Communication Skills) e+{$ |+b+~+#*.

39

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


k \
T, d+d , < sb\T, k n+X\T yTT<\>Tq$ bs+X\T> +&*.
j d \
s]+q $<|eD\T (Academic Standards), +q nu dq |* \T

(Expected learning outcomes) k~+#& M\T> nuk\T +&*.


\T, bC |qT\T, nHwD\T, |j >\T, VQ$<q de<H\T e# |X \T (Open
T, | yTT<\>T y{ s|+ +|C d nuk\T +&*.
ended questions), &\
|\\ T e> + > HsT H, T|q T bZH , |P]s > <s HsT H nuk\T +&*
(Individual, group, whole class activities).
|\\ T dV bs+Xq eqe$\Te\T, H , \ T, s>+, | yTT<\>T n+X\qT L&
>V +#& M\T> bs |d \ bs+X\T eT]jTT nuk\T +&*.
bs |d \T +~ s> T \ #+~q d keTs\ |qXsD neX+ *dH , s>
keTs\T k~+#& eT]jTT | s> T \ #+~q n+X\ nqTd+<+# +&*.
bs |d \T s Dj
T +>, n+<+> +&*. HDyTq ||sT , eTT<D, \ L& +&*.

u<Hudq |jT\T (Teaching Learning Processes) :


{| & + , ey j
T &+, |d \, > & T , |X \ u+\ n+X\qT msjT&+, < j++>
#<e &+ e+{ j+yT q $<H\ <T\T u<H u dq |jT \T |\\ T nse ++> HsT &
<V<|& *. +<Td+ APSCF 2011 +~ |b<q\T #d+ ~.
|sd
s |#s \T (Interactions), djTe s D
(Self Expression), |+#&+ (Questioning)
e+{$ u<H u dq |jT \ \+ y*.
|j >\T, nHwD\T, \T, bC |qT\T, &\
T yTT<\>Tq$ u<H u dq |jT n+s>+
y*.
u<H u dq |jT \+f b<jTT\T $e]+#&+ < #~$ $+#&+ <T. b<jTT\T
|\\ T HsT & |s |+#, bZH #j *. nedse T>T ke |j +#*. n+<TuT
+#*. nu dq yesD *+#*.
|\\
T e> + >, {y], b<jTT\ <s, ke <s nu d+# u<H u dq |jT \
sVD +&*. |\\ nu dq deTjT+ |P]> d~j>+ y*.
|\\
+<sT eT +{ uw HsT & nqTyq @sT / yesD+ +&*. b<jTT\T
|\\ uwqT $j+#*.
u<H u dq |jT \ sVD |\\
nqTuy \T, |PsCq+ <s+> bs+u+ y*.
k \T, < n+X\T, XeTJe\ nqTuy\qT u<Hudq |jT eqsT\T>
|j +#*.
40

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


eT+q+ ` |\ T:`
|\* n+#H yjT & |{ es e\+ |\ |H <s|& T TH+. |\ T L& |\*
n+#HyjT & <T\T> |\* <w\T> #|&, qq >TsjT #jT &, &, +<qqT
|+#& &&TTHsTT. s + > | $< eedq T XddT H jT #| e#T. H|< + sh
$< |D[ |]~ |+`2011 +~ |b<q\qT #d+ ~.
eT+q+ eT]jTT |\
T |\* e\+ n+#HyjT & |]$T+ +&, |\\ T HsT &
<V<|& *. (Assessment for Learning)
RTE`2009 d+q $<+ > eT+H s+s+ deT>+> sV+#&+ . (Continuous and
Comprehensive Evaluation - CCE)
|\\
qT n+#HyjT & e\+ |\ |]$T+ +& bC |qT\T, ndH y T +T, bsTb *j\T,
d$THsT, |<s q\T, nH& ={, |]o\q\T e+{y{ L& $j+#&+ . n+X\ d+es+
|\ >T us {sTT+#&+ .
+<Td+ eT+H u<q
u dq |jT n+s>+ #jT &+.
|\
|X \ duy es&+. { |s |+# |X \T, bs |d de#s |]$TeTjT
|X \ kq+ |\\ T k++> + sjT&, eT nqTuy \qT e| s # & , VQ $<q
de<H\T se& (Open Ended Questions), J$+ nqsTT+#& (Application
Oriented) M\T> +|# d |X \T +&&+
.
|\\
T eTT b+~q CH @yTs $j+#>\ s n+#HyjT & eT+q+ &&&+ .
|\\
T eTqT eTT djT eT+q+ #dT e&+, *< + &T\T L& eT |\\ |> djT+>
|+ #T& M\T> bs<s , Vs+> eT+q $<H\qT neT\T |s &+.
usT |
L& bsX \ sV+q s+s, deT> eT+q n+X\ q us
{sTT+#&+ .
usT |\
yT|\qT ]q| &T *< + &T\ n+<#j
T &+. |qsY eT+q+ #jT &+.
dV bs n+Xq yK sT\T, $\Te\T, |, s>+, \T yTT<\>Ty{ L& eT+q+ #jT &+.

eek|s y T q d+dsD\T

(Systemic Reforms):

sh $<|D[ |]~ |+ 2011 qT neT\T|s# & |q *q n+X\ esT #sT \bT


+< *q eek|s y T q d+dsD\qT L& |b~++~.
|]b\q eT]jTT bsX \ sVD $+BsD
d+ |+#sTTr sC d+d\ qT u>keTT\qT
#jT &+.
bsX \ esD |< Hb<jTT& nBq+ |#d ECE +<\qT @sT#jT &+. |\\

d+sD
, s> u< \qT ICDS XK, $<u< \T $<XKysT d]+#&+ .

41

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


RTE 2009 d+q $<+ > n bsX \ eT* edT \T, b<jTT\ jeT\T #|
& + .
nf |\\
*< + &T\ bsX \ jeq $T{\qT @ss, bsX \ sVD y] u>keTT\qT

#jT &+.
|D[, sVD, e]+>, <T \ $j>+ yTT<\>T n n+X\ $+BsD $<H\q
neT\T|s &+.
b<jT $<bT, b<jT dV jT, dV s eed\ qT |+ #jT &+.
bsX \ $< #+~q $$< d+d\ T (School, School Complex, Mandal Resource Centre, DIET,
SCERT) eT]jTT e\
|rsT d\T (Performance Indicators) sb+~+ neT\Ts|& + <s
yT<q+ |+#&+ .
b<jT $< |D[ #{ sb+~+ neT\T|s &+, b<jT $< d+dsD\T #|
& + .
|\ eqe $\Te\T, q yK sT\qT |+b+~+#& s> y> |\\ d+ | y#\qT
sb+~+#&+ .
bsX \ eT* edT \bT <T k+ |]CH n+<TuT e&+.

de+ ds eTTU_e~ k~+#\+f de+ $<s+>+ d+|Ps n_e~ k~+#*.


+<T |H~ bsX \$<. bsX \ $<qT d+d]+, |\\ qT deC_e~ && e\ T>, VT<y T q
bsT\T> r]~<& nedsy T q H| D\T, $\Te\T, yK sT\T |+b+~+#& sh $<|D[ |]~
|+ 2011 ~XsX + #dT + ~. +<Td+ sb+~+q <s| \<s j du \ T eT]jTT n+X\
|b<q\T #XsT. M{ neT\T|s# & eek|s d+dsD\qT #|& sT. +<Td+ nesZ\
|\T, $<y\ T, b<jTd+| \T, b<jTT\T, d#+ < d+| \T yTT<\>T y] qT+& d\V\T
d#q\T d]+ nedsy T q esT\T #sT \T #|& sT. <s sh+ $<s+>+ n_e~ k~+,
n>>$T> \|& |jT + #<+.

42

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

qq >D |deTT\ `
n+X\T

1. qq+> bs |d \qT m+<T sb+~+#sT?


$< |D[qT neT\T]| |< q k<q + bs |d + . $< \\qT k~+#&+ , u<H u dq
|jT \qT esZ sX q + #jT &+ bs |d \T |eTTK bqT sVksTT. bs |d \T X +<+>
+&*. {e\ n+<] H < e $q&TT+~. ~ e\+ n\+s bjTyT+ ~. yTT+ $<|D[
$<] +ByT nsTT bs |d \qT n_e~ |s# & + $<sT\ d \ T, n_sT #T\T, nu dHX* ,
y{ eT\T, y]H|< + \+X\T y*.
>D + bs |d \T sb+~+q| &T eT[yT q esT\T HeTe+> #T#dT HsTT.
B sD+ bs|d\ s|\q <syTq $<|D[ #+, dy> <s|\T
sb+~+#< T . Be\ bs+X essTT> $wjT neT], nuk\ y$ < #T#dT <T .
nf bsX \ $< #+~q d <s +# \\T, < d \ due+, |\\ due+ e+{$
bs |d \ s|\ q |P]> |]>D rdT&< T . nf bs |d \T |eD\ |sT n~
de#s+ +& sTy HsTT. >D + , $CqXg+ e+{ $wj \ | s> T \ HsT y*q
n+X\T +~ s>T\#ssTT. ~ eqd+> L& |\\ usyT+~. APPEP, DPEP e+{
se\e\ b<$ T s> T \ bs |d =+yT s esT #T#dT q$.
>+ eTq+ j sT #dT q bs |d \T >D | s + > $<sT\ $CH, $wj n+~+q|{
esTTq nqT>TD+> $<s+>+ #T#dTq nH esT\ nqT>TD+> $<sT\
$<eds\qT rsTe&, CrjT $<|D[ #+ (NCE-2005) #dq d#q\qT <w +#T=

43

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


sh $<|D[ |]~|+ (APSCF-2011)qT sb+~+#TH+. sh $< |D[ u>+>
sb+~+q >D <s| + d+q $<+ > d\dtqT, $<|eD\qT s]+#&+ ]+~.
$<V #+ ` 2009, sh $<|D[ |]~ |+ ` 2011 u>+> sb+~+#& >D $<
$<q |+ s +q d#q\qT <w |T q| &T d\dt, u<H u dq |jT \ esT\T
nysyT+ ~. n> APSCF-2011 nse +yT q bs |d \qT sb+~+#& = |b<q\T
L& #d+ ~. NCF-2005, APSCF-2011, RTE-2009 M{ |]>D rdT=q| &T bs |d \qT
eT]+ deT>+> es*e+~. eq 2012`13 $<d+es+ 3e s> qq bs |d ,
2013`14 $<d+es+ 4, 5 s> T \ qq bs |d \qT sb+~+#&+ ]+~. +<T
u>+>H 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 s> T \ L& qq >D bs |d \T sb+~+#yT + ~.

2. qq+> bs |d \T @jT \ d\ <s+> sb+~+#sT?


NCF-2005, RTE-2009, APSCF-2011 d#q\T |]o*+q| &T bs |d \T $<] +B+>,

y] d \ qT, n_sT #T\qT, nu dHX* , H|< + yTT<q $ bs |d \qT n_e~|s # & + \+X\T
y*.
+< |<X sh $< |D[ |]~ |+ ` 2011 eT[d \T :

|\\ T eTq dV yTq X keTs\ <s+> HsT =H |< q+> <w |&+ .
|\\
uwqT eT]jTT de+ $$< sq Cq eed\ qT >s$+#&+ , y{ nu dq+
$j+#&+ .
{ $<H\ dd|
\ &+ , y{ <T\T> |sd s |#s \T, bC | q T\T, nHwD\T, |j >\T,
$Xw D \T e+{ |< T \ <s |\\ T nse ++> HsT e&+.
HsT e& bs |d \ |]$T+ #jT +&, |\\
deT> n_e~d+ $<|D[ q
neX\T *+#&+ , +<T nqT>TD+> bs |d \ esT\T #sT \T #| & + .
s+s deT> eT+ neT\T#jT &+ <s |\
qT ds ]+ u<H u dq |jT
n+s>+ #jT &+, |\\ T m+Hs T Hs \TdT& eT+q+ #jT & <T\T |\\ T
HsT & <V< |& eT+q $<H\T d+d]+#&+ .
bs |D[ $_q n+X\qT d$T[+ #d
, nse ++> HsT & M\T> ke
sD $<H\qT, T\H / $eTsH u<H $<H\ <s+> u<H u dq |jT \qT
sV+#&+ .
|\\
d+d , nqTuy \T, k n+X\ s> >~ b<q *+#&+ .
nse +yT q bs |d \T sb+~+#& APSCF-2011 #dq |b<q\T :

44

bs |d \T sb+~+#& d y > <s| \T +&*.


_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

bs |d \T |\* +|C d, |\\ T eTq Xk eTs\T $j+ HsT &


<V<|& *.
bs |d \T de#s+ sTy +&, |\ de#s d]+# de#s $Xw + #,
ssD #d neX+ +&*.
|\\ T CH ]+#T& bs |d \T &&*. CH J$+ $j+#&
neX+ +&*.
|\\ T e\+ bs |d \ |]$T+ +& n<q| nu dq+ d+ ]|s qT|d \T, e>Cq T,
|\T, ke, de duT \ |sd s |#s \T ]> bs |d \T neX+ *+#*.
bs |d \ uw ds + > +&*. HsT & uw nes<+ > +&s<T. VQuw
|]>D rdTy*.
bs |d bs+X\T *+> $e $es<T. |\\ $Xd+ |+#, +|C d,
eqeV\| dV|+#$> +&*. +<Td+ #H H| D\T nq> |d+~#&+ ,
$eTsH+> +#&+, VQD +#&+, dH+> +#&+,
ue|ksH| D\T e+{$ |+b+~+#*.
j d \ s]+q $< |eD\T, +q nu dq |* \T k~+#& M\T>
nuk\T +&*.
\T, bC |qT\T, nHwD\T, |j >\T, VQ$<q de<H\T e# |X \T, &\ T,
| yTT<\>T sb\ +|C d nuk\T+&*.
|\\ T e> + >, T |qT bZH , |P]s > <s HsT =H nuk\T +&*.
bs |d \T +~ s> T \ #+~q d keTs\ |qXsD neX+ *dH s> keTs\T
k~+#& eT]jTT | s> T \ #+~q n+X\ nqTd+<+# +&*.
bs |d \T s jT+>, n+<+> +&*. HDyTq ||sT , eTT<D, \ L& +&*.
k \ T, d+d , <q sb\T, k n+X\T yTT<\>Tq$ bs+X\T> +&*.

ADDITIONAL POINTS

|\ uj
T +, +<q +& >D ueq\T dT\u+ > ns+ #dT =qT, djT nu dq+ bV+#
$<+ > +&T.
|\\ T de deTq |]d T \qT ne>Vq #dT y*. |#sk<H e# deTd\qT $<]
$Xw + ns+ #dT >Z*.
Cq sD+ $<H\T, yd$ d\ <s+> ]q y{ s|D\T |\\ T ne>Vq
#TdTy*.

45

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


3. qq+> sb+~+q bs |d | \ T @$T{?
bs|d |\T:`
I.

u n+X\T:

II.

bs |d + LsT # > +& #&>H T=H +&&+ .


|\\ nqTL\yTq |]eD+ (size) L& |d + +&&+ . 4e s> `160 |J\T,
5e s> ` 184 |J\T.
HD>\ ||sT | s+>Ts+>T\ \ d * > +&&+ .
|d + y&&q b+T (ns \T), eTT<D |\\ T dw+ > #~$, ne>Vq #dT =H +&&+ .

$<$wjT n+X\T:

46

|d + |j +q uw ds + > +& $<sT\ T djT+> #<T e= ns+ #dT =H $<+ >


+&&+ .
bs |d + | bs+X+ ]wy T q eT|< sb+~+#&+ nq>
 +~ s> T HsT =q >D ueq\qT |qs\
q+ #d |dT s> #+~q ueq\ Cq
sD+ #dT e& nqT>TD+> +&&+ .
 bs+X+ \ ueq\T J$ d+<s\T / dyX\T / \T / \T <VsD\T
<s ne>Vq |s# & + .
 $#jT +&, |jT +#+&, o]\
+< q deTd\ <s ueq\T deT>+> ns+
#dT e&+.
 #]+#+&, +#+& \ <s ueq\qT T>, $d +> ns+ #dT e&+.
 $<sT\
T | nqTuy \ <s Cq deTbsq #dT & q \T / bC | q T\T
*+#&+ .
 $<sT\
T nu k\ deTd\qT e> + > k~+#&+ <s $<|eD\T b+<&+ .
bs |d + q \T, deTd\ <s |\ dH, ] #q, deTkk<q ,
n+#HyjT &+ e+{ keTs\qT |+b+~+#&+ .
VQ$<q de<H\T e# |X \T, &\ T, | yTT<\>Ty{ s|+ +|C d nuk\T
+&&+ .
d#q\T $<sT\ T #~$ dT\u+ > ns+ #dT e&+.
j s> T \ >D nu dq+ d+ s +q d\dt, d\dt <s |\ k~+#*q
$<|eD\T / keTs\T bs |d + es b+<T|s &+.

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

bs |d + u<q d+ b<jTT&T H d++> y] |D[ j sT#dT e& bs |d +


|* esT|J qeTH y] |D[ e&+~.
bs |d u<q b<jTT\ | yT q u<q d#q\bT bs+X+y> $<$wjT
d#q\T e&HsTT.
bs |d + =+yT s esYT>> L& +&&+ . de<H\T |d + H sd$<+ > +&&+ .
djT eT+H <V<|& & + .
HsT q n+X\qT y+y+H eT+q+ #jT &+.

4. bs |d \ <s |\\ T @jT >D k eTs\| |T k~ksT ?


$<sT\T >D nud+#& ]wyTq u<H\\qT >D $< $<q |+ #]+#&+
]+~. M{ >eTd. ..

$<sT\ T d+K, n+seTT\ d++~+q n+X\ >T]+ ne>Vq #dT e&+ eT]jTT
H| D+ b+<&+ .
$<sT\
T >D | s + > +q #jT >\&Z + .
$<sT\
T eTT }V+q $wj \ qT+ ] sj
\ es nHwD =qk+#&+ .
$<sT\
T neTsu eq\qT ns+ #dT = y{ deTse ++> y&>\ &Z + .
$<sT\
T deTkk<q keTs\qT |+b+~+#Te&+ e+{$ <w +#T= u<H u dq
|jT \T sV+#\ eTq \TdT+ ~. | n+X\qT |]o*d |\ >D + $$< bs+X\
<s +< d+q y{ k~+#\ ne>e TeT+~.
n$...
1) deTkk<q
2) sD\T#| &+ ` s|D\T #jT &+
3) e| s # & +
4) d++<\T
5) b< |s# & + ` <osD

5. q s> T \ qq bs |d @jT n+X\qT <w +#T= m+|# k sT?

>D + $<sT\ T |< q+> qksTT d+K\T, ;>D + , C$Tr (sU>D + ),


>D u eq\T, <+X sVD d++~+q ueq\qT ne>Vq #dT e\d +T~. M{
|j +#T= J$+ nedsy T q d+<s\ $$< deTd\qT |]w]+#T>*> H| D+
b+<*.

47

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

48

6 qT+& 10 s> T \ (qksTT) >D bs |d + bs |D[ |< q+> sT s+>\T>


(i) d+U eed, (ii) ;>D + , (iii) n+>D + , (iv) s U>D + , (v) $T eT]jTT (vi) <+X
sVD $u +#& <<|> 14`15 n<j\T> $u +#&q~.
d+Ueed #+~q n+X\ dV d+K\T, |Psd + K\T, |Ps+\T, nsD j
T d+K\T,
sD j
T d+K\T, yde d+K\T yTT<\>Tq$ n<$<+ > | \T ` | +\T, eseZ T\T,
|T qeT\T, sD+$u q, d+K\ &T=+<+ yTT<q $ bs+X\ #s &q$.
n+>D + q #+~q n+X\, X+, w, nqTb+, VQw, sTdTeTT X+, u+ ,
qw+ , neT| |qT / VAT usTe&, #e& qT>=q&+, (d+es, nsd + es, e d \+
#e& qT>=qT) yTT<\>Tq$ bs+X\ #s &q$.
;>D + q #+~q n+X\ #ss , ;JjT dek\T, @|~ , ~|~, VQ|<T \T, ;JjT
dMTsD \T, @#s s s FjT dMTsD \T, s +&T #ss X\ s FjT dMTsD \T, ndMTsD \T
y{ k<q , ;JjT dek\T sD+ $u q, ;JjT Hj\T, esZ dMTsD \T k<q yTT<\>Tq$
bs+X\ #s &q$.
s U>D + q #+~q n+X\ _+<Te, sD +, s K\T, ds s K\T yTT<\T= (21 s\T)
uT C\T, #T sTC\T y{ s\T, y{ sD\T, e+ , eK +&+, #|+, kwe + yTT<\>Tq$
n+X\T bs+X\ #s &q$.
s| \ +, \+ _+<Te\T, _+<Te\qT \T|> @s&T s\ #TT=\, yX \+q
d++~+q n+X\T L& #s &q$.
$T #+~q n+X\ 2D s\ |T q|]eD+, d+|Ps \ yX \+, | \yX \+, $$<
$TrjT s\ <s @s&q s\ |T q|]eD+, d+|Ps \ yX \+ yTT<\>T n+X\T
bs+X\ #s &q$.
<+X sVD d++~+q n+X\ de#sdsD , |{ qy<T, |\T, >|\t T,
bq'|q|{ \ T eT]jTT s U\ kbq\T, VQuT E\T, z e\T ]+#T `
neZ <+XeTTq n+>D d> T, eT< >+ , uVQ+ qT>=qT, +BjT kq $\Te\T
qT>=qT yTT<\>Tq$ bs+X\ #s &q$.
|\\ T eT+ yT eTT+<T> HsT q ueq\T |j +#T= qq ueq\qT ds | s # T =HT
<s deTd\k<q q esZ\T nHw+#T=H+<T <V<|& n+X\T, <VsD\T
bs+X\ #s &q$.
n+ >+& n+#HyjT &+, deTdqT sb+~+#&+ , | \T >T]+ de]+#&+ e+{ n+X\
b<q # bs+X\ neX+ e&+~.

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


6. bs |d \ s+s deT>eT+H m neX+ *+#sT?
>D bs |d + | ueqqT HsT q y+H @yTs ne>Vq b+<s \TdT=qT
$#jT +& o] 3, 4, \ L&q q nud+ e&+~. M{ k++>H |\\ T e> + >
#j *. M{ k~+q |\\ ueq\T ne>Vq ]qT u$+#* +T+~. n> |jT +#+&
o] q deTd\T |\\ dyq T $ds $> ueqqT $j+#$> +{sTT. M{ |\\ T >|\
#]d #j * +T+~. ueq, s q nud+, eT ueq q nud+ es n
ueq\ *| $d yT q |< nud+ +{sTT. M{ \T e~]> +&e. M{ L&
|\\ T k++>H e> + > #j * +T+~. eq bs+X+ |Psj
T d] $<sT\ T
ueq\T, ne>Vq #dT e&+, \T#jT &+, #]+#&+ , d]#&&+ , $d +> +#&+ , k++>
deTd\T k~+#&+ e+{ |jT \T e> + >, >|\, b<jTT |#s \T sb* +T+~.
eq |\\ |d+<q\qT, u<H u dq |jT \ d+<s + > |]o*+#&+ , >|\ bZH rsTqT
|]o*+#&+ , \T #jT &+qT |]o*+#&+ e+{y{ s+s+ > eT+q+ #d neX+ +T+~.

7. qq+> bs |d \qT b<jTT\T deTs+ > |j +#& @+ #s \T #|{ sT ?


bs |d + $<sT\ < +q~. nsTTq|{ n+<T n+X\qT eT|< n+~+#*q
u< b<jTT\| +~. eq b<jTT&T bs |d + | deT>yT q ne>Vq *Z +&*. +<Td+
b<jTT\ d#q\T n<j\ y> bs|d+ e&sTT. n+> $wj\y>
b<jTT\+<] bs |d ne>Vq#dT e&, $j+#& nedsy T q D e&+ ]+~.
D
|< q+> bs |d + m n<j\T HsTT? @ n<jT+ m+<Td+ < +#&$ . @
@ >D H| D\T k~+#&*. ueq\T m |]#jT + #jT &sTT. nuk\T m e&sTT. y],
jT{, bs |D[ sb+~+#Te&+ ne>Vq, \ sVD, ke, u<H u dq |jT \
sVD, s+s deT> eT+q+ ~s n+X\| D
|D[ yjT &+~. | $wj \| {#s Y
V+& T sb+~+ T.V., {#s Y e&+ ]+~. n hand books SCERT web site +#&+
]+~.
n> |\\ nud+ m *+#*? |\\ e> | , T| , |P] s> \T sVD,
|\\ | \qT mde]+#*? bC | q T\T m| &T y*? M{ m sV+#*? desDu<q
m sb*? ~s n+X\| b<jTT\ ne>Vq D
*+#&+~.

8. qq+> bs |d \T $j+#&+ b<jTT\ b @$T{?


@<H seT+ $jTe++ y\+f eTT+<dT |D[ nH~ | d]. eTT+<dT |D[
b < sVD nsTTH b\ L&T= +T+~. $<sT\ u$ wTq T r]~< eT+ eTTKu $T
bw+# b<jTT&T bs |d $j+#&+ eTT+<dT ePV\T, |D[ nH~ | d]>
+&*.

49

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


qq d\dt nqT>TD+> sb+~q bs |d + <s s +q $<|eD\qT k~+#&+ d+
|b<jTT&T L& s+s+ q qT> djT+ |]|w# d T = u<H u dq |jT esT\T
#sT \T #dT y*q neds+ +~.
+<Td+ b<jTT&T +~ d+d< *Z +&*.

50

b<jTT&T bs |d n<jT+ y> |P]> #~$ ns+ #dT y*.


| bs+X+ q n deTd\T k~+ #dTy*.
bs+X d\dt s]+ |]jT& nqT>TD+> @ |]jT&T @$T u~+#*, nud+
y{ | *+#* nH n+X\| |P] ne>Vq *Z +&*.
bs |D[ eTT+<dT > d<+ #dT y*.
\qT m sV+#*, ueq\ ne>Vq bs |d + \T d]bb eT]
\qT eTT+<T>H d<+ #dT y*.
ueq\ ne>Vq m+{ ke nedsy eTT+< d]+#* < j sT#d d<+ >
+#*.
bs+X+| eT]+ de#s+ ueq\| eT+ ne>Vq n+~+#+<T ]|s H|d \T #<y *.
Notes j
sT#dT y*.
@yTq d+<V \T +f { b<jTT\>, $wjT |DT\> #]+ e#d T y*.
qT u~+# $wjT +| d * Z |P] ne>Vq +&*.
qu<q e\+ de#s+ n+~+# $<+ > +& $<sT\ #q\, djT+ nuk,
dCH #T +&*.
ueqqT u~+#| &T b<jTT&T |\\ me>, n+X\| #]+ ne>Vq *+Z #*.
|\\ nud+ m+d| y* nH y{| |P] ne>Vq +&*.

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

Cq+ ` CqsD+ ` s> >~


nqjT+

1. Cq+ n+f @$T{?


Cq+ n+f de#s+ <T. Cq+ nH~ &T d +=sT |#TH~ <T. Cq+ nH~ {| & + ,
|qXsD #dT e&+, q~ qT> n|C| &+ <T. Cq+ nH~ |\\ eT~ ]> eqd |jT \
<s qeTjT ueq. ~ nqTuy \ qT+& #q\ qT+& e ] +|& n+X+. CqeTH~ m
+#, m |]o*+#, m $Xw + #, m |d+~+#, m e ] +# nH $wj \qT
$w]dT+ ~. |\\ T eT nqTuy \T, #q\ @<H $wj |]o*+#&+ , >T]+#&+ , d++<\T
@ss#& + , k<sD s D #jT &+, ssD se&+, |PsCH qq d+<s\, <T |] nuk\
|j +#&+ e+{$ #jT >\>&y T Cq+ |{ y T q <q& <s q+.
|\\ T eT |]ds\T, eT #T q ||+ #+ eTyTyT |sd s |#s \T, nHwD\T, |d+~+#&+ ,
qT>=q&+, bZq&+ e+{$ #jT &+ <s nse +yT q ueq\qT b+<TsT. < Cq+ neT+~.
Cq+ eTq+ #s n+X\T, eTq+ $<\\T> u$+#y{ |_+_keT NCF |s=q~.
$<\\T |\y $eTsH+> #g+@, |]o*+#, $Xw + #, VT<+ > +&,
qeTH\qT ^jT>Z , y$ < uy\|, Jeq+| d+~+# #j \ |s=+Tq+<Te\ CH
eTT\T> n+~+#&+ k< |&< T . Cq+ #q\, nqTu T\ d+>eT+. {| & + , |qXsD #dT e&+
<s |\y &T b+< de#s eTq+ Cq+ n s# T u$dTH +. CqeT+f eTq+ \qT
|<| < e*+#&+ , {j
T +<T. CH s+>+ m\ {j
T +>, +< |<X s< V <su<
n> nsY qd+es+ ~ n> u >TsTs D X \Te&y > <T. yTq Cq+

51

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


|\y m{ |]o*+#, m $Xw + # neTs VT< , |]d T \| qT m nqTu
#+<, m s+ *+& y$ < uy\| m dT + *Z +& nq $wj \T d$T[+
y*. n+<Te\ $<\ + $<] de#s eTT\T eTT\T> #+# |+qT+& $<]
#H H| D\qT kq|{q T> +&*.
n+<Te\ CqeTH~ de#s+ <T n #| >\+. Cq+ nH~ $<] e&~ <T. <=
djT+#< X, nqTue + <s deTTb]+#&~. qq de#s+| |\y &T #sD sj

ne>Vq *q| &T eyT deTTb]+#&TT+~. |\\ ds q deTjT+ nedsy T q +yT s ksTT
qT> dV jT+ y*. |\\ T eTT u>dT \ sTTq ||+ #+ #TsT q b bw+ eT+ yT
CH deTTbsq #j *. |\y $wj <sTT+| #d | #dq $wj \qT |X \<s
q<TqT> ] #| +#&+ Cq+ <T. B<s |\y $<e+T #jT &+> u$+#+ . eTq+
CH m d+b~+#\ s+#y n~ |\y +|C d, |d+~+|# d neTs, ueq\qT
ns+ #dT H e| s +&*. n+f { e\+ {j
T +> +&s<T. q ueq\qT de#s
$Xw + k<sD ] +# +&*. $< $<+ > |s |+#, bV+# +&*.
Cq+ nH~ jT$T \+ |P]> e>*> < nsTT |\y yT<d T de#s s|+
eed +> ~ #jT e#T. $< eqe yT<u+ &>s <sTT+| #d eed nsTT $<]
|s >V&T>H $T*b&T. $<qT <sTT+| #jT &eTH~ nu dqeTsTT |\y Cq#\H
s+>+ |]o\q, nqTu T\T |_+_+# +, u>keT |esq \T (NCF P.25) qwb sTT. Cq+
e> y T + ~. ~ <sTT+| d+ |]~ <{q $XqyT+ ~ n (NCF 2005) |s=q~.
| CH s+>+ | |<C \+, ueq\T, d<+\T, esq \T, |< T \qT * +T+~. eqe
\T, nu dq k<H \ $X\ #+ k+|T Jeq+, d+d +T+~. e|q Tq H, e&+>+,
+&\ j , eekjT+, <TD sVD y{uT <X\ T, &\ T $\Tyq CH sb\qT
*Z +{sTT. CH s+>+ jTT sb\T #sD
duy, ns+ #dT q rsTqT, b + >
#| &sTT. y{ # es n_e~ #+~q keTs\T * +{sTT. djT+ keTs Cq+ keTV
w |X+ d\T, yK sT\T, |T<\ , eTD
\ *Z +T+~.

2. Cq+ Vs de#s+
s> >~ bs |d \T de#s n+~ksTT. de#s b+< eT+ qq |PsCH
$j+#T+ \TdTq de#s+ <s+> Cq sD+ #dT y*. ~X eTq b<$ Tq
bsX \\T, eTq bs |d \T, b<jTT\T> eTq+ sy *. +<Td+ eTq+ de#s+, Cq+,
|qsT Cq sD, >V +#&+ e+{ n+X\ >T]+ \TdTy*.
e <s , |d \ <s>, ke <s> $wj b+~qf n~ de#s+ neT+~.
b+~q de#s+ q<q X* nqedsy T q $ e~*yjT &+ < de]+#Te&+, nedsy T q = d+<s\
|PsCH dH+> nqsTT+#Te&+ #ksT . < Cq sD |jT .
52

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


s> ><T b<jTT\T> eTq+ < n~ b<q y*? de#s? Cq sD
|jT\?
k<sD+> s> ><T eTq+ #| q $wj \H |\\ T |< |< ey d T + {sT. eTq+ n&q
|X \ yT*dT+ {sT. |d + q de#s, eTq+ n+~+q de#sH ] n|#| T+{sT.
BH |qsT (Repetetion) n+{sT. ~ Cq sD <V<+ #dT + <? |\ Cq sD+ s>\+f
eTq+ @+ #j *? e\+ de#s u <|s # & y T +& ({|
& + +&) nedsy T q d+<s
d+<s+> dH+>, q<q X* $j+#Te&+ s>*. n s>\+f eTqyT+ #j *?
+#+&.
Cq sD+ n+f |\\ T eT+ eTT> q *dq |PsCH $j+#T= =
d+s\ qq $wj \qT $w]+#& Cq sD+ nqe#T.
<VsD 8e s> >D + |H+.31 +#+& ` #]+#+& o]
deTd.
0.9, 14.5 eT]jTT 1.24 \qT nsD j
T d+U s|+ sjT+&. eeT\T k<H
|< _q+> @<sTTH dT\ue TsTTq |< e qT>=q>\y? nH |X de<H\qT
+ sj
e#T |\\ qT |s |dT + ~ eT]jTT deTk |]cs+ |ejT
|< T \qT nHw+#& bVdT+ ~.
y |X \ yT\qT b<jTT&| <s|& b<jTT&T #| q $<+ > sdqsTT
n~ yTq CqsD+ nq&TT+<?
|\\ T djT+> bZ+T CH ]+#TH eT+ {#s T L& j o\ u>keTT\T y*.
HsT H eT+ |\\ T dV yesD+, nu dq |jT bZ+T CH ]+#T+{sT.
]+#Te&+ +#&+ , |Ps nqTuy \T n+ \ b bwdT H sTT. |\\ T |+#&+ , &
HsT q < jT{ nqTuy \ nqsTT+#Te&+, deTd $$< D # > d+~+#&+ . eT
n_bj\qT n<T+ > e ] +#&+ e+{ d+<s\ Cq sD+ sT>TT+~. Cq+ sT n+~+#~
<T. ~ dw+ #&~. |\\ eT~ ]> |jT \ <s ~ qeTeT+~. Cq+ $wjT +
$$< sb\qT * +T+~.
Cq sD+, de#s+ yTT<\>T n+X\ >T]+ CrjT bs |D[ #+ 2005 @+ #TT+<
#<+.
eT<y T q nqTue yT Cq+> eTq+ |]>Dd T H +. ~ uw <s, ueH sb\T>
@s& ns dwd T + ~. |* +> eTq+ J$dTq ||+ # ns+ #dT e& |j >|& T T++~.
CH eTq+ #sD |< T \T> < #q\ L&q Xs H| D+> L& u$+#e#T.

53

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


~ ed <s de |s>eTH <V<+#dT + ~. #] eT+ eqe\T $$<
#q\T, uy\T >\ $Cq eTsT\ T>, ed #jT >\ deTsT\ T> |]D #+~ eT]+
CH ]+#THsT. |\\ +<s Cq d+|<q T eT eTT |qsT #dT y*.
eT]+ deTse ++> ||+ #+ eeV]+#+<T y*q eT] #q\T Be\ y]
\_ksTT. |\\ T CH eT+ m u>keTT\T y HsT y*. eT+
L& ysT u>keTT\T y*. s|+ eTq+ CH e\+ > #&+. n>
CH eTq+ jT sT#dq > u$+qf n~ de#s s|g+ e] |\\ yT<
<sTT+#&y T sT>TT+~. n| &T nud \T e\+ d+>V \T> essT. nu dq+
y] |yT jTyT$T +&<T . B _qyTq <<+ eTq+f ||+ # |]o*d, ||+ #+|
d+~d, ||+ #+ |#d , u>keTT\e HsT Hy> |\* eTq+ #&>\ +.

3. Cq sD+ n+f @$T{?


|\\ T dV nud \T eT #T q ||+ # d nHw+#&+ , |d+~+#&+ , +#&+ ,
$Xw + #&+ <s eT<q X* CH n_e~ #dT e&+ sT>TT+~. n> eT CH dH+>
$w]+#>\ Xk eTs\T |\\ T u\+H * +{sT.
Cq+ * q |\\ T eTT #dq, $q, #~$q, bZq n+X\ <s b+~q nqTuy \qT
|\Ts\T>, qq+>, dCH+> e ] +#&+ Cq sD+ ]qT u$+#*.
Cq sD+ n+f nu dqyT.
| s+ de+ <s eTT b+~q CH eTT+<Ts n+~+#& eT<+ |
Cq~ @ss#T + nse +yT q Cq sD &&sT. M{ nqTuy \ <s ns+ #dT e&+
<s Cq d+d [+| #dT e&+ <s njT, d#yesD\ CH ]+#T+{sT.
Cq sD |jT ke |]ds\ u>keTT\e neX\T yT , |jT \T #dT q
d+<s + | \T#d , ysT #dq | \qT y] ys d]~<T + Cq sD+ #dT +{sT. e
n+ dV keTs\T> |\\ T #jT >\sT.
nse +yT q nu dq+ nH~ < |jT . ~ e\+ de#s y* rd |jT <T.
+#&+ , ucs|+ e ] +#&+ , \T sV+#&+ e+{$ nu dH+X\T. |\\ T #
$wj \qT >TsT+ #T+{sT ns+ #dT sT . J$+ nqsTT+#s T . n+<T C| + +#Te&yT
CqeTH ue T qT+& eTq+ jT|&*.
ueq\ n_e~ nH~ s+s+ ]> |jT . d++<\qT @ss#T +, ne>Vq #dT +
s\ |* \qT nHwd , yK sT\qT, <>\qT, $\Te\qT d$T[+ #dT + uc_e~ <s
nqTd+<q+ #dT = e ] +#&+ Cq $wsD sT>TT+~.
54

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


eT CH $w]+#& <V<|& eTTU+X\T #q, uw. #q, uw nH$
$&BjTs n+X\T < { eTT&|& q$.
uc|s+ > Cq+ n+f |\\ T eTT $q, #dq, #~$q n+X\ qT+& nqTuy \ qT+& $$<
|j sb\ dH+> |<] +#&+ .
+<T $q&+, nqsZ + > n+X\ >T]+ e{&& + , #<e &+, |+#&+ , +#&+ #]+#&+ ,
|d+~+#&+ , e ] +#&+ , |X+ d+#&+ , ns+ #dT e&+. q yK sT\T * +&&e TH$ $T&
+{sTT.
nu dqeTH~ &qT, &jT, s+s+ > sT>TH +T+~. ~ |sd s |#s \<s
n_e~ #+<TT+~.
|\\ Cq sD+ |\ }V+#&+ , |\ q\T #jT &+, nHwD\T, |]X<q \T, |+#&+ ,
#]+#&+ , d<+rsD #jT &+, |d+~+#&+ , deTV\ |#jT &+ yTT<\>Tq$ \ bbwksTT.
Cq sD+ |#s \T eTTKu $T bwksTT. |\\ T $Xw + #&, yU+#&, sT \ *d
HsT e& |#s \T &&sTT. +|Cj
T &+, y{ e ] +#&+ , Cq sD+ eTTKyTq $.
|\\ T djT+> bZ+ CH ]+#T=H eT+ b<jTT\T j o\ u>keTT\T >*Z
y] b b<q |sT>TT+~. HsT =H nXe qqT bZ+ CqsD+ #dT +{sT |\\ T
|+#&+ , & HsT q< jT nqTuy \ nqsTT+#Te&+, eTq+> +& +& |X
|\Ts\ d+~+#&+ e q $wj \T> +#e#T. |\\ ne>Vq |s>& + +#&+
$ # \yT q yTT. |\\ s# T > eT nqTuy \ qT+>, |kse< e\ qT+> = =
#q\T edT+ {sTT. b<jTT q#$<+ > y{ #| &+ |\\ #> be#T ` |P]> *dq<,
<<| \*dq < eT< CH +T+~. n& Cq sD+ sT>TT+~. Cq+ H| D\T>
sb+s+ #+<TT+~. d\T jT{, +{, de+ eT< |#d eT+ keTs\T |<T H sTT.
M{ eTq+ >s$+#*.

4. >D + Cq+ @$<+ > +T+~?


eTs+ qT+& neTs+ y|
| eTw @s& >D + Cq+ eTs nqTuy \ <s+>H @s&TT+~. $TrjT s\
<VsDqT >eT<+. >T+& nH ueq MT @ $<+ > @s&+< +#+&. >T+& nH ueq
eT]jTT >+ ueq @ $<+ > ne>Vq #dT =Hs +#+&. MT yTT<{ $<+ > ne>Vq
] +T+<?
eTq #T q n s\ edTe \qT eTq+ #d +{+. y{ |j dTq | &T y{ =
+, H]+, s (|#jT), \&T +{ edTe \ k<sD >TD+ >T+& +T+< >eTk+.

55

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


edTe \{ <s+> >T+& nH ueq eT+> @s&TT+~. eTq+ ueq <s+> >T+&+>
q eT]jTT >T+&+> edTe \qT ysT #jT >\T>T+. edTe \ q >T+& nH <s
edTe \ s >TD\T, <s \ d++<+ +&<T . n$ @ |<s+ #jT &sTT. y{ |]eDyT+?
n$ @ s+>T HsTT? n$ q>$Z nej? y{ sT @$T? yTT<\>T <s \ d++<+ +&
y{ >T+& duy eTq >T]k+ eT]jTT >T+& edTe \ ueqqT @ss#T =+{+. nedsy T q
>T+& nH <s + <s+> eTq+ eT+> >+ nH ueqqT @ss#T =+{+. m| & >+ >T]+
ueq @s&+< eTq+ >T+& <s + >T]+ e> |k$k+. $<+ > eTq+ eT+> eTs edTe \
<s \ <s+> neTs ueq\Hs s#T =+{+.
>+ ueq nH~ >+ jTT yd+, yks+ |]\+, yX \+, |T q|]eD+ yTT<q
ueq\ sD |j >|& T T+~. $<+ > >D + neTs ueq eT]= neTs ueq\
sD |j >|& T T+~.
n++& neTs ueq\ eT< d++<\T L& eTq+ s @ss#T =+{+. >+ jTT
yks+ |], < |]eD+ |sT>TT+~. < yks+ Z < |]eD+ >T Z T +~. $<+ >
yks, |T q|]eD eT< d++< eT+> @ss#T >\T>T+.
| $wj \qT >eT+q| &T +~ y{ #]+#+&.

bs |d + @jT ueq\T @jT eTs edTe \ <s+> $e]+#&HsTT?

bs |d + |\\ # $H<+ |+# n+X\T @$T{?

bs |d + >D due+ |]>D rdT&+< MTsT m #| >\sT?

5. Cq+ Vs nu dq+
mH nu dH d<+\Tq|{ d+w |jT qT ns+ #dT e&+ eTq ne>Vq d\ &
+~. |esH y<T\T #| qT |\y &T UT, @MT sjT& q\\ nH $wj \qT NCF 2005
eT]jTT APSCF 2011 s +<+> sd ]dTH sTT. |\y &T |T H nH >& keTs\qT *Z +{&T.
|\( y&T) +] |jT + <sH m+ w#d H yTT+ nu dq s>< T . |\y &T u<q n+s>+
e& X< |D[ sb+~+ neT\T #jT & M\T|& |< + nedse T APSCF u$dT+ ~.
n++& ` nu dH eqsTq >+<\jT+, +s{bT |\y *< + &T\T, b<jTT\T
#TTeTT de+ bZH X< L&q |D[ neT\T neds+ . |\y &T bsX \ e#eTT+< q
q#q $wjT CH *Z +{&T. *< + &T\ |+|+ , |]ds\T |\y CH =* s+>\esTT.
uc|s+ > d+w sD\qT de|s+ >H HsT = +{&T. nsTTH bsX \ jT $<+<+>
neds+ . bsX \ |\y &T esH $esD Cqs+> d]k&T . keqXg+, >D X g+
neTsu y\T, |]ds\ $Cq+ e+{ $wj \ b<jTT, deTejTdT\, *< + &T\ j o\
56

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


C+ < |\\ Cqs+>+ |]|Ps+ <T. |\\ #+~q |sd s#s \T k< |&& ns\
|jT \T #j \ APSCF |b~dT+ ~. nu dq+ s+s |jT . eed d]> =qk+#b
$< n|]| #T#dT +T+~. $<q+ |\\ yy d |< esdT + ~. |\\ T |Tq T+
q>\ nu dqX |]o\q, >T]+#&+ , eZ] +#&+ yTT<q ne>Vq\qT |]ds\ qT+ HsT =
$_q T e ] k&T , =qkk&T . <Ts< wy T eT+f #es b<jTT\T d n+^]+#sT .
y] |esH y<T\T> <c++ qT+ eTs= <c++ rdT sT. nqTsD
, nud+ <s
eyT \_dT + < nbV|& sT. |\\ qT e\+ de#s >V \T> |]>D+ eT yT Cq<\T>
u$ksT . ~ j o\, #sD
s+s nu dq $<H $sT<+ . |\\ Cq sD sy T q
yde $sT<y T q ne>Vq\qT =\+#Ty*. B dT+> nse +yT q d+<s |]d T \qT
*+Z =\+#*. |y { <s+> +~ $wj \qT #| e#T.
1. &, us+ |]d T \H |\ nu dq sT>TT+~.
2. s>sy T q nu dq yesD+ |\\ T n+ d \ d |]o\q\T #ksT .
3. |\\ nu dq $eTs, | \T m+#&+ s> L &<T .
4. nu dq+ <s eT bsbT yT \TdT= d]~<T H +&*.
5. $_q |]d T \ eTT deTTb]+q CH $jksT .

6. Cq sD+ m| &T sT>TT+~?


a)

|Psueq / |Pss+>+ (Pertext)

@ bs+X+ >T]+#H , ueq >T]+#H |\ |PsCq+, nqTuy \T < ne>Vq @yTs +<
s]+#Ty* b *+#*.
b)

|q *+Z #&+ (Urge creation)

|\\ T @ $wj H H, m+ wy T H neds+ +f eTd+ eTT bZ+{sT, HsT +{sT. {


|q Z (Urge creation) #&*. neds+ +f |q \TZT +~. d @s&TT+~. uy<
|+b+~+#&+ e\ L& |q \TZT +~.
c)

eqd |jT \T (Mental Process)

Cq sD+ eqd |jT \T \ b bwksTT. |\\ +<s q' HsT >Z keTs *Z
HsT. n+<sT |\\ T b\&+, eZ] +#&+ , $Xw D
, d+Xw D
, C| + +#Te&+, |qsT #jT &+,
s]+#&+ , e| s &+, >T]+#&+ , k<sD ] +#&+ , }V+#&+ , \HX e+{ n+sZ keTs\qT
*Z Hsq $wjT + + eTT+< eTq+ #]+#TH+. M{ e\ |\\ eT~ nH #s \T dw+ #T>\TZsT.
|\\ yT< H&D
C\+ C Hq | &T n$ |sd s #s \T |jT \T #T#dT =+{sTT. =

57

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


+<\qT @ss#T =+{qT. d+<s + > j
T <H eTq+ Cq+ n |\TdT+ {eTT. H&
DC\+ (Neurons) eTy\+f neds+ . d, |q , uy< qTe&+ neds+ . <s
eqd #s \T #T#dT +{sTT. CqsD+ sT>TT+~. n +& X> e\+ de#s
>V d H&D C\+ eTe<T. e\+ | + #dT +T+~. Be\ m+{ nqTuy \qT b+<s T .
Cq sD+ s>< T .
{ |\\ T eT n+sZ X \ qT Mq +yT s $j+#TH, eqd |jT \ e\ #s \T
#T#dTH #&*. +<T nedseT>T yesD+ *+q| & ~ k<eTeT+~. |\\T
uj
T sV yT q d#|P ] yesD+ eyT eT n+sZ X \ qT $j+#>\ TZsT.
d)

+|Cj
T &+

Cq sD+ ~ eTs= \+X+. k<sD+> +#& <T\T, $_q D


+|Cj
T &+e\ |\\ T CH dw+ #T>\TZsT.
e)

bV+, neX+ *+#&+ , |\* u>keTT\qT #jT &+ L& n eTTKyTq $.

7. Cq sD+ s>& s> >~ yesD+ m +&*?


$< bdT <sH, {#s Y <sH #sy d edTe <T. yTq $< _& u, k+d
+ dw+ #&TT+~. < +T+~. *< + &T\, {#s , { |\\ , de+ Hs |
|#s <s n~ eT $d+ b+<TT+~. +{ $< |{w + >, |\ |<+ > +T+~.
|jT b<jTT& bqT, Wq eTq+ >T]+#*. <&| s # *. CqdeTTbsq m| &T
|sd s+> +T+~. |<\ +f |\\ T u> |]o*ksT . u> >V ksT . CH dw+ #&+
y q keTs, bqT eTq+ >T]+#*. Hq =~ ne>eTq |\\ e{&+ e\H
\_++< nqTue + #TTHqT.
b.jTXb, CrjT bs |D[`2005
ks< d+<+ n< \T
| n+X #~ysT <! k] +#+&. de#s b+~, < d\\+ bT \
+#T=H C| H Cq+> u$dT+ &&+ H&T eTq+ #dTq <! B ne>Vq> L& |]>D+ #&+
sT>TTq~. yde +> Cq+ nH~ dw+ #&~. #q\ <s <$ +#&~. CH dw+ #Te&+
eTq |\\ q X nbsyT q ~. ysT b+< nqTuy \ <s, #q\ <s |\\ T m+ CH
dw+ #T+THsT.
|\\ T &jT < & seTT+<T ]| |#s \ <s, eTq n+sZ X \ <s
CH dw+ #Te&+ #dT H sT. e\+ de#s >V +# ysT> +& |+#&+ , +#&+ ,
|#s \T s|& + , <s eTq Cq|]~ eT]+ $d |s T e&+ >T]+ + eTT+<T n<j
58

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


#]+#TH+ L&! |jT \ < $<H\ eTq s> ><T \T @ kq+ *dTH sTT?
nd\T neX+ +<? |\\ T eTq Cq+ <s+> < eT]+ $d |s T e& neX+
+<? CqsD+ s>& M\jT eTq s> >~ |jT \T +&\+f, eTq+ @+ #j *?
< eTq s> >~ |jT \T m +&*? +#+&!
n+X\| eT]+ ne>VqqT |+b+~+#T& jT{qT |]o*<+!
n) Cq sD+ ` |dT |]d $Xw D
|dT + eTq s> ><T |jT \T Cq sD &&TTHj? <+! eTq s> ><T
@+ sT>TTq~? @ s> H , @ $wjT + bs+XH H m u~dT H sT? b<jTT&T q\\|
deTkk<q qT, $e]+#&+ , < <s+> nud+ #sTT+#&+ , d+| #+<&+ #dTq <! $ eTq
k<sD+> m<TsTq u<H u dq |jT \ #+~q rsTqT\T < nqTuy \T. |jT Cq
sD q b<q m+? Cq sD | |jT \T @ dV ]ksTT? +#+&.
s + > #b\+f, |< q+> |dT + eTq s> ><T de#s n+~+#&+ , < C| +
|T& && $<H\| <w |&+ , m+yT s C| + |T Hs |+ #&+ e+{$ u<H u dq
|jT \+X\T> #T#dT HsTT. C| + +#Te&yT |se s+ > eTq $<H\T HjTH~
yde +! Be\ Cq sD neX+ \_+#&+ < #| e#T.
n+<T C| + +#Te&+ eyT Cq+ <T n eTq+ q$T, eTs+ #j \H
#q\ ls+ #Te#T. n< ds d+ n q$T < #Tf |]u$ Td, Cq sD
de~{ q yseTe+!
{ de#s+ n+~+# e> b<jTT\T, < d]+# ysT> |\\ T, M{ |{w | ] #
$<H\T u<H u dq |jT #T#dT H |]d |dT + H\= +<q ydy n+<s+ >T]<+!
B qT+ m jT|&< y, <+!
) = dyX\T ` $Xw D
+< = s> >~ dyX\T HsTT. M{ |]o*<+! $Xw + #T<+!
dyX+ `1
n~ 8e s> . >D b<jTT&T >D + ` deT\ |eTT\ yX \eTT\T nH bs+X+
ey X \eTT ` ueqqT $<+ > u~+#&T.

q\\| e ^ < yks+ qT >T]+|Cd ne>Vq *+ B r # dks


eT]jTT @ e yX \+ nsTTq r | <s|& T T+< #b&T.
@ e yX \+ nsTTq r2 nH d+ <s+> qT>=qe# *| d+ <s+>
deTdqT usT | k~+ $e]+#&T. s nud+ deTd\qT +{| > #&T.

59

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


dyX+ `2
eTs= bsX \ 8e s> >D b<jTT&T deT\ |eTT\ yX \eTT\T bs+X+
ey X eTT ueqqT u~+#&T. m u~+#& #<+.

b<jTT&T yTT< eT]jTT e| ] ~ >T]+ +|C d |X \ <s |\\ @$T


\Tk |PsCq |]o\q >$+#&T.
sT y ey X \eTTq d++~+q eTTqT (bs |d + q~ #<e &+ <s)
|\\# sV+|Cd ` sTy y> y] ne>VqqT, #]+q $<H
|<] +|CX &T.
es> eyX\+ ueqqT |\\# #]+|Cd ne>Vq|] < deTTqT
$w]+|CX &T.
sT y ey X \eTTqT qT>=qT$<H J$ deTd> q\\| |\\ # #]+|Cd
qT q\\| deTkk<q $e]d ne>Vq|]#&T.

sT y qeTH deTdqT |\\ # e> + > k~+|CX &T. ysT k~+q <
|]o*+ ysT #dq <weTT\qT y]# #]+|Cd <wysD>$+#&T.
s +&T dyX\T, #~ysT <! @ dyX+ u<H u dq |jT \T u> n++~? m+<T? @
dyX+ |\\ T +#& me neX+ \_++~? Cq sD @ dyX+ neX+
\_++~? +#+&.
k<sD+> |dT + me> u<H u dq |jT \T yTT<{ dyX+ e sV+#&T+ {sTT
<! u>H qT L& u$dT+{+. ydy yTT<{ dyX+, |\\ +#& >,
<s+> |Ps ueq\ <s+> , |\\ T eT+eTT> Cq sD+ #dT & neX+
\_dT q <? nqTuy \ b|~> nu d+q sT>TTq<? +#+&! |\\ de#s n+~+#&+ +f,
ysT +#T= eT+eTT> Cq+ ]+#TH eTq u<H u dq |jT \T +&*. s +&e
dyX $Xw d, $wjT + u<| & T + ~.
eTq s> ><T @ $wj #+~q u<H u dq |jT H +~ $<H\qT deT+> sVd
Cq sD+ sT>TT+~.

sD nu dq+ ` $<H\T
a)

|Psueq\ sD+ (Pretext)


eTq Cq |]~ mesT $d |s T y\H, |PsnqTuy \T < ueq\T *Z +&&+ neds+ .
n+f |\\ T >V +# $wj #+~q |Pse>Vq < |qH~ +&&+ e Cq sD+ <s|&
+T+< >V +#*. { b<jTT\T | d]> |\\ q |PsqTuy \T @$T{? @ yTs
ne>Vq *dZ T H s |]o*+#*. <: eTq+ > #+~q ys #~$ m +T+~? n< {
#+~q ys #~$ m +T+~? @~ u> nse TeT+~? m+<T? +#+&.
60

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


{ #+~q |Ps Cq+ <, ne>Vq +T+~ {, ysq T #~$, u> ne>Vq
#dT >\TZsT. n< >q T #~$ n+ u> ns+ be#T. B sD+ >qTue +>, ne>Vq>
b e&+ sDeTeT+~.
{ Cq+ nH~ n+ eTT+<T j e\ q nqTuy \ MT<, ne>Vq\ MT<, #q\ MT<
]+#&TT+< |s=qe#T. yTT< $ Hj <? n s]+#* +T+~. y nTe+{
|H~, |Psueq\T < nqTue + < ne>Vq qsTT, M{ ]+#* +T+~. n+f <VsD
> ysq T #<e & eTT+<T, <| #]+|C d nqTuy *+Z , $wj ne>Vq|]q |<|
#<e eT+f, e>Vq #dT e& neX+ +T+~.
b<jTT\T @ $wjT +HH Cq sD+ #sTT+#\H, < #+~q |Psueq\ >T]+
|]o*+ s]+ sH nu dH se\qT sV+#*.
b) |Psueq\, bs+X ueq\qT d+<q+ #j
*
(Contextualisation of pretext with texual part)
nudq dyX\T, sD+> +&\+f |Psueq\qT < ueq\ |Ps s+>,
|H<T\ *+#* +T+~. B <s+> $$< nu dHqTuy \qT |\\ *+ bs+X ueq\qT
]+#TH #j *. eTq+ #dq | s +&e dyX+ |\\ q |Psueq\ <s+> \qT
sV+|Cd eT+yT ueq\qT ]+#TH bV+#&+ ]+~.
C) CH D
(Cognitive apprentiship)
|\\ T CH ]+#Te&+ b<jTT\T> eT dV s, dV j n+~+#* +T+~.
<d+ >D | s + > +#& M\T> = \qT sb+~+ s> >~ neT\T|s# *.
$<+ > |\\ qT >D ueq\T d++> @ssT#T=H bV+#*.
<VsD _H\qT L&&e TH d+<s + HsT > .k.>T. ueqqT |j + _H\ L&q T
@$<+ > #j b<jTT\T q\\| $e]ksT . # eT+~ $<sT\ +~ nqTeH\T e
n> +&bsTT.
i)

.k.>T.qT m+<T |j +#*.


ii) deq _H\ nedsy
T $T?
| y{ de<H\T \_+#q| &T >D + n+f ns+ > ueq\ deVs+ nH nbVqT
@ss#T +{sT. b<jTT&T deq _H\ neds L&\ d+<s + >T]+|Cd deq
_H\ neds+ >H .k.>T. ueq nedse TeT+< *| |\\ nu dHqTuy \ *+#*.
< <s _H\T L&q T dT\u+ > k~+#>\ T>TsT. +|C d \ |\\ T bZq&+
<s CqsD+ \T>TT+~. $<+ > |\\ +|C d neX+ *+#&y T Cq D
.

61

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


d)

u>keT nu dq+ (Collaborative Learning)

|\\ T due eT{ y] >&| & w| & sT. b<$ Tq ksTT |\\ T e\+
*+&&y T ><T. eT nqTeH\qT, deTd\qT L& {y] #]ksT . eysD\ d+ |jT ksT .
s + > #b\+f |\\ T mH $wj \qT eT {y] <s nu dks . > n<jT+ L&
#]+#TH+. CqsD+ |#s \ b >T]+ L& e{&T H+. n+f, |\\ T eT {y]
<s |#s \T s|& + <s HsT =+{s CH ]+#T+{s #]+#TH+!
{ eTq u<H u dq |jT \T u>keT nu dH neX+ *+#*. n+f |\\ T eT{
y] #]+#&+ , e{&& + , * +#& neX\T *+#*. +<Td+ T |qT\qT sV+#*.
@ $wjT + >T]+#H , |X *e&+ +#eTq&+, < |+#eTq&+, \T #jT eTq&+,
deTd k~+#eTq&+ e+{$ T #sTT+#e#T. <s u>keT nu dq+ #T #dT =+T+~.
u>keT nu dq+ e\ |Ck$T $<H\|, ne>Vq @s&TT+~. n++& *|#jT &+,
* +#&+ , deTkk<q , $Xd+ e+{$ L& |+b+<TsTT. |\\ T eT{ |\\ H ><T,
b<jTT& L& #]dT+ {sT. { u>keT nu dq+ |\\ sT, b<jTT\T L& u>keTT!
e)

VQ |d+<q\T #q\ sbe&+ (Multiple manifestations)

|\\ T e> + > @$T +#>\ s < sb e>Z*. n+f, eT #q\qT VsZ | s *.
BH e> y T q ~> #| e#T. nf T |qT bZq&+ e\ u>keT nu dq+ e\ L& eT
#q\qT eTB] +#T+{sT. y{ e\ $_q D +#>\ TZsT. #q\ sb,
e| s >Z*. VsZ e TjT Cq+ $$< eeVs sb, H| D\ b +T+~. sD
eT |< sT>TT+T+~, e| s # &TT+T+~.
f)

ssD

|\\ T s> ><T e> + > +#&+ , +#&+ , y{ e| s &+ e\ Cq


sD+ sT>TT+~. < $$< sb VsZ | s T dT+ {sT. ~ j duy { $$< $wj \
Cq u+&>s+ y + ~. eT+ |\\ T yT+ >V +#s, eT eTT s]+#> Z*.
s]+#>* qZ | & eTq u<H u dq |jT \T |\ |<y T q T> u$k+.

8. s> >~ nqjT+


n) Cq sD+ ` $<|D[ nqTesH \T (Implication of the curriculum)
$< eed |\\ T, b<jTT\T \yT q ysT. |\\ T q n s\ |jT \T, |sd s #s \T
|\\ nu dH |u $+ #ksTT. |\\ qT Cq s\T> u$+q| &T b<jTT\, bs |d \
u<Hudq |jT\ VsyTq esT\T #T#dTy*. $<jTT, \+ |\\qT |\
j sT#jT &+ <T. Cq sD && u<H u dq |jT \T &&*. $ nH sq nqTuy \qT
62

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


*+#*. |\\ T bsX \ e# eTT+< =+ CH *Z +{sT. B <s+ #dT = u<H u dq
|jT\T ]+#*. |\\ uw B+{ \yT+~. s>>~ |\\T HsTH >D+ <s $$<
nu dHqTuy \ <s b+~q CqsD+ nH~ J$+ m<TsjT deTd\ k<q nqTesq +
#dT = |]cs\T qT>=q>*> +&>\ |\\ T >D d s + > HsT =H #dT + ~.
) bs |d \ b
|dT bs |d \T n~ de#s+ +& $<sT\ n+sZ X \ nu dq Cq sD
m+{ neX+ e+& +&L &<T . $< e\+ bs |d \ |]$T+ nsTT+~. ||+ #
ne>Vq #dT e&+ $eTsH #H $<H |P]> kq+ +& bsTT+~. @~ eT+~? @~
#&T ? eT+ #&T \ $#D
L& kq+ +& bsTT+~. s> >~ >D + , J$+ >D +
ys sT> u$+#&TTHsTT. |]d | &TqeT\, }V\ <]#|T+~. $wjT +
bs |d \ b m+ eTTKyT+ < \TdTy*. bs |d \ <s @ $\Te\T |\y |yX |{*?
|\\ # |j >s + > bs |d \qT m jT sT#j *? nH$ # \yT q $wj \T>
>T]+#*. $<|D[ $wj \ | dw # neds+ . $<|D[qT neT\T]| k<q +>
bs |d + n+<] *dq $wjT yT. $<\\qT k~+#&+ u<H u dq |jT \ esZ s X q +
#jT &+ bs |d \T >=| bqT sV+#*. <Ts< we XT | &T bs |d + nH~ |\y
ds eTTU_e~ <V<+ #jT +& de#s eyT |]$T+ neT+~.

eT, eTs k+|<sTT \ T nH+ de+ HsTT. $ de+ n&T >T


s |sq n+X\T n*+> nH k+|T deTV\sTTq >\ , ]qT\ d\
HsTT. M+{ bs |D[ n+q + #j *. Be\ y] #H <s+ s qeT +~.
$ksy T q |]cs\qT, H| D\qT, keTs\qT |+b+~+#e#T. y{ qMq s|\ q\,
deT~ #jT &+ &&qyseTe+. bsX \ nH~ ns dT\ $Xw> T D+ *qZ ~ nsTTq|{
d+|<jT, ss dT\qT s + #d~ +&L &<T . ns\ eT H| D\T, d+|<j\T,
\ \ b<qy* ` NCF`2005, | 27.
d+<s + > sh $<|D[ |]~ |+ bs |d \ >T]+ +~ |b<q\T #dT + ~.
|\\ nu dq bs |d \ |]$T+ L&<T .
|\\ >qTuy \qT, |PsCH, n+sZ X \ qT |j +#&, k |]ds\ *d
|#jT T bs |d \T $d neX\qT *+Z #*.
$wjT |]Cq+bT, | nqTue +, k \ T, kV+, Cq|< $Cq+ yTT<q ke
|]Cq+bT k de Xdj
T #sD
\qT |_+_+# bs+X\T |> , bs |d \T
es*.
CqsD+ $<H\T, yd$ d\ <s+> ]q y{ s|D\T |\\ T ne>Vq #dT y*.
bs |d + n+<T <V<]> +&*.

63

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

de+ $$< esZ\ k+|T jTe\T, y] Cq|< T \T bs |d \ |_++#*.


&T>T, nD>]q esZ\ ke H|< +, d+d #s\T bs |d \ |_+_+#*. q
esZ\ |]Cq ueq\T M]| sT< L &<T . bs |d \T +{ n deTd\| X< eV+#*.
bs|d\T X+<+> +&*. {e\ n+<]H <e $dTq~. ~ e\+
n\+sbjTyT+ ~. yTT+ $<|D[ $<+ByT nsTT $<sT\ d \ T, n_sT #T\T,
nu dHX* , y{ eT\T, H|< eTT ` bs |d \qT n_e~|s &+ \+X\T y*.
<s+> bs |d \T+&*. <s u<q nH~ #sbjT+> $T*bL&<T . me
d+<s\ \H$ nss V j+ |jT \ <]rdTH sTT. eTH~ #qqT s +#
+&* ns ~~+#&y , bs #~$+#&y , keT $<]eTT+<T |&j
T &y <T.
eTT $<] #q s +#*. nu dqqT nse ++> #d yd$ \D
\qT |_+_+#*.
u$ w<] > ssD VTe\T qT>=H~ +&*. eTq sh $<\\ |s+, sh $<|D[
|]~ |+ 2011 |s+> $< nq> dV s ueqqT, X+, $\Te\qT, eqeV\qT
>s$+#*. bs |d + eqe V\qT #]+|C dT |\\ H |esq qT deTTb]+#T>
+&*.
|\\ T de deTq |]d T \qT ne>Vq #dT y*. |#sk<H e# deTd\qT $<]
$Xw + ns+ #dT >\>*. bs |d \T +{y{ <V<|& *.
$< <s de+ $_qesZ\T n_e~ #+<*. @< esZ #+~q Cq+ bs |d +
b< + eV+#L &<T . nD>]q esZ\sTTq d\ T, <[T\T, | neds\T >\ |\\ T, ns\
n\d+U\ esZ |\ +~> bs |d + +&L &<T .
|dT |]d T \ ||+ NsD , |y { s D H|< + $< ybs yT+ ~. $< |sT nqeds
|#s s D\ |\T <|& *neTHsT. |dT |< q deTd @$T+f $< nH~ |\\ qT
de d+ e T+ d+ |#d u< jTTyT q bsT\qT j sT#dT + <? y< T \qT, +sq T,
s <>T\qT j sT#dT + <? de+ _q esZ\ _q y+#\ T HsTT. *< + &T\T eT
|\\ T eTH n_e~ #+<\ sT+{sT.
edTe de+ >\ $\Te| ne>Vq *Z (k+|T ` k+d k+<s , ]
beTTK\T *) e&+ q #| H| D ueqqT sb+~+#T= < d++~+q
edT sD+ #k&T . edT\ u Cq+, edT j HD, <s qTe+{ edT
q Cq+, edT eqsT\ \u Cq+, bs+u+ qT+ e]< sD+ |< + eT]jTT
neT\T]| Cq+, k+ H| D\ |j >+, sT \ H| D\qT nqTL\+> eT\#TH
H| D+, nedsy T q |eTT sVD, HD| , dq|, Xw | e T | sj

*Z +{&T.
64

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


& e+{ & u <V <sT& +bT, &jTe\ CH, q k+ VTqT,
Xs H| DCH e ] +# |D[qT, T dV s ueqqT, s T\qT n+#Hyd,
> *# ePVs#q #d CH *Z +T+~. ` NCF`2005, | 26.
) u<H u dq |jT \T m +&*?
nqTuy \T eT]jTT |PsCq+ <s deTejTdT\sTTq |\\ , >|\ |sd s Cq$eTjT+
sT>TT+~. ysT e> + >HH , deTV+HH |sd s #s \<s ne>VqqT b+<>\ sT. eTT+<+
yjT >\sT. CH u$ w<s H dT>eTq+ #jT >\sT. |+ sD\T \TdTe&+ e\ VT<
<<, uy ne>VqqT n\e#T+{sT. ysT #s <s ne>Vq d++~+q ssD
d++<\qT $e]+#* edT+ ~ qT VT< q T n\esT+{sT. Te+{ $<q+ e\ |\\ T
eT<q d+ ne>Vq CH ]+#T+{sT. $<q+ |]|Ps esT b<jTT b
nedsy T + ~. |\\ nqTeH\qT e #jT & y] dV nud > + #s \ HjT +
eVd, nHwDyT q |X \qT bVdT+ &*. b<jTT&T |\\ *| |#d , y] u>keTT\qT
#d e s D
\<s, u>keT+ e\ q yK sT\qT #| u<H u dq \+X\qT e ] +#*.
n| & b<jTT&T q |]X< &T> dV s nud &T> d#q*#yH <V<]>
es>\&T.
CqsD |jT |d+~+# u<q (Reflective teaching) neds+ .
|d+~+# u<q \D
\ >T]+ CH &y (John Deway) +< $<+ > d+#sT.
1) <X \T, |s ekH\T : |d+~+# u<q |\\ qT | d++<+ *ysT>, \\ |s ekH
n++& k+ |]|PsT\ T> r]~<T T +~.
2) #jT |< (Cyclical method) : ~ u<q qT #jT , d]\ |< T \ * +T+~. b<jTT
u<q eT+q+ eT<q |< |qXsD, s+s+ > sT>TT+&*.
3) s> >~ nHwD keTs + (Competence in Classroom Inquiry) : B nHwD
u<H keTs + neds+ |< <+X de#s dsD
, $Xw D
, eT+q+, |d+<q,
|D[ s#q , ks\ \q e+{ #s \qT *Z +T+~.
4) u<q | yK ] (Attitude towards teaching) : |d+~ u<q $X\ ueHyK ],
u< jTTyT q |]|Ps V<jT + neds+ .
5) b<jTT sj
(Teacher Judgement) : m| y {+> b<jTT sj

<s+ b + > sj
b<jTT eTD eq n+s<Y w |, djT+|d+<q\|
<s|& +T+~.
6) dV #sT \ nu dq (Learning with Colleagues) : dV #sT \ d+uwD, dV s+ <s
|d+~ u<q , e|s , nu dq, e> |]|Ps \ T |+b+<TsTT.
65

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


) $eTsH u<H Xg+, nqTesH \T (Critical pedalogy, its implications)
$eTsH ($Xw D
) u<q $<q+. $<sT\ T eT| #d |H |+#T #d d+<V \qT,
n|qeT\qT e#j
T & <V<|& T T+~. $<] $eTsH #q <V<] neT+~. Ira
Shore (1992) |s+ $<] sjT&+, e{&&
+ e+{ y{ |]$T+ +&, ns\ |]~ <{
T\H+>, # q + k&T . $<] nbV\T, }Vu eq\ qT+ u |& *$ |+#T+{&T.
$<] n+sZ ns\T, eT\sD\T, k+|T |]d T \qT, @<H #s jTT e> |s ekH\qT,
edTe \qT, d+|T q\qT, |jT \qT, nqTuy \qT, |D[, bs $wjT +, jTe\T, VQ |#sk<H \T
< eeVs\ >T]+ | ne>Vq #dT y*.
$eTsH u<H Xg+ eTTK <X + $<] deTse ++>, Xe +T> j sT#jT &yT , d#
<V<|& & y T . ds y\\ qT+&, u<\ qT+& $eTT\ qT #jT &yT . $<sT\ Cq sDeT+<T
k+|<jT u<H |< T \ b n |]$TyT + ~. sT \ d+d >s$+#&+ , q qT, ||+ #
$_q <D\ $eTsH+> |]o*+#&+ L& $<\\ {. $eTsH u<H Xg+
|\y <ojT eT]jTT nD>]q |& |\ d+d ns+ #dT e& <V<|& *.
n| & nD>]q |& e sZ\ T+u\ #+~q |\\ T y] y] d+d , #] y] y< |eT\ T,
eT+, ysd \qT D+> \TdT+{&T. ~ ysd $\Te\ d+eTD |u e+ y] J$\|
*dZ T + ~. ysT deTse +T\T e& <V<|& T T+~.
$< nH~ sjT yTq ~. $eTsH u<H Xg+ |\\ T, b<jTT\ $< #T |]u$ T+#
sjT eeVs\| n|eTT\ qT #dT + ~. ~ sjT ueq\qT ns+ #dT H |\\ qT Xe T+T\qT
#dT + ~. deC ns+ #dT =H X dT+ ~.

$eTsH u<H Xg+ nqTesH \T :

CqsD $eTsH u<H Xg+ ePV+> |#dT + ~.


|d+~ #H H| D\T, $eTsH #H H| D\T, ucu< d++< H| D #H
H| D\T $eTsH u<H Xg+ |< qb eVksTT. H| D\qT |+b+~+#& u<H u dq
|jT \T <V<|& *. ~ n $wj \ (Subjects) e]+#*.
$<sT\ J$qTue +, djTCq+ +& $<qT, nu dq sD+ \b eVkjT H $wjT +
b<jTT\ *j*.
eT+ $<eed < bsX \ $<sT\ y| \qT +~+#&y ysT s> >~ q Cq+
| $eTs#jT <T.
b<jTT, $<] eT< qyT q >seue+ +&*.
66

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

eTq+ b<jT ` $<] ` b<jT nq> b<jTT&T L& HsT +{&T. n> HsT Hy&T
u~k&T nH $<+ > +#*.
b<jTT, $<] eT< qyT q >seue+ +&*.
eTq+ b<jT ` $<], $<] ` b<jT nq> b<jTT&T L& HsT +{&T, n>
HsT Hy&T u~k&T nH $<+ > +#*.

b<jTT e|
>seue+ *Z +&*.

b<jTT $<]jT T d+d , |PsCq+, uckeTs + \TdT=qT # eTTK+.

b<jTT& m\| & |ue+T&q |]X< &T> +&*.

nu dq deVs+ nH~ deTk |]cs+ |< . +<T deTd\qT >T]+#T, |]cs esZ\qT
nHw+#T, #sD |D[ s|\ q, < neT\T, eT+q+ nH$ eTTK+.

) ke sD y<+ (Social Constructivism)


ke sDy<+ nH~ keXg d<+\| ne>Vq. ~ k<sD CqsD
yd$ J$ nqsTTdT+ ~. $<sT\ T deTV\T> @s& q u>keT d+d , ne>VqqT
]+#T+{sT. m| & $<] +{ d+d jT+<T eT>T&e&, $$< <X\ d+d jT+<T
u>k$T n>TqT HsT +{&T. n Lev Vygotsky (1896`1934) nHsT.
u<q nu dq nqTesH \ $wjT yT $<eTHyC Xgy\ T ke sD y< n< jTq+
#XsT. sD nH~ |\y |s_e~ k<q d++~+q d<+\ (|esH y<+, ke
nu dq ke sD+) |eTTKyTq ~. ~ Jean Piaget |b~+q d+CH |s_e~ d<++|
<s|& +~. Piaget |b~+q <X\ d<++ (H\T>T n_e~ <X\ T) sD> H >T]+#&+~.
m+<T+f |\\ T eT+ eTT b|+ ne>VqqT ]+#Ty*. ke sD n_e~ s
n+X\qT , d+d eTT&T= sD k+|T sD> sb+<TT+~.
Vygotsky's q s#q
\sTTq Mind in Society (1930, 1978) Thought and Language (1934, 1986)

q+<T |\y sD dueeTT >] Piaget @u$ +#&T. u<H u dq jT+<T $<] +B
s> +&* nH ueq ke sD d<++ <s+>H sb+~+#&+~. s> >~
$<sT\# keTV #s neT\T#jT&+ <s nHj |jH\THsTT. B <s $<]
k<s]+#&, s> jT+<T nu dq <sTT+|qT eT]jTT eT ue |ds D
>=| |H<T\T
@ssT+{&T. djT eTBs D , djT sj
\T eT]jTT \ bZqT| d |+#T+{&T.
#s \ $<sT\ qTFsD
qT, keTV H| D\T, deTk |]cs keTs\qT |+b+~ksTT.
sy T q nu dq+ $<] HsT q $wj \qT \&> + eTqdTqT+& $Cq nqTuy \T =\b+&
+#TT+~.

67

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


}) b<jTT b
+es Cq sD+, Cq sb\T, Cq sD |]d T \T >T]+ \TdTHsT. sD
nu dq+ n+f eTq nu dH dyX\T Cq sD <V<|& *. ~ s>& + b<jTT b
\yT + ~. b<jTT&T dV u>k$T. qT e\+ u< &>, yV&>, de#s+ n+~+# e>
+&L &<T . |\ Cq sD+ s|& ds q nu dq yesD+ *+#*. bV&> eeV]+#*,
|\\ *dbZH*. |\\ T |P]> eqd+ > nu dq eT>eTjT #&*. |\\ T y] d \
<s+> nu dH |jT eT>eTjT #&*. <Ts< we XT |\T d+<s\ \ |sT
b<jTT\T ds q T, dHq T e~*|&sT. s# T > bs |d \ de<H\T | , s
de<H$ L& ds q $ e u$ksT . |\T $<Hq de<H\T+f y{ m n+^]+#*?
n y~ksT . $<y T q $+&y<+ nu dH, < ns neVq #dT + ~.
eTq $<u<q , #sD e\+ bs |< \ |]$TyT + ~. ~L& e\+ eT~+| #jT <q
|esq \ k<q dyT . <wq qTd]+ |\y D D b+< bD>H < eTq+ sb+~+# se
sV+# +|PsY>H u$dTH +. Be\ bs+X\ CH+X\qT eTT\T eTT\T> #d
HsT > +sd + #sTT+#&+ < @y = \T #sTT+, y] C| X | |&+ sT>TTq~. u<q
nH~ Vs]jT H kbH\ |]$TyT eTdbdq $<+ > esTTq~. $<q+ es*.
u<H u dq |jT \T |\\ d \ T, ksTT, y$ < \ nqT>TD+> \ L& +&*. |\\ +<s
u>keTT\jT ds q ePV\ L& +&*. $<sT\ T +# $<+ >, dyqT m<Ts=H $<+ >
@+ nu ddT H s |\ >V +# $<+ >, b<jTT\T bs |< \qT d<+ #j *q neds+ +~.
s> b<jTT&T #| q< $<sT\ T ] n|#| &+ e+{$ y]+#&*. $<sT\ +<s
bZH yj
T \T, T \T, yTT+ s> \T #T#dT H bs |< \T sb+~+#*.
$<sT\ T d#> e ] +#&, e s D bT y] eT< |#s \T s|& neX\T *+#*.
b<jTT\T |\\ | n~s #sTT+# ysT> +& y] _q e s D
\qT, n_bj\qT
$H*, eT+#*. +<T bsX \, s> T \T ++ *+#equ < ||+ #+> ese#T. $<sT\ T,
b<jTT\T eT yj
T , keTV nqTuy \qT @ $<y T q uj
T d+#\T +& |#T>*
ysT eT k++> nu d+#& neX\T \_ksTT. |\\ T eT \_+q CH $eTsH+>
|+#>\ >*. Cq+ |b < sD L& bs |d \~ e#T. eT #T q kV
eqsT~ e#T. |\\ T eTTb+~q CH eT |]ds\ nqTuy \b*, yU+#&+ <s
$eTsH << n\esTH #&*. +<TqT>TD+> bs |< \qT / jT{ |< \qT
sb+~+#Ty*. eTdbsTTq $<H\ |]$TyT u<H u dqqT nHd *+#~> esL&<T .

68

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

>D u<q ` |>e\T


(Approaches of Teaching Subject)

>D Xg dueeTT ` |\\ nu dqeTT :


|]#jT+
J$eTT qT+& neTs ueq\qT s>*> eqe yT<dT keTs |*eTT> >DeTT
$s$ ++~. se TT> $s$ +q >Dq nH ueq rdT=qsTT, eTq+ +# d+K\, edTe \
@$<y T q d++<e T +&<T . >D e TT, e\+ neTs ueq\ |]$TyT q ~<T. n~ neTs
ue\qT|j + eT]= neTs ueq\qT sb+~dT+ ~. <VsD d]d+K\T, udd + K\T, |< q
d+K\T yTT<\>T neTs ueq\, d+U ueq qT+& +qy. $<e TT> >D + eqe
nqTuy \ qT+& sb+~+H, < |sT>T<\, |s_e~ e+ y{| <s|& s T . n~ eqe yT<d T
jTT ] CqeTT, dH\ MT< eyT <s|& T T+~.

>D e TT m+< ?
eqe yT<d T e s D
>, >D e TT eTw j o\ d+\+, q +q, |]|Ps >D
k+<s k<H _wqT |_+_dT+ ~. >D e TTq eT<s+ s + eT]jTT +wH, $Xw D eT]jTT
d+Xw D , k<sD+ eT]jTT | +. J$eTT >D e TT eTq#T H eTq+ < |<> >eT+#+.
|re |&, esTdeTeTT |&, edTe \T =qT>\T #jT & ssTT, e& |qT yTT<\sTTq
y{ >D e TT neds+ . + qyT q >D + k+ Xg n_e~ neds+ . y] edTe \T
neTT=H y, e&+>T\T, || ysT |qT\T #jT & j sT#dT =q k<H e (algorithm)

69

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


yX \+, d+K\ d++~+q >Dq\T eyT n+s+ (speace) d++~+q >Dq\T L&
nedse TesTT.

m. >D due+
a)

neTs due+

>D + neTsy T q ~. ~ nH neTs ueq\ \sTT n eTq+ # d+es\T> #]d


q<. & $wj ne>Vq #dT y*. | neTs ueq >D y T H? <VsD
msTe nH~ neTs ueq. ueq @ s ueq\qT n_e~| s # & |j >|& T T+~.
& d+Uueq d+K\T y{| L& , rdy , >TDs+ eT]jTT u>V s+ nH
|jT \T neTs ueq\T. <s d], ud, |< q yTT<\>T d+K\T nH ueq\T @s&sTT. $<+ >
neTs ueq eTs= neTs ueq <s+> @s& y{ <s+> eT]= neTs ueq\T
@s&HsTT.
<VsD eTq+ b<$ T ksTTH >D d++~+q neTsu eq \>*q neds+ +~
n nqT+{+. = neTs ueq\ ne>Vq qksTTH |]#jT +, ne>Vq y*q
neds+ +T+~. <VsD |T q|]eD+ ueq. $$< b\|f <e|]eD\ >T]+ b<$ T
ksTTH $<sT\ ne>Vq +T+~. b\ |f <e+ <s+> b |T q|]eD+ #| &+,
b<$ T ksTT \ <s+> nud+ #jT &+~. <: u{, L&+ u{, q
dkeT\ |]eD sY\ #|&+. 4e, 5e s>T\ ksTT\ #|&+~. b\
|T q|]eD y{ s d++~+q =\\ <s+> qT=H $<q+ $<sT\ *jT<T.
< yTT<{ deT|T q+, Bs| T H\ |T q|]eD+ >T]+ yTT< #]+#*q neds+ +T+~. @
$TrjT sH |eD deT|T H\ (Unit squares) |T q|]eD *jT#jT e#T n ne>VD
y*. $<+ > |T q|]eD+ nH neTs ueq ne>Vq *q s $$< s\ $TrjT
edTe \ |T q|]eD qT=H $<H #]k+. | eT $TrjT s |T q|]eD d
|b~k+.
<

b)

deT |T q |T q|]eD+ R a3
Bs |T q |T q|]eD+ R lbh
d| + |T q|]eD+ R r2h

>D + s + +~

eT] >D + e\+ neTs duy eyT * +<? <VsDqT >eT<+ 4 I 3 R 12.
y+ #<e >H MT eT~ @< neTs ueq dTsD e +T+~. y+ e\+
neTsy T q duy eyT * +<? 4, I, 3, R, 12 nH~ >D uw d+\T (>TsT\ T).
70

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


>D | yT q uw +~. uw e\+ +>+ ns e \ (A, B, C, ...) \> neTs+ >
]+#&H s sV +> ]+#&< T . >D + |j +#&q | ueq s + (Logic) +~.
eTq+ <VsDqT >eTd 4, 3, 12 \T >D uw ns e \ (n+\) qT+& rdT&sTT. 4 I
3 nq>H MT 3 G 3 G 3 G 3 n dTsD e +T+~.
4 I 3 R 12 nH~ >D y+. n~ s + <s+> @s&q y+. >D + |
neTs ueq s +< @s&< T .
>D + n+f e\+ d+K\ ueqjTH? #T sd+, e+ , Bs# T sd+ e+{ C$TrjT
ueq\ deVs+. MTsY, d+{MTsY, sY, >yT, dH, >+ yTT<q =\\ ueq\T L&
>D + n+s>y T . neTsu eq\T L& >D uw s + @s&q ueq.
<VsD Bs# T sd yX \+ ueq. k<sD+> Bs# T sd yX \+ n+f e\+ n~ b&e I
y&\ T>H #bsT . m+<T b&e, y&\ T\ \+ #j *? y{ yTT+ m+<T #jT L&<T ? B #
eT+~ e< de<q+ +&<T . $ \TdT& eTT+<T yX \+ n+f C$TrjT s+ $T+#
d\ |]eD+ n ne>Vq +&*. s yX jT{ #<s \ s|+ \T >T]+
ne>Vq +&*. = Bs #T sk\qT \T >T]+ ne>Vq +&*. = Bs #T sk\qT
<VsD> rdT= y{ jT{ #<s \qT neTs+ <s y{ yX \+ m jT{ #<s \eT+<
#| + nud+ #sTT+#*. <s es b&e qT=, q #<s \ d+K eT]jTT y&\ T
qT= q #<s \ d+K \u yX \+> #| e#T n |\\ T k<sD ] ksT . e\+ d\qT
{| { , < ueqqT ne>Vq #dT +& deTd\qT k~+#&+ e\ |\\ ]> uy T $T?
ueqqT eTT+<T ne>Vq #dT e&+ <s d s>* , | d+ s |\\ T \TdT=,
y{ $$< d+<s\ y] k+ s nqsTT+#&, deTdq\T k~+#& M\eT+~.
c)

>D $j due+ +<?

>D uw eT]jTT due+ +~. J$+ m<TsjT ss\ deTd\lqT >D+


k~+#>\ T>TT+~. eT< \+ ||+ #+ n+ s> >~ >D + eT]jTT J$ >D
eT< n+s+ |sT>T edT+ ~. J$+ b\T nyT nusTT yTT< s |&T =H+es eTq
J$+ >D + eTT&|& +~. n+<T >D deTd\ k<q n+s>y T +~.
d)

>D + $H<dT+ <?

>D + , $H< L& |+#TT+~. k<sD bs |d + deTd\ +f $<sT\ T>, eTq+>


|, \T yTT<\sTTq y{ V~ k+. B >\ sD+ @$T{? >D + V< + +~. neTs
ueq\ s >T]+ deTdqT k~+q| &T e# q+<+ n+ + <T.
| $wj \qT >eT+q| &T eTq+ >D d uy +~ $<+ > & ] +#Te#T.

71

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

>D + neTsy T q ~. J$+ qT+& nqTuy \ <s neTs ueq\qT s&+ >D +
jTT eTTK due+.
< eTse TsTTq edTe \qT +# eT+ neTsy T q d+Uueq\T @s&&+ .
<VsD +#& d+K\ ne>Vq | d]. # = |qT\qT + |qT
rk< s +&T |qT\qT rk nq| &T |\\ T @+ #ksT ? n< $<+ > 5 |qT\qT @+ #ksT ?
\ y{ +#&+ <sH #jT >\TZsT <! |qT nH~ eTse TsTTq< nsTTH
< 1 < 2 nH neTs ueqqT C&+#&+ sT>TT+~. eTs= <VsD |Pd\ <+&qT
>eT+qsTT, 5 |Pd\Tq |Pd\<+& , +<T m |Pd\THsTT? n n&
$<] @+#k&T ? n&T 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 n k&T . nq> |P|\ esTd eT+ kq+
<s+> y{ d+K\qT b~k&T . e] kq+ |Pd 5e kq+ +~. eq yTT+
5 HsTT. n #b&T +#&+ = edTe = d+KqiT b~+H, es y{
d+KqT y{ yTT+ > #b&T . + <e\, $<] 1 eTs= edTe #] me
nesTT n L& k<sD ] k&T . eTs edTe \ dV s+ neTsu eqq d+K\qT
ne>Vq#dT =+{&T.

>D + e\+ Te+{ neTsu eq\ |]$TyT q $ <T. n~ neTs ueq\qT|j +


eT]= neTs ueq\qT sb+~dT+ ~.
>D + eTs edTe \ s\ sD+, neT]\ ueq\ qT+& n+s+ nH neTsu eq\qT
ne>Vq |s# T =H M\T *dT+ ~.
>D + eTTK+> >eTq +qqT (Inductive Reasoning) <s n+X k<sD ] +#&+
>D y e>*> / #| >*> keTs |\ *dZ T + ~.
>D + >eTq +qqT *+Z #&y T > <s @s&q >D y\qT d eT s|+#T,
|* \qT s]+#T >eTq +q (Deductive Reasoning) <s d\T, d<+\T,
d\ <s s|+# M\T *dZ T + ~.
<VsDqT >eT<+ : a0 = 1
24 = 16

34 = 81

104 = 10000

23 = 8

33 = 27

103 = 1000

22 = 4

32 = 9

102 = 100

21 = 2

31 = 3

101 = 10

| y{ |]o*+#+&. @$T >eT+#sT?


2 u $T> q e >eTd, eT+ @+ sT>TT+~? | ++, #=| q qZ =B,
72

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


< $\Te d>+ ne +T+~.
eT] 20 R 1 neT+~. + 30 R 1, 100 R 1 nq> < H | + 0 +f < $\Te
@eTeT+~?
@ d+KH | ++ 0 nsTT < $\Te 1 neT+~ n k<sD ] ksT . d+<s +
= <VsD\T e&sTT. <VsD\ k<sD jTeT+ <s+> = |* \T
s&sTT. |* \ <s+> k<sD s D
]+~. $<H >eTq+q
n+{+.
@ d+KH | ++ 0 nsTT < $\Te 1 neT+~ nH k<sD s D + d]jT q<H?
00 eT]jTT 10 \ $\Te\T @eTesTT. d+<s\ |Ps+ s|+q nd\ nes<\T
@s&sTT. eq u $T 0, 1 \T +f a0 R 1 nd eTeT+~.
e] a0 R 1 (a 0, a 1) n drsD
sT>TT+~. s +& d+<s + k<sD s D
#dq
d = d+<s\ |+ #&+ ]+~. k<sD s D
#dq d = d+<s\
nqsTTd $<H >eTq +q n+{sT.
eTq+ #dq <VsD >eTq eT]jTT >eTq +q\ dyT q |* +>H drsD

]+~.

>D e TT

>D + deTdqT nH |< T \ k~+# keTs |+b+~+|Cd T + ~.


Vs |\\

due+

bsX \\ e# |\\ T U |\\ e+{ysT <T. eZ] +#&+ , b\&+, n+#HyjT &+, $Xw + #&+ ,
|{\T ^jT&+, k<sD s D
+#jT &+, |+#&+ , sD\T #| &+ e+{ keTs\T dV C+> |\\ T
*Z HsT. & seTT+< y] s\T, |]eD+, d #+~q b<$ T ueq\| ne>Vq *Z
+& y{| ]yT q C$T, n+s+, d+K\ #+~q ueq\T $jdT+ {sT. eq |\\ +<s
dV +>H >D + HsT e&+| eTe *Z +{sT. n+<Te\H ysT eT #T ]> $wj \qT m
sT>TsTT? m+<T sT>TsTT? n |ksT . @yq dy+f d]ksT . jTe\qT @ssTksT .
q q H{ \T #ksT . | qT k~ksT . nH $<\T> eT nqTuy \ <s+> HsT &+
#dT + {sT.

|\\ dueeTT ` >D k<H keTs +

|\\ +<s >D + HsT >\sT.


|\\ +<s dV yTq V\+ *Z +{sT. m sT>TsTT? m+<T sT>TsTT? n
|ksT .

73

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

|\\ T #<e &+, #jT &+, #]+#&+ , |+#&+ , |]o*+#&+ , nu d+#&+ , |X \ &+,
+#&+ , |d+~+#&+ yTT<q y{ <s HsT ={sT.
|\\ T djT+> HsT e&yT s |\\ \ bZq&+ <s (interactions) L&
HsT =+{sT.
|\\ T bsX \ >D e TTqT eT J$eTTq nqsTT+#T+{sT.

>D u<H \\T


=+ eT+~ >D e TT jTT $\TeqT. n~ y] J$eTT m+ |j >|& T T+< <{
ksT . +=+<sT < eT #H keTs |+# |s D
eTT> u$ksT . eT]=+<sT <
s k~+#& nu dksT . M+{ <w +#T= +~ \\qT s +#sT.

$<sT\ T, $< |D[ d+K, n+seTT\ d++~+q n+XeTT\ >T]+ ne>Vq


eT]jTT H| D+ b+<*.

$<sT\ T >D |se TT> +q #jT >\>*.

$<sT\ T eTT }V+q $wj \qT+ ] sj


\ es nHwD =qk+#*.

$<sT\ T neTs ueq\qT ns+ #dT = y{ deTse +eTT> y&>\ >*.

$<sT\ T, ~>Te qT<V ]+q deTk k<q keTs\qT |+b+~+#Ty*.

$<sT\ T deTdqT ns+ #dT +&+ / deTd d++~+q $es\qT $eseTT> b+<T|s# *.

$<sT\ T |* eTT\qT $Xw + $e]+#> Z*.

$<sT\ T |* \qT <wj \ / deTd\ nqsTT+#&+ < k<sD s D


+ #jT >Z*.

$<sT\ T >D e TTqT nse +eTT> |j +#>* > $Xk |+b+~+#Ty*.

deTk k<q y$ < yTq jTT / +eTT\qT sb+~+#T>Z*.

>D X g+ ` <s (Vision)

|\\ T, >D e T+f uj


T + bsTT eTe q+~d >D e TTqT nu dksT .

|\\ T >D e TH~ d\, j+ |< T \H # >=|< \TdT=+{sT.

74

|\\T >DeTTqT, ueesD k<qeTT>qT, e{&Te&, #]+#Te& *d


|#jT & |j +# >=| $wjT +>q #ksT .
|\\ T nse +yT q deTd\T sb+~ksT eT]jTT k<q \T qT=+{sT.

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

|\\ T >D e TT d++<\T qTe&, n+sZ sD\T \TdTe{ ssD

$#sD, |e#q d d $\Te\T s]+#& neTs ueq\qT |j ksT .


|\\ deTd\ k<q q logicqT |T +{sT.

_. >D + Cq+ ` Cq sD+


eTq nqTue + $$< ejTdT\ q |\\ $$< d+<s\ ss \ nqTuy \T m<Tse
+{sTT.
|\\ T u\<Xq T+& ss q $wj \qT HsT e&+ yTT<\T|&sT eT]jTT = $wj \qT HsT =+
+{s m| &H n|++<? < sk |k$+qT |\\ yT<&T U|\ (T\sk) <| |
$wj bsX \H CH sd, |r $wj H]+#* n u$dTH s?
C |\\ T ysT #d ||, handle #d | edTe qT+& | $wj , @<H $wj
HsT =+{sT. ysT bsX \ #s +feTT+< # HsT +{sT. bsX \ #]q s L& bsX \
jT L& # HsT =+{sT. eTq+ y |\\ T &H HsT =+{sT n nqT=+f HsT e&+
| eTq ueq | . |\\ T y +sb [ (snakes & ladders) qT &T=+ +f y] *< + &T\T>,
s |<\ T> ysT #<T e=H deTj e< #dT H sH nqT=+{eTT | . y] d+Uueq\T
@s&TTHsTT. |]|w neTHjT >V +#e TT. logic HsT +THsT.
eTq+ + <VsD >eT<+. |\\ T bsX \ seTTqT| (ejTdT 2`3 d+es\) <
|Ps+ b<$ T $< deTjT+ (3`5 d+es\T) 1 qT+& 100 es ey d #| < +> ns e \qT
ey d #| H # d+w+, __sTTb +{sT. n~ dV +... |$T <T. nesTT /
nusTT +> d+K\T HsT =qfH ? 100 edTe \qT |\\ T +#>\ s? < 50 edTe \T
eT]jTT 100 edTe \ eT< &qT n_q+~+#>\ &? e\+ d+K\ |sq T HsT =q+ eq d+K\qT
HsT =qfH ? $<+ > nesTT HsT =q s | #T b y]| |+> nsTd n
HsT =He < eT]bjy? n y]| sTeqT |+#T +{+. eTs edTe \ ss \
nqTuy \ <s |\\ T HsT =+ +{sT. ysT &T=H \T, |<\ ]| |d+<q\ <s+>
ysT ysT ss \ ueq\T @ss#T =+ +{sT. MTsT m| &H |\\ d>+ ueqqT ne>Vq
#j *q neds+ @s&+<? < |\\ T d>+ jTT ueqqT eTT+< HsT =+{s?
|\\ T eT nqTuy \T, y] dV keTs\ <s+> dV \D \ eT\+> eT+> d>+ ueqqT
]+#T=+{sT.
|\\ T ysT @ss#T =q ueq\T < J$+ m<TsjT deTd\ k<q ysT y] k+
s#H\T #dT =+{sT.

75

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


<VsD 8 G 6 yTT+ qTeT+f +~ $<\T> #jT e#T.
8 G 6 R 8 G 2 G 4 R 14 < 8 G 6 R 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14 R 14 (nq> 8 qT+& yTT<\T|{
sT y sTd+K\qT + 14 n #| e#T) <
8 G 6 R 1 G 1 G 1 G . . . (8 ksT) G (1 G 1 G 1 G . . . 6 ksT) R 14
eTs= <VsDqT |]o*<+! bsX \ b<jTT&T rdy \ T bs+X+ #| eT+
rdy ueqqT ne>Vq #sTT+q |<| MTsT c| ` 65 qH bT =, <TD<sT
` 100 q MT ] m+ keTT edT+
~? n deTd q| &T =+<sT |\\ T ` 65 G ` 5 R ` 70
G ` 30 R ` 100 eq ` 35 n yT ee#T. m+<T+f nesTT yTT<{ ` 65 ` 5 *|q
` 70 G eT]jTT ` 70 ` 30 *|q ` 100 nesTT n + deTd k~+#e#T.
b<jTT&T nesTT 100 ` 65 R 35 n rdy q T #j \ k&T . $<+ > #jT L&< L&
eTq+ s# T > #dT + {+.
$<+ > #jT &+ e\q ysT d++> +#&+ nH ku$ >TD & #dq eT+~.
eT b<jTT&T #| +< ds q ~ nH <sD |\ n_e~ #+<TT+~. <s y] dH eT]jTT
|\Ts\T> +# ku$ nD><=, e\+ CH d]+# ds> |\\ T j seTHsT.
eq |\\T eT nqTuy\qT C&d qq ueq\T ne>Vq #dTe&+ <s Cq sD+
$+#T+{sT. d+<s + > ysT |+#&+ , |]o*+#&+ , d]#dTe&+ #dT + {sT. d+<s + >
ysT eTs= = CH $w]+#&+ L& #dT + {sT. |\\ T >D + CH ]+#Te&+
eTq+ |]o*dT+ {+.

>D nu dq jT&\ $<sT\ qTFsD +, d


J$eTT >D e TT eTq #TH H eTq+ < |<> >eT+#+. |D
b+eTT\
#eT+~ ;< |\\ T nH ] y<M\ bZ+{sT. ||+ #eTT q\TeT\ @ |<X e TTHH ,
@ d+|T eTTHH , |\\ T & jT >D e TT |]#jT + *Z +{sT. @ bsX \ $< |D[
Te+{ M~ >D + #T *+#<T . n+<Te |\\ T &q, & jT >D e TTqT HsT =q
$<H\T <={ d++<e TT +& ys sT ><T > +THsTT.
{ &jT d+d , Jeq jH\ d+<qeTT #jT &+ wy T q | n u$ksT . ~
+ <T. ~>Teq ydy \T |]o*d $wjT + \TdT+ ~.

76

M~ edTe \T neTTH y, e&+>T\T, || ysT yTT<q ysT @e+ bsX \ $<


H eT | m+ >D e TTqT y&sT. MsT |qT\T #jT & j sT#dT =q
k<H e yX \+, d+K\ d++~+q >Dq\T eyT n+s+ d++~+q
>Dq\T L& nedse TesTT.

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

us< X e TT \ T eT]jTT s+>* k+|<j\T e\+ #&{ ue+&+ eyT


<T n+<T >D $<] HsT e& nedsy T q m+ CqeTT $T& +~.
\ T eT]jTT ]f sY >D e TT # $\Tyq d++<e TT\THsTT. B eTq #T q
| L& >eT+#e#T.

| $wj \qT |]o*d >D $jd HsT e&+ n>T|dT + ~. n+> $j+#&e TH~
m+{ & +&, d+<sqTks+>, nqTue +qTq n+X\ nqTd+<q+ #jT &+, #]+#&+ ,
|]o*+#&+ , >Dq\T #jT &+ sT>TT+~. <s eT *jT+&H >D Cq+ |+b+~+#&TT+~.

d) u<H u dq ePV\T
sh $< |D[ |]~ |+ ` 2011 d#\qyTs sb+~+#& >D bs |d \T |\\
djT+ nu dq d+, ysT d, >|\ #]d, b<jTT\ #]d, ke |#s \T
sT| HsT & < +#&sTT. b<jTT&T u~k&T , |\\ T $+ HsT +{&T nH k+|<jT
|< T \H |\\ Xk eTs\T HsTT. y] neX$Td ysT @yTq #jT >\sT. dy L&q
deTd\qT k~+#>\ sH Xdj
T |< T \| ]+#& #q\ beTTK e&sTT. D+H
bs |d + q+<T n<j\ LsT \T, nuk\T, |, \T, J$ d+<s\T, neds\T,
>D H| D\T, yTT<\>T e+{ y{ #T *+#&+~. |\\ T eTT @yTs HsT Hy \TdT=qT
>D H| D\T b+<T, ueq\T $d +> ne>Vq #dT =qT M\T> q q nuk\T $$<
<VsD\ ne>Vq <s *+#&+~. eq b<jTT\T bs |d u<H u dq |jT \
d+ deTse ++> ne>Vq#dT = $j+q| &T eyT $<|eD\ k<q dT\Te neT+~.
+<Td+ b<jTT\T +< #]+q $<+ > u<H ePV\T neT\T|s*.
|P] s> |qT\T / + :
s> >~ b<jTT&T |\\ >D ueq\ ne>Vq d+ |P] s> + sV+#*
+T+~. qq bs |d \ ueq\qT ne>Vq #jT &+ d+, J$ d+<s\T, \T,
bsY yTT<\>T \T e&sTT. M{ |\\ T bZ+ ueq\qT ne>Vq #dT y\+f \T
s> >~ sV+#*. |\\ T \ sVD |P]ksTT bZqT + >T]+, |\\ T
#j *q |qT\ >T]+, *jT |<C \+, >TsT\ >T]+ |P] s> b<jTT&T |\\ #]+#*.
n| & |\\ T eTT k++> + bZ+{sT. n> deTd\ k<q d+, nuk\qT |\\ T
k++> #jT & e\dq ne>VqqT *+#& |\\ |P] s> #]+#*.
b<jTT&T |\\ ueq\ >T]+, <VsD deTd\T ne>Vq, nud+ deTd\
ne>Vq yTT<\>T y{ d+ b<jTT&T |\ ]| #s \T ` nu dq |jT \ sVD |P] s>
+> sV+#*. q\\| ueq\T, |X \T sd yTT+ s> #]+|Cj
*. #s \T, <VsD\T
|\\ ueq\ ne>VqqT |+#TsTT.

77

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


T |qT\T / \T :
b<jTT&T |\\ \T sVdTq | &T |\* T\T #d |qT\T n|C| &+ Ck&T . n>
|jT +#+& deTd\k<q , +#+& ` #]+#+& ` \T L& T\ sVksT . M{ |\\ T
#]d, eT n_bj\T y* TksT . sT \ n_bj\qT d]d $<|eD\ k<q w
#ksT . |\\ qT T HsT & bV+# b<jTT&T ks s> +& u<H u dq
|jT \T sVksT .
<VsD 8e s> eseZ T\T ` |T qeT\T n<jT+ |jT +#+& nud+
q deTd\qT |]o*<+! (1) 81 |T q d+K n>TH? (2) 125 |T q d+K n>TH? |\\
deTd\qT |jT +|Cj
T &+H eTT+<T y] esdZ + K\T n+f @$T{? d+K\T esZ\T msjTe#T?
q d+K esZ d+K neT+<? esZ\ ueq\ L&q deTd\T k~ksT . sT y |T H\T,
|T qeT+f @$T{? |T q d+K\T m{@s&TsTT nH ueq bs |d + 139 |J + <s
s> >~ #s sT>TT+~. #s qT ne>Vq #dT q |\\ T |jT +#+& nud+ | s +&T
deTd\T { |\\ >|\ #]+ 81 |T q d+K m+<T <, 125 |T q d+K m+<TeT+<
deTkk<q <s $e]+#* +T+~. +<T nedsy T q dV s+, b<jTT&T >|\ #s <s
*+#*.
e> |qT\T / + :
|\\ T b<jTT\, eT { |\\ #]+ ne>Vq #dT q n+X\T, ueq\T <s+>
deTd\qT k++> k~+#>\TZTHs < \TdTe&e e> \T sVksT. qq
bs |d \ $ #jT +&, nuk\ deTd\T yT d++> #jT & |jT ksT . b<jTT\T
$<y T q nu dq |\\ qT bV+#*. eTT d++> #dq n+X\| $T> |\\ $e]+#&+ ,
|<] +#&+ L& #jT e#T.
<VsD 8e s> eseZ T\T ` |T qeT\T n<jT+ |< >]jTH \T n<
ueqqT ne>Vq #dT q |\\ T < d++~+q deTd\T k++> #j * +T+~.
+~ y{ >eT+#+&.
(1) 32 G 42 R 9 G 16 R 25 R 52
(2) 52 G 122 R 25 G 144 R 169 G 132
eq d+K\T (3, 4, 5) eT]jTT (5, 12, 13) \qT |< >]jTH \ n+{sT.
a, b, c \T
a, b, c \

eT&T <q |Ps d+K\T nsTTq a2 + b2 = c2 nsTT \qT |< >=]jTH \T n+{sT.

1 | ys eT& sD++ b (a, b, c,a) b<$ T + n+{eTT.

| ueqqT ne>Vq #dT =q |\\ T $ #jT +& nud+ deTd\T d++> #j *.


78

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


$#jT +&
(1) +~ d+K\T |< >s]jTH \T nej d]#&+&.
(i) 2, 3, 4 (ii) 6, 8, 10

(iii) 9, 10, 11

(2) |< >]jTH rdT= y{ >TDC\qT sjT+&. >TDC\ @s&q \T |< >]jTH
\T nejTy d]#&+&.
bC |qT\T :
bC |qT\T $$< \ deVs+, bC |qT\qT +{ |qT\T> y*. +{ |> #eTT+<T
bC | |\\ T @$T#j *? m #j *? d#q\T ns+ #sTT+#*. bC | duy {
e> + > < T| > y*. T|q T\T> #| &T bC | T duT \T mesesT
@yT$T #j * dw+ > u< \T {sTT+#*. bC | |P]#d q |<| |\\ |<] +|Cj
*.
|\\ T bC |qT\qT |<] +#| &T <c\T +f de]+#*. nedsy T q d\V\T, d#q\T n+~+#*.
|\\ |<s Hq+s+ bC | m sV+#s y~ ssTT+#*.. y~ @ bC
mesesT duT \T, mesesT @ u< \T d]+#sT? bC | d++~+ $es\qT m d]+#sT.
@ @ $wj \T n+<T HsTT? qT>=q $wj \T @+{? e+{ de#s y~ s|+ |\\ T
sj*.
<VsD 8e s> bq'|q $uq |{ \ T, s UeTT\T n<jT+ bC | |]o*<+.
n<jT+ neZ <+X n+>D
e T< eT+ m ksT ? n+>D
e T< eT+ n+f
@$T{? + s |< T n+>D
e< eT+qT +#>* > |\\ T M{ d++~+q deTd\T
k~+#&+ #ksT . MsT ueqqT J$ d+<s + m $jdTH s \TdT=qT
ueq L&q bC ee#T.
bC :
{e\ ]q |\ MT s> 10 eT+~ $<sT\ T $$< $wj \ b+~q esT\qT
d]+#+&. $wjT + y> n+>D e< eTeTT\qT }V+ sjT+&. k<sD |< + d]#&+&.
MTsT }V+q n+>D
e< e\T, m +q n+>D
e< e\ d]b*qy \T|+&?

nuk\ sVD nqTd]+#*q u<H ePV\T


1. $ #jT +& nuk\T sVD :
nuk\ deTd\T HsT > ueq\qT |j + k~+# +{sTT. nuk\
\T |\\ T me] ys e> + > k~+#*. { |\\ HT T\, > & T \> #d |
#jT s<T. n> b<jTT&T n \T usT | sd < k~+ HTT\ | #jT eT bV+#L &<T .

79

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


nuk\ deTd\qT |\\ T d++> #jT & yTT<{> ueq\ ne>Vq neds+ . |\\ T $
#jT +& nH q q nuk\ \qT d++> #jT & bV+#*. +<Td+ <VsD
deTd\ k<q qT deTdk<q keTs + k~+#& q kbH\ |s+ #jT & ne>Vq|s# *
` nq> deTdqT #~$ ne>Vq #dT e&+, deTd q de#s yTT, $&u >\T>
>T]+#&+ , nqT+< $&u >\T #jT &+, deTd $T& q >D ueq\qT ne>Vq #dT e&+,
#jT T|< m+| #jT &+, m+| #dq |< |s+ deTdqT k~+#&+ , |* +qT d]#dT e&+
|\\T #jT>Z*. |\* +|Cd deTdqT k~+#&+ nud+ *+#*. <s |\\T
$#jT +& deTd\qT s> >~ yT d++> #d #&*. |\\ T d++> \T #dT q | &T
ysT d]> #dT H s? @yTq +<T\T m<Ts=+THs |]o*+#*. m&q |\\ T | \T #d y{|
#]+|Cd ds q $<+ > #d bV+#*. (nuk\| yTT< yTT+ s> #]+|Cd sT y
|\\ qT d++> #jT eTH*.)
2. |jT +#+& nuk\T sVD :
nuk\ \T =+#+ w L& +{sTT. ueq\T T> ne>Vq #dT &
<V<|& sTT. n+ ksTT > $<|eD\T k~+#& <V<|& sTT. nq> |\
+>, ]+> +#&+ , e| s # & + , >D d+\T |j +#&+ e+{ H| D\T |+b+<
<V<|&sTT. eq M{ n+<sT |\\T k++> k~+#be#T. M{ |\\T k~+#&+
b<jTT&T dV s+ n+~+#*. < |\\ T T #]d HsT =H #&*. M{ |\\ T T
#dT q | &T >|\ e< y[ |]o*+#*. >| m #]dTH sT? deTd k<q m+#Tq
ePV\T @+{? @yTq | \T #dT H s? e+{ $wj \qT |]o*d >T d#q\T #d $<|eD\
k<q w#j
*. sD eT+q+ (Formative Evaluation) M{ esT\T ysTTf +~.

+#+& ` #]+#+& nuk\T sVD


$u>+ +< q \T < deTd\T |\\ T ueq\qT $d +> ne>Vq#dT &
<V<|& sTT. M{ |\\ T | +& >|\ #]d HsT & bV+#*. q ne>VqqT
|P] s> |\\ |<] +|Cj
T e#T.

nuk\ ` sVD ` {#s Y u< \T


| jT{ ueq\ d+KqT #]+#*q n+X\qT { 5 qT+& 8 es nuk\T q$. |
nud+ dTesT> 10 qT+& 15 es deTd\T e&sTT. nuk\ deTd\T njT
e~]> +&e. $ |\ HsT q ueq\qT nqTd+<d, J$ nqsTTd HsT &+, ]
#q, e| s # & + , b< + #jT &+ e+{ n H| D\ k<q <V<|& sTT. M+{ |\\ T
k++> #j * +T+~. +<Td+ s> >~ nuk\ &${ deTd\T |\\ #]+,
ne>Vq|] +{e< #dT e# #&*. |\\ T m{ |]d T ] <+{ sT | #jT +&,
80

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


> & T #d sjT+&, b<jTT&T usT | sdq$ #d | #jT +& k++> k~+|Cj
*.
|\\ T deTkk<q @yTq | \T #d, y] |\qT |]o*+q| &T >T]+#*. usT | qT sd
k~+# $<H |P] s> #]+#*. |\\ T eTT #dq | \qT yT >T]+ d]#dT =H
bV+#*.
|q #]+q $$< s\ u<H ePV\T neT\T|sT d \T / |qT\T / nuk\ sVD
yTT<q y{ |\\ +<s bZH #d s> >~ u<H u dq |jT \T sV+#*.

nuk\T ` > & T \T ` #s


nuk\ sVD nedsy T q u<H ePV\ b<jTT\ u< \T, |\\ T #j *q |qT\T
>T]+ #]+#eTT. #s |< H<X eTT |\\ T djT+ nu dq X> * ,Z s]+q $<|eD\T
e> + > |<] +#&y T . nq> qT >D + HsT q, |Tk~+q >D u eq\qT |j +
e> + > nuk\ deTd\qT k~+#*. M{ |\\ T dT esT |d + yT esT |d +
d++> sj*. m{| ] d T > & T \, sT \ HT|d \, | #jT s<T. <
#sjTL&<T . b<jTT&T HT|d \T |]o*+q| &T n+<] HT |d \ yT\T
, k<q , $sD $<+ > +f y{ d]+#&e |\\ *jTCj *. sd
eT+q+ esT\T b+<s *jTCj *. $<y T q yT\T sjT& |\ bV+# +&
|\\ T ysT ysT |< T deTd\T k~+# |jT bV+#*. sD eT+q+ u>+>
|\\ s deTd\T k~+# |jT bV+#*. sD eT+q+ u>+> |\\ s
|qT\ d+ {sTT+q esT\T yd d+<s + b<jTT\T |\\ HT |d \ $<y T q
yT\T, k<q \T, $esD\T +f y{ esT\T {sTT+#s<T.

81

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

u<H kbH\T

>D + m u~+#* (How to teach Maths)


u<H u dq |jT \T |D[ <+ > s>*. | |]jT& L& kbH\ |s+ sV+#&*.
#jT &+ e\ +q keTs\T k~+#& neXeTT+T+~. = jT{ m |]jT&\T
nedsy T sTT. @ |]jT& @ n+X\| ne>Vq *+#*. @ $<|eD\T k~+#&*? s>
>~ 45 |\\ u<H u dq |jT \T m sV+#*. |\\ nud+ m *+#*?... nH
n+X\| b<jT&T s> >~ kbH\ |s+ eT|< u<H u dq |jT \T sV+q| &T
eyT k< eTeT+~. u<H kbq\ >T]+ n<jT+ \TdT+<+.
u<H u dq |jT \ |\\ +<] u>keTT\qT #j *. ~ b<jTT dy L&Tq~.
eTT+<dT |D[ sDyT q #q\, eT<y T q kbH\qT b{d u<H u dq |jT \T
sV+q| &T dyqT L& n~>$ T+ nqTq \\qT k~+#>\ +. +<Td+ eTq+ u<H u dq
|jT \ sVD nedsy T q neTTKyTq bs |D[ d+ < +#&q kbH\qT |]o*<+.
I.

bs+ |sT :

II.

#| ujT bs+X+ @bs+ d++~+q< bs+ / n<jT+ |sT sj*.

|]jT& d+K :

u<H deTjT+ / \+ :

bs |D[ u~+#*q n+X+q d++~+q |]jT& d+KqT sj*.


bs+X m+ deTjT+ u~dT H s sj*. n< $<+ > @ deTjT+ (@ |]jT&)
bs+uy T m| &T eTT>TdT+ < deTjT+ sj*.

82

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


III.

u<H +X+ :
#| ujT >D ueq d++~+ @ u<H +X+qT u~ks < |sT sj*.

IV.

bs+X u<q <s k~+#*q $<|eD\T :


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

V.

deTkk<q
sD\T #| &+ ` s|D\T #jT &+
e| s # & +
nqTd+<q+ #jT &+
b< |s# & + ` <o]+#&+
#| ujT bs+X u~+q s >D + |q *|q keTs\ y> |\\ T @jT
$<|eD\T k~+#>\ s y{ >T]+ sj*.

|]#jT + :
1) |\ qT |\]#&+ (bjT) Greetings :
|\\ qT b<jTT& eTT+<T> |\]+#*. y] bjT y] deTd\ >T]+ #]+#&+
<s b<jTT&T eT >T]+ ksT , n+<Td+ HsH ueq *+Z #&+ .
2) |PsCq |]o\q / |Psueq\ |]o\q (Pre testing of knowledge) :

#| ujT bs+XeTTq d++~+q |Psueq\T |\\ T @yTs * Hs b<jTT&T


+~ y{qT|j + \TdTy*.

|\\ > nqTuy \qT / @< d+<s + / d+|T q / J$ dyX+ / + / \T


yTT<\>T y{ <s, Mind mappinig / Brain storming |< T \qT |j +#e#T.

3) o] | q (Announcement of the topic) :


#| ujT bs+X+ >T]+ #]d b<jTT&T o] | q #j *. Be\ |\\ T sE
eTT @+ HsT uTHs \TdT+ ~.
4) bs+X+ jTT b<q (Need & Relevence of the Topic) :
|\\ T HsT H ueq / n+X+ jTT b<qqT J$+ y{ $j>, HsT H
neds |\\ *jTCj *.
5) u<H u dq ke (Teaching Learning Material) :
bs+Xu<q / ueq\ $d ne>Vq nqTesTTq ke | j sT#d |\\
s> >~ $j+|Cj
*.

83

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


VI. |<s
q

` #s (Presentation & discussion) :

1) #<e &+ (Reading) :

bs |d + bs+X (HsT ujT ueq #+~q$) |\\ # #~$+#*. n+<T


\|< \T / k+ |<\T / ns+ n+X\T / >TsT\ qT |\ # >T]+|Cd y{
b<jTT&T q\\| sd |\\ #]|+Cd y{ >Ts]+ ne>Vq|s# *.

2) ueq|]#jT + (Activity for understanding the concept) :

ueq\qT |\\ T eT]+ $d +> ne>Vq |s# T e& +qT sVd (n+<sT
|\\ qT + bZH #d) |\\ # #]+|Cj
T &+ <s ueqqT ne>Vq|s# *.
M{ me <VsD\ <s J$\ nqTd+~+#*.

3) deTd k<q (Problem Solving) :

VII.

VIII.

ueqqT ns+ #dT q |\\ T < d++~+q deTk k<q qT kbH\qqTd]+ @


$<+ > k~+# q\\| deTdqT sd deTkk<q qT |\\ #]+|Cd ne>Vq
|s# *.

e~] deTd k<q (Model Problem Solving) :

q\\| k~+|Cd q deTd+{<, eTs= deTdqT q\\| sd |\\ # y] HT


|d e TT\ e> + > k~+|Cj
*.

|\\ T deTdqT k~+q s y] eTT>TsZ T / q\T>TsT #=| q >|\T> #d ysT #dq


deTd k<q qT >|\ #]+|Cj
*.

>|\ |\\ T deTk k<q | #]dTq $<e TTqT |]o*+#*.

|\\ T deTkk<q q q | \T #dT q sTT ys | qT d]~<T H d+<s\T


*+#* < #]+|Cj
*.

y |\\ T deTkk<q me | \T #dq sTT deTdqT q\\| sd


deTkk<q qT eTs=k] |\\ |P] s> #]+|Cd $e]+#*.

|qXsD (Recaptulation) :

|\\ T sE / |]jT& HsT q ueq\T / n+X\qT eTs=k] |qXsD >$+#*. nq>


HsT q n+X\T =]# #]+|Cd (mindmapping yTT<\>T y{<s) usT | sd |qXsD
>$+#*. < b<jTT&T H sE #]+q n+X\qT ={> usT | sd *jTCj *.

84

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


IX.

+{ | (Home Work) nud+ :

|]jT& HsT =q ueq\ #+~q deTd\T ($ #jT +&, |jT +#+&, nud+
deTd\T) |\\ nud+ d+ y*. d++> |\\ H #jT eTH*.

y{ |]o*+ | d]#j *.

d#q : |\ ueq\ ne>Vq u> |jT +#*. ueq\ ne>Vq u> nsTT y{ d++~+q
\T #jT & |\\ T |jT ksT . Bd+ <VsD\T, J$| <Vs\T y*.
>D ueq\T ne>Vqd+, <VsD\T d+, eT+ \T d+ b<jTT&T s
>+<\T (reference books) #<y *. Bd+ qT m+ deTjT+ {sTTdTH &T, m+ yT{]jT
(notes) j sT#dT H&T. nH~ n eTTKyTq n+X+. B| >TD (quality) nH~ <s|&
+~. >D + n+f \T #jT &+ eyT <T, ueq\| eT+ |T +& $<|eD\T
k~+#&+ .

85

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

b<jTT j] ` |D[\T

qq d\dt nqT>TD+> sb+~q bs |d e TT\ s +q $<|eDeTT\qT k<q d+


u<H u dq $<qeTT esT\T #dT e\dq nedse TT q~. | b<jTT&T d\dt, $<|eDeTT\
nqT>TD+> n<j\qT +> ne>Vq #dT =, q u<H ePV\T @sT#dT y*.

d+d< nH~ s> >~ ]> u<H u dq |jT \ \yT q ~.


$<sT\ +<] u>keTT\T> #d |jT \T =qk+#&+ d+d< <seTT neT+~.
$<sT\ *> esT\qT s+s+ n+#H yd deT>eT+qeTT <s y] keTs\qT
|+b+~+#&+ , ysT d+d<T \ jsq& eTs <seTT.

+#+& :

>D u<H u dq |jT dV d<y T q <? yTq <?


>D Xg due+, |\\ due+q nqT>TD+> u<q sT>TTq<?

u<H $<H\q, nu dq |jT \ *> esT\T b<jTT\+ >V dTH s?

b<jTT&T s> #| >D f |\\ T deTd\T HsT +THs?

|\\ T djT+ nqTuy \ <s L& >D u eq\T b+<TTHs?

>D + u~+#T <s $<sT\ *> esT\T @$?

HsT q >D |\\ T y] J$ dyX\qT, d+<s\qT $j+#T>\T>TTHs?

86

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

m+<T=s deTse ++> $j+#T HsT?

>D nu dq $<|eD\T bZ THsTT nH ueq s# T > #s \ $|dT + ~. m+<T?


>D bs |d \, n+X\ neT] |e? s> >~ u<q |e! $<sT\
ne>VH |e?

eTq sh $<|D[ #+ ` 2011 | n+X\qT dTBse TT> #]+q s, $<|D[


yTT<\T s> >~ u<H $<q+ esT\ es nH d#q\T, d\V\T b+<T|]+~. H|< +
qq bs |d \ s|\ q ]+~. de+ eqT>+ > eq esT\ nqT>TDeTT> $<sT\
neds\ s> >~ $<sT\ + nu dq |jT u>keTT\T e*jTTq~. eq u<H
$<qeTT esT\T neds+ . n+<T# |dT + ne\+_dT q u<H $<q+ k] |]o*+, qq
bs |d \ #|{ q esT\ nqT>TD+> eT]+ yTsT> q $<H ne\+_+#e\d eq~.

qq bs |d \ esT\T : yTT< eTq+ qq bs |d \ #T #dT =q esT\T >eT<+.

s+s deT> eT+qeTT <wj


T +<T+#T= y] |D[ |r<X $$< s+>\ (n+>D ,
;>D , >D , k+KXg+, .....) #+~q n<j\qT $T[+ #jT &+ ]q~.
| n<jT+ $<sT\ |PsCH |]o*+, y] nqTuy \ <s, J$ d+|T q
<s+> |]#jT + |yX |&q~. n> n<jT+ ueq\qT HsT e& nedsy T q
n<j q q | n+XeTT\T> $u +, #s|< $<sT\ qT u>keT+ #d $<+ >
deTd\T e&q$.
| n+XeTT $<] ne>Vq y+H \TdT=qT $ #jT +& o] nud+ e&+
]q~.
$<] #q X, ] #q\qT |+b+~+#T, ueq\qT T> ne>Vq b+<T,
sD\T #| &+, >D |<C \+ $j>+, $$< s+>\ dV d++<e TT @ss#T
|jT +#+& nH o] = deTd\T e&q$.
$<sT\ #HX |+b+~#T, VT<+ > #]+ $Xw D keTs + *+Z #T ueqqT
$d +> ne>Vq|s# T +, #]+, yjT+& o] e&q~.
| |jT <s qq deTd\T sb+~+#& neX+ @s&TT+~.
s +&T, eT&T ueq\ nq+s+ nud+ |\Ts\ deTd\ e&+~.
u<H u dq |jT $jTe+eTT> =qk>\+f u<H u dq keT beTTK # \<T.
n<j\ b+<T|s q $$<s \ o]\ <s $<sT\ |sd s dV s+, +<#s \
neX+ \TZT +~.

87

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

bs |d + e&q >D X gE\ #], ec \T, >D + &T+<+ yTT<q $, >D


n< jTq+ | n_sT |+b+~+#& <V<|& sTT.

|dT u<H $<q+qT s | eTq+ qqbs |d \ <s+> #| u jT u<H $<q+q dwy T q


&\T >eT+#e#TqT. n+<Te\q | >D b<jTT&T q s> >~ u<H ePV nqTd]+#&
eTT+<T | n<jT+qT deT>+> n< jTq+ #j *. $<sT\ qT m $<e TT\T> #s \, \,
drsD u>keTT\qT #jT >\y +#*. b<jTT&T es<Z s &T> +, |\\ T djT+>
eT+ eTT> >D HsT =H $<+ > bV+#*.

b<jTT\ d+d< ` u< \T :

b<jTT&T s> >~ y eTT+<T m d+d< y*? @ notes j sT #dT H&T?


m+{ ke d<e TT #dT y*?
s> >~ |\\ +<s nu dq |jT VeTT> bZqT b<jTT&T @$T #j *?
s> u<q nq+se TT b<jTT&T sV+#e\dq seTeTT\T \+&?

m+eT+ bs |d y T q b<jTT BT<q $wjT + MT *d+<. bs |d + | dwy T q ne>Vq


@ss#T = u<H \\qT <w +#T= |P] d+d< s> >~ |\\ +<] +q $<+ >
u<q qT #|{ *. +<Td+ b<jTT\T> eTq+ @@ n+X\ d+d< q T * +& n<jT+
<s \TdT+<+.

b<jTT\ d+d< :
1. bs u<q ` d+d< :

| bs+X+ keTs\qT ne>Vq #dT y*.


s> ye TT+<T bse TT|, nud+| |P] ne>Vq *jTT+&*.
nuk\qT { n$ e> , T, |P] s> |qT\T> #|{ *.
|\\ ksTT\qT >T]+, A, B, C >|\T> #d \| ne>Vq *+#*.
T| >T]+ >T d#q\T y*.

2. u<H u dq keT ` d+d< :

88

u<H u dq ke nq>H | b<jTT, |\\ n+<TuT +&$ #sT\ T, d#Y|qT\T,


> +\T, ys| \T yTT<\T>Tq$. M $j+#Ty*.
k+KXg+, C$T.... yTT<q n<j\T u~+#| &T y{ nedsy T q s+>T s+>T\
\qT ||sT , e>Cq qT+& d]+#*.

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

u<H u dq keT `
1. #sT\ T
9. s+>T eTT\T
2. C$TrjT |f
10. s \ T
3. kyT{ >|t
11. d
4. > eTT
12. #+
5. >|t ||sY
13. n<+
6. b
14. @ eT+<eTT >\ &T
7. HDeTT
15. e|t
8. fdt ||sY
16. C$TrjT|T H\T.
3. |\\ nu dq deTjT+ d~j>+ :
|\\
T eT nu dq deTj |P] ksTT d~j>|s # T H #&*.
|\\
+<sT nu dq \ eT>T\jT #&*.
u<H
u dq\qT #TsT>, V+ sV+#*.
|\\
$dT>T *+# +& C> eV+#*.
4. b<jTT\ u< \T :
|sE deTj s>
y*, |P] deTjT+ nu dq |jT sH s> qT+&
jT sy*.
s>
>~ |\\ +<sT bZH T #&*.
nu dq+ #TsT> qy] n<q| \T s
+#T +&*.
#TsT
q |\\ |uby\qT |P]> $j+#Ty*.
|]jT&|<
\T, jT{|< \T, y]| < + d<+ #dT q b<jTT&T s> >~ d * \T
k~+#&e TT < +. +<Td+ | b<jT&T y], bs , |]jT& |D[ sb+~+#*.
|D[ u<H
u dq |jT \ |D[ neT\T, |\\ nu dq ksTT\ <s+> djT|d+<q\T
+&*.
|\\
HT |d \ n+X\qT y] #]+|#d <c\qT djT+> d]~<T =H #j *.
bs+X eT+qeTTq eTT+< |X |+ j
sT#dT y*.
eT+qeTTq nedse
TjT esYw{ djT+> sb+~+#*.
|\\
ksTT n+#Hyd, yqT&qy] q nu dqeTT *+#*.
$<sT\
|> * +&T\ y~+, #]+#*.
e~] |D[\T :
b<jTT\ d+d< ` u< \ >T]+ #]+#eTT. | \\T deTse ++> sV+#T b<jTT&T
$$< |D[\T m sb~+#Ty e~] |D[\qT |]o\+ ne>Vq #dT +<+.

89

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

y] |D[
1. s>
2. d
3. nedsy T q |]jT& d+K

: 8e s>
: >D +
: (n) yTT+ |]jT&T : 290
() u<H u dq nedsy T q |]jT&T : 212
4. d+es+ |Psj
T d] |\\ T k~+#*q keTs\T :
(1) deTkk<q :`
d+U eed, ;>D+, C$T, >D+, <+X sVD, n+>D\
d++~+q $$< >D ueq\ #+~q deTd\qT |< |s+ k~+#&+ .
d+Uee, ;>D
+ , C$T, >D + , <+X sVD, n+>D
ueq\
#+~q deTd\qT |< +& $$< |< T k~+#&+ .
(2) sD\T #|&+ ` s|D\T #jT&+ :`
d+Ueed, ;>D
+ , C$T, >D + , <+X sVD, n+>D + s +q
ueq\ k<sD s D
\qT eT]jTT |\ q\qT ns+ #dT e&+, #jT >\&Z + .
| s+>\ #+~q deTk k<q
q kbH\ sD\T $e]+#&+ eT]jTT
|< ns+ #dT = d]#&&+ #jT >Z*.
deTd\ k<q
, s|D, sD+ yTT<\>T d+<s\, >eTq, >eTq |< T \
]q T $j+#&+ .
deTd d<+\ s|D e\qT ns+
#dT e&+.
$$< ueq\ #+~q ] #s \qT, |\
q\qT |+ #&+ .
(3) e|s#&+ :`
d+Ueed, ;>D
+ , C$T, >D
+ , <+X sVD, n+>D
+ ueq\,
deTd\, d<+\ #+~q y\qT, >TsT\ qT #<T e>\>&+ , sjT>\>&+ .
| s+>\ #+~q $$< n+X\ qq deTd\qT sb+~+#&+
. eT #q\qT
k+e $e]+#&+ .
| s+>\ $$< ueq\ L&q deTk k<q
|< s|D q ]q T
$e]+#&+.
(4) nqTd+<q+ :`
d+U eed, ;>D
+ , C$T, >D
+ , <+X sVD, n+>D
+ ueq\
ne>VqqT J$+ $$< d+<s\ e#T, @s&T deTd\qT k~+#&+
nqTd+<q+ #jT >\&Z + .
bs |d
+ nqT+< bs $u>\T nq> ;>D + ueq\ ne>VqqT
C$Tr deTd\ k<q , n+>D
+ ueq\ ne>VqqT ;>D + , C$TT\,
neT]\, kwe ne>VqqT C$Tr, >D + HsT q $$< s+>\ ueq\qT
s s+>\ >\ ueq $j+#&+ .
deTd VQ ueq\qT, VQ |<
T \qT $j+#>\ &Z + . n> >D +
HsT q ueq\ ne>VqqT s d \ $j+#&+ .
(5) <osD ` b< |s#&+ :
de#s |{
\ s|+ eT]jTT kbq s U \T>, bq:|q s U\T>
#|&+ , #<e &+, #jT >\&Z + .
90

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

$$< s\ C$TrjT\eTT\T, |T qeTT L&q |{\qT (2D, 3D) #<e &+,


^jT&+.
d+UsK| $$< s\ d+K\qT #|&+ , #jT >\&Z + .
C$TrjT deT\|{q #T sTC\T ]+#&+ , |<] +#&+ .

5. edy> jT $u q | D [ :
ed+
jT{|sT

nedsy T q
u<H eqsT\T
|]jT& d+K
28
7
20
C$TrjT|f
7
13
23
|T H\T
20
>|t ||sT ,
&dt | usT\ T
de#s |{ \ T
20
kwe |{\T,
kwe s\T.
10
deT\ |{\T,
=\\ f| \T
13
u>[ |{\T

pH
p
p
p, >w
>w
d|+ sY
d|+ sY,
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nsD j
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@#s s s FjTdMTsD
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| +\T eT]jTT | \T
nqTbeTT sX\qT b\T
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nsY

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qe+sY

deT\ |yX \eTT\T

qe+sY,
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&d+sY

nqTeT eT]jTT $eT


nqTbeTT\T
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qe]

sD+ $u q

|e]

$TrjT edTe \qT


~$TrjT+> #|

13

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e]

|]\yX \+ eT]jTT
|T D|]eD+
d+K\ &T+<+

10

16

sV+#*q
se\T
d + K\ e \qT | ] o*+
drsD\qT #jTT

>D u @sT#jT T
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C
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|s q,
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$$< s\
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6. y] | D [ neT\T| b<jTT | d+<q\T :


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91

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bs |D[
I..

s>
II. bs+
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III. e\dq |]jT&\T

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: (6) eseZ T\T, |T qeT\T
: u<H |]jT&\T G nudeTT\T
9 G 5 R (14)
IV. bs u<q
|Ps> T d] |\\ T k~+#e\dq $<|eD\T :
1) deTkk<q
es+
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|< , u>V s|< yTT) k~+#>\ sT.
2) sD\T #| &+ ` s|D\T #| &+
q d+K\T |]|Ps esd
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q q sD\T \T|>\ sT.
q d+K\ jTT |T qeT\qT n+#HyjT >\sT. sD\T \T|>\
sT.
3) e| s # & +
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< s +&T jTT es+Z H\T>T
22 R 4
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4) nqTd+<q+
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J$+ $$< d+<s\ | ueq\qT $j+#>\
sT.
5) b< |s# & + ` <o]+#&+
esZ d+K\qT ` #T sk\ <s
|T q d+K\qT ` deT|T qeTT\ <s #|>\ sT.
n< $<+
> esdZ + K\ jTT eseZ TeTTqT #T sdeTT\ <s #|>\ sT.
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sT.
V. u<H
u dq keT
: #T sk\T ^jT&q #sT\ T, |T Hs\T ^jT&q #sT\ T,
esdZ + K\T ` |T qd+K\ #sT\ T yTT<\>Tq$.
92

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


VI.

|]jT&
d+K
1

6
7

|]jT& y> bs+X $u q :


u<H ePV\T

u<H +X+

eqsT\T

eT+q+

y T + & e| + > #T sk\T, 24 jTT es+Z m+?


+ <s |Ps
56 K esZ d+K
ueq\ ne>Vq #sT\ T
#~$+#&+
` #s
neT+<? m+<T?
sV+#&+ <s
sVD
esZ d+K\T ` neT]\T Brainstroming #T sk\T, 152qT s+&T esTd
activity
ne>Vq
#sT\ T
udd+K\ yTT+>
s V D `
sjT+&.
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nud+
nud+ ` 6.1
deTd\qT
ne>Vq|]
d++> #jT &
#s sV+#&+
196 jTT ese
Z T\+
esZ eT\T ` |< >]jTH <VsD\ <s #sT\ T
|P]s > #s
m+?
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s V +# & + ` (|<>]jTH 36, 48, 50\T
d++> deTd\T eTT\T >\$) | < >]j T H \T
nesTT? y? m+<T?
k~+|Cj
T &+
q d+K\ esZeT\T y T + & e| + >
625 jTT ese
Z T\+
+ <s |Ps
q T>=q& + ` ne>V q ueq\ |]o\q
s D + | <
(sD+ |< q)
qT>=q+&.
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nud+ ` 6.2
deTd\| ne>Vq
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784 jTT ese
Z T\+
u>V s|< q d+K\ y T + & e| + >
+ <s |Ps
u>V s|<
eseZ T\+ qT>=qT d+|Ps ueq\ |]o\q
qT>=q+&.
esZ d+K\T d+K\ sVD
165 jTT esZ
eT n+#H
eseZ T\qT n+#HyjT &+ <sueq\ne>Vq
<VsD deTd
yjT +&.
<sdeTd ne>Vq
nud+ =
nud+ ` 6.3
deTdqT #]+|Cd
k++> Cd
ne>Vq*+#&+
esZ d+K\T ` KesZ
d+K\ >T]+ ne>Vq

93

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


|]jT&
d+K

u<H +X+

u<H ePV\T

eqsT\T

eT+q+

|Tqd+K\T ` |]#jT+ yT+ & e|+>


25 jTT |T q+ m+?
<s |Ps ueq\
ne>Vq
|]o\q
ueq\ ne>Vq
d+ + sVD
#s <s
deTd\| ne>Vq
e>
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k~+|Cj
T &+
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` do `
#T sk\T, 500 d + | P s | T q+
ne T +<? <?
#sT\ T
ne>Vq
m+<T?
nu

k\
nud+ ` 6.4
deTd\qT#~$+#&+
` #]+|Cj
T &+ `
deTkk<q |
ne>Vq*+#&+
|TqeT\T qT>=q&+ ` Brainstroming
5832 jTT |T qeT\+
activity sVD
ne>Vq
qT>=q+&.
#s <s ueq\
ne>Vq
< <s
deTd\ ne>Vq
2744 jTT |T qeT\+
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m+ n+#HyjT +&.
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d
e
Td

\qT
#
~
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nud+ ` 6.5
#]+|Cj
T &+
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ne>q|s# & +
b<jTT# d]+q n<q| de#s+ ..............................................

|d+<q\T ......................................................

10
11

12

13
14

d#q : |]jT& |D[ d+q kbH\ |s+ u<H ePV\T neT\T|s# *. +<Td+
yT+ & e|+>, Brain stroming \ <s |Ps ueq\| q ne>VqqT \TdTe&+
< ne>Vq *+#&+ #j *. #~$+#&+ <s, #s s|& + <s *jT n+X\|
ne>Vq *+#&+, ueq\ ne>VqqT \ bZqCjT&+, <VsD\ <s
deTdk<q| ne>Vq *+#&+, e>+> deTd\T k~+|CjT&+ e+{ |qT\T
u<H ePV\T sV+#* ` nuk\T |\\ d++> #sTT+#& = deTd| #s
sT| #d $<q+| ne>Vq *+#*. $<|eD\T k~+#& |jT +#*.
94

|\\ T k~+#e\dq $<|eD\T :


deTkk<q
: q d+K\ jTT esZ\T qT>=q>\sT.
sD\T \|&+ ` s|D\T #jT &+ :
q esd
Z + K\T |]|Ps esZ d+K\T neH? <? dsD+> \T|>\ sT.
d]d+K\ jTT esZ\T d]d+K\T n, ud d+K\ esZ\T ud d+K\T nejT, y{ sD\T \T|>\
sT.
e| s # & +
: d+K\ eseZ TT\qT >D |]uw e| s # > \ sT. < 4 jTT es+Z 42 R 16 R 4 I 4
>D |]uw q< ys|+ #| >\sT.
esd
Z + K\ = <VsD\T e>\sT.
nqTd+<q+
: esZ d+K\ ueqqT <q +~q J$+ $$< d+<s\ nqTd+<q+ #jT >\&T.
esd
Z + K\ ueqqT n+>D
+ , ;>D + , s U>D + q d++~+q deTd\k<q d+<q|s# > \ sT.
esd
Z + K\ ueqqT $$< d \ $$< d+<s\ d+<q|s# > \ sT.
b< |s#& + ` : esdZ + K\qT #T sk\ #|>\ sT.
<o]+#&+

IV.

: esZ d+K\T ` |]#jT + ` ne>VD

\+

: 45 \T

|]jT& d+U : 1

u<H +X+

: eseZ T\T, |T qeT\T

III.

: >D +

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96

bs+X
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(Relevance of
the topic)
II. bs+X u<q

(Presentation)
i)$wje>Vq
(Conceptual
Understanding)
n) #<e &+
(Reading)

iv)

(Topic
Announcement)

J$+ $$< d+<s\ eT]jTT d\T, $$< s\


yX \T qT>=qT d+<s + esdZ + K\ ueq |j >|& T T+~.
n< $<+ > ;>D + , n+>D
+ , C$T esZ d+K\ ueqqT
|j ksT .

(bs |d + | H+ : 122 qT+& 123 es $<sT\ # #~$kqT.


< \ |<\T >T]+|#d y{ q\\| sd |P] s>
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j
T d+K\T, K esZ\T, esZ d+K\T.)

u<H u dq
u<H u dq \T
q\\ |
kbq+
I. b<+

(Introduction)
>T& e]+> |\\ !
i) |\]+|
(Greetings)
($<sT\ |Ps CH |]o*+#T>qT y] #HX y*rd
ii) yT+
&
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e|+>
2I2R4
2 I 2, 3 I 3, 4 I 4 m+?
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Stroming)
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iii) o] |
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u<H u dq ke /
eqsT\T
bs|d+, 1`100
es >\ d+K\ #sT,
1`30 es > \
eseZ TT\ #sT.

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

u<H u dq
kbq+
) eTT
(Activity)

($<sT\ qT +~ |X \ <s esZ d+K\T, y{ <s \qT ne>Vq


|sT kqT.) q\\| q 1`100 es >\ d+K\ #sT, n> 1`30
es >\ d+K\ #sTq T nkqT.
#s
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|{
@$ esZ d+K \|+&.
esZ d+K\ 0 #T+&.
1`100| m esZ d+K\T \e?
56 K esy
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16, 25 esZ d+K\ eT< >\ |Ps d+K$?
|{
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#s
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2, 12, 22\ jTT esZ d+K\qT |]o*+#+&.
2, 12, 22\ esZ d+K\ kq+\ e# n+ @~?
1, 11, 21 eT]jTT 9, 19, 29\ esZ d+K\qT |]o*+#+&.
| d+K\ esZ d+K\ kq+ e# n+ @~?
n> s d+K\ esZ\qT |]o*+#+&.
|]o\q >eT+q n+X\qT \|+&.
d+K kq+ 0, 2, 3, 5, 7 eT]jTT 8 +f < es+
Z
kq+ 0, 4, 9 \ 9, 4 +{sTT.

u<H u dq \T

q\\ |

u<H u dq ke /
eqsT\T
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1`100 es >\
d+K\ #sT
|{ ` 2
1`30 es >\ d+K\
#sT

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

97

98

V. |qXsD
(Recap)

sE eTq+ esZ d+K\ >T]+ HsT H+. n mind mapping <s


*jTCkqT.

u<H u dq
u<H u dq \T
kbq+
III. deTk k<q
(+~ d+K\ @$ esZ d+K, y sD\ *jTCjT +&.)
(Problem i) 9 ii) 108 iii) 168 iv) 240 v) 529
Solving) | deTdqT q\\| sd $<sT\ #]d deTd k<qqT
ne>Vq|sT kqT..
q d+K\T @$?
q d+K\ kH\ @ n+\T \e?
eT&T jTT esZ d+K @~?
|<e
T&T jTT esZ d+K @~?
sy eT&T jTT esZ d+K @~?
3, 13,, 23 esZ d+K\ eT< d++<+
@$T?
108 esZ d+KjTH?
esZ d+K\T y{ kq+\ @$T +&e#T?
| &T q d+K\ @$ esZ d+K\T? sDyT$T{?
IV. qeTH deTk (bs |d
+ 124, 125 |J deTdqT q\\| sd |\\ qT HT
k<q
|d + sdT= e> + > k~+#eT+{qT. deTk k<q qT >|\
(Model Problem #]+|Ck qT. <c\T me> qsTT deTkk<q q\\| sd
Solving)
$e]d ne>Vq |sT kqT.

esdZ + K\T

1. 100`150 | esZ
d+K$?
2. +~ y{ @$ esZ
d+K \|+&.
i) 84 ii) 271 iii) 225
3. 24, 34 esZ\T
kq+ e#
n+@~?

1. +~ d+K\ @$
esZ d+K?, @$
y? sD\
*jTCjT +&.
i) 9
ii) 108
iii) 168 iv) 240
v) 529

q\\ |

u<H u dq ke /
eqsT\T

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

|\\ T k~+#e\dq $<|eD\T :


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: q d+K\ eseZ TT\qT qT>=q>\sT.
sD\T \|&+ ` s|D\T #jT &+ :
esd
Z + K\ d++~+q neT]\qT ne>Vq#dT +{sT. neT] d++<\ sD\T \T|>\ sT.
esd
Z + K\ neT]\ k<sD s D
\T #d sD\T \T|>\ sT.
s
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esd
Z + K\ neT]\qT =qk+#>\ sT.
e| s # & +
: esdZ + K\qT ` neT]\qT ne>Vq#dT = y{ yTT k<sDs|+ e| s # > \ sT.
< yTT<{ n ud dV d+K\ yTT+ n2.
nqTd+<q+
: esZ d+K\ ueqqT $$< >D d++< deTd\T k~+#T d+<q+ #jT >\sT.
<q
+~q J$+ ueq\qT $$< d+<s\ d+<q+ #jT >\sT.
b< |s#& + ` : esdZ + K\ neT]\qT #T sk\ #|>\ sT.
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IV.

: esZ d+K\T ` neT]\T

\+

: 45 \T

|]jT& d+U : 2

u<H +X+

: eseZ T\T, |T qeT\T

III.

: >D +

n<jT+`6

$wjT +

II.

: 8

s>

I.

|]jT& |D[ (+X |D[)

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

99

100

bs+X
eX
(Relevance of
the topic)
II. bs+X u<q

(Presentation)
i)$wje>Vq
(Conceptual
Understanding)
n) #<e &+
(Reading)

iv)

Announcement)

J$ d+<s\, d\T ($$< s\T) y{ yX\T,


\TdTe&+, f* +> yTT<\>T d+<s\ esZ d+K\ ueq\qT
|j ks.

(|\\ qT bs |d + | H+ : 126 qT+& 127 neT]\qT


|]o*+#eT+{qT. y{ eT< d++<\qT >T]+|Ck qT. +< q
$wj \T $<sT\ # #~$+ \ |<\T >T]|+ #d y{ q\\|
sd |P] s> <VsD\ $e]+ ne>Vq |sTkqT.)
< : b*+&yT

u<H u dq
u<H u dq \T
kbq+
I. b<+

(Introduction)
>T& e]+> |\\ !
i) |\]+|
(Greetings)
ii) |Ps ueq\ (eTT+<T |]jT& HsTq n+X\T / ueq\| |X\ <s
|qs\ q+>$+#*.)
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ese
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esZ d+K\ K esZH
?
Stroming)
d] d+K\ es+
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Z ud d+KjTH sDyT$T?
esZ d+K\ @yH
neT]\qT @ss#e #T.
iii) o] |
q sE eTq+ d+K\ esZ\ @s& = d s neT]\qT
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u<H u dq
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(Activity)
q\\ |

nesTd ud d+K\
yTT+ n2.

1G3G5G7G9G11G13``R( )2

($<sT\ qT >|\ y>, $u +#* | H+sT 126 #T sd


neT]\qT q\\| ^jT+ k<qqT ne>Vq #dTH +
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1G3G5R9R32
yTT<{ eT&T d+K\ yTT+
m+?
yTT<{ eT&T d+K\ yTT+
< es+Z q deq+?
n> yTT<{ H\T>T d+K\ yTT+
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u<H u dq \T

u<H u dq ke /
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_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

101

102

V. |qXsD
(Recap)

(Model Problem
Solving)

k<q

IV. qeTH deTk

(11)2R121
(101)2R10201
(1001)2R1002001
(10001)2R100020001
(100001)2R...........
(1000001)2R...........
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)2R...........

q\\ |

eTq+ sE esZ d+K\T, b*+&yT, esZ d+K\ neT]\qT >T]+


\TdTH+. n *jTCkqT.

)2R...........

111112R12345654321

($<sT\ | 126 3e neT]qT q\\| skqT. |\\ qT HT 3. 12R1


|d + deTdqT rdT e> + > k~+#eT+{qT. sy ysT 112R121
#dq deTk k<q qT >|\ #]+|Ck qT. ysT @yTH q q 1112R12321
| \T #d #]+|#d d]> #d bVkqT. <c\T me> 11112R1234321
qsTT eTs= deTdqT q\\| sd deTk k<q qT ne>Vq|sT kqT.) 11112R123454321

u<H u dq
u<H u dq \T
kbq+
III. deTk k<q
(bs |d + | H+sT 126 2e neT]qT q\\| sjT+&.)
(Problem ($<sT\ #]+|Cd deTd k<q qT ne>Vq|s# *.
Solving) 11 es+
Z m+?
101 es+
Z m+?
1001 es+
Z m+?
| eT&T esZ\qT |]o*+#+&.
y{ eT< @<H
d++<+ +<?
< $<+
> 10001 es+Z m+ neT+~?
> $T*q U\qT |P]+#+&.
M{ <s MTsT @$T >V +#sT?
$T*q y{ n< $<+
> |P]+#>\ s? |P]+#+&.
d+K\qT b*+&yT d+K\T n+{sT. n ne>Vq|sT kqT.

u<H u dq ke /
eqsT\T

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

|\\ T k~+#e\dq $<|eD\T :


deTkk<q
: q d+K\ jTT esZ\qT qT>=+{sT.
q d+K\ esZ\ eT< m |Ps d+K\T+{j qT>=+{sT.
sD\T \|&+ ` s|D\T #jT &+ :
q d+K\T |]|Ps esZ\T nej? y? *| q sD\T \T|sT.
q d+K\ esZ\T d]d+K? udd
+ K? |]o*+ q sD\ \T|sT.
yTT<{ n esTd udd
+ K\ yTT+ n2 deq+. n k<sD ] +#>\ sT. q e d]#&>\ T>TsT.
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: q d+K\ jTT esdZ + K\qT >D |]uw e| s # > \ sT.
nqTd+<q+
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b< |s#& + ` : ``
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IV.

: nud+ 6.1

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: 45 \T

|]jT& d+U : 3

u<H +X+

: eseZ T\T, |T qeT\T

III.

: >D +

n<jT+`6

$wjT +

II.

: 8

s>

I.

|]jT& |D[ (+X |D[)

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

103

104

iii)

bs+X
|\\ ! MTsT eTT+<T |]jT& HsT q esZ d+K\ ueq\qT |j +
eX
nud+ 6.1 deTd\qT e> + > k~+#e\d +T+~. {
(Relevance of deTd\qT m k~+#>\s sE #]<+. Be\q eTq
the topic)
sEy J$+ m| &H nedse TsTTq d+<s + esZ d+K\ ueq\qT
|j + deTd\qT k~+#>\ T>T+. n *jTCkqT.

ment of the
topic)

u<H u dq
u<H u dq \T
q\\ |
kbq+
I. b<+

(Introduction)
>T& e]+> |\\ !
i) |\]+|
(Greetings)
T m+yT s *
ii) |Ps ueq\ #| ujT n+X+q d++~+q |Psueq\qT |\\
Hs +~ |X \ <s \TdT+{qT.
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8 I 8 \+ m+?
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Stroming)
8 jTT es+
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58 nH~ K es+
Z neT+<? <? m+<T?
d]d+K jTT es+
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d+K |]|Ps es+
Z neT+< m #| >\sT?
iii) o] |
q sE eTq+ nud+ 6.1 deTd\qT m k~+# #]<+ n
(Announce- *jTCkqT.

u<H u dq ke /
eqsT\T
bs |d
+ , q\\

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

u<H u dq
u<H u dq ke /
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kbq+
eqsT\T
II. bs+X u<q

(Presentation)
bs |d + (| 128) nud+ 6.1 deTd\qT b<q eT+
(|P] s>
k~+#T >T]+ |\\ # +~ $<+ > #]+|Ck qT.
+)
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q |X qT / deTdqT #<e
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7286 jTT esZ d+K
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q <? <? d]#&+&.
2. nud+ 6.1 deTd 2qT m k~ky +~ |X \ <s
|\\ # #]+|Ck qT. (|P] s> +)
deTd @ @ d+K\T #sT?
@+ qT>=qe\d q~? +#+&.
@ $<+
> qT>=qe#T?
10 qT+& 25 d+K\ es ese
Z TT\ |{ q T j sT#jT +&.
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esZH ? m+<T?

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

105

u<H u dq
kbq+

106

|{ q T|j + deTd q d+K\T |]|Ps esZ\T nej?


y? *| sD\T sjT+&.
3. nud+ 6.1 deTd 3qT m k~ky +~ $<+ > #]+|Ck qT.
(|P] s> +)
deTd @ @ d+K\T #sT?
@+ qT>=qe\dq~?
@ $<+
> qT>=qe#T? +#+&?
10 qT+& 25 d+K\ es ese
Z TT\ |{ q T j sT#jT +&.
|{
esdZ + K\qT >eT+#+&.
esd
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| &T deTd (3) q d+K\ kq+ @jT
d+K\THsTT?
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sD\T #| +&.
4. nud+ 6.1 deTd 4qT m k~ky +~ $<+ > |\\ #
#]+|Ck qT. (|P] s> +)
deTd @jT d+K\T #sT?
@+ qT>=H*?
m qT>=+{sT? +#+&.
deTd d+K 17779 qT >eT+#+&.
n~ d]d+KH? udd
+ KH? m+<T?
n+<T 17779 kq+ n+ @~?

u<H u dq \T

q\\ |

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_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

u<H u dq
kbq+

9 jTT es+Z m+? n~ d]d+KH. ud d+KH? m+<T?


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Z d]d+KH? udd + KH? m+<T?
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Z d]d+KH? udd + KH? sD\T #| +&.
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#]+|Ck qT.
5(i) deTd @$T qT>=H*?
25, 26 d+K\ esZ\ eT< m |Ps d+K\T+{sTT? }V+#+&.
m qT>=qe#T?
2, 3 d+K\ esZ\T m+?
2, 3 \ jTT esZ\ eT< m |Ps d+K\THsTT? sjT+&.
3, 4 \ jTT esZ\T m+?
3, 4 \ jTT esZ\ eT< m |Ps d+K\THsTT? sjT+&.
2, 3 eT]jTT 3, 4 \ esZ d+K\ eT< mH |Ps d+K\THsTT?
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d+K\T+&e#T)
| &T 25, 26\ esZ d+K\ eT< m |Ps d+K\T+{j |
k<s D
s D
{ qT>=qe#?
25, 26 \ esZ d+K\ eT< m |Ps d+K\T+{j qT>=q+&.

u<H u dq \T

q\\ |

u<H u dq ke /
eqsT\T

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

107

108

IV. +{|

(Home work)

III. |qXsD
(Recap)

u<H u dq
kbq+

nud+ 6.1 deTd\qT e> + > HT|d + k~+#eT+{qT.

eTq+ sE esZ d+K\ ueqqT|j+ nud+ 6.1


deTd\k<q qT >Ts]+ #]+#THs. n *jTCkqT.

6. nud+ 6.1 deTd 6qT m k~+#>\ y |\\ +~ $<+ >


#]+|Ck qT.
1G3 yTT+
m+?
1G3G5 yTT+
m+?
1G3G5G7 yTT+
m+?
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s
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4 nH~ < jTT es+
Z?
eT&T yTT<{ udd
+ K\ yTT+ m+?
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yTT<{ H\T>T udd
+ K\ yTT+ m+?
16 < jTT es+
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25 < jTT es+
Z?
yTT<{ 9 ud d+K\ yTT+
@ d+K jTT es+Z neT+~?
yTT<{ 13 udd
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u<H u dq \T

q\\ |

u<H u dq ke /
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IV.

III.

II.

I.

s>
: 8
$wjT +
: >D +
n<jT+`6
: eseZ T\T, |T qeT\T
|]jT& d+U : 4
u<H +X+
: eseZ T\T ` |< >]jTH \T ` ne>Vq
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: 45 \T
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deTkk<q
: q d+K\ esZ\T qT>=q>\sT.
q d+K\ ese
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sD\T \|&+ ` s|D\T #jT &+ :
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sT.
q d+K\T |<
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` 144 jTT eseZ T\+ 12
` 12 jTT es+Z 144
|<
>]jTH \ <VsD\T e>\sT.
+ , ;>D + , s U>D + d++~ deTd\
nqTd+<q+
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k<q d+<q+ #jT >\sT.
J$+ $$< d+<s\ | ueq\qT d+<q+ #jT >\sT.
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b< |s# & + ` : ``
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_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

109

110

eX
(Relevance of
the topic)
II. bs+X u<q

(Presentation)
i)$wje>Vq
(Conceptual
Understanding)
n) #<e &+
(Reading)

q $$< s\T, d \ yX \T q| &T #TT=\\T


qT>=qT d+<s + , uT C\ =\\T qT>=H*q d+<s + +

(bs |d + | H+ : 129 qT+& 6.3 #<e eT+{qT. n+<T


\ |<\T, d++<\T, >TsT\ T >T]+|Ck qT. y{ q\\| sd
|P] s> <VsD\ $e]+ ne>Vq |sT kqT.)
<: |< >]jTH eTT, b<$ T eTT.

(Topic
Announcement)

iv) bs+X

u<H u dq
u<H u dq \T
kbq+
I. b<+

(Introduction)
>T& e]+> |\\ !
i) |\]+|
(Greetings)
ii) |Ps ueq\ (eTT+<T |]jT& HsTq n+X\T / ueq\| |X\ <s
|qs\ q+>$+#*.)
|]o\q
yTT<{ eT&T ud d+K\ yTT+
< e]Z deqeTT?
(Brain
n ud d+K\ esZ\ yTT+
d+ @$T?
Stroming)
b*+<yT nq>H$T?
13 jTT es+
Z @$T?
25qT s
+&T deq sD+\ \+> #| +&.
s
+&T deq sD+\ < @eT |\ee#T?
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u<H u dq ke /
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kbq+
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q\\ |

(| 129 #T sk\qT q\\| ^sTT+ #]d +~ |X \ <s


d+K\ eseZ T\\qT >T]+ ne>Vq #dT H + sVkqT.
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s
+&e #T sd yX \+ m+?
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49 ese
Z T\+ m+?
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u<H u dq \T

u<H u dq ke /
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_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

111

112

V. |qXsD
(Recap)

(Model Problem
Solving)

k<q

IV. qeTH deTk

eTq+ sE eseZ T\T, |< >]jTH \ >T]+ \TdTH+.


n mind mapping <s *jTCkqT.

($<sT\ e~] deTdqT y] e> + > k~+#eT+{qT.


deTk k<q qT >|\ #]+|Ck qT. <c\T me> qsTT
deTkk<q qT q\\| sd |\\ # #]+|Cd ne>Vq|sT kqT.)
deTd : +~ d+K\ eseZ T\qT qT>=q+&.
1) 64 2) 81 3) 289 4) 625

u<H u dq
u<H u dq \T
kbq+
III. deTk k<q
(144, 225 \ eseZ T\qT qT>=q+& nqT deTdqT q\\| sd ``
(Problem $<sT\ #]+|Cd deTd k<q qT ne>Vq |sT kqT.)
Solving) q d+K\T @$?
144 nH~ K esy
Z T H? sDyT$T?
144 qT @ s
+&T deq sD+\ \+> sjTe#T?
144 jTT s+&T deq sD+\ sD+ @eT
|\TkeTT?
ese
Z T\eTTq >TsT @$T?
144 $\Te m+?
< $<+
> 225 @ s +&T sD+\ \+> sjTe#T?
225 $\Te m+?

|<>]jTH
\T

1. +~ d+K\
esZeT\qT
qT>=q+&.
1) 64 2) 81
3) 289 4) 625

q\\ |

u<H u dq ke /
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_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

|\\ T k~+#e\dq $<|eD\T :


deTkk<q
: sD+ |< q q d+K\ eseZ T\qT qT>=+{sT.
q d+K\ ese
Z T\T esTd udd + K\qT rdyj
T &+ <sqT>=+{sT.
sD\T \|&+ ` s|D\T #jT &+ :
q d+K\ ese
Z T\T qT>= y{ q sD\T #| >\T>TsT.
e| s # & +
: q d+K\ esdZ + K\T ` eseZ T\qT >D |]uw e| s # \ sT n<$<+ > >D |]uwqTq <
ys|+ e| s # > \ sT.
nqTd+<q+
: es+Z ` eseZ T\+ ueq\qT >D + $$< n<j nedsy T q d+<s\ d+<q+ #jT >\sT.
<q
+~q J$+ $$< d+<s\ | ueq\qT d+<q+ #jT >\sT.
| ueq\qT $$< d
\ nedse T>T d+<s\ d+<q+ #jT >\sT.
b< |s# & + ` : ``
``
<o]+#&+

IV.

: q d+K\ eseZ T\T qT>=q&+`ne>Vq (sD+ |< q) \+

: 45 \T

|]jT& d+U : 5

u<H +X+

: eseZ T\T, |T qeT\T

III.

: >D +

n<jT+`6

$wjT +

II.

: 8

s>

I.

|]jT& |D[ (+X |D[)

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

113

114

eX
(Relevance of
the topic)
II. bs+X u<q

(Presentation)
i)$wje>Vq
(Conceptual
Understanding)
n) #<e &+
(Reading)

J$+ nH d+s\ eTqeTT eseZ T\eTT qT>=qe\dq


neds+ @s&TT+~. <: yX \+ qT>=qT, yks+ qT>=qT.

(bs |d + | H+ : 131, 132 |J\qT $<sT\ # #~$kqT.


n+<T \ |<\T, d++<\T, >TsT\ qT >T]+|Ck qT. y{ q\\|
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<: ud d+K\ u<+ <s eseZ T\+, |< q sD+\ |< <s
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Announcement)
iv) bs+X

u<H u dq
u<H u dq \T
q\\ |
kbq+
I. b<+

(Introduction)
>T& e]+> |\\ !
i) |\]+|
(Greetings)
ii) |Ps ueq\ (eTT+<T |]jT& HsTq n+X\T / ueq\| |X\ <s
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Stroming)
ese
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25 R ?
25 $\Te m+? (25 ese
Z T\+ m+?
64 R ?
64 ese
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ii) o] |
q sE eTq+ sD+ $u q |< q d+K\ eseZ T\+qT
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u<H u dq ke /
eqsT\T
bs |d
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_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

III. deTk k<q

(Problem
Solving)

q\\ |

1. |< q sD+\
|< eseZ T\+
qT>=qTeTT.

1. 49 $\TeqT esTd
ud d+K\ u<+ |<
<s qT>=qTeTT.

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*?
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#dT e#T? m+<T?
eTT`2 (|< q sD+\ |< <s eseZ T\+ qT>=qT $<sT\ qT
+~ |X \ <s #d ne>Vq|s# + &.)
(Activity-2)
q d+K @~?
eTqeTT @$T qT>=H*?
|< q sD+\ |<
eseZ T\+ qT>=qT @$T #j *?
|< q sD
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m \ deq sD+\T e#sTT?
| &T 484 jTT ese
Z T\+ @eTeT+~? m+<T?

u<H u dq ke /
eqsT\T

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

115

116

V. |qXsD
(Recap)

(Model Problem
Solving)

k<q

IV. qeTH deTk

u<H u dq
kbq+

36 @$T #j *?
36 |< q sD+\ \+> sjT> @$T e#sTT?
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| deq sD+\ qT+& m sD+\T rdTy*?
y{ \+ m+?
eq 36 $\Te m+?
@ |< eseZ T\+ qT>=qT dT\u+ . #| +&.

n #jT > mqe kbq+ ud d+KqT rdyj


T > 0 e+~.
m esTd ud d+K\qT rdyj
T > 0 e+~?
eq 36 eseZ T\+ m+?
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q\\ |

sE eTq+ esTd udd + K u<+ , |< q sD+\ |< <s


eseZ T\+ qT>=qT \TdTH+. n *jTCkqT.

($<sT\ e~] deTdqT y] e> + > k<+ #eT+{qT. 1. 25 eseZ T\+qT


deTk k<q qT >|\ #]+|Ck qT. <c\T me> qsTT esTd ud d+K\ u<+
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2. 2025 |< q
sD+\ |< <s
eseZ T\+ qT>qTeTT.

u<H u dq \T

u<H u dq ke /
eqsT\T

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

|\\ T k~+#e\dq $<|eD\T :


deTkk<q
: q d+K\ jTT esZ\qT |< q sD+ |< |j + qT>=+{sT.
q d+KqT @ w d+K# >TDd < ud |]|Ps ese
Z TeT+< qT>=+{sT.
sD\T \|&+ ` s|D\T #jT &+ :
q d+K\T |]|Ps esZ\T nej? y? q sD\T \T|>\
sT.
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: q d+K\ eseZ T\+qT >D |]uw e ] +#>\ sT.
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+ yTT<\>T y{ d++~+q
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IV.

: nud+ 6.2

\+

: 45 \T

|]jT& d+U : 6

u<H +X+

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III.

: >D +

n<jT+`6

$wjT +

II.

: 8

s>

I.

|]jT& |D[ (+X |D[)

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

117

118

iii)

bs+X
eX
(Relevance of
the topic)

ment of the
topic)

|\\ ! MTsT eTT+<T |]jT& HsT q esZ d+K\T y{ eseZ T\T


ueq\qT |j+ nud+ 6.2 deTd\qT e>+>
k~+#e\d +T+~. { deTd\qT m k~+#>\ s sE
#]+#*q neds+ +~ n *jTCkqT.

u<H u dq
u<H u dq \T
q\\ |
kbq+
I. b<+

(Introduction)
Xu<jT + |\\ !
i) |\]+|
(Greetings)
T m+yT s *
ii) |Ps ueq\ #| ujT n+X+q d++~+q |Psueq\qT |\\
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25 jTT ese
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100 R ?
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u<H u dq
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II. bs+X u<q

(Presentation)
bs |d + | H+. 133 134 nud+ 6.2 deTd\qT
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119

u<H u dq
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120

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q\\ |

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121

122

IV. +{|

(Home work)

III. |qXsD
(Recap)

u<H u dq
kbq+

nud+ 6.2 deTd\qT e>+> |\\# y] HT|d\


k~+#eT+{qT.

sE eTq+ eseZ T\T ueqqT |j + nud+ 6.2 deTd\qT


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>$kqT.

5. nud+ 6.2 deTd 9e deTdqT m k~+# +~ $<+ >


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q\\ |

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i)

|\]+|
(Greetings)

I. b<+

(Introduction)

u<H u dq
kbq+

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IV.

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u<H u dq \T

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q\\ |

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: 45 \T

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III.

: >D +

n<jT+`6

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II.

: 8

s>

I.

|]jT& |D[ (+X |D[)

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

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(Brain
25 ese
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Stroming)
ese
Z T\eTT qT>=qT @yT$T |< T \T \e?
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|< T \Hj?
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(Announcement
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of the topic)
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iii) bs+X
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(Relevance of
the topic)
II. bs+X u<q

(Presentation)
i)$wje>Vq
(Conceptual
Understanding)
($<sT\ # bs |d + | H+ : 134 u>V s|< q eseZ T\+
n) #<e &+
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(Activity)
1. 784 eseZ T\eTTqT
q d+K @~?
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m?

u<H u dq ke /
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124

V. |qXsD
(Recap)

(Model Problem
Solving)

k<q

IV. qeTH deTk

q\\ |

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qT>=qTqT \TdTH+. n |q'XsD >$kqT.

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u<H u dq
u<H u dq \T
kbq+
III. deTk k<q
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u<H u dq ke /
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125

126

|\\ T k~+#e\dq $<|eD\T :


deTkk<q
: q d+K\ jTT eseZ T\qT u>V s|< q qT>=+{sT. <X+X d+K\ eseZ T\T qT>=+{sT.
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n<jT+`6

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iii)

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(Relevance of
the topic)

ment of the
topic)

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u<H u dq
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I. b<+

(Introduction)
>T&e]+> |\\ !
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(Greetings)
T m+yT s *
ii) |Ps ueq\ #| ujT n+X+q d++~+q |Psueq\qT |\\
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(Presentation)
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129

130

IV. +{|

(Home work)

III. |qXsD
(Recap)

u<H u dq
kbq+

nud+ 6.3 deTd\qT |\\qT y] HT|d+ e>+>


k~+#eT+{qT.

sE eTq+ nud+ 6.3 deTkk<q qT #]+#+. n *jTCkqT.

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> | deTdqT k~+#>\ + n #]+|Ck qT.
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k~+#>\ s |\\ # +~ $<+ > #]+|Ck qT.
deTd q d+K 97 >T]+ #]<+.
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IV.

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y{ d++~+q deTd\T k~ksT .

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nqTd+<q+

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: 45 \T

|T qd+K\ ueqqT C$T $$< |]eD edTe \ |T q|]eD+ qT>=q&+, n<$<+ > ;>D +
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q d+K\ |T q+qT >D |]uw e| s T ksT . < : 23 R 8

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n<jT+`6

II.

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131

132

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u<H u dq
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(Introduction)
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ii) |Ps ueq\ (eTT+<T |]jT& HsTq n+X\T / ueq\| |X\ <s
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1 I 1 I 1 R 13 R 1
2 I 2 I 2 R 23 R 8
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(Problem \|+&.)
kq+ +#T d+K\qT \|+&.
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ii) 16 iii) 21
k<q : |T q+ nq> d+KqT n< d+K#
| deTdqT q\\| sd $<sT\ #]d deTd k<q qT ne>Vq 3 ksT >TD+#> e#T \+.
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16 jTT |T q+ R 16 I 16 I 16 R 4096
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16 jTT |T q+ kq+ +&T d+K 6
8 jTT |T q+ m+ e+~?
21 jTT |T q+ R 21 I 21 I 21 R 9261
8 jTT |T q+ k+q +&T d+K @~?
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133

134

V. |qXsD
(Recap)

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d+K\qT \|+&.
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ii) 16 iii) 21
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IV.

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nqTd+<q+

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b< |s# & + ` : |T qd+K\ neT]\qT |T H\ #|>\ sT.

: |T q d+K\qT ` neT]\qT ne>Vq #dT = y{ yTT k<sD s|+ e| s # > \ sT.

|T qd+K\ neT]\qT =qk+#>\ sT.

e| s # & +

|T qd+K\ neT]\ k<sD s D


\T #d sD\T \T|>\ sT.

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|T qd+K\ d++~+q neT]\qT ne>Vq #dT +{sT. neT]\ d++<\ sD\T \T|>\ sT.

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II.

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136

bs+X
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(Relevance of
the topic)

ment of the
topic)

n) #<e &+
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neds+ @s&TT+~.
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(Announce-

II. bs+X u<q

(Presentation)
i)$wje>Vq
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iii)

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u<H u dq
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(Introduction)
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ii) |Ps ueq\ (eTT+<T |]jT& HsTq n+X\T / ueq\| |X\ <s
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|< q sD++ nq>H$T?


64 |< q sD+\T \|+&?
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138

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V.

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sE eTq+ d+K |T qd+K\T @ysa @$ d+|Ps |T qd+K\T


y? y{ sD+ $u q |< <s \TdTH+. n *jTCkqT.

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kbq+
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m+?
1, 2\ yTT+
jTT es+Z m+?
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iii)

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the topic)

ment of the
topic)

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III. |qXsD
(Recap)

u<H u dq
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m #| >\sT?
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|\\ s |qT\ u>+> HTT\T, +esT |\T, usT | |\\ T deTd\T #jT &+, bs |d
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de#s+, y*Tq n_bj\T d]> sXs, >D $<|eD\T |_+_+# $<+ > Hj
#&*. nq> u<H u dq |jT \ u>+> bs+X\T, ueq\T, \T sVk+. <VsD\T
deTd\T #TT+{eTT.
ueq\T, <VsD deTd\T ne>Vq #dT q |\\ T bs |d + q $ #jT +& q
deTd\T k++> eT HT |d \ #dT H s < |]o*+#*. n> nuk\ \T HT|d \
s> @ $<+ > #dT H sT, +{ | #jT >\TZT Hs? < |]o*+#*. nuk\ eT]jTT $
#jT >\sT q \qT |\\ T djT+> #j *. mTe+{ |]d T \ >& > & T \qT #d, s
|\\ note book \ #d > #jT L&<T . d++> #dH ee\dq esT\T >&T ksT . > & \ T
#d sd 0 esT\T, >&T e&TT+~. y{bT |\\ bC | / ndH y T +T yTT<\>Tq$
y{ <s+> ysT #d | \qT ns+ #dT +, u<H u dq |jT esT#d , qq |< T \qT
b{d , y] d\V\T d |\\ T |> sD eT+q+ u>+> n+#Hyj *.

3. d| t fdt (Slip Test) :


d| t fdt nH~ n|{| &T sV+#~. +<Td+ | +> |\\ *jTCd eTT+<dT > |D[
sV+#*q neds+ <T . k<sD+> sV+# u<H u dq |jT \ deTjT+H b<jTT\T d| ft d T q T
sV+#e#T. d d++~+q @yH s +&T eT&T n+X\T / ueq\T <s+> ]wy T q $<|eD\T
/ keTs\T k~+#&, < +#&+~. $<+ > jT{ u<H deTjT+ d| ft d T q T sV+#Te#T.

4. bC |qT\T (Projects Works) :


u<H u dq |jT \ sVD d+<s + > |qT\T {sTT+#&+ , bC | q T\T e&+ #dT + {+. bC
| |\\ >|\T> #d < e> + > ee#T. +<Td+ |\\ T ksTT de#s
d]+#&+ , |{ qy<T#jT &+, de#s $Xw + #&+ , n_bj\qT e| s # & + , ueT\s|+
>| \qT |<] +#&+ #j *. M{ |]o*+q b<jTT&T bC q qTd]+ >|\ >, e> + >>
$<sT\ #]+#&+ , |+#&+ , ysT deT]+#T y~qT |]o*+ $#D , q <s\ |\\
|> n+#Hyj *.

159

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


sD eT+q+ |{ :
k~+#*q esT\T ` >&T
.d+. $<] |sT

|\\
s n+X\T bC |
|d+<q\T
(10 e)
(10 e)
(10 e)

\|T T |
(10 e)

yTT+
esT\T

>&T

d+>V D eT+q+ :
d+>V D eT+q+ nq> =+ \+ (|]jT&) s +q bs+X\ |\\ T @yTs
$<|eD\T k~+#s \TdT=qT < +#&q~. d+>V D eT+q+ sV+# deTj,
~ |\\ eTT+< *jTCksT . +<Td+ d+>V D eT+q+ H{ nsTTq n bs+X\
s| q T s +#& deTjT+ s +&Tqs >+\bT sVksT . B |\\ T eT n_bj\qT,
de<H\qT sdq < { b<jTT\T y{ +> |]o*+ |\\ |> (performance)
n+#Hyj *. +<Td+ +~ $<H b{+#*.
d+>V D eT+q+ |{ :
keTs\ y> k~+q esT\T ` >&T
yTT+
.d+. $<] |sT deTk sD\T ` e| s # & + nqTd+<q+ b< esT\T >&T
k<q s|D
|s# & + (100 e)
(10 e) (15 e)
(40 e) (20 e)
(15 e)

160

| sVDd+ b<jTT\T du y > s]+q $< |eD\ <s+> |X|+


sb+~+#Ty*.
eT |q T | +> sV+#*q neds+ <T . eT | d++~+q $< |eD\
{sTT+q esT\qT b<jTT&T eT |]o\q\ <s+> < n+ eTT+<T qy<T#dq
bs {y eT+q+ <s+> {sTT+ |\\ |> qy<T#j *.
s | d+ {sTT+q $< |eD\d+, j d \ y> s]+q us\ |s+
$<|eD\ <s+> |X|+ sb+~+#Ty*.
d+>V D eT+q+ (Summative Evaluation) $< d+es \+ s +&TksT
sV+#*. eq yTT<{ d+>V D eT+q+. nsY ed+, s +&e d+>V D

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


eTq+ e] < @| ed+ sV+#*. yTT<{ d+>V D eT+q+ d+
|X|+ sb+~+#T=H| &T nsY H\es |Pss TTq d\dtqT |]>D rdTy*. n>
s +&e d+>V D eT+q+d+ |X|+ sb+~+#T=H| &T |P] bs |d nq>
n n<j\qT |]>D rdTy*. s +&e u>+ qT+& 60% qT+& 70% n+X\
b<q d yTT<{ u>+ 30% qT+& 40% n+X\ b<q y*.

dyT {y |X| sb+~+q|&T ns\ |X \ b<q y*. nq> |< |X \T,


q |X \T, U\T, VQ |X \T yTT<\>Tq$.

| s +&T eT+H\ sD eT+q+ |\\ |> |]o\q, eT, ss b\


n+#Hyd, d+>V D eT+q+ ss |+ eyT n+#H yj * +T+~. nsTT b<$ T
s> T \ nq> 1, 2 s> T \ =+ ysTTf eT eT+q+ sV+#& b<q y*.
| d+<s\ u>+> u<H u dq |jT \ eT+q+ sVdTq | &T s +q $<|eD\
k<q eTTKyTq ~> u$+#*. M{ k<H b<q> \ sVD, #s n_bjTdsD s>*.
<s |\\ |> n+#H yjT &*. +<Td+ E, d|+ sY, &d+sY, | e] ek\ sD
eT+q+ (Formative Evaluation), nsT, e] < @| d+>V D eT+q+ sV+#*.

sD eT]jTT d+>V D eT+q+ sVD d+<s + > <w +#Ty*q n+X\T :

|{ es |\\ |> n+#H yjT & e\+ s |\ eyT |]$TyT H+. eq


|\\ T |> n+#H yjT &+ s | bT +~ n+X\qT L& <w +#Ty*.
1) |\\ u>keT+ ` |d+<q\T (Participation - Reflection)), 2) |\\ s |qT\T
(HTT\T, ndH y T +T, bsTb *j\T (Written works), 3) d| t fdt (slip test), 4) |\\
bC |qT\T (Children Project Works), 5) $<|eD\ <s+> s| (Written
test based an Academic standards).
|q *|q k<H \ |\\ bC |qT\T, u>keT+ ` |d+<q\T, d| ft d T , s |qT\qT
sD eT+q+ (Formative Assessment), $<|eD<] s| q T d+>V D
eT+q+ (Summative Assessment) d+ k<H \T> $j+#*.
CCE nH~ s+s+
]>|jT . b<jTT eT |\\ |> n+#HyjT &+ <s q
dV jT+ n+~+ y] n_e~ w#j
* +T+~. +<Td+ mes / @< d+d j sT#dq
|X|\ |\ T sV+#&+ dVT+<T. { CCE n |< qyTq ~ b<jTT.
eT]jTT u~+q bs\ <s+> |X|\T j sT#dT y*.
k<sD+> |X \T bs |d + $wjT b<q> +{sTT. |dT + | s> $<
d+es+ k~+#*q $< |eD\qT s]+#&y T q ~. u<H u dq |jT \T $< |eD\
k<q sVksT . eq eT+q+ L& M{ k<q b<q$Ty*. +<Td+
$<|eD\ <s+> |X|\T j sT#j * +T+~.

161

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

162

|\\ eT+q+ # |X \T, \T bC \ T y] +|C d, VQ de<H\T


sd, nqsTT+#T=H, <q +~q J$+ $j+# eT nqTuy \T, n_bj\T e| ] #
+&*.
deTk k<q (Problem solving) $<|eD\ d+ |\\ # deTd\T |< q+> |< deTd\T,
| deTd\T, <+X ne>Vq ` $Xw D , |{ \ T ` >|,t |< |s+ #jT T deTd\T,
sD\T yTT<q $$< s\ deTd\, d+w L& +{sTT. d+w nH~ $$<
ueq\T, J$ d+<s\ nqTd+<q+ #jT &+ deTd kbH\ d+K, deTd
|jT \ d+K, deTdk<q e&q d+<s de#s+, deTd k~+# |< jTT dV +|
<s|& +{sTT.
sD\T #| &+ ` s|D\T #jT &+ (Reasoning - proof) $<|eD #+~q deTd\T
n+X\ L& +& +&*. n$ <X\ y> q kbH\ sD\T $e]+#&+ +{$
>D k<sD s D \T eT]jTT \q\qT ns+ #dT = #jT >*> deTd\T, |< ns+ #dT =
d]#&&+ +{ deT\T, ] #s \qT |+ #&+ +{ deTd\T, deTd s|D e
ns+ #dT e& #+~q deTd\T, >D |\ q\qT |+ #& #+~q deTd\T, >eTq
>eTq |< T \ ]q T $j+#& #+~q deTd\ L&q y{ <w +#T=
sD, d+>V D eT+H\T sV+#&*.
e| s # & + (Communication) nH $<|eD <w +#T= sD, d+>V D
eT+q+ sV+q|&T >D ueq\qT, y\qT #<e &+, sjT& #+~q deTd\T,
>D e s D \ L&q deTd\T, >D |sy T q #q\qT q d+ e{ $e]+#&
#+~q deTd\T, >D deTk |< , ]q T $e]+#& < +#& deTd\T y*.
M{ |\\ +<s m #dT H s >eT+# |]o*+# eT+q+ u<H u d |jT \T
+&*.
d++<\T (Connection) nH $< |eD+ d+ |\\ sV+# \T , eT+q+
+~ y{ k~+#& +&*. nq> $< |eD\ # \T, deTd\T
|< q+> nqT+< >D bs u>q d+K\T, L&, rdy , >TDs+, u>V s+, w,
neT]\T, kwe +, =\\T eT]jTT \+ / n+s+ \ #+~q $$< ueq\qT nqTd+<q+
#jT >\&Z + , ueq\ L&q >D+ <q +~ J$ nqTd+<q+ #jT >\&Z + , HsT q
>D +X\qT $$< du \ n+X\ nqTd+<q+ #jT &+, >D + ys sT ueq\
L&q bs+X\qT nqTd+<q+ #jT &+. ueq\qT VQ|< T \ nqTd+<q+ #jT &+ L&
+&*. | n+X\qT <w +#T= eT+q \T sV+#&+ <s |\\ T |>
k~+# #&*.
b<|s# & + ` <osD (Visulization and Representation) $<|eD eT+q+
#d| &T # \T, deTd\T |X \T +~ n+X\qT <w +#T= sb+~+#*. n$ (1)

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

|{ de#s+ #<e & < +q deTd\T, d+UsK, |+, ~eT+, 2D |{\T,


3D |{\T #<e
& < +q deTd\T, (2) |{ \ qT sb+~+#&+ , d+UsK| #&&+ ,
|eTT\T, ~eTeTT\T, |{\qT ^jT& < +#& deTd\T.
sD eT+q+, d+>V D eTq+ sVD d+ s> T \y> sV+#*q
k<H \T, |]o*+#*q $<|eD\T y{ us + +~ |{ e&yT q ~. s]+q
\\ k<q +~ |{ n+X\qT <w +#T= |\\ |> n+#Hyj *.

>D + ` us |{
b
< |s
` < o # & +
s D

<\T
d++

e|s#&+

sD
s | \T
D\T

deTk

k<q

>&T

dyT {y
yTT+

u>keT+`
|d+<q\T
HT
|d\T
bC
s |

s>

n+X+

bs {y

yTT+

1`2
3`5

6`9

e u s e u s e u s
sT \ + sT \ + sT \ +
T
T
T

eT s eT s eT s eT s eT s
20% 20% 20% 40% 100%
10

10

10 20

50 M

20% 20% 20% 40% 100%


10

10

10 20 50 M

20% 20% 20% 40% 100%


10

10

10 20 50 M

10% 40% 10% `


5

20

` 10% 10% ` 10% 10% 100%


`

50 M

50%

20%

10%

10%

10%

100%

25

10

50 M

40%

20%

10%

20%

10%

100%

40

20

10

20

10

100 M

eT R eT (Oral)
s R s (Written)

d) |X|+ sb+~+#| &T <w +#Ty*q n+X\T :

sD eT+q+
sb+~+#Ty*.

sD eT+q+ slip test d+ I qT+& IX s> T \ 20 esT\, dyT {y eT+q+


d+ I qT+& V s> T \ 50 esT\, VI qT+& IX s> T \ 100 esT\ |X|+
sb+~+#Ty*.

d+>V D eT+q+ |X|+ j sT#d| &T us |{ d+q $<+ > |X \


s\T, y{ d+K <s+> eyT deTd\T y*.

slip test

d+, d+>VD eT+q+ d+ |X|+

163

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

us |{ :`

.d+

b<$ T ksTT
q bsX \ ksTT
|X \T esT\T
yTT+ |X \T esT\T
yTT+
4
5
20
4
10
40

|X \ s\T

|< |X \T (Essay)

q |X \T (Short type)

20

40

n q |X \T
(Very Short type)

10

10

U\T VQ |X \T
(Fill in the blanks & multiple
Choice Questions)

20

10

d+>V D eT+q+ |X|+ sb+~+#T=H| &T b<$ T s> T \ deTkk<q


$<|eD #+~q |X \ 50% us +, $T> $< |eD\ |X \+{ *| 50%
us + +& #&*. n> m*yT+ ksTT 40% us + deTk k<q $T> 60%
us + |X \T $T> $<|eD\ {sTT+#Ty*. deTkk<q bqT $T> $<|eD\
{sTT+# us + j n<j\ n+X\qT { $<|eD\ y> $<|eD
d+ 10% qT+& n~+ > 20% es ee#T. +<Td+ us |{ q T |]o*+#+&. nsTT
m{| ] d T y{ yTT+ X+ 60 $T+#s<T. (nq> +~ us |{ d+q $<+ > <
eTs=$<+ > 20%, 15%, 15%, 10% +& < 20%, 15%, 10%, 15% < 20%, 10%,
15%, 15% +& L& ee#T).

s> , $<|eD\ y> us + ` dyT {y


s>

n+X+

1 qT+& 2 us +
s> T \T esT\T
3 qT+& 5 us +
s> T \T esT\T
6 qT+& 9 us +
s> T \T esT\T
164

deTk k<q
50%

b<|s# & +
sD\T
e| s # & + d++<\T
yTT+
s|D\T
` <osD
10%
10%
10%
20%
100%

25
50%

5
20%

5
10%

5
10%

10
10%

50
100%

25
40%

10
20%

5
15%

5
10%

5
15%

50
100%

40

20

15

10

15

100

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

I, II s
T \ 40% us + eT | , 60% us + s | e&q+<Tq s> T \

|X|+ sb+~+#T=H| &T eT | q q d+K\ L&, q y\ q


|X \T eyT n&>*. 3 qT+& 5 eT]jTT m*yT+ s> T \ s| eyT sV+#*.
eq us |{ q T <w |T= |X|+ j sT#dT y*.

yds | |X \T q| &T |< q+> s deTd\T < me ] L&q$ < s +&T,


eT&T |jT \ L&q$ < me #q s +#$ ee#T. m{ |]d T qT short type
s\ |X \T, y{H e ksTT q |X \T +&s<T. m*yT+ ksTT d<+\T,
sD\T, dMTsD k<q \T, >|\t T yT<q $ L& yds | |X \T> ee#T.

1, 2 s> T \T, dyT {y ` s ` eT |\ us |{


sD\T
e| s # & +
s|D\T
eT s eT s eT s

eT s eT s

10% 40% 10%

n+X+ deTk k<q

us +
esT\T

20

d++<\T

10%

10%

| b~+#&+

10% 10%
5

yTT+

100%
50

Short type |X \

Very short

Objective type |X \T

m{| ] d T \ Short types, Very short type \ # |X \T eassy type +& |X \ ksTT
L& +&s<T. > $T> s\ |X \ L& +& #&*.

Essay type, Short type, Very short type, Objective type

| $<|eD # Essay type |X \ M\sTT Choice > n<q| |X \T ee#T <


s +&T |X \ @<q < mqT=H Choice L& ee#T. $T> type |X \
m+{ n<q| |X \T eL&<T . type |X \ q |X \jTT ksTT L&q$>

|jT L&q$, HsT > yT e#$. Figur Problems 4, 5 steps


e#$, q q $esD\ n+X\ L&q$ ee#T.
|X \ q q \T, eT+> >D+ #>* > \T, s#H\T, d\,
d+ L&q$, twist L&q$ yTT<q $ n&T>e#T.

# e deTjT+ rdT= eT+> >Dq#d$, #q L&q$


y*. me >Dq\T, me |jT q$ eL&<T .

|X \ @ s+ |X \T q|{
|\* +|C d, $< |eD* k~+|C d +&*. { |{ yT\T sd
+&L &<T .

165

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


+&*. y n<jT+ Essay type deq ksTT |X <=sq | &T short type ksTT
|X \T s +&T *| Essay type |X > ee#T.

Essay |X \

u>+> >| , j$ {>, situation >, de#s |{ \ T> M{|


q q |X \ <s (small questions) 10 esT\ > < 5 esT\ > |X \T
ee#T.

|\\ T sdq | \qT eTq+ m ns+ #dT y*?


s+s+ deT> eT+q+ d+|<jT k<sD | <T. |\\ T HsT e& <V<|&
u<H u d |jT (Assessment for learning). bs u<q eTT+<T, u<H u dq |jT \T sT>TTq| &T,
s s> >~, |j >X\, >+<\j\, d +, J$ $j>+ yTT<\>T d+<s\,
|\\ Xs, eqd, k+|T , <> $k\qT |]o*+ qy<T#d |jT . eq u<H u dq |jT \T,
\ sVD, bC \ sVD, \T yTT<\>T d+<s\ |\\ T |#jT +, b<jTT\
#]+#&+ , |+#&+ , |<] +#&+ , n_bj\qT eT, s sb\ e| s # & + #dT + {sT. M{
<s+> eTq+ y], y] |> n+#HydT + {+.
|\\ T eT+> n_bj\T e| ] q| &T, |<] +q| &T, eTq+ u<H u dq |jT y]
#]dTq | &T y] nu dq | \qT |<> |{+ #TeTT, { s +&TksT $e]dT+ {eTT. nedsy T
{ s +&T ksT #d# &eT sTT+{eTT. Xssy T q $wjT + @$T+f y |\y &T s
s|+ HTT deTdqT | > sdq| &T yTqT |]o*+ | > sks #TT+{+. |
de<q+ q $<] | > ns+ #dT L&<T . $<] L& $y#q +T+< >V + n&T
de<qyTm+<T #b& qTy*. B sD+ uwqT ns+ #dT e&+ |\y &T +~|&& e ?
ueqqT | > ns+ #dT e&e? q d#q\qT ns+ #dT b e&e? deTdqT #~$
ns: #dT b e&e? $Xw D #jT b e&e? nH n+X\qT $Xw + #Ty*. n&T #| q de<q+
H | qT >T]+ | qT d]~<T H ne>Vq *+#*. m+<T ds q < < $d ksTT
$e]+#sT.
+<Td+ eTq+ u<H u dq |jT \ d+<s + > |j +# uw, |<\T, k+ |<\T yTT<\>T
y{| <w +#*. d#q\T, |< |< y\T> +&s<T. |\\ T #~$ ns+ #dT =H ds y T q uw
b<q y* +~.
|\\ T eT+> @ssT#Tq ueq\T, s |Ps | |j +#TsT . m+<T?
$<sT\ T J$ deTd\ k<q s> >~ HsT qTe+{ >D ueq\qT |j +#T+THsT.
s |Ps | |\\ T deTd\qT ns+ #dT e&+ | <\T #jT &+e\ ysT HsT q ueq\qT d]>
166

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


$j+#Tb THsT. $<+ > s> >~ >D |sy T q |<C \+ nH~ # b<q *Z
+T+~. y{ |\\ T ne>Vq #dT H s> >~ $d nuk\T *+#*. |<C\+qT |]#jT +
#d J$ n+X\ deTqjT+ #j *.
<VsD $<] +~ deTdqT $<+ > #X&T nqT+<eTT.
2x=0 nsTT x=2 n sX&T.

b<jTT&> | qT |\y &T m+<T | > #k&T nH $wj \TdTy*q neds+


+~. eTTK+> |\\ T ;JjT dMTsD + >T]+ ne>Vq b e&+ e\H $<y T q bsbT #d
neX+ +T+~. +{ bsbT |qse+ e<+ f edMTsD \ ` |jT \ L&q d+<s\qT
ne>Vq *+#e\d +T+~.
yTT< 2x, 3x, 4x \ ne>VqqT +~ $<+ > *+#*.
x + x = 2x
x + x + x = 3x
x + x + x + x = 4x

s 2x=0 nq> @eTeT+~?


x+x=0

x $\Te

0 nsTTq| &T eyT ~ k< eTeT+~. n<$<+ > 3x, 4x \ >T]+ #]+|Cj
*.

<$<+ > 2x=0 nsTT $\Te 0 nsTTq| & k< eTeT+< |\\ T ne>Vq #dT +{sT.

167

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

&) d+>V D (dyT {y) |X |+ ` >D +


$<] |sT :
deTk k<q :

(40 esT\T)

1. +~ y{ @< deTdqT k~+#+&.


(1 I 10 R 10 e.)
(a) *eT \T =qT <TDeTTq y[q ~. yT m+#Tq <TdT\ | q y\
`.1000. <TD<sT yTT< 20%, sT y 5% sTdTeTT #qT. nsTTq yT yTT+
MT<
m+ X+ sTdTeTT \_++< qT>=q+&.
(b) 1 qT+& 100 es >\ 2 3# u+#& d+K\ yTT+ qT>=qTeTT.
2. +~ y @< deTdqT k~+#+&.
(1 I 10 R 10 e.)
(a) deTuVQ uT yX \eTT 493 #.d+.MT.
A7
e +<eTTqT oseTT\T> eT&T ee TT\T
d+
.M
uVeTT> |eTT #|q $<+ > d +#T=+THsTT.
60 T. 7
d+
nsTTq# ee TTqT *j
Z T T+& uT b+ yX \eTTqT
.
60 MT.
qT>=qTeTT.
60
C
7 d+.M
T. 7 d
+.MT.

I.

s> : 8e s>

.MT.
T. 7 d+
.M
+
d

7
B

(<)
(b) +< e&q b\eTT jTT yX \+ qT>=qTeTT. =\\jTT MTs q$.
D

40

80

60
70
F

50 80
50
A

3. +~ deTd\qT k~+#+&.
(a) $TXee] <+X+ 15.732 qT
(b )

40

30

(4 I 5 R 20 e.)
p
q

s|+ sjT+&.

[( 34 )`2 ( 45 )`3] I (35 )`2 d]+#TeTT.

(c) 26z3 (32z2 `18) 13z2 (4z ` 3) u>V s+ #jT +&.


(d) z n|Ps x nHs nqTeqTb+qT, y nHs 20% sT >T<\ q z s
e#T |sT>T<\ XeTTqT qT>=qTeTT.
168

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


II.

sD\T #| &+ ` s|D\T #jT &+

(20 esT\T)

4. +~ deTd\qT k~+#+&.
(2 I 5 R 10 e.)
(a) ys sT =\\ s +&T #T sk\qT ^jT+&. n$ ds b\ MTsT #| >\s? $e]+#+&.
y{ #TT=\\T, yX \T qT>= y{ wT\ qT L& qT>=q+&. eTs$T >eT+#sT.
(b) (n3 n), 3 # u+|&TqT. $e]+#+&.
5. +~ y{ $e]+#+&.
(5 I 1 R 5 e.)
(a) 24, 6 jTT sD+eTTq 2, 3 \# u+|&TH?
(b) deT|T q+q +& eTTU\ deqyTH?
(c) a(a 2) = a2 2a ds dMTsD yTH? m+<T?
(d) 8 n+eT>T d+|Ps| T q d+K<T .
(e) s VeH 4xqT 7y *| 11xy edT+ <H&T. MTsT B @u$ ds ?
6. +~ deTd\ yT\T \T|+&.
(10 I R 5 e)
(a) | dV d+K, | |Ps++, | |Psd + K nsD j
T d+KjTH?
(b) 2x : 3x : 5x nqTq~ 2 : 3 : 5 deq+. m+<T?
(a) #T sT+ sD 5 d+=\\T neds+ . +<T 4 uT C\ =\\T q| &T
5e d+=\ @~ neds+ neT+~? m+<T?
(d) a mn R 1 m| &eT+~? m?
(e) 2, 3, 4\T |< >]jTH \T nej? m+<T?
(f) n sX\T >\ <+X+, $\Te\qT sVDeT+ sdq| &T < eT< >e TT n ud
d+K nsTTq| &T n G2 1 s neT+~. m+<T?
O

(g)
O

s +&T |{\T m| &T ds deqeTesTT?


Q

(h) e+ D+ 1800, #|+ b&e r nsTTq| &T #|+ b&e eT]jTT ds T DeTT\
eT< >\ d++<+ $e]+#+&.
(i) 7xy 1 sD+yT H? $e]+#+&.
(j) nsTT\sY d++<+ deT|T q+ <s+> $e]+#+&.
III. e|
s T

(10 esT\T)

7. +~ deTd k~+#+&.
(1 I 5 R 5 e.)
(a) MTsT >eT+q nqTeqT, $eqTb d+<s\qT s +&+{ sjT+&.

169

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


8. +~ y{ yT\T \T|+&.
(10 I R 5 e.)
(a) l, b, h jTT>>\ Bs |T q+ jTT d+|Ps \ yX \+qT \T|+&.
(b) 24x3 3x qT \s |+ \T|+&.
(c) A R I h (a + b) qT ys|+ \T|+&.
x
(d) x R n i xi < ddT+ ~?
(e) _q+ \e+, Vs+ +f 6 e. _H d+#+&.
(f) a, b, c \T @y eT&T nsD j
T d+K\ dV #s <s \T|+&.
(g) 5pq2 d]|& dC |< sjT+&.
(h) @|~ eT]jTT ~|~ jTT \u \T|+&.
A

(i)
(j)
IV.

| | yX \+ qT>=qT d \T|+&.

9 jTT uCjT jTe \T|+&.

nqTd+<q+

(20 esT\T)

9. +~ deTd\T k~+#+&.
(2 I 10 R 20 e.)
(a) Bs# T sd+ #TT=\ 24 MT. < #TT=\qT esT#jT +& b&eqT 1MT.
|+q| &T, < y&\ T eT]jTT yX \eTT\ esTe#TqT. +~ |{ q T +|
$\Te\ <s+> y&\ T, yX \eTT\ $\Te\T b&e $\Te esTMT< @ $<+ >
<s|& T j >eT+#TeTT. MTsT @$T >eT+#sT? MT |]o\q\qT \T|+&.
b&e (d+.MT.)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
y&\ T (d+.MT.)
11 10
yX \+ (#.d+.MT.) 11 20
(b) >| +| < #T sd _+<Te|| Bs #T sk ^jT+&. < ds |
|{ ]+#+&. s +&T |{\ yX \T eT]jTT #TT=\\T qT>= y{ y{
wT\ qT Bs# T sk\ uT C\ wT\ b\+&.
V.

b< |s &+

(10 esT\T)

10. +~ deTdqT k~+#+&.


(1 I 5 R 5 e.)
(a) +~ <+XeTTq s> T \T, bq'|qeTT\T sjT+&. <+XeTTq z eeTT\qT
s +&+{ ^jT+&.
esT\T 5q e 10 q e 15 q e 20 q e 25 q e
$<sT\
2
8
18
27
35
d+K
170

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


(<)
(b) +~ eZ bq'|q $uq+ q+<T 250 eT+~ X$T\ ys| yH \T e&sTT.
<+XeTTq kbqsU+, bq'|q VQuT E\qT >| q+<T ]+#+&.
ys| yq +

500`550 550`600 600`650 650`700 700`750 750`800

X$T\ d+K

30

42

50

55

11. +~ deTd\T k~+#+&.

45

28

(5 I 1 R 5 e.)

(a) 5 jTT I 3 jTT I 2 jTT =\\T \ Bs| T qeTTqT deq e|q+>\ #T\
|+| #|+&.
(b) |{ d#+q $<+ > T\T> $u +#+&.

3 uT C\T
(c) 34 I 3`5 qT | +> e| s T #TeTT.
(d) oseTT L& |T Hs| edTe qT ^jT+&.
(e) @< b<e T |{ |j + &d wHq T @ss#+ &.

171

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

d+>V D (dyT {y) |X |+ ` >D +


$<] |sT :

I.

s> : 9e s>

deTk k<q :
1. +~ y @< deTdqT k~+#+&.

(1 I 10 R 10 e.)

(a) ||+ # { > X \T (100 |sT >T\T) #dq y] d+K\T +~ |{ e&sTT.


o\ d+K

10

15

20

25

> d+K

56

23

39

13

<+XeTTq dsd], eT< >e TT\qT qT>=q+&.


(<)
(b) q bsX \ $$< s> T \ $<sT\ T nH< XsD \jT+q q $seTT\T
(sbsTT\) +~ $<+ > q$.
s>

10

= $<] $s+ 5
(`\)

10

15

20

$<sT\ d+K

15

20

16

14

15

$es\ eT< >e TT, uVQe TT\qT qT>=q+&.


2. +~ y @< deTdqT k~+#+&.
(1 I 10 R 10 e.)
(a) de+s #T sT+ m<T{ D\T (3x22)0 eT]jTT (xG48)0 nsTTq de+s #T sT+
| D qT>=q+&.
(<)
(b) ABC uT + AB | D _+<Te eT]jTT AD = AB. < $<+ > AC | _+<Te
E eT]jTT AE = AC. DE=2 d+.MT. nsTTq BC m+?
3. +~ deTd\qT k~+#+&.
(a) 3.127 qT pq s|+ sjT+&.
( b)
172

(4 I 5 R 20 e.)

2x3-3x2+ax+b nH

VQ|~ (x`2)# ud Xw+ 2 (xG2) # ud Xw+ 2 ed a, b \


$\Te\T qT>=q+&.

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


(c) 5.6 d+.MT. u ykse TT eT]jTT 158.4 #.d+.MT. | yX \+ >\ X+KTe jTT
@y\T mT eT]jTT X+KTe mT\ qT qT>=qTeTT.
C
(d) |+ O e +<+ eT]jTT AOB R 1000 nsTTq ADB qT+&.
II.

sD\T #| &+ ` s|D\T #jT &+

O
1000

(2 I 5 R 10De.)

4. +~ deTd\T k~+#+&.

(a) uT + @yH s +&T uT C\ b&e\ yTT+ eT&e uT + b&e H me n


#|+&.
(b) s+dt se TT\T |sd s+ \+u\T> +{jT #|+&.
5. +~ deTd\ yT\T \T+&.
(a)

x3 + 2x2 + 3x + 7 nH

(5 I 1 R 5 e)

VQ|~ (xG2) sD++ neT+<? m #| >\e?

(b) s +&T ys sT s K\T { H me d+K eT& _+<Te\qT * +&e s|+#+&.


(a) neZ bq'|q $uqeTT jTT eT< >e TT qT>=qTq|&T @ esTd $\Te\T
eTeTT> +&TqT sjTeqT? m+<T?
(d )

ABCD #T sT+ AB = CD, BC = AD eT]jTT AC s+


nsTTq ABC CDA n

s|#+ &.
(e) eT&T HD\T ( $<y T q $) k] m>Tsyd q | &T @s& ueT, usTdT |s ekH\
d+ue m+? sD+ @$T?
5. +~ deTd\ yT\T \T|+&.

(10 I R 5 e)

qT 12 > sjT>\+. eq n~ nsD j


T d+K neT+<? <? m+<T?

(a)

(b )

(Qp)q = (Qq)p d e?

(a)

<? m+<T?

d+|Ps es+Z dV d+K nsTT n @eTeT+< \T|+&. m #| >\e?

(d) s +&T K+&q s K\T, s K de+s s K\T e. m+<T?


(e) deTuVQ uT eTT = D+ 600 \T +T+~. m+<T?
(f)

Bs# T sd+ s +&T s\T deq+. de+s #T sT+ s +&T s\T deq+e.
m+<T?

(g) (5, `3) nH _+<Te s| \ + @b<+ +T+~? m #| >\e?


(h) d| + jTT |T q|]eD+ R r2h. m+<T neT+~?

173

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


(i)
(j)

2, 3, 4 \

@~ nsD j
T d+K? m+<T?
1 #.MT. R 1002 #.d+.MT. neT+<? m+<T?

III. e|
s T

7. +~ deTd\qT k~+#+&.
(1 I 5 R 5 e)
(a) v = r2hqT $e]+|eTT.
(b) s| \ + x`n+ qT+& 3 jT <s+, y`n+ qT+& 5 jT <s+ 3e
b<+ qTq _+<Te s|\T sjT+&.
(c) a1/n jTT s& sb sjT+&.
(d) >+ jTT |]\ yX \+ < yks deqyTq yks+ >\ e yX 4
s T +&TqT. B ds |+ sjT+&.
(e) P(x) qT (x-a) # u+q| &T Q(x) u>|\ +, Xw+ P(a) edT+ ~. B u>V s jTeT+
|s+ sjT+&.
8. +~ y{ yT\T sjT+&.
(10 I R 5 e.)
(a) P = 2 (l + b) l < d+#TqT?
(b) ds s K AB >TsT\ qT|j + sjT+&.
(c) s FjT dMTsD k<sD ds|+ sjT+&.
(d) x jTT >TD+ 7 nsTTq |<+ @~?
(e) bq'|H\ yTT+ qT m dk+?
(f) esZ dMTsD k<sD ds|+ sjTTeTT.
(g) 3.0157157157157.....qT d+| s |+ sjT+&.
(h) ds s K\T AB , CD \T de+s s K\T. B >TsTq T|j + sjT+&.
(i) |T q jTT d+ue 0, 1\ eT< +T+~. B d+\qT|j + sjT+&.
x
x
(j) x R n i n i < ddT+ ~?
IV.

nqTd+<q+
9. +~ deTd\T k~+#+&.
(2 I 10 R 20 e.)
(a) 28 s b\T, $TXeT+ y w 5 : 2 nsTTq $TXeTeTTq, b\ eT< >\
d++<e TTqT *jTCjT T dMTsD eTTqT sb+~+ < s UeTTqT ^jTTeTT. <
qT+& | $TXeT+ b\|]eD+qT qT>=qTeTT.

174

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +


(<)
A

300

(b )

| |+ qT+& x, y \ @ $\Te\ AD, BC s K\T


de+s s K\T nesTT.

5y
2x 0

(x-y)0

10. +~ deTd\T k~+#+&.


(a) ns> s| | | *qZ 7 MT. mT> \ db s| ue q+q s+>T yj *. | |
jTT u |]~ 17.6 MT. nsTTq 10 #.d+.MT.\ s+>TyjT T ` 5\ #=| q ue q+q
s+>TyjT & m+ KsT neT+~?
(<)
(b) eT&T @ +< es\ j sT#jT &q &sYu sT e\ yks\T 20
d+.MT., 10 d+.MT, 5 d+.MT.\T> HsTT. &sYu sT |+ #|q $<+ > A, B, C
b+\T> $u +#&+~.

yTTq*q + (Dart) qT usT | $d]q n~ b++ A d+ue m+?

V.

b< |s &+
11. +~ deTd\T k~+#+&.
(a)
(b )

x
2

y
3

(2 I 5 R 10 e.)

R 3 jTT s U eTTqT ^jTTeTT.

2 qT d+UsK| d+#+&.

175

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

9


u<Hudq+ ` esZ<s\T
(Teaching Practice - Guidlines)

{+> bd t ` es<Z s \T (m bs\T ` m |]jT&T)

176

#b<jTT\T {+> bd t #j *.
s +&T yT<& \J\ {+> bd t #j *.
dV bs+X\ du {+> bd t #j *.
uws du (>D + , dH , kw) \ 20 |]jT&T | d]> u~+#*.
y @<H bs+ u<H +X\T 20 |]jT& +f me> +f y{ L& | d]>
u~+#*. m+<T+f bs+ / jT{ |P]> #b*.y bs+ 20 |]jT& H
e> qsTT, bs+ sT y bs L& mqT= 20e |]jT&T |P]> u~+#*.
dV bs+X\ du =s s +&T |]jT&\T {sTT+#*. <=s |]jT& |D[ sd
u~+#*.
= yT<& \J 20 |]jT& |D[\T sdTy*. 20 |]jT& qT+& 5 |]jT& |D[\qT
& (ICT) |j + sb+~+#T= u~+#*.
s+s deT> eT+q+ (CCE) {+> bd t n+s>+ . { u<q deTjT+H
bs {y nddtyT +{ s>*.
{+> bd t nsTTbsTTq sy d+>V D eT+q+ (Summative Assessment) |
sV+#*. B=s d+>V D eT+q+ |X |+ sb+~+#Ty*. | sV+,
||sT ~~, >&+> qy<T#j *.
s+s deT> eT+q+ (CCE) <s+> SAT ]sY |P]#j
*.

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +




{+> bd t eTT+<T @$T s>*?

X\ sX\ (Workshop) sV+ y] |D[ (Year plan) j sT #sTT+#*.


#b<jTT\ y] |D[ bs { >T]+ $e]+#*.
s #b<jTT\qT T> $u +#*. y] |D[qT #]+#T= j sT#j *.
nedsy T q dV j n+~+#*.
j sT#dq y] |D[qT |<] +|#j
*. <| |P] s> #]+#*.
s #b<jTT\T e> + > y] |D[ j sT#j *.
< $<+ > sX\ sV+ jT{ / bs |D[ L& j sT#dT y*.
u<H kbH\qT (Teaching steps) X\H |<] +|#j
*.
$<|eD\ <s+> |]jT& u<q m sVks #b<jTT\ |<] +#*.
| du 5 |]jT&T |Hd \ deT+ #b*.

{+> bd t sT>TTq| &T @+ s>*?

#b<jTT\ <>sZ y] |D[, bs |D[, |]jT& |D[ ]ws \Y T sd +&*.


u<q nedsy T q TLM d<+ > +&*.
u<q sT>TTq| &T.

|]jT&T |D[ neT\T #dT H s?

sD eT+q+ (Formative Assessment) sT>TTq<?

|\\ u>keT+ m +~?

+|# d |X \T n&T>TTHs?

bs+ eT< |X \qT #]dTH s? n> \qT sV+|Cd T H s?

deTq n+X\qT C&dT H s?

>| | bZqCdT H s?

>|, e> |qT\qT |\\ sV+|Cd T H s?

TLM |j
dTH s?

eT+q+ sT>TTq<?
| n+X\T u<H u dq |jT \T sT>TTHj n |]o*+#*.

du b<jTT\T L& #b<jTT\T u~dT q | &T | n+X\qT <w |T= |]o*+#*.

177

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +




{+> bd t nsTTbsTTq sy @$T s>*?

s+s deT> eT+q+ (CCE)q d++~+q |qT\T |P]#j


T &+.
sD eT+q+ n+X\ (Area) y]> $<sT\ |> qy<T#j *.
d+>V D eT+q+ (Summative Assessment) |X |+ j sT#dT y*.
|X |+ keTs\ y]> us + <s+> j sT#dT =, | sV+#*.
yT |\qT eT+q+ #j *.
eT+q+ sy keTs\ y]> |\\ |> >&+> s|+ qy<T #j *.
>&+> <s+> |\\ keTs\qT (Performance) ]]+> #j *.
keTs\ y]> $Xw D s>*.
$Xw D <s+> e |> k~+q keTs s $T&jT #+#*.


C.C.E.

]sT sjT&+ ` esZ<s\T

eTq sh+ s+s deT> eT+q+ neT\T sT>TTq+<Tq S.A.T. (Scholostic Achievement
Test Record) ]sT <T\T> C.C.E. ]sT sj*. u<H
u dq+ d+ bsX \ y[q sy
|D[\T sb+~+#T= u<H ud+ #ksT . u<H ud+ ]>| &T sD eT+q+ (Formative
Evaluation) sV+ |\\
|> qy<T #j *. nf u<H ud+ |Pss TTq |<| u~+q bs+
<s+> keTs\ <s+> |X |+ sb+~+#T= d+>V D eT+q+ (Sumative Evaluation)
d+ | sV+#*. |\\ yT|\T ~~ keTs + y> >&TqT {sTT+#*. $es\qT
qy<T#j *. $<+ > sD, d+>V D eT+q+ sV+q sy d.d.. ]sT
sj*, deT]+#*.

d.d. ]sTq T m sj*?


d.d.. ]sT sd| &T |< q+> +~ n+X\qT <w +#Ty*. y{ $es\ ]sT
qy<T#j *.
d.d.. eX, $es\T.
sD eT+q+ ` k<H
\T ` $es\T.
d+>V D eT+q+ ` $es\T.
|X |+ j
sT#dq $<+ .
us\ |{
\ T.

keTs\ y> us |{ .

|X \ s+ ` us |{ .

]q ksTT ` us |{
178

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

sD eT+q+ ` |\\ |> qy<T.

k~+q esT\T
.d+. |\\ |sT |\\ |d+<q\T s n+X\T bC |
10 M
10 M
10 M

\|T T |
10 M

yTT+
esT\T
50 M

>&T

d+>V D eT+q+ ` |> qy<T


keTs\ y> k~+q esT\T
sD\T
b<
yTT+
` e| s # & + nqTd+<q+ |s# & + `
.d+. $<] |sT deTdk<q
esT\T
40 M s|D\T 10 M 15 M <osD
20 M
15 M

>&T

y] / e] |* +

sD,
sD sD d+>V D d+>V D
d+>V D e] |* +
.d+. $<] |sT eT+q+ eT+q+ eT+q+ eT+q+
yTT+
>&T
esT\T
>&T
esT\T
>&T
esT\T

keTs\ y> $Xw D |{ \ T.


>&+> $Xw
D : du \ T
s>
yTT+ $<sT\ d+K

A+

B+

|\\ nu dq deTd\T (@jT keTs\ yqT& HsT?)


|ejT u<q , s#sD |D[ (|\\ T yqT&q keTs\qT ] k~+#& s#sD
|D[ j )
eTT+|.

179

_. m&. ` #b<jTT\ sB | ` >D +

10

>D u<H eqsT\T

@<H $jTe+eTsTTq u<H u dq |jT n+<T y&&q eqsT\T |eTTKbeVksTT.


& eqsT\T nq> u<H u dq |jT \T sT>TTq deTjT+H |j +#*q$ n nqTe&+
nbV eyT . b<jTT&T |\ >D ueq\qT ne>Vq|]# eT+ s> >~
y eTT+<T L& d+d<T & e & = eqsT\qT |j +#Ty*. |\\ u<H u dq, ueq\
ne>Vq n+{ eqsT\qT |j +#Te\dq neds *jTCd ysT |j +#TH $<+ >
bV+#*.
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Websites
General
The mathforum@ Drexel University (http://www.mathforum.org)
The Centre for Innovation in Mathematics Teaching (CIMT) (http://www.cimt.plymouth.ac.uk)
Math cats Fun math for kids (http://www.mathcats.com), count on (http://www.counton.org)

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1. Illuminations - Resources for teaching maths (http://illuminations.nctm.org) Interactive
(http://www.shodor.org/interactivate)
Gadsen Mathematics Initiative (http://www2.gisd.k12.nm.us/GMIWebsite/ImathResources.html)
2. Mathematical Interactivities Puzzles, games and other online educational resources
(http://mathematics.hellam.net)
3. National Library of Virtual Manipulatives (http://nlvm.usu.edu/en/nav/vlibrary.html)
4. Mathnet Interactive mathematics in education (http://www.mathsnet.net)
NewZealand maths (http://www.nzmaths.co.nz)
The Mactutor History of Mathematics archive (http://www.history.mcs.st-and.ac.uk/history)
Math cartons (http://www.trottermath.net/humor/cartoons.html)
Math Comis (http://home.adelphi.edu/~stemkoski/mathematrix/comics.html)
Mathematical quotation server (http://math.furman.edu/~mwoodard/mqs/mquots.html)
Wolfram Mathword The webs most extensive mathematical resource (http://mathworld.wolfram.com)
Optical illusions and visual phenomena (http://www.michaelbach.de/ot)
Optical illusions gallery (http://www.unoriginal.co.uk/optical5.html)
Teachers resources online (http://www.cleavebooks.co.uk/trol/index.html)
Interactive : Activities (http://www.shodor.org/interactive/activities/#fun)
Maths articles (http://www.mathgoodies.com/articles)
Math words and some other words of interest (http://www.pballew.net/etyindex.html)
Portraits of scientists and mathematicians
(http://www.sil.si.edu/digitalcollections/hst/scientific-identity/CF/display_results.cfm?alpha_sort=R)
Let epsilon < 0 (http://epsilon.komplexify.com)
Grand illusion (http://www.grand-illusions.com)
Portrait
gallery

Mathematicians
(http://mathdl.maa.org/mathDL/46/
?pa=content&sa=viewDocument&nodeid=2437&bodyId=2241)
Maths teaching ideas (http://www.teachingideas.co.uk/maths/contents.html)

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E-books
Illustrated maths formulas salim (http://www.arvindguptatoys.com/arvindgupta/mathformulas.pdf)
Ramanujan the man behind the mathematician Sundaresan and Padmavijayam (http://gyanpedia.in/
tft/Resources/books/ramanujan.doc)
A mathematicians apology G.H.Hardy (http://math.boisestate.edu/~holems/holmes/
A%20Mathematician%27s%20Apology.pdf)
Puzzle maths G.Gamov and stern (http://www.arvindguptatoys.com/arvindgupta/puzzlemath.pdf)
1000 uses of a hundred square Leah Mildred Beardsley (http://www.mediafire.com/
download.php?detnojrueje)
Geometry comic book Jeane Pierre Petit (http://www.mediafire.com/?ud0nnnujzyy)
Elements Eucid (http://www.mediafire.com/?ud0nnnujzyy)
How children learn mathematics (http://gyanpedia.in/tft/Resources/books/mathsliebeck.pdf)
Suggested experiments in school mathematics J.N.Kapur (http://www.arvindguptatoys.com/
arvindgupta/jnkapur.pdf)
Primary resources Maths (http://www.primaryresources.co.uk/maths/maths.html)
Proteacher! Maths lesson plans for elementary school teaches (http://www.proteacher.com/
100000.html)
Maths activities (http://www.trottermath.net/contents.html)
Maths powerpoints (http://www.worldofteaching.com/mathspowerpoints.html)
Maths is fun maths resources (http://www,mathsisfun.com)
Middle school portal for maths and science teachers (http://www.msteacher.org/math)
Maths games, maths puzzles and maths lessons designed for kids and fun
(http://www.coolmath4kids.com)

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Numbers

Magic, squares, magic stars & other patterns (http://recmath.org/Magic%20squares)


Number recreations (http://www.shyamsundergupta.com)
Broken calculator Maths investigation (http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/mahts/brokencalculator/index.html)
Calculator chaos (http://www.mathpalyground.com/Calculator Chaos.html)
Primary school numeracy (http://durham.schooljotter.com/coxhoe/Curriculam+Links/Numeracy)
Quarks to Quasars, powers of 10 (http://www.wordwizz.com/pwrsof10.html)

Algebra

Algebra puzzle (http://www.mathplayground.com/Algebra_Puzzle.html)


Algebra tiles (http://mathbits.com/MathBits/AlgebraTiles/AlgebraTiles/MathBitss07ImpFree.html)
(http://mathbits.com/MathBits/AlgebraTiles/AlgebraTiles/MathBitss07ImpFree.html)
Geometry (http://www.cyffredin.co.uk)
The Fractory : An interactive tool for creating and exploring fractals (http://library.thinkquest.org/3288/
fractals.html)
Tessellate (http://www.shodor.org/interactivate/activities/Tessellate)
MathSphere Free graph
MathSphereFreeGraphPaper.html)

paper

(http://www.mathsphere.co.uk/resources/

Paper models of polyhedral (http://www.korthalsaltes.com)

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Problem solving
Mathpuzzle (http://www.mathpuzzle.com)
Puzzling world of polynedral dissections (http://www.johnrausch.com/PuzzlingWorld?contents.html)
Interactive mathematics miscellany and Puzzles (http://www.cut-the-knot.org)
Puzzles and projects (http://www.delphiforfun.org/Programs/Indices/projectsIndex.html)
10ticks daily puzzle page (http://www.10ticks.co.uk/s_dailyPuzzle.aspx)
Archimedes laboratory teachers resource: Improve problem solving skills (http://www.archimedeslab.org/index_teachers.html)
Brain teasers (http://www.pedagonet.com/brain/brainers.html)
Gymnasium for Brain (http://www.gymnasiumforbrain.com)
Puzzles and games (www.thinks.com)

Miscellaneou.s
Mathematical imagery (http://www.josleys.com)

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