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. . , . .

2001


1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.1 ,
. . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.1.1 ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.1.2 x (t ) f (t ) ( ,
). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2.1.3 x (t ) f (t , x (t )) ,
x(t) ( ,
). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.1.4 x (t ) f ( x(t ), x (t )) ,
t ( ,
) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2.2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
2.2.3 ( ) . . . . . . . 22
2.2.4

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3 . . . . . . .
3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

36
36
37
40

4 . . . . . . . 44
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

1

, ,
[3, 5]:
R , ,
a , , m:

R ma .

(1.1)

, , , , . , .
R a
.
. , :
R Fi ,
Fi , ,
, .
:
a a an .
,
a a a a ,
a , a , a , .
, ,
, .
.
4

,
.
(1.1) :

, ;
, .

.


1 .
2 , .
3 . . .
.
4 (1.1),

.
5 :
) , , ,
;
) , ,
, ;
) , , ,
,
. ) ).
6 , . 4, .
7 ; .
8 .
,
, ,
. .
5

2

2.1 ,

2.1.1 ,

, , , .

M 1 ( x) N 1 (t )dx M 2 ( x) N 2 (t )dt 0 ,

(2.1)

2() 0 N1(t) 0.
(2.1) M 2 ( x) N1 (t ) ,
M 1 ( x)
N (t )
dx 2 dt .
(2.2)
M 2 ( x)
N1 (t )
(2.2) :
t,
t. ,
M 1 ( x)
N 2 (t )
dx
dt C.
(
x
)
N 1 (t )
2

(2.3)

.
1
. ,
.
2 .
3 , ,
. dv
dv
dx

v
, v
.
dt
dx
dt
6

. tdx xdt 0 .
. (2.3),
ln C :

x t
dx

dt

ln | x | ln | t | ln | C | ,
| x || Ct | ,
x Ct .

x p (t ) x f (t ) x ,

(2.4)

p (t ), f (t ) t , R, 1.
: x(t ) u (t ) z (t ),
z (t )
z (t ) z (t ) p (t ) 0.

(2.5)
, (2.5) .
, z (t ) , (2.4). (2.5),
u (t ) z (t ) f (t )(u (t ) z (t )) ,
.
u (t ) , (2.4) x(t ) u (t ) z (t ).
,
0 ,
x p (t ) x f ( x).
(2.6)
. 2.1.3.
,

x
x f ,
(2.7)
t
x
x
f .
t
t



x
u .
t
7

.
x2 t 2
.
xt
. x ut , x u t u

du
1
t .
dt
u
,
x

u2
ln | Ct |,
2

x2
t2

2 ln | Ct |,

x t ln C 2 t 2 .
2.1.2 x (t ) f (t ) ( ,
)

d 2x
2

dx
dv
, v
, ,
dt
dt

dt
dv

f t t,
dt
dx
v f t dt C1 .
dt
,

x ( f (t )dt )dt C1t C 2 .

(2.8)

C1 , C 2 , (2.8) , .
.
C1 C 2
.
2.1. m , , , F kt , (k ). ,
, v 0 .
8

. F , G , N ( 2.1). ma Fi x, :
ma x G sin F .
,

2.1

d 2x

mg sin kt
dt 2
dv

m
mg sin kt .
dt
,
m

mdv (mg sin kt )dt ;

v0

mdv (mg sin kt )dt ;


2

kt
kt 2
; v gt sin
v0 .
2
2m
v x, x:

dx
kt 2
kt 2
gt sin
v 0 ; dx gt sin
v 0 dt ;
dt
2m
2m

mv mv 0 mgt sin

kt 2
t 2 kt 3
dx gt sin
v 0 dt ; x g sin
v0t .
2m
2 6m

x0 0
0

2.1.3 x (t ) f (t , x (t )) ,
x(t) ( ,
)
dx
d 2 x dv
v , v v(t ) , ,

, dt
dt
dt 2

dv
f (t , v) ,
dt
:

v(t ) (t , C1 ),

dx
(t , C1 ) .
dt

x (t , C1 )dt C 2 .

2.2. m
F kt ,
, F v
(k ). , ,
.
. , , G F ( 2.2).
ma Fi x,
ma x F F .

2.2

d 2x
dt 2

kt

dx
,
dt


dv
dv
m
kt v m
v kt .
dt
dt
dv du
dz
v uz .

zu

dt
dt
dt
du
dz
(2.9)

m
z mu
uz kt .
dt
dt

:
dz
dz
mu
uz 0 m z 0 ( u 0) .
dt
dt
, , z:

t
dz

dt ; ln z t ; z e m .
z
m
m
(2.9),

10

t
du m t
k
e
kt ; du te m dt ;
dt
m

du

t
k mt
k
mk t
te dt ; u te m 2 e m C .
m

v uz

t
k
mk
t 2 Ce m .

(2.10)
dx
dt

t 0

v t 0 0 .

(2.10), :

0
k
mk
0 2 Ce m ;

mk
2

k
mk t
,
v t 2 (e m 1) .

, :

dx k
mk t
mk t
t 2 (e m 1) ; dx t 2 (e m 1) dt ;

dt

t
kt 2 m 2 k
mk
k
mk t
dx t 2 (e m 1) dt ; x x0
3 (1 e m ) 2 t .

x0
0

2.1.4 x (t ) f ( x(t ), x (t )) ,
t (
, )
dx
v .
dt
d 2 x dv dv dx dx dv
dv

v
,
dt
dt dx dt dx
dx
dt 2

v(x) ,

d 2x
2

dx
, dt

dt

dv
v
f ( x , v) ,
dx
x . ,
dx
v x,C1 . v
, dt
11


dx
x,C1 .
dt
, :
dx
t C2 .
x, C1
. dv
dv

v
, dt
dx

.

2.3. H , :
v 2
F
( h ). xh
, .
x(0) 0 , x (0) v 0 .
. ,

dv
v 2

.
dt
xh
: t, v x.
,
dv
dv
v
.
dt
dx
:
vdv
v 2
m

.
dx
xh
, v x:
ma x F m

mvdv
v 2

dx
;
xh

mvdv

v0

dx
;
xh

m v
xh
v

h
ln
ln
; ln
ln
;
v0
h
v0 m x h

12

m
x
ln v ln( x h) 0 ;

v0

v h m

;
v0 h x

h m
v v0
.
hx
, :

dx
h m
v0
;
dt
h x

h xm dx v0 h m dt ;

h x m dx v0h m dt ;
0

h x m 1

1
m

v0 h t ;
0

1
m
1

h x m h m v 0 h m t ;

0
m

m
m

h x

1
m

1 m v t m
m
0
h;

v 0 h t ; x h m 1

m
m
h

m v0 t m

x h 1
1 .

m h

2.2

2.2.1


d 2x

dx
(2.11)
cx f (t ) ,
dt
dt
a, b, c ;
f(t) t.
f (t ) 0 , (2.11) .
a

f (t ) 0 , :
d 2x

dx
b cx 0 .
(2.12)
dt
dt 2
,
[1], :
(2.11) -
a

13


.
,
x
- x* .
x x x*.

(2.13)

. 2.2.2 (2.12) , , x . x* ( )
.
2.2.2


ax bx cx 0 .
(2.14)
x1 (t ) x 2 (t ) ,
(2.14). [2]:
x(t ) C1 x1 (t ) C 2 x 2 (t ) ,
(2.15)
C1 , C 2 .
(2.14) .
, , - .
x e t , const .
x e t , x 2 e t .

(2.14),

a2 e t be t ce t 0 e t a2 b c 0 .
e

0 ,
a2 b c 0 .

(2.16)
t

, (2.16), e
(2.14).
(2.16) (2.14). , . 14

1 2 :
b b 2 4ac
b b 2 4ac
, 2
.
2a
2a
.
1

1 b 2 4ac 0 , 1 2
(1 2 ) .
x1 e 1t , x 2 e 2 t .
x 2 e 2t

e 2t 1t e ( 2 1 )t const .
x1 e 1t
, (2.14)

x C1e 1 t C 2 e 2 t .
2 b 2 4ac 0 , 1 2
( 1 2 ) .
(2.14) x1 e t ,
b
1 2
.
(2.17)
2a
, ,
x 2 u t e t , u t .
x 2 u e t ue t , x2 u e t 2u e t 2 ue t .
(2.14) x 2 :
au e t 2au e t a2 ue t bu e t bue t cue t 0 .
e t 0 ,
au 2au a2 u bu bu cu 0

au 2a b u a2 b c u 0 .

(2.16) , a2 b c 0 , (2.17)
2a b 0 . u 0 . u (t ) At B .
: A 0, B 1 A 1, B 0 .
, x 2 (t ) e t x1 (t ) .
15

x 2 (t ) te t .

x2 te t
t t const . ,
x1
e

x1 (t ) x 2 (t ) .
, 1 2 , (2.14)
x C1e t C 2 te t .
3 b 2 4ac 0 , 1 2 .
. 1 i , 2 i ( 0 ). (2.14)
t:
x1 (t ) e (i)t , x 2 (t ) e ( i)t .
e z iy e z (cos y i sin y ) x1 (t ) x 2 (t )
(2.15):
(2.18)
x(t ) C e t (cos t i sin t ) C e t (cos t i sin t )
1

x (t ) (C1 C 2 )e t cos t i (C1 C 2 )e t sin t .

C1 C 2 , C1 C 2
i (C1 C 2 ) .
D1 C1 C 2 ; D2 i (C1 C 2 ) .
x (t ) D1e t cos t D2 e t sin t .

(2.15), ,
(2.14)
~
x1 (t ) e t cos t , ~
x 2 (t ) e t sin t .
~
x (t ) ~
x (t ) ,
1

~
x 2 e t sin t

tg t const .
~
x1 e t cos t
, (2.14)

x C1e t cos t C 2 e t sin t x e t (C1 cos t C 2 sin t ) .


, , (2.18).

16

,

1 2 .
1
.
1

1 2 , 1 2

x C1e 1 t C 2 e 2 t

1 2 , 1 2

x C1e t C 2 te t

1 2 :

x e t (C1 cos t C 2 sin t )

1, 2 i , 0

(
, , x x
t 0 ) C1 C2 .
2.4 ( 2.3). 5,
m = 1 , 1, K
4 1 = 160 /. 2 3, 2 = 256 /, 3 = 384 /. K
a b , AB = 10 .
6
,
F v , , v ,
= 10 /.
2.3
a b 4 ?
, . ,
.
. a b,
, 4
( 2.4).

17

2 3
. ,
F 2 c 2 l F 3 c3 l .

2.4

, 4
, ,
K :

iK

0;

F 3 BK F 2 AK 0 .

, :
c3 l b c 2 l a 0 .
,

a c3
.
b c2
a 384 3
2.3 , a b AB 10 .

,
b 256 2
a = 6 , b = 4 .

.
2 3 . [3]
,
, , , . , 2 3
c 23 c 2 c3 256 384 640 /.
,
2.5.
2.5
,
. [3] , , ( ,
). ,
c1 c 23 .
:
18

cc
1
1
160 640

, c 1 23
128 /.
c c1 c 23
c1 c 23 160 640
,
, 2.6.
, , ,

. :
ma x G F F .
1

2.6 ,
l : l x.
:
F c (l x) .
2.6
,
:
mx mg c (l x) x .
,
mg c l .
(2.19)
:
mx x c x 0 .
(2.20)

, :
2 x 10 x 128 x 0 x 5 x 64 x 0 .

(2.21)
, :
2 5 64 0 .

5 5 2 4 1 64
2,5 15,2i .
2

, .
.

, 1 (2.21) :
1, 2

x e 2,5t (C1 cos15,2t C 2 sin 15,2t ) .


19

(2.22)

x:
dx
vx
2,5e 2,5t (C1 cos15,2t C 2 sin 15,2t )
dt
e 2,5t (15,2C1 sin 15,2t 15,2 cos15,2t ).

(2.23)
C1 C 2 t 0 (2.22) (2.23):
x t 0 x0 e 2,50 C1 cos(15,2 0) C 2 sin(15,2 0) C1 ;

vx

t 0

v x 2,5e 2,50 C1 cos(15,2 0) C 2 sin(15,2 0)


0

e 2,50 15,2C1 sin(15,2 0) 15,2 cos(15,2 0) 2,5C1 15,2C 2 .


, ,

v x 0 ,
0

x0 OK l .
C1 l ;

2,5C1 15,2C 2 0.
(2.19) , l

mg 1 9,8

0,0766 ,
c
128

2,5 C1 2,5 (0,0766)

0,0126 .
15,2
15,2
,
x e 2,5t (0,0766 cos15,2t 0,0126 sin 15,2t ) .
C1 0,0766 ; C 2

2.5. 2.4
= 32
. (2.20)

2 x 32 x 128 x 0 x 16 x 64 x 0 .
(2.24)

2 16 64 0 ,

16 16 2 4 1 64
8 .
2
.
(2.24):
1, 2

20

x C1e 8t C 2 te 8t .

v x x 8C1e 8t C 2 e 8t 8C 2 te 8t .
t 0 , :
x0 C1 ; x 0 8C1 C 2 .
x0 l , v x 0 ,
0

C1 l 0,0766 ; C 2 8C1 8 0,0766 0,6128 .


x 0,0766e 8t 0,6128 te 8t .

2.6. 2.4
= 50
. (2.20)
2 x 50 x 128 x 0 x 25 x 64 x 0 .

(2.25)


2 25 64 0 ,

25 25 2 4 1 64
25 25 2 4 1 64
2,90 ; 1
22,10 .
2
2
, (2.25):
x C1e 2,9t C 2 e 22,1t .
1

v x x 2,9C1e 2,9t 22,1C 2 e 22,1t .

,
t 0 :

x0 C1 C 2 ; x 0 2,9C1 22,1C 2 .
x0 l v x 0 , 0


C1 C 2 l ;

2,9C1 22,1C 2 0.
,
2,9C1
0,131C1 ; C1 0,131C1 l .
22,1
l
C1
0,0881 ; C 2 0,131 (0,0881) 0,0115 .
0,869

C2

x 0,0881e 2,9t 0,0115 e 22,1t .


21

2.2.3 ( )

(2.11). , x1 (t ) , x 2 (t )
(2.11) ,
x (t ) C1 x1 (t ) C 2 x 2 (t ) .
(2.26)
x * (t ) (2.11) (2.26), C1 C2 , t,
(2.27)
x * (t ) C (t ) x (t ) C (t ) x (t ) .
1

t:
( x*) C1 (t ) x1 (t ) C1 (t ) x1 (t ) C 2 (t ) x 2 (t ) C 2 (t ) x 2 (t ) .
, ,
C1 (t ) x1 (t ) C 2 (t ) x 2 (t ) 0 .

( x*) C1 (t ) x1 (t ) C 2 (t ) x2 (t ) .
t:
( x*) C1 (t ) x1 (t ) C1 (t ) x1(t ) C 2 (t ) x2 (t ) C 2 (t ) x2 (t ) .
x* ( x*) ( x*)
(2.11),
aC1 (t ) x1 (t ) aC1 (t ) x1(t ) aC 2 (t ) x 2 (t ) aC 2 (t ) x 2 (t )
bC1 (t ) x1 (t ) bC 2 (t ) x 2 (t ) cC1 (t ) x1 (t ) cC 2 (t ) x 2 (t ) f (t )

C1 (t )ax1(t ) bx1 (t ) cx1 (t ) C 2 (t )ax 2 (t ) bx 2 (t ) cx 2 (t )


aC1 (t ) x1 (t ) aC 2 (t ) x 2 (t ) f (t ).
, x1 (t ) x 2 (t )
. ,
aC1 (t ) x1 (t ) aC 2 (t ) x2 (t ) f (t ).
, (2.11)
:
C1 (t ) x1 (t ) C 2 (t ) x 2 (t ) 0;

a C1 (t ) x1 (t ) C 2 (t ) x 2 (t ) f (t ).
22

(2.28)

C1 (t ) (t ) , C 2 (t ) (t ) . ,
C1 (t ) C 2 (t ) . (2.27),
(2.11).
2.7. m = 5 ,
, ,
R 5v 5e 2t sin e t i ( 2.7).
,
,
x0 0,1 .

2.7

. ma R x, :
ma x 5v 5e 2t sin e t 5 x 5 x 5e 2t sin e t .
x x e 2t sin e t .

x x 0 .
2 0 1 0 , 2 1 ,
,
x (t ) C1 C 2 e t ,
x1 (t ) e 0 1 , x 2 (t ) e t .

x* C1 (t ) C 2 (t )e t . C1 (t ) C 2 (t ) (2.28), , x1 (t ) 0 , x 2 (t ) e t :
C (t ) C (t )e t 0;
1
2

C1 (t ) 0 C 2 (t )e t e 2t sin e t .
,
C1 (t ) e 2t sin e t , C 2 (t ) e t sin e t ,

C1 (t ) e t cos e t sin e t , C 2 (t ) cos e t .


,
x * (t ) (e t cos e t sin e t ) ( cos e t )e t sin e t .
x(t) - ,
23

x(t ) x (t ) x * (t ) C1 C 2 e t sin e t .
(2.29)
1 2.
:
x (t ) C 2 e t cos e t e t .
(2.30)
(2.29) (2.30) t = 0, :
x(0) C1 C 2 ; x (0) C 2 1 .
, x(0) 0,1 ; x (0) 0 . , :
C1 C 2 0,1;

C 2 1 0.
, : 1 = 0,9; C2 = 1. , :
x(t ) 0,9 e t sin e t .
2.2.4


,
(2.11). .
d 2x

dx
b cx e t ( Pn (t ) cos t Qm (t ) sin t ) ,
(2.31)
dt
dt 2
Pn (t ), Qm (t ) n m ,
,
.
.
a

1 ( 2 .3 1 ) n :
f (t ) Pn (t ) .
(2.32)
, (2.31),
0 .
:
) 0
a2 b c 0 .
24

(2.33)


x* Rn (t ) A0 A1t A2 t 2 An t n ,

(2.34)

A0 , A1 , , An , .
x*,

dx * d 2 x *
,
(2.31),
dt
dt 2

aRn (t ) bRn (t ) cRn (t ) Pn (t ) .

(2.35)

t, n + 1 n + 1 A0 , A1 , , An ;
) 0 () (2.33), b 0 , c = 0.
x(t) (2.34), (2.35) n 1, n.
, A0 , A1 , , An (2.35) .
(n + 1)- , , , x tRn (t ) ;
) 0 ,
2 0 .
x * (t ) n,
(2.35) n 2, n. x * (t )
(n + 2)- , t,
, :
x * (t ) t 2 Rn (t ) .
. , ) ), , , . 2.1.
2.8. h0 m v 0 . ,
, ( k).

25

.
Ox 2.8 :
ma x G F .
a x x (t ) F kv kx (t ) ,
mx mg kx

k
x g .
(2.36)
m
, m, g , x(t) f(t) = g.

k
x x 0
(2.37)
m
k
k
2 0 . 1 0, 2 . ,
m
m
, (2.36),
x

2.8

kt

x(t ) C1 C 2 e m .
0 ,
(2.36) f (t ) g ,
x * (t ) At .
dx *
d 2x *

(2.36),
dt
dt 2
k
mg

A g , A
.
m
k
mg
, x * (t )
t,
k

kt
m

mg
t.
(2.38)
k
C1 C2 , x(t)
x(0) 0, x (0) v 0 . (2.38),
:
x(t ) C1 C 2 e

26

kt

k
mg
C2e m
.
m
k
x(t) x (t ) t = 0,

C1 C 2 0;

k
mg
m C 2 k v 0 .

, :
mm
mm

C1 g v 0 , C 2 g v 0 .
kk
k
k

C1 C2 (2.37),
x t:

x (t )

kt

x (t )

m mg
mg

v 0 (e m 1)
t.

k k
k

2 ( 2 .3 1 )
f (t ) e t Pn (t ) ,
0 .
[4]:
x * (t ) e t Rn (t ) ,
(2.33);
x * (t ) te t Rn (t ) , (2.33);
x * (t ) t 2 e t Rn (t ) ,
(2.33).
2.9. 2.9 , , .
m = 1 , l = 0,4 . ,
c = 100 /. ,
,
=1
, F 10te 2t , ,
.
27

. :
F , G , F1 F 2 ,
F , R .
:
ma F G F1 F2 F R .

l.
:
ma F G sin F1 F2 F .
2.9

ma 10te 2t mg sin cx cx v .
s
sin .
l
x l sin s . :

mg

2t
mx x 2c
x 10te .
l

, :
x x 175,5 x 10te 2t .

(2.39)



2 175,5 0 .

1, 2 0,5 0,25 175,5 0,5 13,24i .

,
x (t ) e 0,5t (C1 sin 13,24t C 2 cos 13,24t ) .
(2.39) e 2t
, 2 ,
x * (t ) ( At B)e 2t ,
(2.40)
A, B .

28

x*(t),
dx *
d 2x *
Ae 2t 2( At B)e 2t ;
4 Ae 2t 4( At B )e 2t .
dt
dt 2
(2.40) (2.41) (2.39), :

(2.41)

4 Ae 2t 4( At B)e 2t Ae 2t 2( At B )e 2t 175,5( At B)e 2t 10 te 2t .


e 2t ,
3 A 177,5 At 177,5 B 10t .
t, :
177,5 A 10;
.

3 A 177,5 B 0.
, A B:
10
3 0,05634
0,05634 ; B
0,00095.
177,5
177,5
, (2.39)
x * (t ) (0,05634 t 0,00095)e 2t ,

x x x* e 0,5t (C1 sin 13,24t C 2 cos13,24t ) (0,05634 t 0,00095)e 2t .
A

C1 C 2
:
x 0,5e 0,5t (C1 sin 13,24t C 2 cos13,24t ) 13,24e 0,5t (C1 cos 13,24t C 2 sin 13,24t )
0,05634e 2t 2 (0,05634t 0,00095)e 2t .

,
x(0) C 2 0,00095 ;
x (0) 0,5C 2 13,24C1 0,05634 2 0,00095 0,5C 2 13,24C1 0,05444 .
, x(0) 0 x (0) 0 ,
:
C 2 0,00095 0;

0,5C 2 13,24C1 0,05444 0.


,
0,5C 2 0,05444 0,5 (0,00095) 0,05444
C 2 0,00095 ; C1

0,00415.
13,24
13,24
, :
x e 0,5t (0,00415 sin 13,24t 0,00095 cos 13,24t ) (0,05634 t 0,00095)e 2t .
29

3 ( 2 .3 1 )
f (t ) e t ( Pn (t ) cos t Qm (t ) sin t ) .

(2.42)
x * (t ) e t ( Rk (t ) cos t S k (t ) sin t ) ,
k max( n, m) , i (2.33),
(2.43)
x * (t ) te t ( Rk (t ) cos t S k (t ) sin t ) ,
i (2.33).
. x * (t ) (2.42) (2.43)
, - Pn (t ) Qm (t )
.

2.10

2.10. 2.10 ,
.
s b cos t .
c,
m. ,
,

x0 b ; x 0 0 .

. ( ) , s 0 .
Ox :
(2.44)
ma x G F .

F cl ,
l l 0 l l x s ,
30

l0 l ;
l , .
(2.44),
ma x G cl x cs .
G cl ,
s
(2.45)
mx cx cb cos t .
, , x x x * .
m2 c 0 1 i

c
c
, 2 i
, 0 ,
m
m

c
.
m

,
x C1 cos

c
c
t C 2 sin
t.
m
m

.
.
) .
x* A cos t B sin t .

dx *
d 2x *
( A sin t B cos t ) ;
2 ( A cos t B sin t ) .
dt
dt 2
(2.45),
m 2 ( A cos t B sin t ) c( A cos t B sin t ) cb cos t .
,
t,
:
cos t : m 2 A cA cb;

sin t : m 2 B cB 0.
, A

cb

; B 0 . ,
m 2 c
(2.45) :

31

x*

cb
m 2 c

cos t ,

:
c
c
cb
t C 2 sin
t
cos t .
m
m
m 2 c

x C1 cos

Ox :
c
c
C1 sin
t
m
m

c
c
cb
C 2 cos
t
sin t .
m
m
m 2 c

t 0 :
x(0) C1

cb
m c
2

; x (0)

c
C2 .
m

, :
C1
C1

m b
2

m 2 c
x

ca
m c
2

b ;

c
C2 0 .
m

; C 2 0 :

m 2 b
m 2 c

c
cb
t
cos t .
m
m 2 c

cos

c
. m
:
)

x* t ( A cos

c
c
t B sin
t) .
m
m

,
dx *
c
c
A cos
t B sin
t
dt
m
m
d 2x*
dt

c
c
c
t A sin
t B cos
t ;

m
m
m

c
c
c c
c
c
A sin
t B cos
t t A cos
t B sin
t .

m
m
m m
m
m

(2.30) :
32


c
cAt cAt cb;
cos t : 2mB

sin t : 2mA c cBt cBt 0.


m

b
2

c
bt
; A 0 ; x*
m
2

c
c
sin
t.
m
m

:
x C1 cos
x C1

c
c
bt
t C 2 sin
t
m
m
2

c
c
c
c
b
sin
t C2
cos
t
m
m
m
m
2

c
c
sin
t;
m
m

c
c
cbt
c
sin
t
cos
t;
m
m
2m
m

x(0) C1 b ; x (0) C 2 0 .
,
x b cos

c
bt
t
m
2

c
c
sin
t
m
m

(2.45).
4 (2 .31)
.

f (t ) f1 (t ) f n (t ) .
x * (t ) (2.31)
x * (t ) x1* (t ) x n* (t ) ,
xi* (t )

ax bx cx f i (t ) .
2.11. (
2.11) s 0,5t 3 0,1e 0,5t sin 4t . ,
c 200 , m = 2 .

l 0 30 . , .

33

. ,
G F :
ma z G 2F .

(2.46)

,
. l
F l ,
l x l 0 .

z s x , 2.11
a z s x .
(2.46),
m(s x) mg 2c( x l 0 ) .

s 1,5t 2 0,05e 0,5t sin 4t 0,4e 0,5t cos 4t ;
s 3t 0,025e 0,5t sin 4t 0,2e 0,5t cos 4t 0,2e 0,5t cos 4t 1,6e 0,5t sin 4t
3t 1,575e 0,5t sin 4t 0,4e 0,5t cos 4t.

:

2 3t 1,575e 0,5t sin 4t 0,4e 0,5t cos 4t x 2 9,8 2 200 x 0,3 .


, , x, :
2 x 400 x 6t 139,6 3,15e 0,5t sin 4t 0,8e 0,5t cos 4t .

(2.47)

.

22 400 0
1, 2 200i 14,14i . ,
x C1 cos 14,14t C 2 sin 14,14t .
34

(2.32)

f1 (t ) 6t 139,6 f 2 (t ) 3,15e 0,5t sin 4t 0,8e 0,5t cos 4t .


f i (t ) i , x1* (t ) x 2* (t )
2 x 400 x 6t 139,6 ; 2 x 400 x 3,15e 0,5t sin 4t 0,8e 0,5t cos 4t

(2.48)

:
x1* (t ) At B ; x 2* (t ) e 0,5t ( D sin 4t E cos 4t ) .

(2.49)

(2.49), (2.48), , ,
x1* (t ) 0,015t 0,349 , x 2* (t ) e 0,5t (0,00850 sin 4t 0,00236 cos 4t ) .
, x * (t ) (2.47)
x * (t ) 0,015t 0,349 e 0,5t (0,00850 sin 4t 0,00236 cos 4t ) ,

x * (t ) C1 cos14,14t C 2 sin 14,14t


0,015t 0,349 e 0,5t (0,00850 sin 4t 0,00236 cos 4t ).
, x0 l0 l .
l .
G 2 F 2l .
mg
2 9,8
0,3
0,3245 . 2c
2 400
, x 0 0 . ,
x0 l0

C1 0,02686 , C 2 0,00126 .
:

x * (t ) 0,02686 cos14,14t 0,00126 sin 14,14t


0,015t 0,349 e 0,5t (0,00850 sin 4t 0,00236 cos 4t ).

35

3

3.1
, ,
. .
.
[t 0 , t n ]
x f (t , x) , x(t 0 ) x0 .
n , t i . , . , t i 1 t i hi .
h hi .
x0, x1, x2, , xn, xi
ti.
, ,
. , [t i , t i 1 ] dx
x
h.
dt
dx, dt x xi 1 xi t t i 1 t i h .
x xi 1 xi xi 1 xi

.
t
t i 1 t i
h
, ,
x f (t , x) ,
x


xi 1 xi
.
h
, xi+1
xi 1 xi h f (t i , xi ) .
(3.1)
f (t i , xi )

3.1

3.1 ,
M i M i 1 . 36

, [t i , t i 1 ] .
, ( ,
3.2) ,
M i M i 1 ,

M 0 , , t i .
(3.1)
. 3.2

. ,
.
(. 3.2) , t
.
. . ,
.
3.2



dv
a
, v dt
t a f (t , x, v) (3.1) :
vi 1 v i a t .

, . ,

37

a t 2
.
2
, x f (t , x, x ) :
xi 1 xi v i t

f (t , xi , xi )h 2
.
(3.2)
2


. , (3.2)
.
3.1. m = 0,5 , ,
v = 4 / . F kh 3 / 2 , h
; k , k = 5000 /3/2.
, , 20 1 /.
.
xi1 xi f (t , xi , xi ) h ;

xi 1 xi v i h

.
G , F F .
Ox ( 3.3)
ma x G F F .

(3.3)

F v .
3.3

v1 1 / F1 20 . -

20
.
v1

(3.3),

F1

k 3/ 2
x x .
m
m
, x f (t , x, x ) ,
mx mg kx 3 / 2 x x g

f (t , x, x ) g
38

k 3/ 2
x x.
m
m

3.4 MathCAD, v x t (3.2).


, ,
h = 0,0001 .
v 0 4 /;
x0 0 .

v x t. , 0,0543 .
k

5000

0.0001

v0

x0

0 399

ti

h i

0.5

20

vi

xi

vi

9.8

k
m

xi


v h
m i

xi

v i h

9.8

k
m

xi

h
v
m i 2

0.054286

0.06

0.04

v
i

x
i
0

0.02

2
0

0.01

0.02
t
i

0.03

0.04

0
0

3.4

39

0.01

0.02
t
i

0.03

0.04
0.0399

3.3 -
- [6].

:
h
xi 1 xi (k1i 2k 2i 2k3i k 4i ) ,
6
hk
h

k1i f (t i , xi ), k 2i f (t i , xi 1i ),
2
2
hk
h
k 3i f (t i , xi 2i ), k 4i f (t i h, xi hk 3i ) .
2
2
- :
x1 f1 (t , x1 , x 2 , , x n ),

x 2 f 2 (t , x1 , x 2 , , x n ),

. . . . . . . .
x n f n (t , x1 , x 2 , , x n )
: x1 (t 0 ) x1,0 , x2 (t 0 ) x2, 0 ,, xn (t 0 ) xn, 0 .
- :
h
x m,i 1 x m,i (k1m,i 2k 2 m,i 2k 3m,i k 4 m,i ) , m 1, ..., n ,
6

k1m,i f m (t i , x1,i , x 2,i , , x n ,i ) ,


hk
hk
hk
h
, x1,i 11i , x 2,i 12i , , x n,i 1ni ),
2
2
2
2
hk 21i
hk 22i
hk 2 ni
h
k 3m,i f m (t i , x1,i
, x 2,i
, , x n ,i
),
2
2
2
2
k 4 m,i f m (t1 h, x1,i hk 31i , x 2,i hk 32i , , x n ,i hk 3ni ) ,
k 2 m,i f m (t i

m 1, ..., n .
3.5 , -. , .
, , . ,
x f (t , x, x )
v x
40

Program RungeKutt;
{ - }
uses crt,printer;
{ }
var t,ft,nachotr,konotr,h:real;
x,y,k1,k2,k3,k4,fx:array [1..10] of real;
n,i:integer;
Procedure Funk;
{ begin end }
Begin
{ :}
y[1]:=fx[2];
y[2]:=-15*fx[2]-200*fx[1]-20000*fx[1]*fx[1]*fx[1];
{ ..
y[1],y[2],y[3] .. -
,
, fx[1], fx[2], fx[3] ..- , ft -
}
End;
Procedure Shag;
Begin
ft:=t;
for i:=1 to n do fx[i]:=x[i]; Funk;
for i:=1 to n do k1[i]:=y[i];
ft:=t+h/2;

for i:=1 to n do fx[i]:=x[i]+h*k1[i]/2; Funk;


for i:=1 to n do k2[i]:=y[i];

ft:=t+h/2;

for i:=1 to n do fx[i]:=x[i]+h*k2[i]/2; Funk;


for i:=1 to n do k3[i]:=y[i];

ft:=t+h/2;

for i:=1 to n do fx[i]:=x[i]+h*k3[i]; Funk;


for i:=1 to n do k4[i]:=y[i];

for i:=1 to n do x[i]:=x[i]+(h/6)*(k1[i]+2*k2[i]+2*k3[i]+k4[i]);


End;
Begin clrscr;
n:=2;
{ }
nachotr:=0;
{ t}
t:=nachotr;
konotr:=0.6;
{ t}
h:=0.03;
{ }
for i:=1 to n do
begin
writeln(' x[',i,']='); readln(x[i]);
end;
while t<=konotr+h do
begin
write(' t=',t:6:3);
for i:=1 to n do
begin
write('
x[',i,']=',x[i]:7:4);
end;
writeln;
Shag; t:=t+h;
end; End.

3.5

41


x v;

v f (t , x, v).
-
.
:
h n 1

2 n 1
n 1

max{| xi xi * | | i 0,1,..., n},

2 1

;
h
, n + 1 ;
xi xi* x(t),
ti h h/2 .
3.2.
,
. , , ,
.
m = 1 ,
3.6,

c = 200 /,
=
F kx 3 ,
3.6

k 2 10 4 / 3 . -

x(0) 10 , x(0) 0 . x(t)


x(t ) 0 t 0,6 0,03 .
.
mx x cx kx 3 0 .

:
x v;

c
k 3
v m v m x m x .

42

-.
, 3.6. Funk , , x fx[1] y[1], v fx[2] y[2].
, x(0) = 0,1 , v(0) = 0. x[1]= 0,1, x[1]= 0.
, 3.7.
t=
t=
t=
t=
t=
t=
t=
t=
t=
t=
t=
t=
t=
t=
t=
t=
t=
t=
t=
t=
t=

0.000
0.030
0.060
0.090
0.120
0.150
0.180
0.210
0.240
0.270
0.300
0.330
0.360
0.390
0.420
0.450
0.480
0.510
0.540
0.570
0.600

x[1]= 0.1000
x[1]= 0.0854
x[1]= 0.0553
x[1]= 0.0255
x[1]= 0.0025
x[1]=-0.0125
x[1]=-0.0203
x[1]=-0.0222
x[1]=-0.0201
x[1]=-0.0158
x[1]=-0.0107
x[1]=-0.0060
x[1]=-0.0020
x[1]= 0.0007
x[1]= 0.0024
x[1]= 0.0031
x[1]= 0.0031
x[1]= 0.0027
x[1]= 0.0020
x[1]= 0.0013
x[1]= 0.0007

x[2]= 0.0000
x[2]=-0.8636
x[2]=-1.0585
x[2]=-0.8952
x[2]=-0.6329
x[2]=-0.3732
x[2]=-0.1520
x[2]= 0.0132
x[2]= 0.1164
x[2]= 0.1637
x[2]= 0.1688
x[2]= 0.1471
x[2]= 0.1120
x[2]= 0.0736
x[2]= 0.0386
x[2]= 0.0108
x[2]=-0.0085
x[2]=-0.0196
x[2]=-0.0239
x[2]=-0.0232
x[2]=-0.0194

3.7

, . 0,5
30 .
MathCAD - rkfixed.
, , [7].

43

4

,
, [1].
, .
4.1 ( 4.1). OB
= 8 /. , , = 50. b = 0,25 . M m = 2 , O. l 0 30 . c = 50 /.
s,
s 0 0,4 ; s0 0,2 /.


.
. ,
xyz s.
:
ma

F .
i

(4.1)


12 ,

n
a a
a
a
a
a .

(4.2)

. :

n
2
a
h ; a

h,

4.1

h KM .
s = OM
44

KM OC s cos b s cos .
,

(4.3)
const , -

0 , , , a
0.
dt
(4.3) ,
:
n
2
a

(b s cos ) .

, K.
. ,
n
a
0 .
s:

a
s .
(4.4)

, a
s. s,
(4.4).

(4.5)
a 2 v sin ,

v .
, v

s, a
. s :
v s .
4.1 , 90 . :
a 2 s cos .

a . . .
v ,
.
4.1, .
90 , . , -

45

a z.
G , F N .
,
(. 4.1, ). N y N z .
, (1.1)
:
n

m a
a
a G F N y N z .

m a
cos a
G sin F ;
n
ma
sin

G
cos
;

y
ma N .
z

G mg :

m 2 (b s cos ) cos s mg sin c( s l 0 );


2
(4.6)
m (b s cos ) sin N y mg cos ;
2ms cos N .
z

s.
. ,
s :
ms (c m 2 cos 2 ) s mg sin cl0 m 2 b cos .
:
2s (50 2 8 2 cos 2 50) s 2 9,8 sin 50 50 0,3 2 8 2 0,25 cos 50 ,

2s 2,89 s 20,55 .

(4.7)


. . 2.2.1
s - (4.7):
s s s* .

46

s :
22 2,89 0 .
, : 1 1,20 ; 2 1,20 . , s 1 :
s C1e 1, 2t C 2 e1, 2t .
(2.6) ,
. ,
s * A . s * s*
(4.7),
2,89 A 20,55 , A 7,11 .
, (4.7)
s C1e 1, 2t C 2 e1, 2t 7,11 .
(4.8)

s 1,2C1e 1, 2t 1,2C 2 e1, 2t .
(4.9)
t = 0
(4.8):
s (0) C1 C 2 7,11 ; s(0) 1,2C1 1,2C 2 .
s s0,
:
C1 C 2 7,11 0,4;

1,2C1 1,2C 2 0,2.


, C1 3,84 ; C 2 3,67 .
,
:
s 3,84e 1, 2t 3,67e1, 2t 7,11 .
(4.6). :
N y m 2 (b s cos ) sin mg cos ; N z 2ms cos .
, :
N y 411,0 242,0e 1, 2t 231,3e1, 2t ; N z 94,8e 1, 2t 90,6e1, 2t .
:
N N y2 N z2 .

47


1 . . , . . , . .
. . 2. . .: , 1991. 638 .
2 .., .. . . . . .: , 1981. 448 .
3 . . , . . , . . .
.: , 1998. 736 .
4 .. : 2 . .:
, 1985. .2. 560 .
5 . . . .: ,
1995. 416 .
6 . . .: , 1982. 236 .
7 MATHCAD 6.0 PLUS. ,
Windows 95. .: - "", 1996. 712 .







. .
. .
. .
28.09.2001 . 6084 1/16.
. . .
. . . 2,79. . . . 2,63. 300 .
. 1721. . 3606.
- , 246653, . , . , 34.
57 22.10.97 .
, 246022, . , . , 34.
360 26.07.99 .