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202 SMALL CANAL STRUCTURES C. CROSS-DRAINAGE STRUCTURES 419, General —The need for cross-rainage structures results from the flow of drainage or storm runoff water from the high side of the canal to the low side. To protect the canal from such flows, crossdrainage structures are provided at locations best suited for handling them! While the alinement of a canal usually follows the natural ground contours, in the interest of economy it is often necessary to take shortcuts across natural drainages or through ridges. In crossing natural drainage channels, the canal flows may go under the channel in a siphon, or the channel flows may go under the canal in a culvert. Where natural channels are not available, or where economy dictates, the crosslrainage flows may be carried over the canal in an overchute, or small flows may be taken into the canal through a drain inlet Cross-drainage flows are sometimes collected in open drain channels which parallel the canal on the uphill side. These drain channels may carry the water to a natural channel, where it is, conducted under the canal in a culvert, ot to a collection point where the water can be carried over the canal in an overchute, or into the canal through a drain inlet, or over a siphon crossing, (a) Siphon Crossings.—(See subchapter Il C.) Where a small canal crosses a large drainage channel, it is usually more economical to carry the canal water under the channel in an inverted siphon than to carry the drainage water under the canal through a culvert. Siphons provide excellent reliability, as the accuracy of the cross