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3-1

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

3. Groundwater Flow Equations &


Well Hydraulics

GroundwaterFlowEquations

GWfloweqn.=mathematicalexpressionusedtodescribethebehaviorofgroundwater
flowinporousmedia.

GWfloweqn=Darcyslaw+MassBalanceeqn.

Darcyslaw:
Q
h

Inonedimension:

qx = = K X
x
A
q x
K x 0 0 hx
v

Inthreedimension:
q = qy = 0 K y 0 hy
qz
0 0 K z hz

Massbalanceequation:

m
InOut=Accumulation[M/T]
& in m
& out =
m

Control Volume

m& x

& =massflowrateenteringorexitingasurface[M/T]
m

Dr. Schradh Saenton

m& x +x
y

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-2

GEOL473 Hydrogeology
& x = [ w q(x)] yz
m
& y = [ w q(y)] xz
m
& z = [ w q(z)] xy
m

& x +x = [ w q(x + x)] yz


m
& y +y = [ w q(y + y)] xz
m
& z +z = [ w q(z + z)] xy
m

m
& in m
& out = [ m
&x m
& x +x ] + m
&y m
& y +y + [ m
&z m
& z +z ]
=m
t

m = wVw

Substituteporosity =

(wVw )
= [ w qx (x)] y z [ w qx (x + x)] y z
t
+ w qy (y) x z w qy (y + y) x z
+ [ w qz (z)] x y [ w qx (z + z)] x y

Vw
andvolume V = x y z intotheaboveexpression
V

(w )

x y z
= [ w qx (x)] y z [ w qx (x + x)] y z
t

+ w qy (y) x z w qy (y + y) x z

+ [ w qz (z)] x y [ w qx (z + z)] x y

Dividethroughby x y z ,wewillhave

(w ) [ w qx (x)] [ w qx (x + x)]

=
t
x

w qy (y) w qy (y + y)
+

[ q ( z ) ] [ w q x ( z + z ) ]

+ w z
z

Assumethatdensitydoesntchangemuchwithinthecontrolvolume,wecantake
densityoutofthelefthandside,thenwewillhave

1 w
qx (x + x) qx (x) qy (y + y) qx (y) qz (z + z) qx (z)
+

y
z

Takelimit x , y , z 0 ,wecantransformthedifferenceintothedifferentialform.

df
f (x + x) f (x)
Recallthedefinitionofderivative:
.
= lim

0
dx
x

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

3-3

1 w
q (y + y) qx (y)
qx (x + x) qx (x)
q ( z + z ) q x ( z )
+
lim y
lim z

= lim

x 0
x
y
z
w t t
y 0

z 0

1 w
qx qy qz
+

=
w t t
x
y
z
Fromdarcyslaw:
h
h
h
qy = K y


q x = K x
qz = K z
y
z
x

COMPRESSIBILITY OF WATER
COMPRESSIBILITY OF AQUIFER

1 w
h
1
h
= w g
= w g

w t
t
w t
t

Finally,wehavederivedthegeneralgroundwaterflowequation.

h
h
h
h
(w g + w g ) = K x + K y + K z

t x x y y z z

Forconfinedaquifer: (w g + w g ) = Ss orspecificstorage

h h h h
SS
=
Kx
+
Ky
+
Kz

t x x y y z z

S
Forunconfinedaquifer: (w g + w g ) = (S=storativity=Sy+bSS)
b

h h h h
S = Tx + Ty + Tz
t x x y y z z

Note: T=Kb=transmissivity[L2/T]
b=aquiferssaturatedthickness

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-4

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

ExampleIII1
Solvegroundwaterflowequationinthefollowing2Dproblembyassumingsteady
stateandaquiferisisotropicandhomogeneous.

Boundaryconditions

Solvethisproblembyhand,wewillhavethesolutionfor h(x , y) asfollows:


h(x , y) = y0 +

(2 m +1) y
(2 m +1) x
cs 4cs cos s cosh s
2
!!!!!
2 m =0 (2m + 1)2 cosh (2 m+s1) y0

***Theaboveexampleispresentedhereonlyforillustrationandtoshowthatgroundwater
flowequationisnoteasilysolvedbyhandtoobtainclosedformsolution.***

Groundwaterflowtoapumpingwell

Beforepumping

Whilepumping

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-5

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

Coneofdepression

=dewateredzoneinanaquifer(unconfinedaquifer)
=aconeofdepressedpotentiometricsurface(confinedaquifer)

Drawdown(s)[L]

=depressedwaterlevel(orpotentiometricsurface)

Radiusofinfluence

=distancefrompumpingwellwheredrawdownisessentiallyzero

Well
Ground

Confined Aquifer
IMPERMEABLE ROCK

Well
Ground

UnConfined Aquifer
IMPERMEABLE ROCK

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-6

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

Pumpinginanaquiferwithdifferenttransmissivity(T)andstorativity(S)

HighS

LowS

Well

Ground

Well

Ground
t=0

Potentiometric Surface

t=0

Potentiometric Surface

Confined Aquifer

Confined Aquifer

IMPERMEABLE ROCK

IMPERMEABLE ROCK

HighT
Ground

LowT

Well
t=0

Potentiometric Surface

Well

Ground

t=0

Potentiometric Surface

Confined Aquifer

Confined Aquifer
IMPERMEABLE ROCK

IMPERMEABLE ROCK

HighSWewillgetmorewaterforthesameheaddrop.
HighTWaterflowsmoreeasily.

Topview

h = h(r , t )

Radialflowtowell

t2>t1

GWfloweqnincylindricalcoordinatecanbeusedto

t2
t1

describeradialflowtowell.

S h 1 h 2h
=
+
T t r r r 2

h=hydraulichead[L]
r=radialdisrance[L]
t=time[T]

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Radiusof
influence

Pumping Well

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-7

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

Whathappensduringpumping?

Whenthewellisbeingpumped,adrawdownofheadiscreatedaroundthewell

formingaconeofdepression.Insomecases,ifaquiferisbeingpumpedlongenough,
drawdowncanreachequilibrium(i.e.headdoesntchangewithtimeanymore).

Pumping Well

Observation Wells

Ground

Potentiometric Surface

OW1

OW2

r1
r2

Confined Aquifer

Pumping Well

IMPERMEABLE ROCK

Drawdown (m)

Time

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-8

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

Equilibriumflowtowell
-

Occurswhenaquiferispumpedforaverylongtime.

Waterlevel(orpotentiometricsurface)doesnotchangewithtime.

WecanusedarcyslawtocalculateKORTifweknowQandhydraulicheadsat
twolocations(i.e.calledpumpingtest)

TheimEquation
1.Confinedaquifer

T=

r
Q
ln 2
2 (h2 h1 ) r1

r
Q
K=
ln 2
2 b(h2 h1 ) r1

2.Unconfinedaquifer

K=

r
Q
ln 2
2
(h h1 ) r1

h2

2
2

h1

ExampleIII2
Awellinconfinedaquiferispumpedatarateof220gallon/min.Measurementof
drawdownintwoobservationwellsshowsthatafter1270minofpumping,nofurther
drawdownisoccurring.Well#1islocatedat26ftfrompumpingwellandhasahydraulic
headof29.34ftabovethetopofaquifer.Well#2islocatedat73ftfromthepumpingwell
andhasahydraulicheadof32.56ftabovethetopofaquifer.UseThiemequationtofind
aquifertransmissivityifaquiferthicknessis25m.

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-9

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

Convert Q from gal/mintoft3/day

r1=26ft

h1=29.34ft

r2=73ft

h2=32.56ft

3
1440min
gal 1ft

Q = 220 min

7.48gal 1day
ft3
= 42,400 day

T=

r
Q
ln 2
2 (h2 h1 ) r1

73 ft
ln
=

2 (32.56ft 29.34ft) 26 ft
= 2164 ft2 day
3

ft
42400 day

ft2
T = Kb 2164 = K [78ft] K = 27.7ft/day
d

Steadystate(equilibrium)pumpinginanunconfinedaquifer
(Exampleofmodelsimulation)

Planview

NoPumpingCondition

Crosssection

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-10

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

Withpumpingatthecenteroftheaquifer

Planview

Crosssection

Nonequilibriumpumping(ortransient)

Drawdown(s)isafunctionoftimeanddistance

Confinedaquifer

UseTheissolution

Aquiferishomogeneous,

S h 1 h 2h
=
+
T t r r r 2

isotropic,andisofinfinite
extent

Wellcompletelypenetrates
(andgetwaterfrom)the
entireaquifer

Transmissivityisconstant

Waterisremovedfromstorageanddischargeinstantaneously.

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-11

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

TheisSolution
s = h0 h =

Q
W (u)
4 T

where u =

r2S
e x
u2
u3
,and W (u) =
+
L
dx = 0.5772 lnu + u
4Tt
2 2! 3 3!
x
u

drawdown[L]

h0

initialheadinawellatdistancer[L]

headatdistancerattimet[L]

timesincepumpingbegins[T]

distancefrompumpingwell[L]

pumpingrate[L3/T]

transmissivity[L2/T]

storativity[]

aquiferssaturatedthickness[L]

W(u) wellfunction[]

auxiliaryparameter[]

ExampleIII3
Awellislocatedinconfinedaquiferwithahydraulicconductivityof14.9m/dayand
astorativityof0.0051.Theaquiferis20.1mthickandispumpedatarateof2725m3/day.
Whatisthedrawdownatadistanceof7.0mfromthewellafter1dayofpumping?

m
m
(20.1m) = 299.49 day
T = Kb = 14.9 day

r2S
[7m] [0.0051] = 2.086 104
u=
=
m2
4Tt 4 299.49 day
[1day ]
2

FindthevalueofW(u)fromthetable(appendix1)

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-12

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

W(u)
4

2.010

Usinglinearinterpolationtechnique

7.94

2.086104

=x

3.0104

7.53

x 7.94
2.086 10 4 2.0 10 4
=
7.53 7.94
3.0 10 4 2.0 10 4
x = 7.9398

Fromtable+linearinterpolationW(u)=7.9398.Thereforethedrawdownat
distanceof7.0mafter1dayofpumpingis
m
2725 day
Q

s = h0 h =
W (u) =
7.9398 = 5.75m
m2
4 T
4 299.49 day

Unconfinedaquifer

UseNeumansolution

Aquiferishomogeneousandisof
Well

infiniteextent

Ground

Initiallywaterispumpedfromstorage
(Ss)

Later,waterisbeingdraineddueto

gravity(Sy)

Assumedrawdownisnegligible

UnConfined Aquifer
IMPERMEABLE ROCK

comparedtosaturatedthickness

RadialK(orKr)canbedifferentfromverticalK(orKv)

Neumansolutionisvalidonlywhendrawdownisverysmallcomparedtoaquifers
thicknessor s << b

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-13

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

Neumansolution

s = h0 h =

Q
W (uA ,uB , )
4 T

r 2 Sy
r 2S
r 2K v
and = 2
, uB =
Where uA =
b Kh
4Tt
4Tt

W (uA ,uB , ) canbeobtainedfromtable(appendix6A,6B)

drawdown[L]

h0

initialheadinawellatdistancer[L]

HEADATDISTANCErATTIMEt[L]

timesincepumpingbegins[T]

distancefrompumpingwell[L]

pumpingrate[L3/T]

Kv

verticalhydraulicconductivity[L/T]

Kh

horizontalhydraulicconductivity[L/T]

storativityatearlytime(inthiscase,S=bSs)[]

Sy

specificyield[]

initialaquiferssaturatedthickness[L]

Atearlypumpingtime,useuA
Whereatlatertime,useuB.

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-14

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

ExampleIII4
Awellislocatedinanunconfinedaquiferwithaverticalandhorizontalhydraulic
conductivitiesof1.26and15.8m/day,respectively.Thevalueofspecificstorageis0.00025
m1,andspecificyieldis0.12.Theaquifersinitialsaturatedthicknessis20.1mandis
pumpedatarateof275m3/day.Whatisthedrawdownatadistanceof7.0mfromthewell
after1and50dayofpumping?

Q=275m3/day

Kv=1.26m/day

Kh=15.3m/day

b=20.1m

r=7m

Sy=0.12

S=bSs=(0.00025m1)(20.1m)=0.005

T=Khb=(15.8m/day)(20.1m)=317.58m2/day

[7m] 1.26 day


r 2K
= 2 v =
0.01
2
m
b K h [20.1m] 15.3 day

[seetableinappendix6A,6B]

After1day(earlytime)
r2S
[7m] [0.005] = 1.93 104 1 u = 5185 W (u) = 3.46
=
uA =
A
m2
4Tt 4 317.58 day
[1day ]
2

m
275 day
Q
3.46 = 0.238m
s=
W (u) =
m2
4 T
4 317.58 day

Drawdown:

After50day(latetime)
uB =

r 2 Sy
4Tt

2
7m] [ 0.12]
[
=
= 9.26 10 5 1 uB = 10802 W (u) = 8.672
m
4 317.58 day [ 50day ]
2

m
275 day
Q
8.672 = 0.598m
s=
W (u) =
m2
4 T
4 317.58 day

Drawdown:

Check:s=0.238,0.597b=20.1.OK!!

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-15

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

Summary:CharacteristicsofAnalyses

Equilibrium

NonEquilibrium

(orsteadystate)

(ortransient)

1. ObtainedmostaccurateT,Kvalues

1. Candeterminestorativity(in

2. Usefulwhenlongtermpumpinghas
beenestablished
3. Equationsusefulindesigninga

pumpingtest)
2. Getresultsatearlytime
3. Analysisismorecomplicated

pumptest(estimatemaximum

4. Theissolutionconfined

drawdown)

5. Neumansolutionunconfined

4. Cannotobtaininformationon

6. Neumansolutionisapplicableonly
forsb

storage
5. Thiemsolution

Principleofsuperposition

Iftherearemorethanonepumpingwells,drawdownatobservationwellcanbe
determinedusingprincipleofsuperposition(drawdowncanbeaddedorsubtracted)
Normally,thismethodisvalidonlyforconfinedaquifer.However,insomecases,it
maybeapplicableinunconfinedaquiferifdrawdownisnegligiblecomparedto
saturatedthickness(sb).

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-16

GEOL473 Hydrogeology
PW1
Q1 = -200 m3/day

ExampleIII5

Twowellsinaconfinedaquifer(b=20m,S=
r1 =
97 m

0.0075,K=1.75m/day)arepumping
3

simultaneouslyattheratesof200and400m /day,
respectively.Calculatedrawdownatanobservation

r2

5
17

PW2
Q2 = -400 m3/day

|
Observation
Well

wellatt=4day.

stotal = spw 1 + spw 2

Usingprincipleofsuperposition:

1. calculatedrawdownatOWfromPW1
T=Kb=(1.75m/day)(20m)=35m2/day
r 2 S [97m] [ 0.0075]
u=
=
= 0.126 W (u) = 1.667
m2
4Tt 4 35 day
4day
[
]

m
200 day
Q
1.667 = 0.758m
spw 1 =
W (u) =
2
m
4 T
4 35 day

stotal = sPW 1 + sPW 2


= 0.758 + 0.626
= 1.38m

2. calculatedrawdownatOWfromPW2
r 2 S [175m] [ 0.0075]
u=
=
= 0.410 W (u) = 0.688
m2
4Tt 4 35 day
4day
[
]

m
400 day
Q
0.688 = 0.626m
spw 2 =
W (u) =
2
m
4 T
4 35 day
3

ExampleIII6
FromExampleIII5,if,insteadof
pumpingwater fromPW2,waterisinjectedat

97 m

pumpingattherateof200m3/day.Calculate

r1 =

therateof+400m3/daywhilePW1isstill

PW1
Q1 = -200 m3/day

r2

5
17

INJW2
Q2 = +400 m3/day

drawdowninobservationwellattimet=4day.
|

Observation
Well

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-17

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

Frompreviousexample,

spw 1 =drawdownduetopumpingfromPW1(waterleveldecreases)

sinjw 2 =drawupduetoinjectionofwaterinPW2(waterlevelincreases)

=+0.758m

=0.626m

Fromprincipleofsuperposition,drawdownatobservationwellafterday4is
stotal = sPW 1 + sINJW 2 = 0.758 0.626 = 0.13m .Thus,waterleveldecreasesonly0.13minthis
case.

MethodofImages

Whenanaquiferisconnectedtoriverorimpermeablebarrier,pumpingwellwillbe
affectedbytheseboundaries.Onecanusemethodofimagetocalculatecorrect
drawdownattheobservationwell.

Ifboundaryisriver(watersupply)animagewellwillbeaninjectionwell.
Ifboundaryisimpermeablerockanimagewellwillbeapumpingwell.

Onceanimagewelliscreated,onecanuseprincipleofsuperpositiontodetermine
accuratedrawdownfromthepumping/injectingwells.

EXAMPLEIII7

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-18

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

Ifboundaryisriver,imagewellofapumpingwellisaninjectionwell.Ontheother
hand,ifthewellisaninjectionwell,imagewillbeaninjectionwell.Ifboundaryisan
impermeablerock,imageofthepumpingwellisapumpingwellwhereimageofaninjection
wellisaninjectionwell.

RiverBoundary

ImpermeableBoundary

Well

Image

Well

Image

pumping

injection

pumping

Pumping

injection

Injection

injection

injection

ExampleIII7
AnaquiferisbeginpumpedfromPW1(pumpingwell#1).Ifthisaquiferisconnected
toanimpermeable(noflow)boundary,suggestthemethodhowtocalculatedrawdownin

IMPERMEABLE BOUNDARY

anobservationwell(OW).

PW1

r1

|
OW

Sincetheboundaryisimpermeable,animagewellshouldbeapumpingwelland

PW1

r1

|
OW

Dr. Schradh Saenton

IMPERMEABLE BOUNDARY

drawdownatOWcanbecalculatedfromPW1andPW1imgasshownbelow.

PW1-IMG

r2

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-19

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

Principleofsuperposition:
stotal = sPW 1 + sPW 1IMG
Q
Q
W (uPW 1 ) +
W (uPW 1IMG )
=
4 T
4 T
Q
=
[W (uPW 1 ) + W (uPW 1IMG )]
4 T

where uPW 1 =

r12 S
r2S
and uPW 1IMG = 2
4Tt
4Tt

Seawaterintrusion

Inacoastalaquifer,freshwaterusuallyoverliesontopofsalinegroundwaterdueto
densitydifference
Salinegroundwatercanmovelandwardiftoomuchpumpingoccurs.

confinedaquifer

unconfinedaquifer

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-20

GEOL473 Hydrogeology
Boundarybetweenfreshandsalinegroundwaterisnotsharp!Thereisazoneof
diffusionwheretheconcentration(ofsalt)gradientexists.

GhybenBerzbergPrinciple

Inanunconfinedaquifer,therelationshipbetweenwatertableanddepthtosaline

groundwaterisdescribedbythefollowingexpression:

fresh
z( x , y ) =
h(x , y)
saline fresh

where

z( x , y)

depthofsaltwaterinterfacebelowsealevel(L)

h(x , y)

elevationofwatertableabovesealevel(L)

fresh

densityoffreshgroundwater(M/L3)

saline

densityofsalinegroundwater(M/L3)

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-21

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

ExampleIII8
Ifdensityoffreshwaterandsalinegroundwaterare1000and1025kg/m3,respectively,
whatistheratioof z(x , y) h(x , y) ?
1000

z( x , y ) =
h(x , y)
1025 1000

z( x , y )
= 40
h(x , y)

Thus,depthtowhichfreshgroundwaterextendsbelowsealevelisapproximately40times
theheightofwatertableabovesealevel.

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-22

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

Exercise

100

Dr. Schradh Saenton

IMPERMEABLE BOUNDARY

r1 =

1. Awellthatpumpsataconstantrateof78,000ft3/dayhasachievedequilibriumsothat
thereisnochangeinthedrawdownwithtime.Thewelltapsaconfinedaquiferthatis
18ftthick.Anobservationwell125ftawayhasaheadof277ftabovesealevel;another
observationwell385ftawayhasaheadof291ft.Computethevalueofaquifer
transmissivityusingThiemequation.
[Ans:997.5ft2/day]

2. Awellthatpumpsataconstantrateof78,000ft3/dayhasachievedequilibriumsothat
thereisnochangeinthedrawdownwithtime.Thewelltapsanunconfinedaquiferthat
consistsofsandoverlyingimpermeablebedrockatanelevationof260ftabovesea
level.Anobservationwell125ftawayhasaheadof277ftabovesealevel;another
observationwell385ftawayhasaheadof291ft.Computethevalueofhydraulic
conductivityusingThiemequation.
[Ans:41.6ft/day]

3. Acommunityisinstallinganewwellinaregionallyconfinedaquiferwithatransmissivity
of1589ft2/dayandastorativityof0.0005.Theplannedpumpingrateis325gal/min.
Thereareseveralnearbywellstappingthesameaquifer,andtheprojectmanagerneeds
toknowifthenewwellwillcausesignificantinterferencewiththesewells.Computethe
theoreticaldrawdowncausedbythenewwellafter30daysofcontinuouspumpingat
thefollowingdiances:50,150,250,500,1000,3000,6000,and10,000ft.
[Ans:35.56,28.70,25.58,21.14,16.85,6.87,5.87,and3.18ft]

4. Awellthatisscreenedinaconfinedaquiferistobepumpedatarateof165,000ft3/day
for30days.Iftheaquifertansmissivityis5320ft2/day,andthestorativityis0.0007,
whatisthedrawdownatdistancesof50,150,250,500,1000,3000,5000,and10,000
ft?

5. Awellisbeingpumpedfromanunconfinedaquiferthathasinitialsaturatedthicknessof
30m.Thisaquiferhassimilarverticalandhorizontalconductivities(i.e.,Kv=Kh=10
m/day)withSs=0.0001m1andSy=0.2.Calculatedrawdownatobservationwell,
locatedat5.477mawayfromthepumpingwell,attimet=1day(earlytime)andt=50
day(latetime).UseQ=100m3/day.

PW1
150 m
6. Awell(PW1)ispumpingwaterfrom
Q1 = -100 m3/day
confinedaquifer,thatisclosetoan
impermeablerock,atarateof100
m3/day.Calculatedrawdownat
observationwell(OW)attimet=5d.
GivenS=0.0005,T=500m2/day.
60

OW

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics

3-23

GEOL473 Hydrogeology

PW1
Q1 = -150 m3/day

120 m

r1=

75

RIVER

m
75

7. Awell(PW1)ispumpingwaterfrom
confinedaquifer,thatisclosetoafully
penetratedriver,atarateof150m3/day.
Calculatedrawdownatobservationwell
(OW)attimet=10d.GivenS=0.0005,T=
500m2/day.

OW

Dr. Schradh Saenton

Topic 3: Groundwater Flow and Well Hydraulics