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3
1. ............................................................................................ 3
2. ........................................................................................................... 4
3. ....................................................................................................... 7
4. ................................................................................................. 17

I. ......................... 19
I.1. DAA MAHVIDY........................................................... 19
I.1.1. ............................................................................................................19
I.1.2. Mahbhgavata pura. ............................................................................................................................21
I.1.3. daksayaja. ......................................................................................................................24
I.1.4. kta-pha. ................................................................................................................................................27
I.1.5. Mahvidy: . ......................................................................................................29
I.1.6. Chinnamast Uas. .................................................................................................................................31
I.1.7. Daa Mahvidy mtk .......................................................................................................33
I.1.8. Daa Mahvidy Davatra..................................................................................................................36
a). Chinnamast - Nsimha ................................................................................................................................36
). hinn Bhgukula .......................................................................................................................................41

I.2. PRATOITANTRA........................................ 46
I.2.1. Nrada Pacartra Svatantratantra ....................................................................46
I.2.3. .............................................................................................................................47
I.2.4. : yaja tmayaja........................................................................................49
I.2.5. (dehadna) . .......................................................................................55

I.3. MAHSIDDHA .................................................................. 66


I.3.1. ..............................................................................................................................66
I.3.2. .........................................................................................68

II.

................................... 73

II.1. . .......................................... 73
II.2. ...................................................................... 74
II.3. ..................................... 76
II.4. ............................................ 79

......................................................................................... 84
.................................................................................... 87
......................................................................................... 93
1.
2.


1.

,
. 1
,
.

. (Chinnamast),

(Chinnamund)

chid

(Chinnamastak),

(Chinn),

bahuvrhi

mastaka/munda)

, .
,

, ,
.


, , , , . ,

, , 2.

, (.I.3).
;

. .. , ,
, :

. ,

, ,
, ,
.

2. .

:
,

Then I show them an illustration of Chinnamasta. Some of them gasp


but others are intrigued, When I first saw Chinnamasta, I was
mystified and somewhat horrified.<> Eager to forget this vision, I
tried to find a category in which I could file her. <> By this time,
my horror was transformed into fascination (E. A. Benard.
Chinnamasta: the Aweful Buddhist and Hindu Tantric Goddess, p.IX)


.
:

- ,

, ; , ,
3.

XX-


4. (Tucci, Padoux, Goudrian)
,

(Dimock).

, ,

(Avalon-Woodroff),

- , ,

(Shaw,

Brooks).

, ( -
, -

.
,
,

, ;
, , 5

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, ,

,
..

-.

, ,

..


.
.

, ,

7.

;
,

. .. ,

8.

, , ..,
.
6

, , , , .
7
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. ., . ..
, ., 1988, .317 .
, .
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, 9.

;
,

, , .
,


.
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,
.

3.

.
,
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. ,

,
, .

. . ., 2000. .91

.
XVIII-XIX ex orienta lux,
,

, - . ,

, -

, ,
10. ,
,

.
:
-

.
,
,

XIX

. ,

10

Kinsley, D., Hindu Goddesses: Visions of the Divine Feminine in the


Hindu Religious Tradition. Delhi, 1987, p.3.

11.
, ,
,

-,

- (Wendy Doniger-OFlaherty)
Women, androgynes and other mythical beasts, 1980
12.
,

.
- .

: , ,

, ,
:
,
,

(=)

(=), ,

(,

11

(Hingu Female Deities as a Resource for the


Contemporary Rediscovery of the Goddess//Journal of the American
Academy of Religion 46, no.3 (Septermber 1978), pp.269-292.).
Dev: goddesses of
India, Berkley, 1996.

),

?
,

13?

.
, Splitting the Difference:
Gender and Myth in Ancient Greece and India

14

. ,
,

, ,
.
,

Hindu Goddesses: Visions of the Divine Feminine in the


Hindu

Religious

Tradition,

1987

Daa Mahvidy

. , ,
,
. ,

,
15.

12

Paul B. Courtright (History of


Religions, Vol.20, no.4, 1981)
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Chicago, 1980, . 85-86.
14
Doniger, W., Splitting the Difference: Gender and Myth in Ancient
Greece and India. University of Chicago Press, 1999.
15
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Hindu Religious Tradition. Delhi, 1987, p.173.

10

mana - , maithuna,

,
.

, ,

Kotav

Korravai;

( 12
)

(Shaw,

Miranda), .
Passionate Enlightenment: Women in Tantric Buddhism16,
1994 ,

) , ,

.
,
,

XIX.
, ,

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. : The Journal of Religion, Vol.75


no.3. (July 1995), by J.N. Kinnard; : Yoga International,
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Customs

and

Ceremonies

(.

Hindu

Manners,

1906).

-
Brahmanism

and

Hinduism

(4th

ed.

London,

1891),

, . ,
, XIX .
, ,
, ,
17
(Andr Padoux), .

,

, ,
,

.
(, )
, 18.

:

-,

; -,

, ..
, - ; -,
, ,

VII-VIII

17

Padoux, A., A Survey of Tantric Hinduism for the Historian of


Religion. (Review article on Hindu Tantrism by Gupta, Dirk et
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18
. :
?
.. (Guenther),
, -
(.350).
,
.

12

(.

. pan-Indian mode).
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,
,

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(19), (
tan , tra,

way)

?, ?20.

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: (.
135), - (.96),
VIII-IX ,
,
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1820-43

.,

. (Brian Hodgson)21,

19

, , , ,
(,
), -
.
20
, ,
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21
.: C.A.F. Rhys-Davids. Preface//Tibetan Tales
derived from indian sources, translated from the Tibetan of the
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13

- ,
XX ).

.
,

-
:
, ,

22

XIX - XX . ..,
..,

..,

..

..,

.. .

-

(1818-1900),

, , .

1857-69 .

- ..
, , ,

(Trantha 1575 1643 .)

22

.. XIX
XX , ., 1998.

14

,
.

-23.

,
-,
- .

Bhattacharyya)

1925-1928.

(Sdhanaml,

(Benoytosh

1165.
24

) .

, .
:

, .
.

, ,
,

(,

).

23

I.3 II.3.
. II.3,

24

15

,
,

- (
)25, .. 26.

,
,
Chinnamast: the
Aweful (sic!) Buddhist and Hindu Tantric Goddess27. ..

1990 ;
, Buddhist Tradition Series,
. (Alex Wayman), Motilal
Banarsidass ,
.

..

, ,

;
, , ,

, -
,

-, ,

, - , .

, ,

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Govinda, Anagarika. Principles of Tantric Buddhism// 2500 years of


Buddhism, Delhi, 1956, pp. 358-378 ( .362)
26
, ..
.// : . : ,
1995, . 6-28.
27
: review by Rachel Fell McDermott// The Journal of
the American Oriental Society, Vol. 116 No.2 (April-June 1996),
pp.357-358.

16

, .
, .
/
,
.

,
-

..,

28,

, ll,

(naa),

- ,
,
.

Chinnamast Sahasranma Stotram


: ,
,

, , ,
, - adbhuta
(,

raudra ().

. , ,

mysterium

tremendum

et

fascinans

4.

.
:

28

- Abhinevagupta.

17

1. - ,
.
,

-,

-,

-,

;
2.

,
.

, , ,

. ,
, , , ,
.

()

,
,

- .

.
( , )
, .
18

I.

I.1. Daa Mahvidy.


-. ,

, ,
.

I.1.1. .

(akti - , ).

..

29

(dependent

Saktism),

-,

-. ,

, Devmhtmya , IV .. , ,

(, , )
. ,

29

Bhattacharyya N.N. History of


Munshiram Manoharalal, 1974, p. 73.

the

akta

Religion.

New

Delhi:

19

,
- 30.


,
, VI XI ,
.

, ,

(K.H.

Van
,

Gulik,

-.

J.Needham)

. .. ,

, , ,
,
.31
,

. , - / , , .

30

. .. . . ,
, . ., 1985.
31
Op. cit., p.84.

20

I.1.2. Mahbhgavata pura.

, -
10- . .
.
, , ,
-
, ,

-,

: , ,
, ,

-,
, .
, -

. ,

-,

, ,
: , ..32,
.

. IV XII

, -.

IV

, VIII
, .

32

// . ., 1999, .72.

21

VIII

, . ,

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. :
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33,
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33

svayamvara ( ),
,
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22

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: , , , ,

(Kl

),

), (Lokeikamal

(Bhumanevar

(Tr

),

),

(Chinnamast

, ), (oda,

16),

(Tripurasundar

34), (Bagalmukh
), (Dhmavat )
(Mtag )35 - .
: , (Jagaddhr)!
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tripura - , .
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(Paramevar),

(Prakti).

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, .36

,
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.

I.1.3. daksayaja.

36

Mahbhgavata pura, 8:45-87 (Bombay, 1913), . . .


Benard, op.cit., .2-3. . . ,
.

24

, ,

37

, - (I:7:3ff) -
(II:6:8), , (
, ) .
, .. IV
.. IV ...
daksayaja (
)

(X:18, XII:274

.).

, , ,

. - (3.12)

38

Haimavati ( ), .., ,

- (M),
(Umma)

(III.38-40),

(Ummi)39,

40

kirta

( , , ,

..,

).

( ) -

.

37

daksayajna S.Bhattacharji, Indian


Theogony, Cambridge, 1970, .121.
38
, ,
vulgate edition, - Bhattacharji, S., op. et loc. cit.
39
Bhattacharyya N.N., op.cit., p. 31-32. ,

,
. Durg simhavhin.
40
op.cit., p.51-52.

25

, ,
. 41 ,
(-)
. , , ,

, ,
( ),
, 42.
:
-,

- ,

, .
. - (XXX:3847),

III-IV

.,

(XIII:12-15),

VII , - - (II:2630),

( , IV. 3-7)
, , ,
( ),
, ,
, ,
, . ,
( )
43.
, ,
- - ( 14-16.)

41


, ,
, ,
.
I..1.8..
42
Bhattacharyya N.N., op.cit., p.52.
43
Bhattacharyya N.N., op.cit., p.72; Kinsley, D., op.cit.,
p.38 rmad-Bhgavatam, IV.3-7, ., 1994, .91-229.

26

, , ,
,
pha (, ).

,
-:

,
. . , ,
44, ,
.

,
(

),

,
,
(-) ( XVII . - 51)
,
.

I.1.4. kta-pha.

. 12 (14) ,

(
, ..),

44

Kinsley, D., op.cit., p.164: in the context of the myth he is simply


no match for her.

27

( ,

45.

),

, ,

grmadevat

),

-
. -
(
),

(Kmkhy

),

..

, ,

)
(

svayambhu

mrti

(,

)46.
,

, -.

- ,
,
(mastaka) 47. , ,
, , Cintapr,
,

45

. .., . ., 1994, .
22.
46
Benard. p.cit., p.147.
47
p.cit., p.4.

28

(saumya)

(ugra).
.. , -

Mudi-pha, Khada-mud48.

Chinnamast,

()

Chinnamud.

I.1.5. Mahvidy: .
-,

,
.

, ,
. , ,
. .. ,
(III-VI.)
16- , Vidydev.
, , , , 49.

Vidy

prajbhieka -

(,

upya

).

50.
(veda, jna, vidy, bodhi)

48
49

Bhattacharyya N.N., op.cit., p.132.


Op.cit., p.66.

29

. ,
(mukti),
.

( - , ,
.). :

(tathgatagarbha),
(nyata).

51.

, , ,

,
.
vidy, ,
, , .

(-, 13.4) ,

-,

prakti

,
(gua)

, -
skhya (VI. ..). ,
50

Op.cit., p.94.
, ,
,
51

30

, , ,
.
, ,

sattva

(), , ,
. , (

rajas

, 52. tamas,
, ,
, ,
.
53.

(Mahvidy,

Vidy,

Siddhavidy) .
, ,

54.

I.1.6. Chinnamast Uas.


..

-,


. ,

, :
,
.
52
,
, .
: I.1.1..
53
, 3,
1995-1996 ., .64.
54
Thomas, P., Secrets of Sorcery Spells and Pleasure Cults of India.
Bombay, 1983, p.93.

31

, (

55

16

);

56

, , ,
:
, ,
,
, (),
, () 57 (I.92:10)

, ,
, ,

(I.92:11).

:
(ktnuh) (vaghnin);
(chanda). ,
, 58,

.
- .
, , ,
,

, . ,
,

55

Tantrasara, 16.
.
56
Benard. p.cit., .4.
57
. .. . . I-IV. ., 1999, .111.

32

?
, ,
, ,
,
.
, ,
, - , ,
.


;
,

. , ,
- ,

.

,

,
.

I.1.7. Daa Mahvidy mtk

. ,
,

58

, -
(1718-1775),

33

59,

(mt,

mtk), .
,

, :
-
Stambhevari60.

(Vana-parva, 215.16-22; 217). ,
,

-, , ,
.
,

-)

mtk,

: , ,
, ,
.
,

(30.3-9) ,
.
, ,

-,

.
59
. ..
1999, . 34.

.//

.,

34

, mtk

mahvidy.

mtk

Daa Mahvidy: -,

, 61; ,
; -,
mtk, mahvidy ,

62,

). ,
mtk ,
,
, ,
(

,
, , ,
.

.63,

, ,
.

) nara-vahana64 ( (ava),

-).

(
),

60

Donaldson, T.E. Jajpur (Viraja-kshetra) and Shakta Art.// Marg, vol.


52, No 3 (March, 2001), . 28.
61
mtk Cmud,

Kl.

, , .,
, .
62

,
, , .
63
p.cit., p. 160.
64
Donaldson. p.cit., p. 36.

35

,
.

,
, .

I.1.8. Daa Mahvidy Davatra


a). Chinnamast - Nsimha

.
,

65. , :
- ,
, ,
, ..
66:
, , ,
, , ,

67.

,
..,

. ,
( ) - (-

65

Sircar, D.C., The kta Phas, Delhi, 1981, p. 48. (. Benard,


E.A., op.cit., .5.
66
. : Benard. p.cit., .5.
67
, .

36

),

nsimha (-) ,
, .

:
yadi dsyasyabhimatn varnme varadottama
bhtebhyastvadvisebhyo mtyurm bhnmama prabho 35
nntarbahirdiv naktamanyasmdapi cyudhaih
na bhmau nmbare mtyurna narairna mgairapi 36
vyasubhirvsurmadbhirv sursuramahoragaih68
, ,

, ,
, ; ;
, (-) ,

, ,
, , ,
,

, ,
adyattyadbhutarpamudvahan
stambhe sabhym na mgam na mnuam69
, ()
,

, , ( );
,
68

70

dvri)

, VII.3:35-37. ., 2001., .159-161.

37

,
(nmgendrarpam)
,

..,

, ,

), .
,

: , ,
, .

71.

Coincidentia

oppositorum, (-,
-,

..),

., 72.

, .
: ,
- ,

;
69
70

VII.8:17. Op.cit., p.403.

,
(stambha) - Stambhevari,
-
71
,
; , , , -, , -
.
72
M. Eliade. Patterns in comparative religions. N.Y. 1958, p.419.

38

, . (RV I.
34:10, I.47, I.116. I.121, I.117:22, atap. Br. 14.1.1.18-25,
.),

,
,

. .
, ,

. , -
73.
,
: 74,

, . (
-, ) ,
75. ,

,
.

--

76.
, ,
, .
, ,

73

., . http://www.geocities.com/radhakrishna_nz/Shivashakti.htm
. , ;
.
75
Bhattacharji, S. The Indian Theogony Cambridhe, 1970, p.261.
76
. http://www.squirrel.com/asatru/nidhad/indo-european_origins.txt
74

39

, ,
, :
sa tasya hastotkalitas tadsuro
vikrdato yadvad ahir garutmatah77
() () , ,

-,
,

:
ktvahsam kharamutsvanolbanam
nimlitkam jaghe mahjavah78
, ,
()

, 29- , ,
, , ,
- llay.
,

, ,
, , ,
, ,
, , , 79, .

77
78

, VII.8:26.
VII.8:28.

40

;
,

, ,
, 80.

). hinn Bhgukula
,

. , ,
, (

- (mudaml
):
, , ,
, , ,
, , , .81
,

.
,
. (3.117.5-19)

, , ,
,
, , ;

-.

chinnamast (, ), ,
79

.. (.18),
14- Vaikha.
80
, - .
81
. : Benard. p.cit., .5.

41

82.

.
, , .
(deha, kya, tanu, arra etc.)
(kya-sdhana) , ,

(vidy),

(tra)83.

(tanu)


, , .

:
-,
.

,
82

(
, . . ,
.. .) happy end
,
:
, , ,
,
, ,
. (. . . .,
1996. .325).
, ,
. -
. ,

. ,
.
, , .
(Roscoe W. Priests of the Goddess//History of religions, vol.35, no3.
83
Benard. p.cit., .XII.

42

(cakra) (nd),
- (pra)84.
..

85,
.

reu,

, , viuddha
(,
,

),

86.

.
, ,
.
..

, ,

87.

88.
,

.,

, , nd , (sahasrara),
. ,
.Avalon, The Serpent Power. Madras, 1958 (6th ed.,
. ); . Eliade, Yoga: Immortality and Freedom. N.Y.,
1958. ( , )
85
Vasudeva Agrawala, Kalya (). Benard,
op.cit., pp.6-7.
86
,
(bhta). , ,
.
87
Benard, op.cit., .7.
84

43

, (adja)
, .

();

89

, .
nd

pigala90),

suuma,

. ,
, , ,

, -,
,

, .
..,

91.

, .
,

.
,

, ,
88

. , , ., 2001, .494.
OFlaherty (Doniger, W.,).
Women, Androgynes, and Other Mythical
Beasts. Chicago, 1980, . 33-46.
90
, ,
. : avadht,
lalan rasan .
89

44

,
,

, ,

.

, ,

91

Benard, op.cit., .xii.

45

I.2. Pratoitantra

,
. - (Pratoi -
),

1820

. ,
, ,
Chinnamast.

I.2.1. Nrada Pacartra Svatantratantra


, Nrada Pacartra,
:

). ,
. :
-

. : ,
. , :
. .
, .
. , , ! ,
, .
92 :

92

, .

46

, ! , ,
, !93

.
. ,
, ,

.
-

:
, <>
( )
(?).
(): , . ,
,
.
,

. ,
. .
, , - 94.

I.2.3.

, :
!

93

. ,

Pratoitantra.
Calcutta,
1928.
p.378.
... . : Benard, op.cit., .7.
94
Pratoitantra.
Calcutta,
1928.
p.379.
... . : Benard, op.cit., .7-8.

47

Jay

Vijay

) Dkin ( ,
) Varin ( ),


, . .. (Bagchi)
,

dag

95.

dkina

(), .
,

. ,
,

. ,
, .

, ,
,

<>

96.
,
,


, ,
95

. : Saletore R.N. Indian witchcraft New Dehli, 1981, p.110.

48

I.2.4. : yaja tmayaja.


-

, ,
,
Annapra
(

),

kambhar

Santoim

(),


97.

, ,
,
.
, -

. Yaja

, .
,

. , ,
, .

. .. ,

96

tmayaja

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49

98.

(pau), , ,

(nidnena)

(VI.1.4.5)

(-, II.11).

(I.2.3.5).

, , ,
, ,

. ,

(hutabhaj,

hutana),

-, ,
:
yajasva tanvam tava svm (RV, VI.11.2ff)
( , ) !

.
.. ,

, ,
, ..99

.
,

(
). ,
,
:
svayam yajasva tanmam vdhnah (RV, X.81.5)

97

, 66:11, (QPs. 22:5), (19:1-5)


-.
98
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50

( ) () , ( )
()!100


(X.90)101.

, , ,
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yajena yajam ayajanta devh (RV, X.90.16)
102

(1.4.6) : () ,
(etvad v idam sarvam annam caivnnda ca)103.
(
) ,
. ,
.

-,

, .

, -, -

100

. ... . ., .217.

(. ).
102
. ... . ., .236.
103
.. : , ,
// . . 2-, . ., 2000, .74 [77].
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51

,
-, :
tvam kratustvam havistvam hutah svayam tvam hi mantrah
samiddarbhaptri ca
tvam sadasyartvijo dampat devat agnihotram svadh soma
jyam pauh

104

, -
(), , ;
, - ,
, , ,

: , ,
. ,

:
Yajarpam yajadtrm yajagrahakrirm /
mokadm sarvasattvebhyachinnamastm nammyaham//105
, ,
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,
104

rmad-Bhgavatam, IV.7.45. ., 1994, .281.

52

,
,

(S.Shankaranarayanan).

(sat, sahamaraa)

, .
(-)
, ,
106: ,
, ,
, .
,
, .

107, , tmayaja;

.108

, , ,

105

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107
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53

109,
110,
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,

111,
.

,
-

112

tmayaja

,
.

109

(5-6.) , ,
,
, ,
(XII.17) , .
. .., ., 1966, .49-50.
110
25- ,
.,
, ,
.
.
, ,
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.
, , ,
, .
(. - I.1.8:)
-.
111
: Thomas, P. Op.cit., p. 56.
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54

.
,

.
(

, ,

,

(bali),

(pj)

113.
,

. , ?
. ,
,
.

I.2.5. (dehadna) .
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,
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,
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. .. //
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, 114. , ,

115. , ,

.
, ,

, -
, :
,
; ,

;
..
:

dehadna

),

tma-parityga

(), arra-parityga ( () ),
adhytmika-dna ( ).
,

-.
,
,
:
,
, , ,

.//

114
115

.
, , .

56

, ,
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,

.
, ,
:
,

,
, .

117.

, ; ,

116

VIII:41-42 // . . .. .. . .,
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117
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57

(Ohnuma, Reiko)118.

(dehadna),

(dharmadna),

, :
<> ,
? ,

(yumkam

eva

prathamam kariye vimokadharmmtasamvibhgam).119


, , , ,

,
.

,
.

, ,
. , ,
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:
, ,
, ,
, (. - ) 120.

, ,

. , , -,

118

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58

121.
, ,

,
,

. :

, - , .
, ,
. ( )

,
.

()

, . ,

; ,

.
,

-,

-
122

(.

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,
(kyamahplavena

Instr.Sing.)

. 123, ,

, .
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Mahvastu, . Ohnuma, R. Op. cit., p.332.


samsra-samudra, -sgara, -abdhi, -arnava, -udadhi, etc.
,
t,
.
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59

, , , ,
, ,
124. ,
125, ,
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,

126

(trikya).

(nirma-,

rpakya)

(dharmakya),
,

: ,
,

(aga

(,

, ), ;
, , ;
, ,

(bodhiratna);

,
(anuttararaddhhasta, anuttarm lapdm)127.

123


.
124
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125
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126
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127
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60

(.

),

, -,
-.
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:
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te

ete

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ktv

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svastin sthale pratihpit etarahim pi may tmaparitygam


ktv smsrto trit nirvne pratihpith128
, (tmaparitygam),

, ( ),
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, , .
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,
.
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128

Pancaknm Bhadravargiknm Jtaka, Mahvastu . Ohnuma, R.,


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, , , (.
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61

,
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.
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.131),

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,
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133

. ,

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, .

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63

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()136

137
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,
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.

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,
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(
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; ,
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84- (.
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).

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.

,

.
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139,

. ,
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.
.

. ,

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: ,
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,
.

.
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, ,
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.
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, II

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?140 , ,

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.,

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devo bhutva devam yajeta

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),

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