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,

. ,

Mosby
EDINBURGH

LONDON

NEW YORK

PHILADELPHIA

ST LOUIS

SYDNEY TORONTO

2002

61 6.31 477
56.68
90

MOSBY

1994 Times Mirror International Publishers Limited


2002 Elsvier Science Limited. .

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,
, 1988.

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(Permissions Manager,
Elsvier Science Limited, Robert Stevenson House, 13, Baxter's Place, Leich Walk, Edinbourgh E H 1 3AF)
,
, 90, Tottenham Court Road, London W I T 4LP.

1994
2002

ISBN 0 7234 3215 5 (.)

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2004


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ISBN 5990026714 (.)


2004 

. 2 000 . 564.

1.1

11

1.2

14

1.3

19

1.4

26

1.5

32

1.6

39

1.7

49

1.8

57

1.9

68

1.10

75



2.1

2.2

2.3

87
89
104
132

2.4

149

2.5

157

2.6

174

2.7

187

211

3.1

213

3.2

219

3.3

231

3.4

242

3.5

261

3.6

273

3.7

297

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B ran sk i J B , P u l e o D A , N a n c i A (2000) B io m aterials a n d

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b i o m e c h a n i c s of oral a n d m axillofacial im p la n ts : cur-

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re n t status a n d future d e v e lo p m e n ts. I n t J O ral M a x 

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illofac I m p l a n t s 15: 15
E sq u iv e lU p sh a w JF , A n u savice K J (2000) C e r a m i c design

c o n c e p t s b ased o n stress d istrib u tio n analysis. C o m 

p e n d C o n t i n E d u c D e n t 2 1 : 649

S m i t h D C (1982) T h e b io c o m p a tib ility o f d e n ta l m aterials.


I n : S m i t h D C , W illiam s D F (eds) B iocom patibility o f
d e n ta l m a te ria ls, vol 1, ch 1. C R C Press, B o c a R a t o n

W aters N E (1992) D e n t a l b i o m e c h a n i c s a n d t h e d en tal


c u r r i c u l u m . J D e n t 20: 195198

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row. O p e r D e n t 4: 24
J a c o b s c n P H (1980) T h e influence o f d e n ta l m aterials o n
conservative dentistry. D e n t U p d a t e 7: 285291
L ittle D A (1982) T h e relevance o f p r o s t h o d o n t i c s a n d the
science of d e n ta l m aterials to th e p ra c tic e of dentistry.

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G r e e n e r E H (1979) A m a lg a m : yesterday, to d ay a n d tomor-

J D e n t 10: 300310
Phillips R W (1976) F u t u r e role of b io m aterials in dentistry

. 

a n d d e n ta l e d u c a t i o n . J D e n t E d u c 40: 752756

van N o o r t R (1985) In defen ce of d e n ta l m aterials.

, . , G.V.
Black, . 1895
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B r D e n t J 158: 358360
W illiam s H A (1976) T h e ch allen ge t o m o r r o w in d en tal care
delivery. J D e n t E d u c 40: 587
W o o d fo rd e J (1971) T h e stran ge story of false te e th .
U n iv e rsa l T a n d o m , L o n d o n

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44

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, -

, ( , -

) . ,

, -

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, .

, -

. , -

? , -

, -

, -

, -

,
, :

. , -

, -

. , -

, -

, -

50

. 1 . 7 . 1 .

s, , :
,
.

, .
, , , F , :
= F/A,
.
. = / 2 = = .
,
F,

. 1.7.2. : () ; () ; ()

. ( ) :

, ),

= (L ,  L 0 )/L 0
,

, ,

.

-

, -

: , .

. 1.7.2.

( ) . , -

, -

, -

. -

, -

( , 

, .

51

,
, .. . , .
:
/ =

, , . ,
. .
,
, -

. 1.7.3. H () ( H ; H ; H ;
+ )

, .
,
,
, (.. /

).

1 / , 10 / .

. ,
( ) . 2

, ( ) , . 1.7.3. -

. . 1.7.3 ,

, -


.
, -

,
.

,
,

, ,

, , ,

, .
-

. -

. -

, -

, -

, 0,2%.

52


H
( , ), , .

. 1.7.3, ,
.

, ", , , , .

. 1.7.4.

,

.

(1 = 1 / ) .

, ,

, ,

. -

, -

/ .
, ,
, ,
-

. ,

, , -

, -

, , , -

. , -

( ) . -

( . 1.7.4) .

( ) -

, (..

) ,

, :

. ,
2

R = /2,

, R ,

),  .

, ,

53

. 1.7.5. H .

. 1.7.6.

. ,

.  -

, -

. 1 .7 .5 .

, . -

,  -

: -

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.
, , 
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( ).

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, -

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54

. 1.7.9

, .

t
.

1.7.7.


, , .
, , ,
. , ,
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.
. 1.7.7 .
,
,
.

( . 1.7.7) . . .

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. 1.7.8.

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( )
.

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,
,
. 


. , ,
, , . 1.7.8.
, , :
= 2P/JT.DT,
, D ,
.

1.7.10.

55

. ,

,

, .

,
(), .

. 1.7.12. ,

,
.
-

( ) , (

) (

).

, -

. -

, -

, -

. 1.7.10.

( . 1.7.9) .

, , -

. -

. -

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56

, -

, ,

. , -

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-

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-

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-

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. 1.7.12 . 4 :

. 1.7.11.

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,


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, .

1.8

,
-

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.

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58

. 1 . 8 . 1 . d, .

V F

. 1.8.2.


.
,

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,

. 1.8.1. :
= r\s = F /A
= = V /d

. , ,
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1.8.3.

| = / .

().

()

, -

. , -

. -

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. 1.8.3.

59

, ,
, . , ,
,
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.
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, .


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.

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. .1.8.5. -

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, , -

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60

. ,
.

. . 1.8.6.
.
. ,

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.  , ,

1.8.7.
,
,
. 

. , .

. 1.8.5. -


.
( )
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,
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, -

61

( )

10

; -

12

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1

^ .


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1 . , 1

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. 1.8.7. -

H
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.
. -

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1.8.2.

. -

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. 

62

1 . 8 . 1

(/ )

(. .
1

(. ' . ' .

( .

' + )

<)

0.18

0.0022

0.0042

2.9

2.1

0.28

0.0015

0.0026

10.5

0.056

0.98

1.67

2.5

0.20

0.003

0.006

1.0

1.0

0.0014

0.0014

1 . 8 . 2

. 1.8.8.
,

)

12

14

20H55

80

12

. -

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.
-

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 .

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. , (1)

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63

,
. -

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. -

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.
. 1.8.9 -

, .

, -

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380 780 9

(1 [ ] = 10~ ) .
(

380 4 5 0 ) , ( 450 4 9 0 ) , ( 4 9 0 560 ) , ( 560 590 ) ,

( 590 630 ) , , ,
( 630 780 ) .

. , -

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) , -

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. 1.8.10. ,

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,  .

10

400

(nm)

. 1.8.9.

700

1 000 000

64


100%

400

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700
0%

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400

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700

100%

, , ,
.
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700

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, 
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. 1905

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65

. 1 . 8 . 1 2 .
,

,
, . , ,
.
. 1.8.12. .

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) , (  ) , (-

. 

) D (  ) . 

66

. 1 . 8 . 1 4 .

,
, , ()
( ) . ,

. 1.8.15. , H

, -

, -

: 1 4, 1  4 , 1  4 D 1  D 4 . , -

, ()

(Occlusin, ICI) () -

(Herculite XRV,

. -

Kerr UK Ltd)

,
.

. -

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,


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(300 400 ) , -

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(400 450

, -

).

67

, , , -

()

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,

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. ,

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.

1.8.14 ,

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R a  :
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( , 1 )

. 7 0 % ( 0 7 0 ) .
,

1.9


( ) , .

. , -

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.

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69

, ,

, , , , . , .

. 1 . 9 . 1 .

, , . , ,
, , -

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. 1.9.1

, -

. -

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.

, % . = (W , W 2 )/W 2 100

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, , -

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. -

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( / 4049).

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70

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. 1.9.2.

71

. , -

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02 + 4

>220


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1.9.2).

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. .

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(), . (). H
i , ()

72

. 1 . 9 . 5 .
.
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,


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73

, -

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74

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76

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 ) .


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.

77

. 1.10.3.

. 1.10.2. ,

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. 1.10.3 -

,
. ,
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.

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78

. 1.10.4. 9 -

. 1.10.5. Zisman.a

, y s v  -

, 8| H

ylv H

, -

. -

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, ,

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.
, -

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Ysv = Ysi

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c o s e

, 9 (
):

c o s9 = (Y sv Y sl )/Y , v ,

Ysi ~~

, ysv 

, 1
.


, , ,
.

( . 1.10.4).

1.10.1

79

, .
, -

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3

.
2

16

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18

22

24

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39

1.10.1 2

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73

20

230

350

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560

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488

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c o s q = 1, q = 0. , -

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.
,

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,

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80

. 1.10.7.

, ,
, .

. 1.10.6. ( Perdok J.F. .


(1990) J.Dent. 1 8 : 1 4 7 )

,  ,

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= yC os9/2ri
-

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. . 1.10.6

. , -

.
-

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( ) , ,

. -

. -

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81

, -

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1.3).

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82

. 1.10.8.

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83

. 1 . 1 0 . 9 . ,


. 1 . 1 0 . 1 0 .
, .

(.

1.10.10) .

, :

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,

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30 / .

3 10~

10

, , -

, .

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200 .

84

. , .
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1.10.11) ,
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F = 3 / 2 (nr|R /ri )(oiT./5t),


| , R , h .

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 I
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85

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.

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R , X

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, . , -

( -

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86

; (2) .

,  
,



.
.
1.10.12
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1.10.12.

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2 . 1

60 , .

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20

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60 X X

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,

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90

2.1.1
%

6774

Sn

2528

06

Zn

02

03

. 2.1.1.
, -

. 2 . 1 . 1 . AgHSn

Ag 3 Sn, -

 . A gSn
. 2.1.1. ,

Ag 3 Sn


.
 . ,
6% ,

, ,

. ,

. 2.1.2.
,
.


. . 2.1.2.

, -

(
) , .

, -

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91

,
.

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.

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:
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2  ( . 2.1.3).
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C u 3 S n , , 

, -

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92

2 . 1 . 2

,
, .

()

170

Y,

130

, , ,
.

2 20

60

, , ,

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,  ,  -

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 .

( 50% )

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g j .

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93


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 |

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CuHSnH

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60 -

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;

94

, -

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, , -

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, -

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.
,

12 3 0 % . -

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1 0 , . -

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AgSnCu.

.

. -

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95

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.

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96

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(45% )
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4000 / 5 0

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( 24 ). -

2600

97

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 2  , -

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100 , -

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98

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 .

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30 / , -

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,

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.
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99

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 .

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100

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 .

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101

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103

B row n D (1984) T h e d e v e lo p m e n t of im proved am algam s.


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D e n t J 157: 421

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QvistV ,

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PT

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L ongevity a n d cariostatic effects of everyday conven-

, -

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. , ,

S m ith D C (1968) A n e w d e n ta l c e m e n t . Br D e n t J 125: 381

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2.4

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F ish e r F J,

M c C a b e JF (1978) C a l c i u m hydroxide base

materials:

betw een c h e m i c a l stru c tu re a n d antibacterial proper-

. , ,

, ,

an

in v e stig a tio n

into

the

relationship

ties. Br D e n t J 144: 341


H ilto n T J (1996) C avity sealers, liners a n d bases: current
p h ilo so p h ie s a n d in d ic a tio n s for use. O p e r D e n t 21:4
M a h l e r D B , M a r a n t z R L (1980) C lin ical assessments of
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O s b o r n e JW (1980) D e n t a l a m a lg a m : clinical behaviour up

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W ilson A D (1978) T h e c h em istry of d e n ta l c e m e n ts . Chem


S o c Rev 7: 265

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in vitro, ,
.

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A r m s t r o n g S R , K eller J C , B oyer D B (2001) The influence

, -

of w ater storage

composite

and

C factor on

m ic r o t e n s ile b o n d

th e dentinresin

strength

and debond

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.
,

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Kanca J (1992) R e sin b o n d i n g to wet substrate I. Q uintes-

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Nakabayashi N ,

173

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Van M e e rb e e k et al (1998) T h e clinical p e r f o r m a n c e of

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M a s u h a r a E (1982) T h e
by

the

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of

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2 . 6 .


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, Snowpost C a r b o t e c h , G a n g e s , ;
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, .

.
A n o n (2000) N e w d e v e lo p m e n ts in fiber post systems. Am

J D e n t 13: 1B24B (special issue)


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. ,

2 1 : 5058

.
Cosmopost

(Ivo c larV ivad en t,

),

Biopost

( I n c e r m e d , L a u s a n n e , ) C e r a p o s t (Brassier,
Lemgo,

). ,

.
, .

C o x C F , H afez A A (2001) B io c o m p o sitio n a n d reaction of


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Foreman

PC,

B arn es

IE

(1990) A review of calcium

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F r e e d m a n G A (2001) E sth etic p o s t  a n d  c o r e treatment.
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Johnson WB

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.

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Z m e n e r (1987) E valuation of th e apical seal obtained


w ith two c a lc iu m hydroxide based e n d o d o n t i c sealers.
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210

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 , ( ), 
 .

(1981) An u p d a t e on e la sto m e ric impression

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tic e . J Am D e n t A ssoc 127: 672680

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Bell JW , von F rauenhofer JA (1 97S)The handling of elas

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A m D e n t Assoc 116: 5 2 S  S 3 0

()

J o h n s o n G H , et al (1998) D i m e n s i o n a l stability and detail

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h y d ro c o llo id

and elas-

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M c C a b e JF , S to re r R (1980) E la sto m e ric im pression mate-

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, :

, . .

M c C a b e JF , W ilson H J (1978) A d d itio n curing silicone


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P r a t t e n D H , C raig R G (1989) W ettability o f a hydrophilic

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6 1 : 197201
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, -

on

settin g

tim e

of vinyl

polysiloxan e putty

S to re r R, et al (1981) An investigation of m e t h o d s available

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, . -

W atkin so n AC (1988) D isinfection of im pressions in UK

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, ,

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,

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. -

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.
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. -

, .

, -

.
-

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,
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).

C h a n , Darvell BW (2001) Effect of storage conditions

. ,

on c a lc iu m su lp h a te h e m ih y d ra te  c o n ta in in g products.

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D u k e P et al. (2000) S tu d y of th e physical properties of type
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, ,

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, -

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, , ,
.

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.

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.

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.
, -

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.

AbouTabl Z M , Tidy D C , C o m b e E C , G r a n t A A (1983)

, ,

T h e d e v e lo p m e n t of m odified d e n t u r e base m aterials. J

, ,

B io m e d M a t e r Res 17:885
B raden M , W right P S , P arker S (1995) Soft lining materials a review. E u r J P r o s t h o d o n t R estor D e n t 3:163

230

C h o w , M a t e a r DW , L a w re n c e H P (1999) Efficacy o f
antifungal a g e n ts in tissue c o n d i t i o n e r s in tre a tin g candidiasis. G e r o d o n t o l o g y 16:110

M c C a b e JF , Basker R M (1976) Tissue sensitivity to acrylic


resin. Br D e n t J 140:347
S h im J S , W atts D C (2000) A n e x a m i n a t i o n o f th e stress

G r o n e t P M , D riscoll C F , h o n d r u m S O (1997) resilience o f

d istrib u tio n in a softlined acrylic resin mandibular

surfacescaled t e m p o r a r y soft d e n t u r e liners. J P ro sth e t

c o m p l e t e d e n t u r e by finite e l e m e n t analysis. Int J

D e n t 77:370

P r o s t h o d o n t 13:19

H uggett R , J o h n G , Jagger R G , B ates J F (1982) S tre n g th

Stafford G D , H uggett R , M a c G r e g o r A R , G r a h a m J

o f t h e acrylic d e n t u r e base t o o t h b o n d . B r D e n t J

(1986) T h e use of n ylo n as a d e n t u r e  b a s e material. J

153:187
Jagger D C , H a r r is o n A , J a n d t K D (1999) Review: T h e
r e i n f o r c e m e n t of d e n t u r e s . J O ral R eh abil 26:185

D e n t 14:18
Turrell A J W (1996) Allergy to d e n t u r e base m aterial fallacy or reality? Br D e n t J 120:415

L a m b D J , Ellis B , Priestley D (1 983) T h e effects of pro-

U e sh ige M et al. (1999) D y n a m i c viscoelastic properties of

cessing variables on levels of residual m o n o m e r in

a n t im ic r o b ia l tissue c o n d i t i o n e r s c o n t a i n i n g silverzeo-

a u t o p o l y m e r i z i n g d e n t a l acrylic resin. J D e n t 11:1


M c C a b e JF (1998) A polyvinylsiloxane d e n t u r e soft lining
m a te ria l. J D e n t 26:521

lite. J D e n t 27:517
W right PS (1976) Soft lining m a te ria ls: t h e ir status and
p r o s p e c ts / J d e n t 4:247

3.3

, , , ,

, 

, , -

. -

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+
.

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CoCrNi.

20

.


232

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233

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.

, .
+

, 7 5 % ,

6 0 % . -

, , -

, , ( 5 % ) .

3.3.1).


, -

.
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. 24 ,

24

5 0 % 1 2 . -

(37,5% ) 1 8 ( 7 5 % ) .

2. . 1000,
18 750, 9

, .

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234

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.

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236

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238

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, , -

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IV

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(55 65% ) ( 3 0 % ) .

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239

.
, . , , ,
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R everend W illiam G r e g o r 1790,
1910 .
( , )
. TiCl 4 ,
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(.. 6% 4% .


,
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, . , ,

 
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 .

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,
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, ,

240

. -

. -

, Ti 6% Al 4% V

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.
Ti 6% Al 4% V

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) , ,
,

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) , 10

10

. -

, -

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,  , -

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175 . , Ti
6% Al 4% V 450
.

, .

. ,

, -

, , -

, -

241


Asgar (1988) C astin g m etals in dentistry: Past Present
F u t u r e / A d v D e n t Res 2:33
Au AR et al (2000) T i t a n i u m for rem ovable partial d en tu res
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d e n t u r e s . Br D e n t J 118:532
B esim o C , Jeger C , G u g g e n h e i m R (1997) M arginal adapt a t io n o f t i t a n i u m fram ew orks p r o d u c e d by C A D / C A M
t e c h n i q u e s . U n J P r o s t h o d o n 10:541
C D M I E (1985) R e p o r t o n base m etal alloys for crow n and
bridge a p p lic a tio n s: benefits a n d risks. J Am

Dent

A ssoc 111:479
C r u i c k s h a n k Boyd D W (1981) Alternatives to gold 1: N o n 
p o rc e la in alloys. D e n t U p d a t e 8:17
C u n n i n g h a m D M (1973) C o m p a r i s o n o f base dental alloys
a n d type IV gold alloys for rem ovable partial d e n tu re
fram ew orks. D e n t C lin N o r t h A m 17:719
H uget E F (1978) Base m e ta l alloys. In : A n o u tlin e of dental m aterials a n d th e ir selectio n . O 'B r i e n and Ryge
(eds) ch 2 3 , p 284. W .B. S a u n d e r s , L o n d o n
K arlsson S (1993) T h e fit of P ro c e ra t i t a n i u m crow n s: an
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L a n d e s m a n H M , d e G e n n a r o G G , M artinoff J T (1981) A n
1 8  m o n th clinical evalu atio n of se m ip re c io u s and n o n 
p re c io u s alloy re sto ra tio n s. J P ro sth et D e n t 46:161
Leinfelder K F (1997) An evaluation of casting alloys used
.

,
.

for restorative p r o c e d u r e s . J Am D e n t Assoc 128:372


M ezger P R ,

Stols A L H , V rijhoef M M A , G r e e n e r E H

(1989) M etallurgical aspects a n d c o rro sio n beh aviour


of yellow lowgold alloys. D e n t M a t e r 5:350
Russell M M et al (1995) A new c o m p u te ra ssiste d m e th o d
for fabrication of c r o w n s a n d fixed partial d en tu res.


H,
.

Q u in te s s e n c e Int 26:757
van N o o r t R, L a m b DJ (1984) A sc a n n in g electron microscope study of Co Cr partial d e n t u r e s fractured in
service. J D e n t 12:122
W atanable I et al (1997) Effect of pressure difference on the
quality of t i t a n i u m casting. J D e n t Res 76:773

3.4

, , -

, -

, ,

, .

, ,
.


5 0 % 4 .


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.


1700 ..

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243

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244

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, 1700

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245

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.
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1903 L a n d Dental C osmos

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C alifornian Denial Association Jornal, -

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. 1988
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, ,
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nia I n  C e r a m  A lu m in a ,

am L td, Shipley, ) .

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).

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C u l l o c h 1968
.

L i 2 O . Z n O . S i 0 2 . -

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257



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).
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.


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. 

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260

1 5 ,
,

A n d e r s s o n et al (1998) P r o c e r a : a n e w way to achieve an


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: ,
,
3.4.4.

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.

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M a c k e r t JR Jr, W illiam s A L (1996) M i c r o c r a c k s in dental


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M u r a k a m i I, S c h u l m a n A (1987) A sp ects of metalceram-

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P an g 1 et al (1995) B o n d in g c h a ra c te ristic s of lowfusing
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P eregrina A et al (1992) M e a s u r e m e n t of oxide adherence

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S ark ar N K et al (1985) R o le of gallium in alloyporcelain
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C D M I E (1981) P o r c e la in  m e ta l alloy c o m p a tib ility : criteria a n d test m e t h o d s . J A m D e n t A ssoc 102: 71
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2: 10

C re u g e rs N H J , K ayser A F (1992) A n analysis o f m u ltip le


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JR

(1 991 )

A lternative

alloys

for

resinbonded

retentive

mechanism

re ta in ers. J P r o s th e t D e n t 47: 52

R es 46: 262
W ood M (1985) E t c h e d castings an alternative approach
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improved

to e n a b le t i t a n i u m  c e r a m i c b o n d i n g . J B iom ed Mater

t o t r e a t m e n t / D e n t C lin N o r t h A m 29: 393

h e a t t r e a t m e n t . D e n t M a t e r 16: 109
L aw son

W ang R R et al (1999) Silicone n itrid e c o a tin g on titanium

for

resinbonded

P ro sth e t D e n t 66: 439

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J o c k sta d A, M jor IA (1996) Ten years' clinical evaluation of
th re e luting c e m e n t s . J d e n t 24: 309
K n ibbs PJ, Plant C G , Shovelton D S (1986) T h e performa n c e of zink polycarboxylate a n d glassionom er luting
c e m e n t s in general d e n ta l p ra c tic e . Br D en t J 160: 1 3 
. 3 . 6 . 1 5 .
, ,

15
M c L e a n JW , W ilson A D , Prosser H J (1984) Development

: (a) VBADT, 6  ( 4 HHHH

and

) 1 ,3 ,5 H 2 ,4 H; (b) MEPS, -

c e m e n t s . J P ro sth e t D e n t 52: 175  181

; () Metaltite -

u se

of w a te r h a rd e n in g

g la s s  io n o m e r

luting

M itchell CA (2000) Selection of m aterials for post cement a t i o n . D e n t U p d a t e 27: 350

Phillips RW, L u n d MS (1987) In vivo sdisintegration of luting c e m e n t s . J Am D e n t Assoc 114: 489


,

R o sen th iel SF, L a n d M F , C rispin BJ (1998) Dental luting

. -

agents: a review of th e c u rre n t literature. J Prosthet

D e n t 80: 280
Simdel J, F rankenberger R, K ra m e r N, Petschelt A (1999)

C rack form ation of allceram ic crowns dependent on dif-

. ,

ferent core buildup and luting materials. J Dent 27: 175

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) . ,

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.

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S n Pb.


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.

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304

K a p ila S, S a c h d e v a R (1989) M e c h a n i c a l p ro p e rtie s and

. -

clinical a p p lic a tio n s of o r t h o d o n t i c wires. A m J O rth o d

, ,
.

D e n to fac ia l O r t h o p 96: 100


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