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EVALUATION AND OBSERVATION

ON PREPERATIONS OF PASTRIES AND CAKES


NUTRTION 222
MEGAN CAMPBELL
05/25/12

I.

PURPOSE
The purpose of this laboratory was to demonstrate the effects of baking pastries
and cakes using various fats as well as multiple methods of preparation. This lab
emphasized the functions of the ingredients in both cakes and pastries and allowed for
students to observe and evaluate these functions. Procedures for this lab can be found
on pages 69-84 of Robert G. Brannans NUTR 222 lab manual.

II.

METHODOLOGY
Procedures A and B can be found on page 71 for making pastries. The first recipe
was done to observe the effect of type of fat. The pastries were made by first sifting
the dry ingredients of flour and salt together in a small bowl. Next, the fat was cut
into the dry ingredients with a pastry cutter. The variations of fat included shortening,
oil, butter, and lard. Next, 1 tablespoons of cold water were added to the mix using
teaspoon at a time. After the dough was prepared, it was then cut into 1 x 5
rectangles and baked for 10 minutes at 425 degrees Fahrenheit. Recipe B was done to
determine the effect of amount of fat. The same procedure for part A was followed
but used different amounts of fats as variations. The variations included using 1, 2, 4,
and 6 tablespoons of fat. Procedure C and D are both located on page 72. Procedure C
was carried out to determine the effect of the type of flour when making pastries.
Procedure A was also followed for this recipe but used 4 different kinds of flour. Allpurpose, bread, cake, and whole wheat were the variations used in this lab. The final
recipe for pastries was based on the effect of extent of manipulation. This procedure
included 4 alterations of the recipe by using lard, oil, butter, and shortening as fats.
The same method for part A was also except that after the dough was prepared, it was
divided into 3 equal parts and kneaded for different periods of time. Kneading times
included 2 minutes, 4 minutes, and 0 minutes.
Procedures for Cakes begin on page 79 and start with Shortened Cakes. Recipe
number one was done to determine the effect of sweeteners. The first cake was
prepared by placing shortening and sugar in a bowl and then creaming the mixture by
hand until light and fluffy. Eggs where then added to the creamed mixture and beat
for one minute. In a separate bowl, the dry ingredients were sifted. Next, a third of the
flour mixture was added to the creamed mixture and the beat for 30 seconds. Vanilla
and of the milk were then added followed by repeated alternating of dry and wet
ingredients. Finally the cake was baked for 20 to 30 minutes at 350 degrees
Fahrenheit on a greased and floured cake pan. Variations of this procedure
incorporated were omitting sugar, doubling sugar, and replacing sugar with corn
syrup. The next procedure demonstrated the effect of fat on shortened cakes. The
steps from the first recipe were followed except using different types and amounts of
fat. Variations included omitting the shortening, doubling the shortening, replacing
shortening with cup butter, cup oil, cup lard, cup margarine, and cup
solid vegetable fat.
Part B begins on page 80 and includes recipes for unshortened cakes. The first
recipe is for angel food cake and is prepared by first sifting of the sugar and flour
together twice and then setting the mixture aside. Next a rotary beater is used to beat

egg whites until foamy. Cream of tartar and salt are then added and beat to the soft
peak stage. The rest of the sugar is then added a tablespoon at a time and the mixture
is beat until the stiff peak stage. Next, the flour mixture is sifted about at a time
over the eggs whites. With a rubber spatula, the mixture is then folded with and overunder motion. Finally the batter is baked at 350 degrees Fahrenheit for 40 to 50
minutes. The next recipe is for Sponge Cake. It is prepared by combing flour and 1/3
of the sugar and sifting. Eggs yolks are then beat with water and flavoring followed
by adding 1/3 of the remaining sugar. The eggs whites are then beat until foamy. Next
salt and cream of tartar and the remaining sugar are added and beat until the meringue
reaches the stiff peak stage. Next the flour mixture is sifted over the egg-yolk mixture
and folded with a rubber spatula. Finally the egg white mixture is added and folded
gently until blended and then baked at 350 degrees Fahrenheit for 40 to 45 minutes.
The last cake made was a chiffon cake that was prepared by combining flour,
sugar, baking powder and salt in a bowl. In another bowl, oil and egg yolk are beat
together followed by stirring in the water and flavoring. The 2 mixtures are then
combined and mixed until smooth. Egg whites are beat until foamy followed by
adding cream of tartar. The batter mixture was then folded into the egg white foam
with a rubber spatula. The batter is then baked at 350 degrees Fahrenheit for 50 to 60
minutes.
III.

RESULTS

1400

Hardness force (g) (texture analyzer)

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
Oil

Butter

Shortening

Lard

Type of Fat

Figure One: The hardness of pastries changes due to variations in fat content.

1400

Hardness force (g) (texture analyzer)

1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
1 tbs

2 tbs

4 tbs

6 tbs

Amount of shortening

Figure Two: The hardness of pastries changes due to variations in amount of fat.

1000

Hardness force (g) (texture analyzer)

900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
All Purpose

Whole Wheat

Bread

Cake

Type of Flour

Figure Three: The hardness of pastries changes due to the type of flour used when
baking.

1600

Hardness force (g) (texture analyzer)

1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
2 min oil

4 min oil

2 min
butter

4 min
butter

2 min
4 min 2 min lard 4 min lard
shortening shortening

Fat used as well as extent of manipulation

Figure four: Hardness of pastries varies based on extent of manipulation and type of
fat used.

Table One: Appearance, tenderness and flavor change due to effects of sweeteners.
Cake
Control

No sugar
Double Sugar
Corn Syrup

Appearance
Light brown in
middle, darker on
edges
Yellow with hard
crusty top
Light brown with
crust on top
Little yellow color
with crusty top

Tenderness
Soft, crumbly,
tender

Flavor
Sweet

Dense, soft, not


crumbly
Dense, tender, soft
crust
Dense with soft
crust

Bland
Very sweet
Sweet

Table Two: Appearance, tenderness, and flavor change due to effects of fat.
Cake
Control

No shortening

Appearance
Light brown in
middle, darker on
edges
Brownish yellow,
crumbly

Tenderness
Soft, crumbly,
tender

Flavor
Sweet

Crumbly, not tender

Sweet

2x shortening
Butter
Oil \
\
\
Lard
Margarine
T Veg. Fat
Solid

Fluffy, crumbly,
light brown
Light brown, dry
crusty
Light brown, shiny,
soft crust
Light brown, fluffy

Tender, soft, no
crust
Slightly tender, soft

Sweet

Dry, crusty, slightly


tender
Soft, tender, no
crust
Yellow
Soft, crumbly,
slightly tender
Yellow and crumbly Very soft, tender

Sweet

Sweet

Sweet
Sweet
Sweet

Table Three: Evaluation of appearance, tenderness, and flavor of various


unshortened cakes
Foam Cake

Appearance

Tenderness

Flavor

Angel Food

White with brown


crust
Yellow with crust
top
Yellow with thin
crust

Fluffy

Sweet

Chewy, tender

Sweet

Sponge
Chiffon

IV.

Fluffy dry, not very Not much flavor


tender

DISCUSSION
When comparing the hardness measured by the texture analyzer of the different
pastries in procedure A, pastries made with oil and butter showed the least amount of
tenderness while lard and shortening showed the highest amount of tenderness. It is
expected that a pastry made with butter would have the least amount of tenderness
due to the 15% water content. The extra water content of butter influences gluten
formation and therefore would result in a less tender and tough pastry. Oil, however is
made of 100% fat and does not have water content. The hardness of the oil pastries
made in lab could have been a result of how the dough was manipulated. Over
manipulation of dough also influences gluten formation. Part B compared the effects
of adding different amounts of fat. If you refer to table two, the least tender pastry
was the variation made with 1 tablespoon of fat. This is because fat is the tenderizing
ingredient in pastries, therefore a pastry made with a lesser amount of fat should
produce a harder and crisp pastry.
Procedure C compared the outcomes of pastries made using bread, whole wheat,
cake, and all purpose flour. The pastries made from all purpose flour and cake flour
resulted in the tenderest pastries when measured with the texture analyzer. This is
expected due to the lower protein contents of the flours. Cake flour has a protein

content of about 8% while all purpose has a protein content of about 10%. Pastries
with high protein content are likely to have more gluten formation when compared to
those with lower protein content. If you refer to figure three, you will see that cake
flour produced a slightly less tender product than the pastries made with all purpose
flour. Although this is not expected, it could have been cause by a number of factors.
The dough of the cake flour may have been over manipulated or could have been
prepared with too much water. Both of these factors would influence gluten formation
and could explain the results seen in lab. Figure four shows the results of producing
pastries using oil, butter, shortening, and lard while comparing extents of
manipulation. Pastries kneaded for 4 min and made with lard produced both the least
and most tender pastries. Lard is a fat that has zero percent water content, therefore
making a pastry with a solid fat should result in minimum amount of hydration of
flour particles which would cause less formation of gluten. Once again, the drastic
difference of the results of the texture analyzer could have been due to over
manipulation of the dough or from adding too much water during preparation.
Table one compares the appearance, tenderness, and flavor of cakes prepared
using different sweeteners. The shortened cakes made with sugar, and doubled sugar
resulted in the tenderest and sweet cakes due to the tenderizing agents of fat and sugar
in the dough. The variation made with no sugar only included the ingredients of flour,
fat, eggs, baking powder, and flavoring. Omitting the sugar would result in a bland,
less tender cake with less volume. Table two compares the characteristics of
shortened cakes made with different types of fat. Shortening, oil, lard, and solid
vegetable fat are the solid fats used among the variations. Recipes that used these fats
consistently resulted in soft and tender cakes with sweet and desirable flavors.
Shortened cakes using margarine and butter resulted in less tender cakes with more
crumbly bread. The water content of these fats allowed promotes gluten development
and would therefore result in a tougher cake. Table three compares the qualities of
various unshortened cakes. The three cakes prepared included angel cake, sponge
cake, and chiffon cake. The difference between a shortened cake and unshortened
cake is that unshortened cakes do not use fat as an ingredient. Without fat as a
tenderizing ingredient in the recipes, the characteristics of the cakes were affected.
Although the cakes did not include fat, they still had the help of sugar in the recipes to
give sweetness and tenderness. Angel food cakes and sponge cakes resulted in the
sweetest cakes of the three unshortened cakes. The recipe for chiffon cake created a
dry and bland cake without much flavor.
V.

CONCLUSION
By carrying out the procedures in lab, students were able to see the effects of
ingredients when making cakes and pastries. Overall, recipes which used solid fats
typically resulted in more tender products when taste tested as well measured with the
texture analyzer. This is because fat is a very important tenderizing agent that greatly
effects the overall quality and outcome of products. Sugar is another tenderizing
agent and helped to produce a desirable and tender cake even when fat was omitted.
The ingredients that allowed for structure formation included liquid, flour, and eggs.
Protein content of the flours used in recipes showed effects on tenderness of the

baked goods. Typically, flours with higher protein content resulted in tougher
products. Flour has both glutenin and gliadin which are proteins that allow for the
formation of gluten when mixed with water. The more gluten a product has, the
tougher the product. Learning the effects of ingredients in baked goods is important
for product development if you want to make a desirable pastry or cake.
VI.

REFERENCES
McWilliams, M. (2008). Importance of Evaluation. In Foods: Experimental
Perspectives (7th ed., p. 438). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey:
Pearson Prentice Hall. (Original work published 1997)
Brannan, R.G. 2011. Laboratory Manual for NUTR 222. Pp. 69-84.