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V+<eT+ |uT+ C+ #dT+
Tq~, eTTd+ eT+ C+ #dT e+
< |#s+ sT>TTq~.
y <+ n+f s+, eT+ ys
sT>H +&*. @eT d++~+
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d+ <e\T ]>|&T n+<T
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rdTq eTV\ usD+ y*q
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d++~+ esT\T #jT<T.
Te+{ esT\T s>*e+~. {

n& d+|TsD +&, |Ck$T


<eT+ +& eT d++<+
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s & j \ | # s neX +
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sjT b\ y <+ n eT\qT


bVd, yTC]{ eTH<+ |s>{
neX+ *dTq ~. sTy sjT
b\ s+&T s\THsTT. eT
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eT k<q+> #dT= sj\T
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+~s>+B V s + > dt
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$j+#T=+THsTT. n+<Te\q
sTy sjT b\ y<+ |
u sTTw+ > + #sD eTH<+
|s>{ &&TTq~.
eT* nd e q+> # d H
wbeTT+~. \VqyTq eT\
$wjT + C>\ T rdT= sD *dH
n~ |CkeTeTT+~. & eTTd+ \T
e#T, bkH, +><X\ V+<T
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H n& |CkeT+ +f y] sD
*+#*. eT+ |sT yTH]{\T
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~s kBq+ #dT =H neX+ +T+~.
Te+{ |]d T yTH ]{\ sD *dH
n~ yTq |CkeT+ neT +~.
eT& s#q+ <Tq+s
y<T\T yTC, yTH @ eTH<q
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eT+ |\+<] eTqdTq +~ {
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q #& n+X\qT ysT #d, eT+
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|uT q&b\ #TsT. B,
V+< & @$T{? V+<
y<T\T yTC]{ eT+| <s|&
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6

e] dT
q&b\ #TTHsT. _.C.|.ysT,
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n+X+ @$T+f y <+ us< X
d++~+q~ <T. ~ jTs|t
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d]bT+~. eTq <X |]d T \ d]b<
#TsT.
eT+, |CkeT+, y <+
jTs|t eTT+<T> n_e~ #+~ e+&
e#T. sTy eed n_e~ #+<\+
s+, eT+ ysT> +&\H ueq
e+~. jTs|t eT+ Bq+ sE
+&y&T. sE, |\T eT~| #| +<
#dysT. sE, b|t |TsD\T ],
eT+> b|t n~s\ sE d+
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+& #jT eTH~ |+ $|e + s
reyT+~. $<+> sC, eT
eT< ]q |TsD qT+& y<+
|{+~.
us<X+ @H& sE eT
& &T. eTyT sE & +~.
yTT<{ qT+& sEqT <y +X d+u T>
u$+#sT. m+ >=| |sVTH
sE & +&ysT. uVDT&T
sCH nqT sE>H +&y&T
uVDT&T> +&y&T <T. us
<X+ sEH ~+ *q eT+
<T. { sE eT eT< |TsD
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s+& n+X+. \yTq eT\T se+
eT\ eT< |T sD\T e#sTT. n+<Te\q
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{ us< X + eT keTsk k~+
#\+f y <+ | d] neds+ .
V+<eT+ eT dVq+ b{
dT+~. { V+<eT+ n~s+
seyT yTq y <eT #TsT.
k+ eT+ <TsTdT> eeV]dT< + {sT.
B yde+ <T. V+<eT+
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< +, n< +, $c< +\ eT< ]q
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#] #d eT keTsd+ $wjT+
7

eT+ ` eTH<+
us<X+ @H& sE eT & &T.
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TH sE & +&ysT. uVDT&T sCH
nqT sE>H +&y&T uVDT&T> +&
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{ n|&T y<+ deTd &<T.

|{
Ms+>+ ydTq
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ss :
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+THsT
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> #&+&, #<TejT+ &<sT
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s keTsd + >T]+, dV q+ >T]+
e{& sT. Te+{ ><\T |T sD\T
s eT d+ #] #k+.
V+<eT _q+ e+~.
n~ >+<+ MT<H, e MT<H <
s|& ]+# &q eT+ <T. d e \
u_ , eTTd+ \ KTsH, d \ >TsT>+<
kVu HsTT. V+<eT+ y<,
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V+<Te\T #y] +THs,
eT>H |+#Ty\, X e\ \\T
q] X sy\ |#s+ #dT H sT. eT>

q+ sy\+f <e& qe*.


n+<T seTT& eTT+<T dT H sT. {
VH +, s+ V+<
y<T\H +~ | y <T\ <T .
CrjTy<+
eT CrjTy<+
q d++< |]o*+#*. eT+
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V> eTT< yjT sT . CrjTy< eTTdT>T
ydT=+f V+<qT es+# y]
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n+<T V+<eTH<+ CrjTy<
eTTdT>T ydT = eTT+<T edT+ ~.
V+<Te\T >&MT< |{s
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e#s n+^]d V+<y<T\T #TTq
T<\T |yT& |L*bsTT. n+<T
#]H s>sj\ |jT+ #dTHsT.

ydTq|&T us<X ysdT\T


V+<Te\T. $T> ys+<s e\d
e#sT. e\d eqysT C
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nsTTH +&*. V+<Te\T eT\ydT\T
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{ d+d| <s|&H C
|eTT+~. n+<Te\q V+<
d+d CrjT d+d n #TsT.
{ eT~ k+d CrjTy<+ n
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<X+ yTH]{\+<s ~rjTXD
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y<T\ u$wY <T. n+<Te\q


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nsTT >+ d+<q |&T


se\ se{ sD+ ke
|H~ =+ esT e+~. Cr
j<eT+ |\ eT< yw e \qT +Z ,
_{wt es bs+ +> eTT+<T
q&|+~. eTTd+\qT, <[T\qT L&
\T|= eTT+<T { |jT ++~.
Crj<eT HjT\T nH d+<s\
eTH<+ sJ |&q |{, eT
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\qT + #jT >\eT >T]+#sT. 1967
s Crj<eT ueC\+ eT+>
\Vq|&+~. CrjTy< |<q
|~> Oq +>dt \Vq|&, 1967
m nH sc\ z&bsTT+~.
bkH jTT<+, osY ysTy<
uy\T s#>=+, ] d+u\T,
$$< sc\ ysTy< <e\T,
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<e\T ~s\ |\ eT<
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|+E |]d T _.C.| CrjTy<
|~> eTT+<T e+~.
meTs jT|wt HsjTD
HjT+ kq O<eT+ u>k
eTT\T e+ V+<y<T\
|CkeTX> eTT< ydT =H neX+
e+~. s nj< qT, seTT& eTT+<
T #sT. deTjT+H ||+#+
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C\+ yqT|T |+ y] *d
e+~. dssD $<H\T bs+u+
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kw*+ | kqTL\ Z+~. T
e+{ d us<X+ |T&
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+, eT <|& dV]+#>\e
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n_e~ #+~q n> \ #+~q eT<
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$j+#T= <X, $<o s=s{ X \
eT< T _.C.|.n~s+ s>*+~.
8

e] dT
V+< X\qT m m<Tsy*?
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V+<X \ qT n&T >\ n+X\THsTT.
yTT<{ \Vq V+<T+ \eedqT
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+& n&Te{ \y V< |sT
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k< + <T. us b\esZ\T eT +
eT O|j>|&TT+< n~s
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esT\T edTH sTT. <T $< y\,
n_e~ y\H s\T |sT>TTHsTT.
k+d <e\T bs+_+, < +
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9

eT+ ` eTH<+
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#jT>* V+<, eTTd+ eT\T \Vq
|&, ]H=sT Xe\T> #|+# d +&
bT+~.

\+{ \T|= <Xy| <eT+


#j *. eT&e n+X+ k+d s+>+
eTq+ C+ #dT +& eT
z&+#+ k< + <T. d+d nq|&T
nH n+X\T eTT+<T=ksTT. e
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eTTd+ \q \eed +~. \


eT< +s $yV\T s>e . \eed
q# < es+> bs&*.
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d>+ s+> Oq~. B |P]
eT s+> es\ V+<y<T\T
| j T + # d T H s T . eTq+ | P ]
s+> es\ bs&TTH+.
n k s TT bs+ # j *.
ne>Vq eTT+<T by*.
123
123
123

e] dT

d|(m+) dse |+

us<X+ eekjT deTd


|]cs d|m+ w
#

s#sTT us eTdT
b (e]dT) b*{s
duT \T

seT#+< H |

|T&< $<H_e~, nq+


s+ key< ||+ NsD sT D+
eekjTs+>+ nH esT\T sT>T
Tq eT+ eekjT deTd |]c
s d|m+ #dTq w >T]+
yd+ | + > $e]kqT. n+X
d++~+q deT> #s qT eTs d+<s +
#kqT.
eekjT deTd nH < eT&T
eTTKy T q n+X\THsTT. >MTD
b+ |T&< $<q+ m+
T> #=#T[+~, m+ $d+>
#=#T[+~, < due+ @$T{ nH~
yTT<{ n+X+. s+&e n+X+, eekjT
s+>+ |T&< $<H_e~ e\q
sb+<TTq esZ\T, y{ duy
d++~+q~. eekjT deTd |]c
s k+# esZ bs+ @ esZ\qT,
@$<+>, @ $<H\ <s + #d
bs{\ dMT]+#\H~ eT&e
n+X+. eekjT deTd |]cs+ n+f
eekjTs+>+ O d++<\qT,
>MTD b++ ke, ]
d++<\qT L& nuT<jT+ y|
es+ s>*. { eekjT deTd

n+f < |T&< $<q+ n_e~


neTq | |]dT\T, esZ\T s|
~<Te+, esZ d+|Tq, esZ bs+
*d e+{sTT.
us eTdT b (e]dT) >
50 d+es\ eekjT deTd
d++~q $$< n+X\qT |]o*+#{
@&TksT eTTKyTq |jT \T #d+ ~.
n$ 1964 b s e T+, 1987
eekjT s+>+ sy \| +<$ T{
rsq+, 1973 = eekj T
deTd\| +<$ T{ rsq+, 1976
d| (m+) $<q |q, deTd\T
+<$T{ rsq+, eekjT s+>+
w| dMT, u$ wY sy \T, 1993
+< $T{ rsq+, 2000 d+
|qsM]+q b seT+, sT,
eekjT ] s+>\ w| dMT,
u$wY sy\T 2003 +<$T{
y~+q rsq+.
us<X |\ eTT+<T eekjT
deTd n+ b<q>\ CrjT
deTd> e+< d| (m+) u$dTq~.
<X+ s s+>\H eekjT
deTdqT nuT <jT , |Ck$T <<+

ns+ #dT e+, |]w]+#+ $|\ +


e+ sTy`ukeTesZ\ b\q
jTT ~ysTH dw+ #dT q <
b <&+> u$dTq~.
1964 y~+q b seT+
us< X eekjT s+>+ ]q |
sV |T&< n_e~ |]o*+,
~>Te sj
\ e+~. us< X +
|T&< n_e~ |eT jTs|,t s
n_e~ #+~q |T&< <X
]q n_e~+{~ <T. |T&<
es+Z n_e~ #+<TTq|{, us
de+ |{ |T&< |Ps
deC #+~q neXc\T \+>
eHsTT. n_e~ #+~q |T&<
<X n_e~ neTq sTy esZ+
L*ydq |T&< |Ps de
neXc\| |T&< $<H ]+
qT +& us<X+ |T&<
|Ps de+| |T&< $<H
|qT+& sT<sT. <X Xu |>
|]b*+q _{wt e\d b\\T>,
1947 n~s+=q us sTy
esZ+> |T&< |Ps de+|
#e< =<T. |T&< |Ps
10

e] dT
deC HXq+ #dH |T&<
$<q+ d#> n_e~ #+<TT+~.
s T y < =\+,k q +
kw*dT de+ edT+~. { |dT
us de+ >T |T&<sT\ ~|
q >\ \, eT, ~yd d+d\
L& e+~. { |T&< |Ps
ke eedqT L*yjT+ d
eq $|e X\+{ dMT]+,
|Ck$T $|y ]+> |P]#d,
kw*C esZ dT>eT+ #j*q
se+ ]esZ+, ]esZ b nsTTq
eTdTb| |&+~.
1964 y~+q b s
eT+ s T \ |j H\d+ reyTq
eekjT d+dsD\T #d, eekjTs+>+
O X \ ++> eq |P &,
ns |P& d++<\qT |P]> s<T
#jT+ yTTyTT<{, n eTTKyTq
se eT #| +~. BbT> >e\qT
yqTuTq+ O+#TTq |T&<
|Ps ke d++<q \+, s
eed*, deC |P]> d+d]+#
#s\T L& BqT>TD+> rdTy*.
key< es, >T |T&<
es sy * |P] #j *q neds
L& seT+ #|+~.
eekjT deTd |]cs dMT
]+#e\dq esZ\T, s>T* >T]+
L& seT+ #|+~. |T&<
$<q+ T> #=#Tbe+ e\q
s+>+ esZ+> sT. s+>+ esZ
$uq ]+~. eekjT deTd |]c
s+ s+>+ $$< esZ\T $$<
b\T sVksTT. >MTD b++
70 X+ eq eekjT ]\T, |<
sT\T ]esZ n+ qeTyTq
$TT\T> e+{sT. eT< s> sT\T
qeTyTq $TT\T> e+{sT. $$<
sD\ e\q < sT* L& |C
+ d+|T q rdT=, q |C
+ d+|T q $TT\T> O+#Te#T.
b seT+ <s+> +<$ T{
1967 eekjTs+>+ sy\T
&yT+TqT sb+~++~. +<T
sT O<eT+ sV+#* sy*
>T]+ #|+~. OeT& b qT+&
d+$T+q, b \+> bTb
11

eekjT deTd |]cs d|m+ w

1964 y~+q b seT+...


sT\ |jH\d+ reyTq eekjT
d+dsD\T #d,eekjTs+>+ O X
\ ++> eq |P&, ns |P& d++
<\qT |P]> s<T#jT+ yTTyTT<{, n
eTTKyTq seeT #|+~.

sTTq reyTq d+dsDy< ne>VqqT


+<$T{ rsq+ m#|+~. eek
jT deTd| $Ty< <<+ nH $<
\T> eeTTq~. eekjT |]d
ne>Vq #dT =, | +Xq |P &
<|&, sT\ sT>TTq esZ $uq,
eekjT s+>+ |T&< $<q+
#=#T=be+, < due+, $dsD
~s\qT ns+ #dT =, ds q H<\qT
sb+~+#+ s><T. bsbT ne
>Vq e\q |P& es bs+
>MTD ]\T, b ]\T s
V+#>\ $|es bqT e#d,
eT< s> , < s T \ n~ b<q+
e+ ]+~. eekjT ]\T,
|< sT\ | deTd\qT rdT=
O<$T+#+ nsTTw q T #|+~. d\
s +> nH ds q uy e] +,
eekjT ]\T, |< s +>+ +<+
> s +> + #jT { <T\T>,
eT< s > ,< s +> + +< + >
s +> +#jT { |jT ++~.
sTs+>+ s>e\dq w dsq esZ
<< *+#+ $|\+ e{
+<$T{ rsq+ re+> $eT]+,
b* d]~<Te{ ]wyTq
esZ<s\qT sb+~++~.
= |X \ d++~+ n_bjT
u<\T sTT. 1. u d*+> |]$T
2. eekjT+ #jT sT\T. eTTK+>
q sT\T, y] ueTT #<
V\T \T sT\ V\ >T]+.
3. u $T, y H \ d + +~ + q
eekjT ]\T #d bs{\
d++~+q n+X\T. 4. {sT, s
jT+\qT eekjT+ |yX |+|
s +> O< eT+ @ < < +

eeV]+#*. 5. sT\ OT\


HjTyTq <s \ qT @ b|~| ss TT+
#*. 6. u d+dsD #{\T, D ]w
deTd\| #d |Cbs{\,b s
eT+ b+<T|s#&,|dT<X
|#sH<\T> Oqy{eT< m+{
d++<\T+&\H n+X\T 1960e <X
+ e] b #s e#sTT.
1973 eTT|s |Y P sY deyXy T q
+<$T{ deTd\qT |]cs+ #jT
{ |jT + #d, = eekjT deTd
\| rsH y~++~. eekjT
s+>+ m<TsTq deTd\qT |]cs+
#dT= eTT+<T be{ rsq+
O|j>|&<T. +<$T{ rsq+
$u<\qT |]cs+#jTb>, yeT|,
ny< <]rd, deTd\qT eT]+
re+ #d+~. +< $T{ rsq+
ukeT $<q+ s<T, u |+|\qT
D deTd\T> eTT+<T rdT e+~.
s+> qT ]+#{ s+>+
m<Ts=+Tq $$< s\ deTd\qT
rdT= eekjT ]\T, |< sT\T
+<+> s+> qT ]+#{
b<qe+ rsq+ $|\
yT+~. 1973 qe+sY \ ]
q +<$T{ deyX+ n+X\T
#s e#sTT. = eekjT deTd\|
rsH = desD\T #X+.
1976 +< $ T{ y ~+q
rsq+ b =qk>TTq bsbT
ne>Vq\qT #es d]~~+~.
>MTD b++ |sT>TTq |T&<
O d++<*, |*+> s+>+
sT>TTq esZ $uqqT dMT++~.
+>dt |uT+ rdT=dTq eekjT
d+dsD\ |** L& dMT++~.

e] dT

eekjT deTd |]cs d|m+ w


2000 d+es+ <T ]+#&q b
s e T+ eekjTs+>+ | sT>TTq | T
&< O d++<\T, key<+
eTT+<T dTq ||+NsD, dssD $<
H\qT, >MTD b++ sb+<TTq esZ
ysT<\ >T]+ #]++~.

eekjTs+>+| |ue+ #sTTdTq


eek> esT* |]>Dq rdT=,
eTq d+|T+ jTT sDX, s+>
# H , y] k s TT
|]>Dq rdT=, u keT $<H
d+|Ps+> s<T#jT+, eekjT
]\, |< s T \ u $T O+>
|+|+ nH$ |#s H<\T>
e+{jT #| +~. |uT ;&T u eTT\T,
nM ueTT\T, d*+> #{\qqTd]+
$T>T\T ueTT\ d+ bs{\T #dH
eekjT]\T, >MTD ]\
L*sT |+|<\, \Ts Z+|,
s +> sTD* s<T # j
T + < sTDus+
Z#+, eekjT\ HjTyTq
<s \ T, |qT\ us+ +Z |, bdT E\T+
n$ es+> ~s deTd
\+{ *|, |< eekj<eT
|yV+> sb+~+#*. >]w s+>
qT k~+#{, =~eT+~> Oq
u keTT*, y] s sTT eT *
z&+#{ ~ neds+ n #|+~.
kqTL\yTq |]dT\TH, ee
kjT ], s+> O<e\T \
Vq+> O+&+ <X+ |Ck$T
O<eT+ \Vq+> O+&{ |< q
sDeT 1993 +<$T{ #dq
rsq+ | qs T < { + +~.
\Vq\qT n~>$T+#+& b
|s T > T < \ kqT L \ | ] d T \qT
dw+#+ k<+ < #|+~. >]w
s+> qT k~+#{ eekjT
]\T, |< sT\T +<+> s+>
qT k~+#{ w #j \ L&
+<$T{ rsq+ #|+~. s+>
m<TseTq $_q deTdq u$T,
u $T d++~+q deTd\T, eekjT

]\ L*sT, ke sD #s \T,
k>TsT, $<T# , Xg, k+ $Cq+,
eT* d<T bj\T, e e& sTD\T,
es{ X\qT+& sD, eekj
T\ TuT <s\T, |C|+|D
eed, |uT $<, |uT y< +, |uT
b\q n$, ke n#s\T,
d V s d + d * n_ e ~ # j T +,
|+#jTr d+d\ qT \|s +, b\ O
n_e~ #jT+, |sesD+ ~s
deTd\+{| s+> O<eT+ w
#j \ #| +~. |sT>TTq |T&<
O d++<\|H, |*+> s+
>+ |sT>TTq esZ $uq|H +<
$T{ rsq+ re+> #]+, n+#H
yjT { |jT + #d+ ~. us< X +
$$< b+ |]dT\T $_q+>
eHj T , d e Td \qT rd T e+,
&e+&q T sb+~+#+ y$ <
| ] > D q rd T = O< e
]+#{, $d] +#{ w #j \H
sj e+~. |T&< $<q
|sT>T<\, O d++<\ due+,

ns ukeT d++<\ ~|+, u


d+dsD\ #{\ neT\T, #] |]d
T\T, s n+X* |]>Dq rdT=,
<X eT&T $u>\T> $u+#\
#| +~. rsq+ qj ds sD ]
$<H\ e\q m<TsTq deTd\qT
>T]+, eekjT ]\qT, sT\qT
V Q C d + d \ , key<
&T\, |uT $<H\ es+>
dMT]+#\ #|+~.
2000 d+es+ <T ]+#&q
b seT+ eekjTs+>+
|sT>TTq |T&< O d++<
\T, key<+ eTT+<T dTq
||+ NsD , ds sD $<H\qT, >MTD
b++ sb+<TTq esZ ysT<\
> T ]+ # ] ++~. eekj T +
|sT>TTq |T&< O d++<\T
n\usksTT |<H+X+>
O+<, |T&< O d++<\
|sT>T<\, O es\ b+rjT,
O| b+rjT y$<\T, ndeq\TH
jT b seT+ #|+~. eek
jT+ |T&< $<q+ n_e~ nsTT,
eekjTdsT\ yD+, &T es+
>MTD ] eed| ~|+ eVdTq
b+\THsTT. b |<T ukeT
eed, \T< $<q+, \+ #*q |s
q XeT<|&, Tud +, X$T\qT
nDyjT + ~s\T eekjT d++
<\ eTTKyTq b eVdTq b+\T
L& eHsTT. \ $u q, \ nDy,
eTV\| <sTDyTq nDy, |<\qT
e&ybsT\T, ybs |T& <|&

e]dT |
MT n_bj\T \|+&!
e]dT d<+ ed| |H, | ]w
yk\|H MT n_bj\q, d#q\q VdT H+. j
yk\| MTsT #]+#*q n+X\TH, n<q| de#seTTH
|+> sd |+|+&
MT K\T n+<*q sTHe!
m&sY,
e]dT d<+ ed|
|CX |dt, >essT|, $jTy&-2
12

e] dT
#jT + <Xy |+ > =qk>TTHsTT.
eekjT+ b O d++<* HX
q+ #jT +&H |T&< |Ps O
d+<\T, ke sD+| |T&
< $<q+ sT< & n_e~ neTq<
b seT+ |qsT<{++~. <T
,n_e~ b d++<\T =qk>
+& s~+#<T.
u keTT\T, < s T \T, +{s T ,
& ybsT\T, <\T Xe+yTq
eTTs\T> @s&TTHs b seT+
#| +~. yeT| \T ~ + eq sc
\ $TqV $T> sc\ ysT |+#
jTr d+d*, dVs d+|\T, >MTD
u+\T, sTD*# d+d\| ~|+
#sTTdTHsT. >e\ sTy`u
keT b\ ys HjT+ eV
dTH sT. ysT d+b~+q n<q| <H
e& ybs+, ]jT md{ , n~ u\T
d+b~+#+ d+ $$< s\ yb
s\T, eekj<] |]XeT |T
&T\T |&TTHsT. ysT eT eT<T
dMT]+#Te{, >MTD |<\T eT
nD eTD e+& u j T u + T *
#jT { \d++<* O|j +#T+
THsT.
>MTD ]e ed y>+ > yDJsD
e+ >T]+ L& b seT+
#|&+~. Vs<H\T, eekjT
dsT\ es{ $|+> |]+~.
eekjT OT\| >T ybsT\ |T
eT]+ |]+~. ||+# es{| |T
* eq VQC d+d\T eekjT
OT\ <s \ qT n<T| #dT H sTT. eek
jT\ <s \ reyTq &<T &T\T,
s s+>\ b*q|&T yD
$<H\T eekj |L\+> e+&
+ s+> <|& #jT{ re+
#dT H sTT.
eekjT+ |T&< O
d++<\T |s>+, key< ||+
NsD, dssD\ |uy\ e\q s+
>+ |sT>TTq esZ $uqqT |]>D
q rdTq s, s+&T eTTKyTq
y s T < \T eTT+< T =d T H j T b
seT+ #| +~. yTT<{~ u keTT\T,
|T&< sT\T, < sT\T, y]
$TT\T *dq >MTD <\T y|,
13

eekjT deTd |]cs d|m+ w


>MTD ]eed y>+> yDJsD e+
>T]+ L& b seT+ #|&+~. Vs<
H\T, eekjT dsT\ es{ $|+> |]+~.
eekjT OT\| >T ybsT\ |T eT]+ |]
+~. | | + # es{| |T * eq VQC d+d\ T
eekjT OT\ <s\qT n<T| #dTHsTT. yD
$<H\T eekj | L\+> e+&+ s +>
<|& #jT{ re+ #dTHsTT.

>MTD
deTd\|
]seT
w: d|m+
qZ+&

s<]
q+<\
q]+Vs&
|u T\T

s +&y| q |< q+> eekjT ]\T,


|< s T \T, #eT\ ysT *dq s +>
deTV+ eT< reyTq $uq @s&T
Tq~. s+&e~ key< ||+N
sD, |uT+ neT\T #dTq dssD
$<H\ s +>+ qT+& +&, <
\ = s> T \ qT+& L& es
|sT>TTq~.
2003 +<$T{ rsq+ sT,
eekjT ] s+>\ w b
seT+ |s=q esT\ < s+>
dMT+, u$wY sy\qT sb+~+
+~. u$ wY |C+ O<eT+, b
n_e~ sT, eekjT ]s+>\
| b\qT, bs bqT, m+ s
> Xe ++> n~>$ T+#>\ + nH <|
<s|& e+T+< #|+~. eekjT
s+>+ |sT>TTq d+u m<Ts
e{, eekjT $|y jT|<+
#j \H sy sV+#{ eek
jT ]*, sT* m+ s>,
Xe ++> sD+ rdTs>\eTH

<|q O<eT n_e~ <s|& e+


T+~. sy* sV+#+
$|\yT eekjTs+>+ |sT>TTq
nd+| $qesZ\ eT[+#
neX+, \, eT, $qsX\
edT+~. n+<Te\ eekjT ]\T,
sT\ c\T, u<\T eT]+ |sT>T
jT L& #|+~. eekjT d+u+
re+ e+, Xe+yTq s+> O<
e ]+#{ eT] neX*
*dTq ~.
2014 pH ]q +<$T{
deyX+ qj ds sD $<H\T $$<
esZ\| #sTTdTq |ue+, esZ\
edTq esZek* |]o*+#\ s
sTT++~. +<Td+ b*{s, +<
$T{ duT\T, s+>+ |DT\
L&q d& >|qT @sT #d+~. d&
>| ]bsTqT +<$T{ n+<Cd+~.
+<$T{ ]bsTqT #]+, q
ssD\ edT+~.
(nqTy<+ : m. {s&)

e] dT

deTq+

{sYmdt |uT
$<HTy|?
#

mdt. MsjT

\+>D sh |uT+ @s& sT


ek\T >& +~. m\ eTT+<T {sY
mdt nH y>H\T #d+~. n~s+
eq s u |<\H |{++~.
| X\ |]>sTT. |uT+
e \uT +T+<? m\ eTT+<T
+>dt, _C|\ es+> dwyTq
sjT yK ] rdTq~. d<y T q
yK] =qkdT+<? +>dt $<H\
$dT>q q+ {sYmdt |+ >{sT.
> |uT $<H\ {sYmdt |uT +
$&>=T+T+<? e |\T |]o
*dTHsT. sTek\ nqTuy\
|\ nqTeH\T \T>TTHsTT.
|uT+ nH d+eT |<\qT
|{++~. e<|, $+>T\ |qq
yTT+ |++~. <[T\T, ]qT\
eT&s\ k>Tu$T =qT>\T #dH
keT |{++~. T+ duT\
d+K $T+ +& =] 6
\ _jT+ keT |{++~.
eT+{ deTd |]cs >T{ &
|{++~. e eT+y. , nH
eT+~ nsT\ |qqT n+<&+ <
e<T\T, $+>T\T +<q #+<TT
HsT. C_ |sT e n&&
=+<sT #bTHsT. md, md\ u $T
|+|+ yTT<{sEH bsTT+~.
+{ <>T\ eTBsD +
#sD s| <\<T. ;& ]\
sT.1000 y>q+ #d OHsT. ;&
]\T q 40 jesZ 25
kH\T {sYmdt >\Tb+~+~. nsTTH
y>q+ neT\T s><T. eTsy|
V Q dH k > s Y q T eT+{ d s d T >
esTkeT, < #T 100 ms
XVs\T ]keT |{+#sT.

sT.100 <T \T L& {sTT+#sT.


m+ KsT |sTTH yT{ nHyT+{
esTkeTHsT. m { jeH
L& |+#sT. dy\T, m|dt
Vy\T, eTjTsY |yesT, m*yf&
m|dt Vy\T ]keT |{+#sT.
n_e~ qeTH |&edse? ~
me] | j H\d + ? $eH
|jD+#y]de? L&, >T&
|<\de? |C deTd\ MT< d+<q
L& Xq+> <T. sT\ V
\ $wjT + u< > eeV]+#< T .
|, $y@\ eT+ d+<q u<>
<T . y~ eT+~ $$< s+>\ #+~q
]\T Xdqdu deyX\ d+<s + >
+<q\T #dH y] y| #dq H<T &T
&T. \ qT+& +<q e#y]
nH # bdT\T n&T HsT. |< |<
b]X$Ty\ d+|~+| eTTK
eT+ _J> HsT. dH<+& <>Zs
qT+&, {{, _s, n+u, n<\ es
n&+<&e> deTjT+ {sTT+#sT.
n&>H ssTTr\T |{dTHsT. ]
\ deTd\T, V\T, #{\ $wjT +
HsTyT<|&+ <T. |uT $<H\T
mTbTHjTH~ |X>H $T*+~.
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|| HjT\T> m, yT O|

H> m+|j
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b d<+ $u<\ N*bsTT+~.
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d$T duTs*> yT #\+
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Postal Regd. No L1/SD/407/13-15

RNI Reg. No. APTEL/2006/17554

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Marxistu, monthly organ of Communist Party of India (Marxist) A.P . State Committee.
36
Printer & Publisher B.V. Raghavulu. RNI Reg.No. APTEL/2006/17554. Vol.9, No.8. Published on December 1, 2014