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Carpentry Theory

Floor Construction
1. The nominal sizes of lumber used for floor joists is 2x12. Actual size is
smaller that nominal size. OSB is generally cheaper than plywood, it is
heavier and not as stiff as plywood and can result in soft squeaky floors
under weight. The biggest complaint against OSB is that it doesn't
handle moisture very well so it is more suited for indoor use. Moisture
also affects the strength of plywood; so while exterior glued plywood
can be used outdoors, it works best when moisture content remains
low. OSB has over 70% market share for structural panels.

2. Tail Joist - A joist that has one end terminating against a header joist.
Subfloor - the foundation for a floor in a building.
Construction adhesive Any substance applied to the surfaces of
materials that binds them together and resists separation in
Sill - a shelf or slab of stone, wood, or metal at the foot of a window or
Ribbon Joist - A board or length of boards nailed to wall studs with the
purpose of supporting ceiling joists nailed to the ribbon.
Crown - Almost every board is curved slightly. The crown is the top of
the curve of a board.
Joist Hanger - A steel section shaped like a stirrup, which is specially
bent so it can be fastened to a beam in order to provide end support for
joists, headers, etc.




Wall Construction
1. Cornerpost: a square post supporting a structural member at the corner of a

2. - On the floor, lay the top and bottom plates side by side. Carefully
measure where each wall stud will go and mark perpendicular lines across the
plates, using a combination square so the studs will align perfectly.
- Locate the joists in the ceiling (here weve shown the drywall on the
ceiling removed for claritys sake). Hold the top plate in position along the
guideline marked on the ceiling and nail through the ceiling material and into
each joist with two 3 1/2-inch nails. (If the new wall runs parallel to the joists,
fasten the plate to nailing blocks installed between the joists.)
-Hang a plumb bob from each end of the top plate on the ceiling to just
above the floor and then mark the floor to establish the bottom plates
location directly below it. Snap a chalk line along the floor between the marks
as a guide for the bottom plates edge. Nail the plate with 3-inch nails
staggered and spaced every 16 inches.
-Use stud-framing clips to install each wall stud. Lift the stud into position
and line it up on its mark, flush with the edges of the top and bottom plates.
Check plumb using a carpenters level, and nail the stud into place.
(Alternatively, you can toenail each stud to both the top and bottom plate
with 2 1/2-inch nails.)
- Form the connections and corners. Where one wall intersects another,
double up studs to receive the intersecting wall. If the wall will turn a corner,
frame it with two full-length studs that have blocks sandwiched in between

Bottom plate: the horizontal beam on which the studs of a partition rest
Conner brace: The diagonal braces let into the studs of wood frame
structures for reinforcement.
Cripple stud: Also called a jack stud. A vertical member that supports
the headerin an opening of a bearing or supporting wall.

Header: A horizontal structural member that supports the load over a

window or door opening. Also known as a lintel.
Load-Bearing Wall: is a wall that bears a load resting upon it by conducting
its weight to a foundation structure. The materials most often used to
construct load-bearing walls in large buildings are concrete, block, or brick.
Non Load-Bearing Wall:
A wall capable only of supporting its own weight and (if it is an exterior wall) c
apable of resisting the force of the windblowing against it; it cannot support a
n imposed load. Compare with load-bearing
wall; also called a nonbearing wall
On Center : center upon.
Rough Opening: The opening left in a frame wall to receive a window or a
door unit. The jack studs on each side, which supports the header across the
top, form it. Cripples support the rough sill at the bottom.
Sole Plate: the lower plate of a studded partition on which the bases of the
studs butt.
Stud: an upright support in the wall of a building to which sheathing, drywall,
etc., are attached.
Trimmer:a joist or rafter supporting one of the ends of a header at the edge o
f a wellhole.
Roof Construcion

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