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RICHARD LACHMANN

CAPITALISTS IN SPITE OF
THEMSELVES
ELITE CONFLICT AND ECONOMIC
TRANSITIONS IN EARLY MODERN
EUROPE

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS


2000



2010

63.3
12

  
:
. . , . .
  :
. . , . . , . . , . .

Richard Lachmann. Capitalists in Spite of Themselves: Elite Conict and


Economic Transitions in Early Modern Europe was originally published in
English in 2000. This translation is published by arrangement with
Oxford University Press
2000 .
Oxford University Press

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126

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127

| 3

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128

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129

| 3

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130

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. . , xiii xvi .,
: . , (Martines,
1963, . 18 84; Jones, 1965; Kent, 1978, . 136 185). , , , ,
.
,
, , xvi .
(Litcheld, 1986, . 215 232). ,
,
, xiv xv ., , xvi ,
, . -,

:
. , .
xii xiii .
,
. . ,
. -

, .

131

| 3


.


.
popolo
xii
xiii . . 1283 .
1400 ., .
,
. . -, ( ) .
,
, , , ,
.


. -, , xiii . , , popolo
di Dio, , .
.
xiv . . , , ,
, , , (Brucker,

1962 1977, . 39 44).

132

~} ~ ~ ~}, 1100 1737 ||.


. , .
,


.
. 1340 . , ,
, . : iii , .
. , ,
1342 ., , , ,
,
, 1342 . , , (Brucker,
1962, . 7). , ,
.
,
, , ( 1343 .)
1301 . , -

,
. ,
, ,
(Holmes, 1986, . 163 185). ,
. , , , , .
1326 ., , , ,
. 1328 . , , .

133

| 3

.
. , ,
, , - (Brucker,
1962, . 6 9). 1340- . ,
. , , , (Brucker, 1977, . 39 44).
1360- . ,
. . , -
(Brucker, 1962, . 229 230). 1371 .
, (. 249).
, ,
.

( , , ) . , .
, , .
. ,
. (Najemy, 1982) ,
. ,
xiv . , - . xiv . . 1343 1348 1378 1382 . ,
. , 1382 . ,
. , , . ,
,
, . .

134

~} ~ ~ ~}, 1100 1737 ||.

. , , 1370- . : , ,
1374 ., , , .
,
.
, ,
(Brucker, 1962, . 392).
, , , , , ,
,
. ,
,

, 1375 1378 .
, , ,
, - . 2,5
, , (Becker, 1968, . 188). , ,
, , , ,
contado (. 189 91). , ,
, monte.
, , .

(Najemy, 1982, . 166 262) (Brucker, 1962, . 183 396).

135

| 3

, , , , , , , , , , , ,
(Trexler, 1974, . 43 101).
1378 ., ,
.
, , popolo di Dio, 22 1378 . . ,
. ,

14 popolo di Dio, 24- , . :
,
. ,
1382 . (Najemy, 1982, . 231 262).
, , , ,
. ,
(Cohn, 1980, . 205 ). : 1378 . , .
, .
1340- ., , : 1342 ., , 1378 ., (1962, . 388 389).
, . 1378 . ,
136

~} ~ ~ ~}, 1100 1737 ||.


(Brucker, 1962,
. 389). , 1378 ., , 1300 .
.
? popolo di Dio

?

. , , ,
. popolo
di Dio, , .
,
.
, maggiori ( ) minori (
).
,
, 1378 .,
(Najemy, 1982, . 269 270).
. (
-

, (Mohlo, 1968), (Becker, 1968b), (Trexler, 1980)


(Najemy, 1982). (Brucker, 1977) .
(Padgett, Ansell, 1993, . 1295 96) (Martines, 1963, . 18 84) , , .

137

| 3

, , 1343 .), , 3,3 1382 1387 . 0,7 1401 1407 .


, , 2,2 4,4 (Najemy, 1982, . 296). 44 , 4 1382 1399 . (. 298) 1400 1434 . (Brucker, 1977,
. 264 271; Stephens, 1983, . 8 23). , 1283 . 146 10 1282 1399 . 11 % , - ,
49 % . 11
1328 .; 1354 . (Najemy, 1982, . 320 327).
(236 275, 86 %) , ,
. ,
(. . , , )
. , , , ,
. , , . [] []
(Najemy, 1982, . 299).

, . -,
, .
- -

, , , .

138

~} ~ ~ ~}, 1100 1737 ||.

. , popolo di Dio . -,
,
.
.
, (Brucker, 1977, . 270 71;
Padgett, Ansell, 1993, . 1314 16). , .
xiv xv . , (Goldthwaite, 1980, . 29 66).

. , ,
-


.
,
,
.
monte.
,
, . , ,
monte, , . ,
, , .
,

( (Mohlo, 1971) monte . (Goldthwaite, 1987, . 27) monte 1434 .).

139

| 3

.
,
(Holmes,
1986; Partner, 1968).
, , (1423 1428 .),
(1429 1433 .).
,
, , contado (Mohlo, 1971, . 54, 61). , ,
, (prestanze catasti). 1428 1433 .
153  .
0,5 % , 6
76 % , ,
180 % () (. 92).
(Padgett,
Ansell, 1993, . 1305).
, , ,
. , , ,
(Padgett, Ansell, 1993, . 1305 6; Mohlo, 1971, . 113 82; Brucker, 1977,
. 472 500). , ,
(Martines, 1963, . 18 84), , ,
.
, .
(1993) - , , ,
, , ,
140

~} ~ ~ ~}, 1100 1737 ||.

,
, , .
,
[ ]
[],
(. 1306). ,
, , 1434 ., . ,
(Kent, 1978, . 289 351; Padgett, Ansell,
1993, . 1309 10; Hale, 1977, . 22 24).
( )
,
(1494 1512 1527 1530 .) ,
. , ,

, . ,
, , . ,
1447 . iv, , ,

v, . , , .
, x 1513 ., vii 1523 .
(Hale, 1977).

141

| 3


(Stephens, 1983, . 124 164; Bullard, 1980,
. 24 44).
1434- . , , ,
, ,

(Litcheld, 1986,
. 24 28; Hale, 1977, . 35 39; Najemy, 1982, . 306 307, 320 323, 327 331;
Stephens, 1983, . 16 23). ( ) , .
, , ,
(1434 1737 .) . ( 1494 1527 .)
, .
( 1512 1530 .), , , (Hale, 1977, . 76 126) (Stephens, 1983)

, .
(Trexler, 1980, . 462 553) ,
.
1494 . , , ( ) . , ,
. , ,
1498 . , ,
,
, .
.
1527 ., .
, .

142

~} ~ ~ ~}, 1100 1737 ||.

. , , ,
, (Bullard, 1980, . 119 50; Hale, 1977).
,
,
, (Butters, 1985, . 187 225; Bullard, 1980, . 119 50).

, 26 55
, ,
1512 .,
4 (Butters, 1985, . 188).


. . , contado , ,
, ,
, , .
, , , ,
(Litcheld, 1986, . 141 190; Bullard, 1980, . 151 172).
, ,

, 1512 ., ,
, ,
( x) .
1527 1530 .
, vii v. 1530 .
.

143

| 3

, , ,
( ) ,
( , ).
xvi .
, (1986, . 194, 358 361) , , , 240 260 % 1551 1736 ., ,
, ,
.
contado, , , ,
, . contado , (Litcheld,
1986, . 35 40, 116 125). , contado , , , , , . ,
, , ,
, , popolo di Dio
(. 99 100). contado
. xvi ., , , , (. 244 261).
,
, , 144

~~}} ~|}  ~}~ ~

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, , , , (Goldthwaite, 1968, . 270; . Berner, 1971; Cochrane, 1965).

, (Burke, 1972, . 245). ; [ ] (Litcheld, 1986, . 36). 426
,
xv . ( , ),
1600 ., 1700 (. 35).

xvi ., (Litcheld, 1986, . 41 45), (
), , , , (Burke, 1986, . 132 67).
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,
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~}~ ~
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. , 145

| 3

, ,
xvi .
xvi ., , ,
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xiii xv . . -,
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xiii .. 1342 . ,
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- .
, , , ,
, ,
(Fryde and Fryde, 1965, . 461 463). (Luzzato, 1961, . 137 141). 80
1330 . (. 106) 25 1378 . (Lopez and Miskimin,
1962, . 419).
, , , ,
(Luzzato, 1961, . 159 61; Mazzaoui, 1981, . 70, 121 24).
,
,
1342 . (Brucker, 1962, . 7). , 147

| 3

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, -.
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) , , , .
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, , -. ,
xvii xviii . (Belfani, 1993,
. 255 60). . ,
, ,
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(Lane, 1973, . 104 109, 312 321). (Belfani, 1993) , 1400- .,
(. 260 264).

148

~~}} ~|}  ~}~ ~

,
.
- , , , , ,
(Goldthwaite, 1968, . 236). , , , ,
(Becker, 1959; 1967, . 89 96; Abulaa, 1981).
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, , . xiv .
,
, (agency), .

. ,
,

, ,
.

(Zeitlin, Ratcliff, 1988) -

1960-
., , , ,

, . , ,
, ,
(. 181 82).

149

| 3


, , xiv . (Luzzato, 1961, . 142).
, (Mazzaoui, 1981, . 132 33).
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,
, (Aymard,
1982, . 152).
xiv ., xvii . . ,
.
, xvii .
-, -
(Mazzaoui, 1981, . 138 51; Cipolla, 1974; Sella, 1974).

, , .

xv xvi . (Dowd, 1961, . 155).


,

(Cipolla, 1952), (Goodman, 1981), , xvii . (. 423).


, ,
. , , , , .
, ( ,
) (Goodman, 1981,
. 424 435). , , xvii . , , .

150

~~}} ~|}  ~}~ ~

, ; popolo di
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xvii .,
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1979, . 202). , ,
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.
, , .
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, xvii . contado (Dowd, 1961). (Belfani, 1993) ,


( , ), .
(. 259); , , , . . -
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, , , xviii .
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xiii . , ,
. xvii .,
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151

| 3

, xvii . , . -,
, . , ,
, ,
, (Litcheld, 1986, . 206 213). ,
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xvii . ,
. , , ,
, (Mazzei, 1979, . 205). ;
- , ,
(Litcheld, 1986, . 41; .
Luzzato, 1961, . 161).
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xvii . .

152

~~}} ~|}  ~}~ ~

.
(deRoover, 1963, . 77 107;
Goldthwaite, 1980, . 47). .
, . ,
,
. xiii xiv .
, , ,
, ,
, , , .
, , 1340 .,
, , . 12 % 1330- .,
6 10 % , , , 33 %.
, 15 20 %
, 1300 . 1330 1340- .
(Renouard, 1949, . 141 42).

, , .
1318 . 875 638 . , ,
(Renouard, 1949, . 124).
, . , , -

,
monte .
7 15 % .

153

| 3

. 1335 . 15,5 %
(Renouard, 1949, . 144). 1342 . . - 594 176
(Cipolla, 1982, . 6),
, ,
. 1345 . - ,
(Cipolla, 1982, . 7 12).
xv ., , .
, , .

. 1420 .
27 570 (de Roover, 1963, . 50). 72 000
1451 . 54 000 (Goldthwaite,
1987, . 16).
, ,
,
1397 . , . (
1492 ., , ,
.)
, (Goldthwaite, 1987, . 7 13).
,
, ,
. (1963) 1397 1451 .
3.4.
(1397 1435 .) 55
65 % . ,
100 % . 154

~~}} ~|}  ~}~ ~


3.4. , 1397 1494 .

1397 1420

1420 1435

1435 1451

31

44

37

86

110

17

20

3443

7800

5532

55

65

34


( )
%

~: de Roover, 1963.
}}: , . , 1397 1420 . 1402 . 20 000 , 4000
. 1420 . 27 570 , 7000 :
1420 1435 . 1441 .
44 000 . ,
. , , de Roover.

17 20 %.
14 %,
xv . (de Roover, 1963, . 121) 12 % ,
1435 1451 .
(De Roover, 1963, . 61,

69). (1963) ,
, 1441 . 14 981 , ,
, 1435 1451 .,
29 498 . ,
1441 .

155

| 3


, .
, , ,
. , . 1402 . 17 ,
1 053 , 17 %
1397 1420 . (de Roover, 1963, . 44). 1460 .
57 , 6 (. 95).

, . xv . ( ),
,
,
(de Roover, 1963,
. 53 76).
1494 ., . , ,
. (1963, . 358 75) : 1)
,
1464 . 2) xv ., , , ,
, 1478 .

, ,
(Lopez, Miskimin, 1962, . 424) 60

1469 ., 86 1336 . 55 1341 .


xv xvi .,
, .
.
, , .

156

~~}} ~|}  ~}~ ~

xv .
, 1478 .,
iv .
; (Hale,
1977, . 66 72; de Roover, 1963, . 221). ,
, .
.


x 1513 . , .

, . ,

(Bullard, 1980, . 103 18).
1530- .,
, . .

.
, ,
,
. .
1466 .

(Hale, 1977, . 65). ,
.
, , . 1476 ., iv , (de Roover, 1963, . 152 64; Goldthwaite, 1987, . 28).
,

.

x 1521 ., vi

1523 1534 .
vii.

157

| 3

. xvi .
, (Bullard,
1980, . 151 178).
, , ,
.

. , , , . , xvi ., ,
, - , . , , ,
iii.
. ,
(Goldthwaite, 1968, . 238;
Luzzato, 1961, . 144).
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[]
. .
1587 . , . , ,
.
(Lane, 1973, . 147, 327 331 ).
, .
, [xii xiii]
(Lopez, 1979, . 10 ).

158

~~}} ~|}  ~}~ ~

, ), -,
( , , ,
).
, , ,

. , , ( ) (Braudel, 1972, . 500 508; Bergier, 1979).
xiii xviii . , .
,
. ,
, xvi xvii ., , , . , ,
, , . ,
, .
. ,
,
. 1530 .,
, . ,
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.

1528 ., ,

, 1557 ., .
,
, (Martines, 1979, . 66 72, 94 102, 130 132).

159

| 3

: monte, ,
, , .
( ), , ,
,
-. , , , :
-. . monte, , .
monte
Monte Vecchio, , 1262 ., (Lane, 1973, . 150). Monte -
.
1343 . 1737 ., monte
.
, monte . monte , .
. , , , 1513 .
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, 160

~~}} ~|}  ~}~ ~

(Mohlo, 1971, . 136 137, 180 212). , 20 40 % , , ,


, . ,
, ,
(Goldthwaite, 1987, . 27).
monte
, :

, [ ] ,
(Goldthwaite, 1987, . 27).
, monte , prestanza ( )
(estimo). monte 500 000 1345 . 8 1450 ., monte
. 1380 . 5000 ,  , monte.
monte , - (Becker, 1968a, . 152 59).
xiv ., ,
monte, prestanza, 10 15 %,
8 10 %,
5 7 % (Molho, 1971, . 65; Jones, 1966, . 413 429).
monte (Mohlo, 1971,
. 66 73).
monte - . -
, ,
. 161

| 3

prestanza , , monte,
.

, monte, . -,
. , -
. ,
monte, .
, monte, .
, 1530 .,
-
, (Spini, 1979; Diaz, 1978, . 96 97).
monte (Goldthwaite, 1987, . 24), , ,
(Litcheld, 1986, . 203 32).
, , , . monte, 500 000
1345 . 8 1450 ., , 14 , 13 , 1737 .,
(Litcheld, 1986, . xiii, 103).
montes 1262 ., -

. , , ,
, monte . monte 92 % 1375 . 18 %
1381 .,
.
, , .
1381 . -

162

~~}} ~|}  ~}~ ~

Monte -.
monte contado (Litcheld, 1986, . 99 100). monte
monte. Monte . , (Becker, 1968a, . 151 200; Mohlo, 1971). Monte ,
xv xvii .
, monte, ,
. xiv , . ,
.
-
. .
, . 130 150 , , , ,
(Lane, 1973, . 95 98, 151 152)
, , ,
. xv ., -
. , xvi .
, monte - (Lane, 1973, . 65, 150, 184 185, 196 197, 238,
325 3 26, 402, 425 4 27 monte).
monte,
( ) , . ,
,
, . , ,
montes
, .

163

| 3

, , ,
. ,
, (Litcheld, 1986,
. 177 181). , . ,
, , 240
1260 % 1551 1736 . (. 194, 358 361).
, , ,
.
, .
, , .

-,
(Woolf, 1968) xvi xvii . (1986)
, 1534 1695 . 165 %
(. 219). contado

,
- xvi . 200 000 ,

700 1000 [ 2500 3000 ] , . --, 1575 . 4 000 , , 50 200 , 100 500 , (
). , (Lane, 1973, . 324 ; . Mousnier, 1970,
. 390 99).

164

~~}} ~|}  ~}~ ~

(. 215 232).
, . ,
; , ,
(Litcheld,
1986, . 35 36).
- .
1500 .,
1620- . (Abel, 1980, . 304 5), ,
(Abel,
1980, . 128 130, 147 153, 161 164; Litcheld, 1986, . 225). , ,
xvi xvii ., , .
-
contado (Diaz, 1978, . 101 2), , . xiv .,
(Epstein, 1991; Becker,
1966). 1400- .
(Becker, 1968b, . 130). 1534 ., , ; 1830- . xvi . contado (Litcheld, 1986,
. 215 216). 1550 .
20 % . 27 % 1730- .
, (Mohlo, 1971, . 1) , -

contado,
1348 . (Brown, 1982) , contado,

.

165

| 3

; contado . ,
(Litcheld,
1986, . 99 100).
xiv . 1737 .
,
(Herlihy, 1967, . 156 60; Litcheld, 1986, . 244 261). , ,
, 1570 1650- . (Litcheld, 1986,
. 247; Abel, 1980, . 117, 150, 158).
,
, , .
xvi xvii . - . , contado , ,
.
ix xvi .
.
,
,
. , ix xiv . , ,
,
. xi xiii .,
, , ,
. (Jones, 1966, 1968), (Emigh, 1996, 1997),

(Litcheld, 1986), (McArdle, 1978), (Dowd, 1961),


(Diaz, 1978), (McNeil, 1974), (Woolf, 1968) (Aymard, 1982).

.

166

~~}} ~|}  ~}~ ~


, ,
,
, (Jones, 1966, . 402 409; 1968, . 205 2 14).
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, XII xiii . (Jones,
1968, . 205 214). . ,
, - , -
, .
, , . ,
( , ) poderi, , . - ,
, , , poderi. ,
poderi,
(Jones,
1968, . 227 237).

,
.
:
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,
. ,
.

167

| 3

(Litcheld, 1986, . 224). ,


, .
, , , . , fattori, (. 222). , fattori
, , . fattori , ,
.
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. (Emigh, 1997, . 433; . Litcheld, 1986, . 215 236;
Dowd, 1961, . 158 159; Woolf, 1968). xii . 3 5 % (Romano, 1964, . 43). ,
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xvi xvii .,
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, .

168

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(Litcheld, 1986, . 255 56; McArdle, 1978).


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(Cipolla, : Dowd, 1961, . 154). 169

| 3

. ,
; , - , ( ) (Dowd,
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170

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171

| 3

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172

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173

| 3

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177

| 4

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(Thomas Ertman. Birth of Leviathan, 1997)
.
: (. . ) (. . ). , (Otto Hintze, [1902 1906] 1975),

183

| 4

: - .
, , , , , ,
.
. (Levy, 1972), , , ,
1450 . ,
,
, . 1450 .
, , ,
,
. , ,
, , . , , ,
.
-. , (Mann, 1980) (Anderson, 1974) , xvii . ,
,
. ,
,
, .
, .
, (Bruce Porter, 1994) (Brian
Downing, 1992) ,
,
. , , (. . ) ,
. , ,
. ,
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,

184

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,
.

.
, (
) . , .
, ,
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.
,
, ,
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, , .
, , , ,
. . , ,
, , . , , , .

185

| 4

(Tilly, 1986, . 119 161). ,


. , : ,
, , , , , , .
- .
(Mann, 1980, 1986)
,
. ,
. , , , . (1980,
. 203) , , .

, ,
, . - 1640 . . ,
(1980, 1986) .
(Derek Sayer, 1992) ,

, , , (. 1411). - : , ,
-
.
, ,
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, , . -

186

}~ }}} | 

. . - (Trevor-Roper, 1965) (Stone, 1970)


, , ,
. ,
, . , .
, . ,
. - (1965, . 88 94)
, , xvii .,
, ,
, .
, - , -
. (. 1398 1399).
. , , ,
. ( Corrigan Sayer, 1985, ,
).
, ,
, , , . ,
(Christopher Hill, 1963), , .
, .
, , , (Dobb, 1947) . , , -

187

| 4


, . .
, ,
, ,
, .
, - (Trevor-Roper, 1965) (Stone 1970)
. , (Russell 1971) (Hunt, 1983),
, , , . , ,
. , , , , ,
.
, xvii .
, ,
(Lefebvre, 1967) (Robin, 1970), , xvi xvii .
;
(Porchnev, 1963) (Lublinskaya, 1968)
(Mandrou, 1965) (Morill 1978).
, ,
(Goubert, 1969 73), (Major, 1980) (Mousnier, 1984).
- . ,
(orders), . , , (. (Castan, 1974)
(Asher, 1960) ).

188

}~ }}} | 

. , ,
.
xvi xvii ., , . - ,
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),
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), ,
. , ,
, , , , ,
, .
- . ,
, . , ,
.
,
- . , ,
, .
, , , (Fulbrook, 1983) .

189

| 4

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: , ,
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, . , .
, xvii . ,
.

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, . ,
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, - . ,
, , , xvi .

.
,
190

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. ,
, c.
, ,
(Salmon, 1975, . 80 113; Shennan, 1969, . 16 19).
,
. , , (Blet, 1959,
. 88 99). , (. ).


, . ; xv .
-
. xv . (Swanson, 1989, . 7 11).
, , . ; , ,
(. 64 74, 103 122).

,
. (Swanson, 1989, . 64 74,
103 122), , , , (Bergin, 1982; Cloulas, 1958).

, 191

| 4


, , ,
.
, , ,
, (Swanson, 1989; . 103 122).
xv .,
, , (Swanson, 1989, . 140 190).

, (. ) (Hill, 1963, . 84 92; Houlbrooke, 1979, . 7 20).

, , .
.
,
.
.
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, , ,
, , .

,
192

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.
, ,
. ,
, , , . 129 , i (1514 1547 .),
93 :
.
, , , - (Salmon, 1975,
. 8 9). ,
, , (Blet, 1959). .

,
. , viii

.
,
.
, viii 200 000 .
, , (Hill, 1963, . 3 5).
viii
, , .
,
193

| 4

. , .
, , , .
, , () .
, ,
. , ,
, , .

|


, .
, ,
,
. viii
, ,
, 1539 . , , , (Hill, 1963, . ix xi). ,
. 25 (White,

1992).

194

|
4.1. vii viii






%

vii
(14911500)

viii
(15391547)

136 700
30 000

180 000
478 200

166 700
107 600

6 58 200
2 134 000

155

31

~: Dietz, 1964, ;
Schoeld, 1963, . 360 361, 415 416.
.

vii viii, , (. 4.1). vii


(1491 1500 .)
, , , . viii
.
,
, , , ,
, .

.
,
. , , (. 4.2).
,

, (
),
(wardship) . ,
.

195

| 4
4.2.
viii (1535 1547 .)

( )

737 500
712 200
79 500
525 100
789 400

25,9
25,0
2,8
18,5
27,8

2 843 700

100

~: Schoeld, 1963, . 360 361,


415 416; Dietz, 1964, . 137 143.
}: 100 . ,
, , , . , , .
, ; ,
.

,
viii
(Pilgrimage of Grace, 1536 ., ), , . -
, ,
.
Valor Ecclesiasticus, , 1535 . ,
, , , 150 000 (Savine, 1909, . 76 100). , ,
. , , , 20-
(Fletcher, 1968, . 21 23),

(Davies 1968) (Harrison, 1981).

196

20- (Habakkuk, 1958). ,


3,2 . , 79 500 (Woodward, 1966, . 125); , , , ,
- .
,
1539 . .
, .
(Dietz, 1964) , 789 400
 ,
. 20- , 2 2,4 ,
. , 33 40 % , . ,
, , ,  .
, , . -, (Savine, 1909, . 77) ,

(. . ) 135 000 . .
, 2,7 . .,
3,2 .
, , , xvi .,
,
. (Habakkuk, 1958) , ,
30- 1560- ., ,
.
(Dietz, 1964) , (Braddick,
1994) , ,
, , ,
. , (1535 1539) ,
1539 ., , viii .

197

| 4


, . -, ,

, , ,
, .
,
viii . , , . .
, , .
, viii
, , , , (1964, . 137). viii ,
,
.
, viii
:
,
, ,
: -

135 000 . . .
1539 .
1539 1547 ., 1 080 000 . ., 234 000 . .
, 1535 1547 .
,
8 %, , , , , ,
.

198

,
(1974, . 124 125).
, , , .
(1980, 1986), (1985). , -
.

(1980, . 198). : , .
xvi . .

.
, , , , . , ,
, , . . , ,
.

, ,

. , ,
. , , .
viii , , , . . ,

.
, (1964, . 158).

199

| 4


.
, .
, (1980), , .
.
,
. (Theda Skocpol,
1979) .
,
,
.
, . : , .

(Levi, 1988). ,
. ,
, ,
(, ) , , . ,
,
. , ,
, .
, , , . , -
(, ). (
. 95 121).

200

( , ),
, . , , . ,

, .

.
. ,

. -, , .
, ,
. -,
, , . -,
, , , , ,
, , , , . ,
, , , , ,
. 1539 1547 . ; ,
1640 1649 ., .
, , 1648 1653 .
. , , , .

201

| 4


. ,


.

, viii 
. , vi (15471553), i
(15541558) i (15581603) .
,  . 1640 . 2 %
(Cooper, 1967, . 420 421; Tawney, 1954, . 91 97).
.
, , , (Hill, 1963; Bossy, 1975).

,
(Houlbrooke, 1979, . 117 150 ; Somerville, 1992, . 111 128).

, . ,
.
-


. ,
,
.

202


. i

. , , .
, (Bossy, 1975, . 32).
viii , i , ,
,
.
, ,
, . ,
( )
(Stone, 1965, . 199 234, 398 424). .

. , , ,
,
(Stone, 1965, . 424 449).
, , .
, i i, , , i.
- (Given-Wilson, 1987, . 55 68 )

203

| 4
4.3. , 1558 1641 .

(a)



(b)
,
,
,

(
)

(
)

,

10 000
(c)

~: Stone, 1965, . 775.


}: a) i,
i i;
i; b) , 1603 1628 .; c) ,
.
,
10 000 , ,
, , .

, 1558
1640 . . i
. ,
i, i i,
(. 4.3).
, i, ,
. .
, . , ,
204

, (Smith, 1974, . 114 115).



, , . i, i i
70 .
61 1540 . 14
1620- ., , (Fletcher, 1975, . 203).
, ,
, ,
,
(Willcox, 1946, . 112 113; Smith, 1974, . 114 115).
( )
. , . 2 000 1560 1589 . 1760
1590 1639 . i 1161
(Stone, 1965, . 65 67).
, ,
- , . 200,
1000 (. 67 97).
, .
, (. 97 128).
: -, ,
, -,
. , ,
. 45 % , 83 (. 4.3),
20 20 % (Stone, 1965, . 475).
, ,
. 205

| 4

, ,
,
. i, i i
117 342 ,
1558 1641 . 500
100 . 30 (Stone, 1965, . 463 467). 679 1642 .
22 (. 467).

, . (. 4.3)
,
. i
, , ,
.
i
. , . ,
,
. ,
, .
, . , ,
. , .
, . ,
206

12 (Barnes, 1961, . 40 97, 281 298). (Everitt, 1966; Clark, 1977, . 112 132, 341 347; MacCulloch, 1977).
,
. ,
1561 . , , ,
24 , 38, 56, 62. 1561 .
,
(Moir, 1969, . 29; Everitt, 1966; Clark,
1977, . 112 132, 341 347).
,
,
. , , , , .
, ,
. 1558 1640 . 6 . ,
. ,
, .

(Gleason, 1969, . 49; Forster, 1973, . 20 29). , ,
. ,
, .

. . 207

| 4

. ,
, . , ,
( , ). .
, , (Gleason, 1969, . 49; Hill, 1963, . 58 59).
i (. 4.4). 1584 .
, , .
. , , , , 210
1562 . 330 1584 . 102 1562 . 108 1584 . 1608 .,
, 53 %, 205 386. , 100 , ,
, . 55 % ;
(Gleason, 1969, . 49).
1562 1584 ., 1608 . i ,
.
. 1626 1636 .
208

|
4.4. ,
1562 1636 ., %

(a)

(.)

(.)

1562

1584

1608

1626

1636

~: Gleason, 1969,
. 49; . .
}: , , , ,
; a) , ,
. , ; ,
. , , . , , .

xvi .,
, .
: ,

(Gleason, . 65 67).

. 24 1562 . 47 1584,
65 1626 . (Gleason, 1969, . 49). 1558 1603 . 114
; 16
(Smith, 1974, . 58).
209

| 4


, , . ,
, .
, .

.

, -
. (. ).
.

. (Bearman, 1993)
.
,
.


.
, , , .
, .
210

xvii .
, -
.
.
, .
, xvi . , , , . -
. ( ) , , .


.
, ,
.
, , . , (1993) ( ,
) 1630- . .
,
,

, , ,
. (Barnes, 1961;
Chalklin, 1965; Everitt, 1966; Cliffe, 1969; Fletcher, 1975; Forster, 1973; James, 1974;
MacCulloch, 1977; Morrill, 1974) ,
(, Dibble, 1965; Clark, 1977; Everitt,
1969; Fletcher, 1983), , i.

211

| 4

. ,
.

. i
,
. .
1634 . ( ), ,
. ,
(Hill, 1963, . 307 331). (
1625 .) (. 332 336).
,

( ) (Hill,
1963, . 336 337 ; Bossy, 1975, . 50 52 ).
.
, , . .

,
,
( ),
(Fulbrook, 1983) , -

212


. , , , . , ,
. ,
, .
, , . - ,
, - . - , , ,
,
.
(Tawney, 1954), (Hill, 1963), (Stone, 1970) (Dobb, 1947)

.
(Hill, 1972) (Anderson 1974), ,
, ,
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(Brenner, 1993, . 638 644) ,
.
, , (,
. Brenner, 1993, . 644 647
), ,
,
xvii ., . ,
, ,

, .
(Jack Goldstone, 1991)
1640- . ( ) , ,
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213

| 4

, ( ) ,
, .
(Brenner,
1993) , xvii .
: 1) -; 2) , -, , 3) .
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.
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214

, , . - (
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.)
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. , , : 10 -
, , , , , -
215

| 4

. , -
,
- .

1620- . 1640- . . ,
( ) ,

. ( ,
, , , , .)
, , . , , 1640 1641 . , ,
( ) , . . i.
(Morill, 1993) , : , . -
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. i , 1640 1641 ., 216

, ,
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1640- .,
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),
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: 1641 . ,
, , , (Stone, 1965, . 199 270) , -

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217

| 4

i
,
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1641 .,
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,
(1993, . 539).
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, . , ,
(1993, . 688). , , . , , -

. 1641 . - ,
, , .
218

( ) ,
, . ,
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.
(Hill, 1963) ,
, ,
,
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,
, , ,
, xvi . -, ,
.
, . , , , ,
.
- .

: , 1536 1640 . (From manor to market: structural change in England, 1530 1640;
Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1987), . 100 41.
. .

219

| 4

, , ,
.

. ,
, .
. , , .
,
. , , , . , ,
,
. ,
(Commonwealth)
.

, ,
. viii , , ,
,
, . , ,
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220

. ,
-, , .

, ,

.
, , , ,
.
. , ( , , ,
, 1641 .), .

. ,
, 1789 .




xvi . : (Harding,
1978, . 127 134; Babeau, 1894, i: 257 259). .
,
, ,
(Major, 1964; Harding, 1978; Asher, 1960; Peronnet, 1977).
221

| 4


pays delection , . pays detat , xv .,
, , ,
.

. pays delection .
.
,
.
, , ,
(Marion, 1974; Buisseret, 1968,
. 57 60).
,
, , . , , , (Saint-Jacob,
1960, . 126 130; Varine, 1979).
, pays detat .
. pays detat pays delection
,
.
. Pays delection pays detat
, 10 , , xvi . (Buisseret, 1968).
222

, , . , pays
delection, , ,
(Parker, 1983, . 1 45;
Kettering, 1986).
, .
pays detat , . pays
detat, , . . Pays delection ,
.
,
, ,

. , , , . -,
. , ,
, , viii ,
. -, , , , . 2.3

; .

223

| 4

, , .
, , . -

. . xvii . .
, xvii . 1648 1653 .
, . .
, .
, 1789 .

xvi .
, .

.

, . . xvi
(Parker,
1983, . 13 39). 1633 . ( ,
)
,
1604 .
(Treasure, 1967, . 54).
224

, , . , , (Dewald, 1980, . 69 112;


Parker, 1980, . 56 95; Tait, 1977, . 1 20; Kettering, 1978, . 13 50). , , .
,
, .
pays detat,
(Feville, 1953, . 22 25).
, , . ,

. pays detat
, ,
, pays delection, , (Hurt, 1976).
xvi . , , , .
. , , ,
.
, . , . - ,
, .
225

| 4

, , , (Parker, 1980; Westrich, 1972).



. xvi . - ,
, . ,
, , . , .
,

.
,
. i , . 1516 . ( )
(Shennan, 1969,
. 16 19; Blet, 1959, i: 88 99). , . ,
, (Bergin,
1982). xiii (16101643), .

(Bergin, 1992). ,
(Salmon, 1975; Guery, 1981).
,
. 226

379 651 1516 . 3 792 704 1557 . (Carriere, 1936,


. 250 257). -. ,
, , , ,
(Cloulas, 1958).

xvi xvii . , .
, - , , 17 25 %
xvii . 40 %
1640- . (Dessert, 1984, . 46 63).
:
, , .
, , . ,
, ducs et pairs ( ) (Major, 1964; Lefebvre,
1973), ,
. ,
.
, ,
, ,


(Beik, 1985, . 3 55; Dewald, 1980, . 69 112;
Harding, 1978; Wood, 1980, . 95 98).

227

| 4


. , ,
, . , , , ,
.
,
.
, , xvi .
. , , . ,
, , .

xvi . - ,
, ,
, .

(Parker, 1980, . 46 94).
,
, ,
, ,
.
, -
, , . ,
228

, ,
(Parker, 1983, . 27 45). , , (Major, 1964).
,
1614 ., , , (Hayden, 1974).
xvi .
.
.
, (Beik, 1985;
Harding, 1978). , , ,

.
, , , xvii . 5
16 1620- ., 33 1635 . 38
1640 . (Parker, 1983, . 64).
, ,
. 1602 . , -,
.
. Major 1966, 1980. , paulette


. , (Bonney,
1981) (Parker, 1983), , xvi .
, . ,
paulette , .

229

| 4

, . ,
1614 .,
, ,
(Kettering, 1982). ,
.
, 39 1639 ., 800 000 1661 . (Dent, 1967, . 247 250).
, , 1614 . . , .
pays detat, pays delection.
, , ,

. , (Hayden, 1974).

pays delection,
.
, , (Hayden, 1974). 1614 .
.
, .
.
230

,
.
.
(Parker, 1978). .
,
,
.
,
, , xvi .
, 1516 . , , , (Hoffman. 1984,
. 7 44; Tait 1977). , ,
,
.
. .
- , . , ,
(Parker, 1980; 1983; Gascon, 1971; Westrich, 1972).

. , , , ,
. , ,
. iv 24
231

| 4

- . ,
iv. , . ,
(Parker, 1983, . 46 94).
xvii . , , ,
[] (Collins, 1988, . 2). , ,
-,
, . , ,
. , ,
.
, , , ,
(Harding, 1978; Bonney, 1978).
, ,
. , 3000 6000 1510 .,
40 000 50 000 1633 ., 400 % (Kettering, 1978, . 221 225). (Dewald, 1980,
. 131 161; Collins, 1988, . 80 87).
, . ,
,
,
.
,
, 232

. , ,
(Harding, 1978).
,
,
. , , .
, , , .
xvii .
, . 1634 . . , , .

, . , elus () ,
.
Elus pays
delection. Elus ,
, . (Beik, 1985, . 98 116), (Bonney, 1978, . 237 50), (Kettering,

1986) (Mousnier, 1970, . 179 99), ,


, . (Harding, 1978, . 191 99) ,
1560- .

233

| 4

elu
.

pays detat. , .
. , , , (Buisseret, 1968).
.
,
, . , (Bordes, 1960; Parker, 1983).
. , , taillon (), , etape, 36 1635 . 72,6 1643 ., (Parker, 1983, . 6). , ,
elus
, .
, .
-
,
,
. : .


(Dewald, 1980, . 69 112), (Parker, 1980, . 56 95),

(Tait, 1977, . 1 20) (Kettering, 1978, . 13 50).

234

. , , .

. , ,
,
. xvii ., ,
,
, .
1640- : , , 72,6 1643 ., 56 1648 . (Parker, 1983,
. 64). . .
28 % 1650 1660- . 1720- . (. ,
. 5.4). , , (Tilly, 1981, . 205), ,
- .
,
, , , .
, -

, , , . ,
- , (Anderson, 1974, . 19),
. , , , (Dewald,
1980, . 162 201). -

235

| 4

1648 1653 .
. , xvi . ,

, .
,
. ,
( ,
, ).
, , , ,
. , ,
. ,
, , , ,
. , (Brenner, 1993; Stone, 1970,
. 85 86; Parker, 1983, . 73 81). , ,
. , ,
, .
, ,
, . , . ,
.
, . ,
xvi . .
xvi ., , .
, ,
, (Ertman, 1997) . ( (Gorski) 1998 . ). ,

236

.

. , , ,
, . .
. ,
,
.
,

(Harding, 1978, . 199 212; Moote, 1971; Bonney, 1978).
- , , , .
. (Kettering, 1982) , , , , , . ,
, . , . -

, ,
, .
( )
, .
, , ,
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.

. , ,
, , .

237

| 4

, , ,

. ,
.

.
. ,
.
, , . , xvii .,
.
1630 1640- .,
. , , ,
,
,
(Kettering, 1986, . 99 140; Bonney, 1978).
, . , .
, ,
. ,
-
, , (Westrich, 1972). , , ,
, , .
, , . , 238

, ,
, (Moote, 1971,
. 316 354; Kettering, 1978, . 277 297).
, , . ,
,
, ,
,
(1986, . 478).
, . , :
, ,
. , , ,
- , , , .
, ,
, .
(. ).
, , ,
. , .

. ;
.

239

| 4

.
, , , .

,
. 150

, - (Beik, 1985, . 219).
, .
, , .
, ,
(Kettering, 1978; 1982,
. 294 304; Moote, 1971; Bonney, 1978, 1981).
.
,
, .
,
, .
,
, . ,
. , , -. , (Parker, 1983, . 95 117). , ,
240

,
. ,
(Bonney, 1981, . 213 214, 228 241; Parker,
1983, . 95 117).
,
.
, , . .
,
(Beik, 1985, . 219).
xvii . , ,

. , ,
, .
, . ,
. , - , ,
, .
, i
, .
, 241

| 4

. , , , , , ,
.
, ,
, , , . ,
.

.
, , . ,
.
(Anderson, 1974) . , ,
. , ,
, .
. , , , ,
. , , , ,
.

242


. xvii . , . , .

.

. ,
, , ,
.
, , .
. , ,
1789 . ,

.
:

, . , ,
,
. , ,
.
, . -, , . -,
243

| 4

, (Dewald,
1980, . 162 201; Mousnier, 1970, . 215 30). - , . , , , .

, . ,
. , , , .
, , . , ,
(Kettering, 1986). ,
, . , , . ,
(Emmanuelli, 1981; Gruder, 1968; Babeau, 1894, 2:14 24).
, , , ,
,
.
, , ,
(Skocpol, 1979) , -

.
(. 59),
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, ).

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245

| 4

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247

| 4

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249

| 4

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1960; Beik, 1985; Bordes, 1972; Mousnier, 1979).
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, (Bonney, 1978; Bordes, 1972). . ,
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.
.
, (Bordes, 1972;
Temple, 1966). pays delection, 250

pays detat
,
.

(Dessert, 1984, . 161 166). .
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. , , , , ,
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. 18 19) , - , .
xvii ., ,
(1981), .
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| 4

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. 252


, . xiv 1715 . ,
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xiv ,
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| 4

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413 1707 . 600
xiv 1715 . (Bosher, 1970, . 13 15). 1709 .
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254

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. 145; Harsin, 1970, . 277 278). 255

| 4

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, (Matthews, 1958, . 62 65; Luthy, 1959, i: 298 303).
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1959, i: 300 315).

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. , (Matthews, 1958, . 68 69; Luthy, 1959, i: 295 315).
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256

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257

| 4

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.
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23.
23 , . 233 , 23 1726 . 1791 .,
156 , ,
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23 , (Matthews, 1958, . 249).
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258

1750 . ,
. 1725 1788 . 99 243,5 ; 87,5
179,4 , 204 460 (Matthews, 1958, . 81).
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1972), . ,
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96 ,
23 (Bosher, 1970, . 90).
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xviii .,
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. Hoffman, 1996; Fourquin, 1976; Jacquart, 1974; Peret, 1976; Dontenwill, 1973; Bastier,

1975. .

259

| 4


23
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McLennan, 1981, . 175 205.

260

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1787 89 . ,
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261

| 4

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262

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. 19 58).
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263

| 4

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269

| 5


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271

| 5


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(Bush, 1967, . 44 62), (Lynch, 1991, . 1 94), (Payne, 1973, . 31 169)
(Phillips, 1979).

272

, (Lynch, 1991, . 1 26).


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1460 1472 .
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Kamen, 1991, . 17 32; Lynch, 1991, . 67 68 ; 1992, . 17 52; Payne,
1973: 1; Vilar, 1962: 1).
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(1974, . 71, 60 114 ), , , .

273

| 5

.
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. -,
, , xiv . -,

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. 44 48, 58 61; Lynch, 1991, . 1 26, 342 385; Payne, 1973, . 205 206).
. -

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xviii . ,
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274

xvii .
1621 1640 ., ( ) 38 %
, 15,6 %,
10,7 % (Kamen, 1991, . 218). .
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(Lynch, 1992, . 348 382; Phillips, 1979, . 110).

() .
1538 .,
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, , .
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(Thompson, 1982, 1984).

275

| 5

, ,
xvi xvii . (Bush, 1983, . 87).
, mitad de ocios,
(Lynch, 1992, . 348 382).
v
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(Bush, 1967, . 345 349),
(Kamen, 1969; 1991; . 218).
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.
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276

.

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, .
15
(Davis, 1973, . 39 40).


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v 20 ,
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, ,
80 % (Davis, 1973, . 54). v, -

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(TePaske, Klein, 1981).

277

| 5

, , .
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v 1540- ., . Encomiendas . v encomiendas .
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1670- .
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, ,
).

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.
, , (Davis, 1973, . 50 53).
encomiendas, , ,
278

. , , ,
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1503 1580 . 1580 ., 15 %, 10 % 1615 .
(16561660), 600 000 5216 . 4 % 1510 ., 7,5 %
1577-, 16 % 1591 .
6 % 1621 1640 . 1 %
1656 1660 .
, ( ), ,
.
,
? v ,
(Flynn, 1982, . 142).


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1656 1660 . (1992, . 270, 283).
, , 272 0,725 , 375 .
. 5.5. , 6 % 1621 1640 .
10,7 %, (1991, . 218), . , , .

279

| 5


(Davis, 1973, . 62 63). , , , .
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, xviii . xvii .
(Eric Hobsbaum. The crisis of the seventeenth century. 1965).
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,
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.
. -

280

, (
, ) ( ) (Davis, 1973, . 143 156; Kamen, 1978; Wallerstein, 1974, . 187 199).
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5,5 % -
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.
,
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1631 ., ,
(Lynch, 1992, . 234 241). 50 %
, .

281

| 5

, : 17 %
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21 % 1691 1700 . (TePaske, Klein, 1981, . 133). 1650 1700 .
47 %, 79 %
(Lynch, 1989, . 13).
xvii .

, ,
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, .
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. , 282

,
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1718 ., 843 % 1504 . , 1641 1660 .,
,
1650 1670 .
. :
1718 . 6 % 1674 . (. 5.1).
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. , () , ,
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.
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. 5.1 .

.

283

| 5
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( 1000)

~: xvi xvii .,

, . 5.4.
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1580- . 18 % 1600-, 44 % 1630- 143 1670- .



.
, , , , , ,
, , . (1567
1748), ( . 5.4.
- -

(Israel, 1995).
(Lynch, 1991, 1992, 1989), (Payne, 1973)
(Kamen, 1969, 1991).

284


5.2. ,
, , 1515 1790 . %

+
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+
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285

| 5

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287

| 5

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288

}

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xvii . xvii xviii ., .
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289

| 5
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Israel, 1995, . v).

290

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291

| 5

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(de Vries, 1974; Israel, 1995, . 332 337).

, . .
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, , , xviii . .
xvi . xvii .
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.
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292

}

-.
, (THart, 1993, . 25). 1590 . . ,
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200 , 1500 .,
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, 10 % (Israel, 1995, . 108).

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. (. . , )
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xvii .,
.
. ,
(THart, 1993,
. 75 76). ,
.

293

| 5

, , ,


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(Israel, 1995, . 312).
, , , , , (. 18 35).

294

}

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. 1350 . Cabeljauwen (),
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, (Israel, 1995, . 119 121 ). ,
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.
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.
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, 295

| 5

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xvi xvii . , .
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1580 . .
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.
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xv xviii .,

- .
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296

}


.
. , ,
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, . , - (wic) voc. .
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.
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xvii . ,
, ,
.
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, , .
. ,
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, (THart, 1993), (Israel, 1995) (Geyl, 1958).

297

| 5


. ; , voc, 1625 . . 20 %
.
80 %
(Israel, 1995, . 285 291). -
, -.
, , , , . 1586 1792 .
55 65 % ,
(Israel, 1995, . 286 287). ,
wic voc, , ,
.

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(THart, 1993) (Israel, 1995).

298

}

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1993, . 46 47).
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, ,
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, ,
(Israel, 1995).)

299

| 5

, , , . xvii . 4,9 1617 . 13,2 1648 .


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) .
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(THart, 1993, . 173 174). , , .

xviii . , (Israel, 1995, . 1006 1012; Adams,
1994b). , .

wic voc. , .
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1581 . (Israel, 1995).

300

}

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(Adams, 1994a, . 516).
xviii . (
), , ,
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. 516 517),
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301

| 5

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.
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xvi xvii . , , , , .
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1794 1795 . (Israel, 1995, . 1079 1121).

302

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1994b, . 337 342; van Hoboken, 1960). wic , .
voc
303

| 5

, . voc ,

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voc

. 1632 ., , 1632 ., , 1650 .
, (Aalbers,
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, , voc. voc , 1759 .
, wic voc -
1780 1784 . wic 1791 ., voc , (Adams,
1994b, . 342 347; Israel, 1995, . 1096 1115).
, voc -
, , xvi xvii . voc
, (Adams, 1996, . 22).
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} ~ |~~ ~

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| 5
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306

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307

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i (15151547). .
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308

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1502 1505 . . 1560- . 1559 1570 .,
1570- . 1571 1582 ., 1580- .
1583 1592 ., 1590- . 1593 1602 ., 1600- .
1604 1612 ., 1630- . 1630 1640 .,
1660- . 1660 1672 ., 1670- .
1672 1685 ., 1680- . 1685 1688 . , 1700 1790- .,
(1705, 1725 . .) .

( ) (THart, 1993, . 60 61). , 1580- ., 1585 1590 .,


1640- . 1640 1647 . 1670- . 1675 ., (Israel, 1995,
. 818). xvi xvii . , 309

| 5

, , , , , . ,
, , , . xviii . (Veenendaal, 1994, . 137) , . 1720 .
1720 ., 1750 . 1758 ., 1790 . 1794 .
1670- . (Thompson,
1994, . 157). , . , , , , .
1515 . 1504 . 1560, 1570, 1580
1600- . 1565, 1577, 1588 1607- . . 1620 1630- . 1621 1640 .,
1640 1650- . 1641 1660, 1670- .
1674- . 1720- . 1718-
., Kamen (1969, . 228).
: . 5.4
. ,
,
(Braudel, Spooner, 1967, . 458)
. , 5 1560 ., 8 1560 1570 .,
10 1580 1629 ., 11 1630- ., 12 1640 1719, 15
1690 1719, 19 1720-, 22 1730 1719 .
10 . 2,66 1620 ., 3,8 1620 1650 .
6,6 xviii .
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310

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317

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, ,
, (Kerridge, 1969).
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319

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65 93).
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321

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1789 . ,
100 %-,
(Jones, 1988, . 48 49).
, xvi . , 1600 . (Jacquart, 1974; Le Roy Ladurie
[1977], 1987; Neveux, 1975, 1980; Venard, 1957).

323

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xv ., , .
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324

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1600 1620 . 12 % 1789 .,
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325

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. 544 548). , .
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, , . , , , .
- ,
-

: Dontenwill, 1973; Fitch, 1978, . 181 187; Le Roy Ladurie [1977], 1987;
Neveux, 1975; Varine, 1979; Venard, 1957 Wood, 1980, . 141 155.

326

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. - ( ) -- , (Le Roy,
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, 16301665 .
. (Markoff, 1996, . 16 64)
, .

327

| 6

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(Le Roy Ladurie [1977], 1987, . 66), (Neveux, 1975, . 134 138)
(Canon, 1977) . Case-study
(Loirette, 1975).

329

| 6

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333

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335

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339

| 6

xvii . 1700 . , . 1710 . (Joutard, 1976),


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.
xvii xviii .
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340

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341

| 6

(Markoff, 1996, . 218).



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343

| 6

, , , ,
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345

| 6

10 xiii xv . 20 xviii . (Allen,


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, ; 15 (Allen,
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(Hoffman, 1996), (Allen, 1992),
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346

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.
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.
, , , : 69,6 , 42,0
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347

| 6

, . ,
, ,
, , . ,
.
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(Wallerstein, 1983) .

case-study . Howell (1975, 1983), Kussmal (1981), Spufford (1974),


Thirsk (1957), Wrightson, Levine (1979) Yelling (1977).
Neveux (1975). case-study, , ,
: Bois ( [1976], 1984), Dontenwill (1973), Gruter (1977), Leon
(1966) ( , Sabatier Guichard), Peret (1976), Venard
(1957, . 63 68 ).
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. ,
, , -
.
( ). (Davis, 1973, . 143 156;
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348

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349

| 6

xviii xix . , , xvi xvii . , , ,


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(Allen, 1992, . 199).
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,
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1450 1550 . 1750 ., 25 30 % 1750 1800 . . ,
of England [London, 1771]) ,
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.

350

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351

| 6

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. ,
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, , (Hampson, 1934, . 1 12; Leonard, 1965, . 76).
13 ,
1495 1610 . ( , ) , ,
(Beier, 1985, . 8 13).
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. 40 90; Fletcher, 1968, . 157; Oxley, 1974, . 107; Willcox, 1946, . 256 257).
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(Beier, 1985, . 3 13 ; Oxley, 1974,
. 51 60, 102 119) , , , .
(Oxley, 1974, . 107). , -, .
, , , ,
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. , , (Leonard, 1965, . 167; Oxley, 1974, . 107).
,
, ( , [Gibbons, 1959, . 93 95]), , 353

| 6

,
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, .
xvi xvii .
, ,
1450 1550 ., 1550 1600 . . 1600 1825 . (Allen, 1992, . 286).
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xvi xvii . , . , , 27 % 1500 1800 .,


. xviii . 40
100 . 60
(Hoffman, 1996, . 136, 139 140).

. ,
,
1520 1785 ., , xvii xviii .
(Hoffman, 1996, . 130). [ ]
355

| 6

: 0,3 0,4 % xvi ., 0,3 %


, xviii . (. 133). 1550 1789 . , , - . , xvi . ,
, xviii .,
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(. 140 142).
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356

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. , xii . , ,
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