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Perry Anderson, Passages from Antiquity to Feudalism.
LondonNew York: Verso, 2000
( : Perry Anderson, Passages from Antiquity to Feudalism. London:
New Left Books, 1974)

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and Economic History of the Hellenistic World, Oxford 1941, Vol. i, p. 476ff.

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Brunt, Social Conicts in the Roman Republic, p. 3435.


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, (, ). , Rome, Troisieme Conference International dHistoire Economique (Munich 1965), 3, Paris
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L. A. Moritz, Grain-Mills and Flour in Classical Antiquity, Oxford 1958, p. 74, 105,

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Jones, Slavery in the Ancient World, p. 196, 198.

115116.
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Jones, The Greek Cities from Alexander to Justinian, p. 5158, 160.


.: F. H. Lawson,
Roman Law, in J. P. Balsdon (ed.), The Romans, London 1965, p. 102110ff.

66

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: Badian, Roman Imperialism in the


Late Republic, p. 7790.

77

P. A. Brunt, The Roman Mob, Past and Present, 1966, p. 916.

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: R. Syme,
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Jones, Augustus, p. 110111ff.

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Jones, Augustus, p. 140141, 117120, 9596, 129130.


Syme, The Roman Revolution, p. 390.
, , ; , , . .: C. M. Wells, The
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.: Ch. Wirszubski, Libertas as a Political


Idea at Rome during the Late Republic and Early Empire, Cambridge 1950; libertas ,
, . libertas eleutheria, p. 1314.
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. , legibus solutus , ; , ,
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.: Jolowicz, Historical Introduction to the Study of Roman Law, p. 337.

75

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.: R. Syme, Tacitus, ii,


Oxford 1958, p. 585606.

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Brunt, Italian Manpower, p. 143144, 707708.


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A Comparative Study, 13th International Congress of Historical Sciences, Moscow 1970,
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K. D. White, The Productivity of Labour in Roman Agriculture, Antiquity, xxxix,

95

, ,

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.: Moritz, Grain-Mills and Flour,
p. 137139; A. H. M. Jones, The Later Roman Empire, 282602, Oxford 1964, ii, 10471048.
.: White, Roman Farming, p. 452453.

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iii , ,
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Rostovtsev, The Social and Economic History of the Roman Empire, Oxford 1926, p. 417448.
,
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.: M. Mazza, Lotte Sociale e


Restaurazione Autoritaria nel Terzo Secolo D. C., Catania 1970, p. 326327.

102

F. Millar, The Roman Empire and its Neighbours, London 1967, p. 241242. .: Mazza, Lotte Sociale e
Restaurazione Autoritaria, p. 316408.

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Roger Rmondon, La Crise de lEmpire Romaine, Paris 1964, p. 8586. ; , .

104

105

Millar, The Roman Empire and its Neighbours, p. 6. stationes -

.: Millar, The Roman Empire and Its Neighbours, p. 243244.

86

i. p]uZvUpu` uajZvaWj_

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. .: , . 479480, 499501, 508509. , , , : . . , , 1958, iv, . 116.

106

. .: M. Arnheim, The Senatorial Aristocracy in the Later Roman Empire, Oxford


1972, p. 3948.

87

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R. Macmullen, Social Mobility and the Theodosian Code, The Journal of Roman
Studies, liv, 1964, p. 4953. (, ), , : , .

108

.: Keith Hopkins, Elite Mobility in the Roman Empire, Past and


Present No. 32, December 1965, p. 1226.
:
.

88

i. p]uZvUpu` uajZvaWj_

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Syme, Emperors and Biography, Studies in the Historia Augusta, Oxford 1971, p. 182186,
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P. Oliva, Pannonia and the Onset of Crisis in the Roman Empire, Prague 1962, p. 248258,

113

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345350.

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.: Jones, The Social Background of the Struggle between


Paganism and Christianity in A. Momigliano (ed.), The Conict Between Paganism
and Christianity in the Fourth Century, Oxford 1963, p. 3537.

93

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.: Andr Piganiol, LEmpire


Chrtien (325395), Paris 1947, p. 294300. . : Jones, Ination under the
Roman Empire, Economic History Review, V, No. 3, 1953, p. 301314.

117

Jones, Slavery in the Ancient World, p. 197; , ,


. 444. ; ,
.

ii , , , .

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: Marc Bloch, Comment et Pourquoi Finit lEsclavage Antique?,


Annales E. S. C., 2, 1947, p. 3044, 161170.

95

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97

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, iv . ,
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. : LEmpire
Romaine nest pas mort de sa belle mort; elle a t assassine.125 ( ; ). ,
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A. H. M. Jones, Over-Taxation and the Decline of the Roman Empire, Antiquity,

xxxiii, 1959, p. 3940.

124
125
126

Jones, The Later Roman Empire, i, p. 468.


Piganiol, LEmpire Chrtien, p. 422.
: das westrmische
Reich ist ohne Erschutterung eingeschlafen
: J. Sundwall, Westrmische Studien, Berlin 1915, p. 19,
, ,
: K. F. Stroheker, Germanentum und Sptantike, Zurich
1965, p. 8990. .

98

i. p]uZvUpu` uajZvaWj_

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: Jones The Later Roman Empire,

ii, 1068. . : Momigliano, Quarto Contribuito alla Storia degli Studi Classici e del Mondo Antico,
Rome 1969, p. 645647; , .

99

vuj_ iUXu`

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ivV . , ,
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129
130

Jones, The Later Roman Empire, ii, p. 10401041.

131

Jones, The Greek City from Alexander to Justinian, p. 272274.

Joseph Vogt, The Decline of Rome, London 1965, p. 2122.


M. T. W. Amheim, The Senatorial Aristocracy in the Later Roman Empire, Oxford 1972,
p. 149152; Vogt, The Decline of Rome, p. 197.

100

i. p]uZvUpu` uajZvaWj_

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132

, , . 116; Jones, The Later Roman Empire, iii, p. 129.


.
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133
134

Peter Brown, The World of Late Antiquity, London 1971, p. 4344.


, , . 434.

101

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.: K. F, Stroheker,
Spanische Senatoren der sptromischen und westgotischen Zeit, Germanentum
und Sptantike, p. 5487; Der Senatorische Adel im Sptantiken Gallien, Tubingen 1948,
p. 1342.
iii .

136

.: Arnheim, The Senatorial Aristocracy in the Later Roman


Empire, p. 216219.

102

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137

Arnheim, op. cit., 56, 4951, 7273. , ,


, , . .: Peter
Brown, Religion and Society in the Age of St Augustine, London 1972, p. 161182.

138

Brown, The World of Late Antiquity, p. 34. ,


; .: Jones, Rome, Troisime Conference
Internationale dHistoire Economique, p. 101.

139

, i, scholae.
.:
R. I. Frank, Scholae Palatinae. The Palace Guards of the Later Roman Empire, Rome 1969,
p. 167194.

103

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Arnheim, The Senatorial Aristocracy in the Later Roman Empire, p. 167168.

i. p]uZvUpu` uajZvaWj_


407417, 435437 442443 . , , , , , , ,
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.
141

.: V. Sirago, Gallia Placidia e La Trasformazione Politica dellOccidente,


Louvain 1961, p. 376390; .: E. A. Thompson,
Peasant Revolts in Late Roman Gaul and Spain, Past and Present, November 1951,
p. 1123. , . : , , ,
(p. 11).

. (circumcelliones) , , , . ,
, . .: B. H. Warmington, The North
African Provinces from Diocletian to the Vandals, Cambridge 1954, p. 8788, 100.

ii. 
#
1. TUXquapZU ZjWpZ
, , , 406
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p. 128.
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M. Bloch, Une Mise au Point: Les Invasions, Mlanges Historiques, i, Paris 1963,

Thompson, The Early Germans, p. 4860.

p. 11718.
. ,
.
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. : Owen Lattimore, Feudalism in
History, Past and Present, No. 13, November 1957, p. 52.

107

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E. A. Thompson, The Visigoths in the Time of Ulla, Oxford 1966, . p. 4051;


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Frank, Scholae Palatinae, p. 6372; Jones, The Later Roman Empire, ii, p. 619622.

109

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p. 215221. ,
, , ,
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1.000.000 16.000.000 . J. C. Russell, Population in
Europe 5001500, London 1969, p. 21.

hospitalitas .: F. Lot, Du Regime


de lHospitalit, Recueil des Travaux Historiques de Ferdinand Lot, Geneva 1970,
p. 6399; . : , , . 138; Jones, The Later Roman
Empire, iii, 46.

112

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: Thompson The Visigoths from Fritigern to


Euric, Historia, Bd xii, 1963, p. 120121
. , sortes
, , , , , ; , , : Block, Melanges Historiques, i, p. 134135.

113

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E. A. Thompson, The Barbarian Kingdoms in Gaul and Spain, Nottingham Mediaeval


Studies, vii, 1963, p. 11.

11

.:
Thompson, The Visigoths from Fritigern to Euric, p. 105126.

12

, , .: Courtois, Les Vandales et


lAfrique, p. 234248.

114

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, ,
Dienstmnner, ,
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. Gefolgschaft
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J. M. Wallace-Hadrill, The Barbarian West 4001000, London 1967, p. 32.


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17

,

, ,
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E. A. Thompson, The Conversion of the Visigoths to Catholicism, Nottingham


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117

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20

Thompson, The Barbarian Kingdoms in Gaul and Spain, p. 2527; Robert Bourrache,
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118

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21

.: Lucien Musset, Les Invasions. Les Vagues


Germaniques, Paris 1965, p. 116117ff. .

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Musset, Les Invasions. Les Vagues Germaniques, p. 209.

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H. R. Loyn, Anglo-Saxon England and the Norman Conquest, London 1962 p. 1922.
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.: Georges Duby, Guerriers
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Musset, Les Invasions. Les Vagues Germaniques, p. 190.

Spain, p. 216217.

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Musset, Les Invasions. Les Vagues Germaniques, p. 130132.

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Musset, Les Invasions. Les Vagues Germaniques, p. 197.


(Wechselwirkung)
(Verschmelzung), (Produktionsweise), (Synthese) : , , ., . 12, . 723724.

34

.: D. R. Kelley, De Origine Feudorum: The


Beginnings of a Historical Problem, Speculum, xxxix, April 1964, No. 2. p. 207228;
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Alfons Dopsch, Wirtschaftliche und Sociale Grundlagen der europischen Kulturentwicklung


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36

Ferdinand Lot, La Fin du Monde Antique et le Dbut du Moyen Age, Paris 1952 (reedition),

37

p. 462, 469, 463. 1921 .


. .
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.: Dopsch, Wirtschaftliche und Sociale Grundlagen, ii, p. 3002, . , , ., 2003, . 144149. bucellarii , antrustiones ( ) leudes ( ). .: Carl Stephenson, Mediaeval
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Dopsch, Wirtschaftliche und Sociale Grundlagen, ii, p. 331336.


Dopsch, Wirtschaftliche und Sociale Grundlagen, i, p. 332339.
- . vien, . kwas, . , (village)
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42

: Hintze, Weltgeschichtliche Bedingungen


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E. A. Thompson, A Roman Reformer and Inventor, Oxford 1952, p. 4445.


, : .
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. 149. , : Bloch,
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., .: Thompson, The Goths in Spain, p. 305308.


D. J. Chitty, The Desert a City, Oxford 1966, p. 2021, 27. , , ,
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: , , . 374375.

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: Lynn White, What Accelerated


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Ganshof, The Carolingians and the Frankish monarchy, p. 125135.

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. : Duby, Guerriers et Paysans, p. 55.


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139

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Boussard, The Civilisation of Charlemagne, p. 227229; L. Musset, Les Invasions. Le Second


Assaut contre lEurope Chrtienne, Paris 1965, p. 158165.


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17

.: Henry Loyn, The Norman Conquest, London 1965, p. 7677; G. O. Sayles, The Mediaeval Foundations of England, London 1964, p. 210, 225. , - . ,
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, , ;
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155

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18

.: J. O. Prestwich, Anglo-Norman Feudalism and the Problem of Continuity, Past and Present, No. 26, November 1963,
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156

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, ,
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157

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Sidney Painter, The Rise of the Feudal Monarchies, Ithaca 1954, p. 85.
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158

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.: Geoffrey Barraclough, The Origins of Modern Germany,


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160

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Barraclough, The Origins of Modern Germany, p. 175177, 189190.

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Philip Jones, The Agrarian Development of Mediaeval Italy, Second International


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25

.: Daniel Waley, The Italian City-Republics, London 1969, p. 1221,


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162

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Max Weber, Economy and Society, New York 1968, Vol. iii, p. 13081309; Daniel Waley.
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163

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J. Vicens Vives, Hlstorla de los Remensas en el Siglo XV, Barcelona 1945, p. 2637.
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C. Sanchez-Albornoz, Estudlos sobre Las Instituciones Medievales Espaoles, Mexico 1965,
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165

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Elena Lourie, A Society Organized for War: Medieval Spain, Past and Present, No. 35,
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166

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G. Jackson, The Making of Mediaeval Spain, London 1972, p. 8688.

167

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.
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1383 , 48 .34
. xiii , .

3. \u]_aZ[ UUX

, .35
33
34
35

A. H. de Oliveira Marques, A Sociedade Medieval Portuguese, Lisbon 1964, p. 143144.


Armando Castro, Portugal na Europa do seu Tempo, Lisbon 1970, p. 135138.
, ,

168

i. xuiu\au` UXWiu

.
, .
,

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pax romana. ivV , ,36
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Grand Chapitre de lHistoire du Fer: Le Monopole Sudois, Annales No. 14, March
1932, p. 127). , , .
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. 37

. : Gwyn Jones, A History


of the Vikings, Oxford 1968, p. 145155. , hirdh - xxi ,
, : Kuhn, Die
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38

P. H. Sawyer, The Age of Vikings, London 1961, p. 125.


, .

170

i. xuiu\au` UXWiu

, .39
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danegeld) .
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39

.: Lucien Musset, Les Invasions: Le Second Assaut contre lEurope Chrtienne (VIIe XIe
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Johannes Bronsted, The Vikings, London 1967, p. 3136.

171

vuj_ jWXu`

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40

E. I. Bromberg, Wales and the Mediaeval Slave Trade, Speculum, Vol. xvii, No. 2,
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41

Jones, A History of the Vikings, p. 148. .: P. Foote and D. M. Wilson, The Viking Achievement, London 1970,
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: p. 78.

42

Lucien Musset, Les Peuples Scandinaves au Moyen Age, Paris 1951, p. 8791. ,
, -

172

i. xuiu\au` UXWiu

. 46 , , . bondi
, , .43 ,
thingar, , .
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thing. , , , .
1066 ,
, , . , , ,
.44 ix . ,
, , . odd .: A. Gurevich, Reprsentations et Attitudes lEgard de la Proprit
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.
,
.

43
44

Jones, A History of the Vikings, p. 148.


, , .

173

vuj_ jWXu`

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45

xii, xiii xiv . Foote and Wilson, The Viking Achievement, p. 7778.

174

i. xuiu\au` UXWiu

, , .46
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rd, .
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.

46

Erik Lnroth, The Baltic Countries, in The Cambridge Economic History of Europe, iii,

47
48

Foote and Wilson, The Viking Achievement, p. 88.

Cambridge 1963, p. 372.


Musset, Les Peupla Scandinaves au Moyen Age, p. 278280. Fraise ,
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175

vuj_ jWXu`

; , ,
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dominium directum ,50 49

xiiixiv ,
, i ; : K. Wuhrer, Die schwedischen
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50

.: Oscar Bjurling, Die ltere schwedische Landwirtschaftspolitik


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176

i. xuiu\au` UXWiu

, ,
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mediate subditi;51 , -,
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; ln , .52

; , , . ; , xivxv
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1964, p. 3941. .

51

.: E. Hecksher, An
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52

Michael Roberts, The Early Vasas, Cambridge 1968, p. 38; Lucien Musset, Les Peuples
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177

vuj_ jWXu`

4. UW\u]_au` \ZauqZpu
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(Maurice Dobb, Studies in the Development of Capitalism, London 1967,
reedition, p. 36, 4243). ,
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xiii . ix
, .
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(The Modern Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 3, 1947, p. 2678).

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: Southern, The Making of the Middle Ages, p. 1213.

178

i. xuiu\au` UXWiu

, ,
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Lynn White, Mediaeval Technology and Social Change, London 1963.



.
: R. H. Hilton and P. H. Sawyer, Technical Determinism: the Stirrup and the Plough, Past and Present, No. 24, April 1963,
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55

,
ixX ,
xii : Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life in
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, . .

179

vuj_ jWXu`

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,
1 2,
, . Van Bath, The
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-, , , ,
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57

: Bloch, The Advent and Triumph of the Water-Mill, in Land and Work in Mediaeval Europe, London 1967, p. 136168. Banalits xxi

.

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, , ., . 25, . ii, . 455. , .

180

i. xuiu\au` UXWiu

. Banalits .

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Duby, Guerriers et Paysans, p. 2667.


M. Postan, England, The Cambridge Economic History of Europe, Vol. i, The Agrarian Life
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181

vuj_ jWXu`

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, , ., . 25, . i, 357.
R. H. Hilton, Peasant Movements in England before 1381, in Essays in Economic
History, Vol. ii, ed. E. M. Carus-Wilson, London 1962, p. 7375. : , ,
, ,
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. , , ., . 25, . ii, . 356.

63
182

.: Duby, Guerriers et Paysans, p. 213, 217221.

i. xuiu\au` UXWiu

100 ix 2030 xiii .64


, , , ,
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65

Rodney Hilton, Bond Men Made Free, London 1973, p. 28.


, , , .:
R. H. Hilton, A Mediaeval Society: The West Midlands, p. 154160; Peasant Movements
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66

, , . ,
600 1000
; 1000 1200 ; 1200 : Duby, Guerriers et Paysans,
passim. . ,
1000 (

183

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.

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184

.: Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life in the Mediaeval West, p. 7280.

i. xuiu\au` UXWiu

,
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,
, - , , : Hilton, Bond Men Made Free, p. 8085.

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xiii , , .70 , , . X xiv
20.000.000 54.000.000 .71 , , 69
70

Boutruche, Seigneurie et Fodalit, ii, p. 7782, 102104, 276284.


Duby, Rural Economy and Country Life in the Mediaeval West, p. 103102.
.
.
.

71

J. C. Russell, Late Ancient and Mediaeval Populations, Philadelphia 1958, p. 102114. , , , -, ; .

186

i. xuiu\au` UXWiu

25 , xiii
35 .72 .
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73

R. S. Lopez, The Birth of Europe, London 1967, p. 398.


, , ,
(Postan, The Mediaeval Economy and Society, p. 212).
-
.

74

, .:
J. Lestocquoy, Aux Origines de la Bourgeoisie: Les Villes de Flandre et de lItalie sous le
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187

vuj_ jWXu`

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. : Guy Fourquin, Histoire Economique de lOccident Mdival, Paris 1909,

76

.: , , ., . 25, . ii, . 355361.

p. 240241.

188

i. xuiu\au` UXWiu

contado.
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.: Bautier, The Economic Development of Mediaeval


Europe, p. 96100, 12630.

79

Lopez, The Birth of Europe, p. 260261. :


1275 1334 . .

80

Weber, Economy and Society, iii, p. 125162. ,


. -: . , , ., 2001, . 299.

190

i. xuiu\au` UXWiu

xii .81 , , .
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(, , ., . 28, . 324),
(, , . 349). , ,
: Lopez, The Birth of Europe, p. 234.

82
83

C. Petit-Dutaillis, Les Communes Franaises, Paris 1947, p. 62, 81.


iii 1327 ;
.

191

vuj_ jWXu`

: xii
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. ,
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85

Van Bath, The Agrarian History of Western Europe, p. 132.


.: Erwin Panofsky, Meaning in the Visual Arts,
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192

i. xuiu\au` UXWiu

, .86
, , . , , ,
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.87 , 86

- : Leopold Gnicot,
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,
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87


: Postan, The Mediaeval Economy and Society, p. 5772.
, .

193

vuj_ jWXu`

.

; , ; .88 , ,
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.89
88

Postan, Some Economic Evidence of Declining Population in the Later Middle Ages,
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.
,
. ,
, . ,
xiv
, xi ,
, , . .:
E. A. Kosminsky, The Evolution of Feudal Rent in England from the 11th to the
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, -,
; ,
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89

. , , xiv , : Bautier, The Economic Development of Mediaeval Europe,


p. 190209.

194

i. xuiu\au` UXWiu

. xiv 13151316 . ,
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xiii . 1321 ,
1350 , ( ) -

90

.: D. Herlihy, Population, Plague and


Social Change in Rural Pistoia, 12011450, Economic History Review, xviii, No. 2,
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,
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195

vuj_ jWXu`

1320 .91
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91
92

Van Bath, The Agrarian History of Western Europe, p. 106.


.: H. Miskimin, Monetary Movements and Market Structures Forces for Contraction in Fourteenth and Fifteenth Century England, Journal of Economic History,

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93

.: Fourquin, Histoire Economique de lOccident Mdival,


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196

i. xuiu\au` UXWiu

.
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Russell, Late Ancient and Mediaeval Population, p. 131.


xiv . , .
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,
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E. Perroy, Les Crises du XlVe Sicle, Annales ESC, April-June 1949, p. 167181. , : -
13151320 , , 13351345 ,
13481350 .

97

Friedrich Ltge, The Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries in Social and Economic
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198

i. xuiu\au` UXWiu

.98 , ; ,
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99

.: Hilton, Bond Men Made Free, p. 96ff.


xiv :

i (13091343) 13801388 .

100


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101

E. Kosminsky, The Evolution of Feudal Rent in England from the nth to the 15th
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200

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; .102
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E. Perroy, Wage-Labour in France in the Later Middle Ages, Economic History Review,

103
104

Jackson, The Making of Mediaeval Spain, p. 146.

Second Series, viii, No. 3, December 1955, p. 138139.




. , , ,
(
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105

Hilton, Bond Men Made Free, p. 170172.

201

vuj_ jWXu`

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, .106 , -, 106
202

R. H. Hilton, The Decline of Serfdom in Mediaeval England, p. 44ff.

i. xuiu\au` UXWiu



,
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: M. Postan, The Fifteenth Century, Economic History Review, Vol. ix, 193895 p. 1607. ,
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108

K. B. MacFarlane, Bastard Feudalism, Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research,


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109

Kohachiro Takahashi, The Transition from Feudalism to Capitalism, Science and


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- . xi xiii (,

203

vuj_ jWXu`

. ,
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1486 , .
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110

M. Bloch, Les Caractres Originaux de lHistoire Rurale Franaise, p. 131133. , -


xv , : p. 134154.

111
112

Vicens Vives, Historia de los Remensas en el Siglo XV, p. 261269.


Bautier, The Economic Development of Mediaeval Europe, p. 210.

204

i. xuiu\au` UXWiu

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.
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.: Eduardo de Hinojosa, La Servidumbre de la Gleba en Aragon, La Espaa Moderna, 190, October 1904,
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114

Philip Jones, Italy, in The Agrarian Life of the Middle Ages, p. 406407.

ii.   

1. p WjWp^ Wj l]_

. , , .1
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.

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: Rostovtsev, Iranians and Greeks in South Russia, Oxford 1922,

206

ii. WjWvau` UXWiu

,
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, .
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, ,
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vuj_ jWXu`

, .
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Vlkerwanderungen , , .
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. 4

quod ego ut incompertum in media relinquam


,
, , .

.: F. Dvornik, The Slavs. Their Early History and Civilisation, Boston 1956, p. 345;
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208

ii. WjWvau` UXWiu


, . Gefolgschaft hirdh,
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7

Frantisek Graus, Deutsche und Slawische Verfassungsgeschichte, Historische


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209

vuj_ jWXu`

, ,
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150- .
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8

.: D. Obolensky, The
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210

ii. WjWvau` UXWiu

, , . , - ,

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9

Owen Lattimore, Inner Asian Frontiers of China, New York 1951, p. 6165, 361365;
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211

vuj_ jWXu`

, ,
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. . : . . , - , , 1955,
1, . 77. , , : . . , -
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(
, 1956, 1, . 77). , ,
. , , . , , ,
: Lattimore, Inner Asian Frontiers
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, 1857 : , , ., . 12,
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212

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Lattimore, Inner Asian Frontiers of China, p. 66.
. . , . ,
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213

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17

. . , . . , - -, , 1955, 11, . 65, 7172; Lattimore,


Inner Asian Frontiers of China, p. 332335.

18

, , .: E. A. Thompson,
A History of Attila and the Huns, Oxford 1948.

19

- : ,
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215

vuj_ jWXu`

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21

.: N. Iorga, LInterpntration de lOrient et de lOccident au Moyen Age,


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, ; .

22

. : . . , , ., 2000, . 95, 124, 222. .

216

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.: Lattimore, Inner Asian Frontiers of China, p. 519523, . , ,


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24

.: Thompson, A History of Attila and the Huns, p. 177183.


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217

vuj_ jWXu`

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25
26

, , . 132.
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Frontiers of China, p. 512ff.

27

,
xx , : A. N. J. Den Hollander, The Great
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History, iii, 19601961, p. 7488, 155169.

219

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vuj_ jWXu`


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29

.:
Henryk Lowmianowski, La Gense des Etats Slaves et Ses Bases Sociales et
Economiques, La Pologne au Xe Congrs International des Sciences Historiques Rome,
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222

ii. WjWvau` UXWiu

. , - , .30 ,
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tsar caesar. krol, kral ,
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an lan lehen.31 ( ,
) . ,
30

, , - , , . ; .: F. Graus, Deutsche
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317. , , , . , , , ,
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.

31

F. Dvornik, The Slavs in European History and Civilisation, New Brunswick 1962,
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. . , , ., 2000, . 195; K. Wuhrer, Die Schwedischen
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223

vuj_ jWXu`

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.: Musset, Les Invasions. Le


Second Assaut, p. 99106, 261266. ,
gorod , gardr. , : Foote and Wilson, The Viking Achievement, p. 221.

227

vuj_ jWXu`

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228

ii. WjWvau` UXWiu

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.: , , . 144189; , , , . .

37

K. R. Schmidt, The Social Structure of Russia in the Early Middle Ages, Xle Congrs
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.

229

vuj_ jWXu`

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G. Vernadsky, The Beginnings of the Czech State, Byzantion, 19441945, xvii,


p. 315328; , ,
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230

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F. Graus, Origines de lEtat et de la Noblesse en Moravie et en Bohme, Revue des


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40
41

F. Dvornik, The Slaves. Their Early History and Civilisation, p. 115, 300.
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231

vuj_ jWXu`

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.42 , , . 1031 ,
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,
. xii
, , . 42

. .: F. Dvornik, The Making of Central


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232

ii. WjWvau` UXWiu

, , .
45 % ,
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. xixiii , , , . .
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manu militari , -
43

H. Lowmianski, Economic Problems of the Early Feudal Polish State, Acta Poloniae
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44

Jerome Blum, The Rise of Serfdom in Eastern Europe, American Historical Review,

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233

vuj_ jWXu`

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46
47

Russell, Late Ancient and Mediaeval Population, p. 148.

1228 .
M. Postan, Economic Relations between Eastern and Western Europe, in Geoffrey
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234

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, ; , .
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Roger Portal, Les Slaves, Paris 1965, p. 75.

235

vuj_ jWXu`

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50

F. L. Garsten, The Origins of Prussia, Oxford 1954, p. 88.



, . -
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236

ii. WjWvau` UXWiu

. , ,
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xii , , , ,
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51

.: Marc Szeftel, Aspects of Russian Feudalism, in Rushton Coulborn (ed.), Feudalism in History, Princeton 1956,
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237

vuj_ jWXu`

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ii. WjWvau` UXWiu

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-, 1300 :
R. R. Betts, The Social Revolution in Bohemia and Moravia in the Later Middle
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239

vuj_ jWXu`

. ,
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1453 ,
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54
55

Van Bath, The Agrarian History of Western Europe, p. 139.


Carsten, The Origins of Prussia, p. 103.
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240

ii. WjWvau` UXWiu

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, : Frederick
Heymann, John Zizka and the Hussite Revolution, Princeton 1965.
,
1424 .
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241

vuj_ jWXu`

-,
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The Hussite Movement in Bohemia, Prague 1958.

57

- , ,
,
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: Macek, The Hussite Movement in Bohemia, p. 133).

58

. : R. R. Betts, Society in Central and Western Europe: Its Development


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242

ii. WjWvau` UXWiu

. , , , xiv .
,
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( 1228 1462 90) . , , , , , xivxv .60 ,
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59
60

Blum, Lord and Peasant in Russia, p. 5861.



, , , , . : Hilton and
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xiiixiv
(p. 15, 26). , , 1340 1450
25 % 8 6 , .
, , ,
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243

vuj_ jWXu`

, , . ,
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70 % . 1367

. , , . , . .
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61

Henri Pirenne, Economic and Social History of Mediaeval Europe, London 1936,
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244

ii. WjWvau` UXWiu

,
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. : Dobb, Studies in
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245

vuj_ jWXu`

, . xv , 1487
.63

, , - - .
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; , .
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1.300 .
63
64
246

F. Dvornik, The Slavs in European History and Civilisation, New Brunswick 1962, p. 333.
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ii. WjWvau` UXWiu


.
- , .
. xvxvi , , , , ;
;
; .65 . 1402
,
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1494 .
, xvi

65

.: Blum, The Rise of Serfdom in Eastern Europe,


American Historical Review, July 1957 ,
, . , :
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, , .
. .
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247

vuj_ jWXu`

, , , , .
. (), , xv
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; 1453 Snem ; 1497 1500 .66 ,
.67
66

R. R. Betts, Social and Constitutional Development in Bohemia in the Hussite


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67

A. Klima and J. Macurek, La Question de la Transition du Fodalisme au Capitalisme


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248

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, -,
, . 1496
.68
. , .
, .
xv folwarky , . ,

. xv
xvi . , , ;
, .69

,
,
.
.
.
.
68

Hans Rosenberg, The Rise of the Junkers in Brandenburg-Prussia 14101653, American Historical Review, Vol. xlix, October 1943 and January 1944, p. 231.

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. : R. H. Hellie, Enserfment and Military Change in Muscovy, Chicago 1971, p. 92; W. E. Wright, Serf, Seigneur and Sovereign Agrarian Reform in Eighteenth Century Bohemia, Minneapolis 1966, p. 810; Marian Malowist, Le Commerce
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xvi ,

. 1450
. .70 , -, . ,
xix ,
, , xvi . ,
, xvi . Gutsherrschaft, ,
xiii ,
. , , - ,
xvi . , - , xvi 20.000 . 170.000 1618 .71 , ,
1.300 5.000.72 ,
, 3050 % , , , , xvi -

70

., .: M. Postan, in Eastern and Western Europe in the Middle Ages, p. 170174; Van
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H. Kamen, The Iron Century. Social Change in Europe 15501660, London 1971, p. 221.
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250

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, .73 . , ,
1015 % ; xvi .74
, , -,
, . ,
xv
xvi , .75 xvi , ,
. . 1575 1624
50 %.76 , , ,
, 15001580
2:3 4:5, .77 (rolniki) .
73

Aldo de Maddalena, Rural Europe 15001750, London 1970, p. 4243; Kamen, The Iron
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74

W. Kula, Thorie Economique du Systme Fodal, p. 657. See also Andrzej Wyczanski,
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xviii , ,
xvi xviii . , , 3540 % . , , 2540 %, , , .

75
76
77

Blum, The Rise of Serfdom in Eastern Europe, p. 830.


Kamen, The Iron Century, p. 47.
A. Maczak, The Social Distribution of Landed Property in Poland from the 16th to
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251

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, , .

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xivxv ,
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78

. : . . , , , 1958, 2, . 103104. -
320 xvi , , ,
.

252

ii. WjWvau` UXWiu


. - , , , .
xvixvii , ,

.
xviii .79
. puszta xix .80
,
.
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.81
,
;
xx .
, , . 79

.: McNeill, Europes Steppe Frontier


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81

Den Hollander, The Great Hungarian Plain, p. 155161.


. . , ,
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253

vuj_ jWXu`

.
xix 4:1
, , , xiii xvi .82
.
, ,
. ,
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. , folwarky .
, , 56 ,
.83 .
, , , . xvii
.84
, ,
82

. : B. H. Slicher Van Bath, The Yields of Different Crops (Mainly Cereals)


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Zs. Fach, Die ungarische Agrarentwicklung im 1617 Jahrhundert Abbiegung von


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84
254

Kamen, The Iron Century, p. 213.

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,
.85 , ,
.
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.86 , , ,
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xiv ), (xvxviii ),
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xiv , ,
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85
86

De Maddalena, Rural Europe 15001750, p. 41.


, , ., . 35, . 105. ,
, . ( , . 19, . 327345).

255

vuj_ jWXu`

, -, , ,
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5. p T^ Wj \^au`
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256

ii. WjWvau` UXWiu


, .
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257

vuj_ jWXu`

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ii. WjWvau` UXWiu

. , ,
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; ; .

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vii ,
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.: G. Ostrogorsky, History of the


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, , , .
, , ,
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, , ,
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-,
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. . , , ,
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89

E. Stein, Paysannerie et Grands Domaines dans lEmpire Byzantin, Recueils de la


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,
, -
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-, ,
.
, , . .:
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, , ,
, ,
. ,
, . , , .
, - , .91 , ,
, . ;92
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, ,
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101

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., inter alia: Ostrogorsky, History of the Byzantine State, p. 320321, 329333,


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J. Teall, The Grain Supply of the Byzantine Empire, 3301025, Dumbarton Oaks
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Claude Cahen, La Premire Pntration Turque en Asie Mineure (Seconde Moiti


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113

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114

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273

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274

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S. Runciman, A History of the First Bulgarian Empire, London 1930, p. 9495; I. Sakazov,
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: ,
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280

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Dimitar Angelov, Die bulgarische Lnder und das bulgarische Volk in der Grenzen
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281

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Dvornik, The Slavs. Their Early History and Civilisation, p. 161163.


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128
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