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342

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W,
. 1.

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.

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.
k , ,
,
W



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, :
F = W +kx.

[0 ]


, .
,
. ,
, .
W x/g, "
t
W, a g .
W
F , :
W x"

W - ^ - = W + kx,

[ 1]

" + * = 0,

[2]

31
-\ ~
[2] , =
Acospt, X Bsxnpt, .
, [2]:
= A c o s p t-\-B sm p t.

[4]

, W
.
X
7

J

[3],

. . IF, , ,
, l st. -

[4], . .
, .
, [4],
.

. , ,
( = 0) W
x<j.
= 0 [4],
-0= .

[]

- [4]
t = 0,
f

= B.

[] [],
W:
1
X 0C O S p t-\-- sin p t.

[6]

,
: , cosp t
, ,
sm pt '. ,
- [6],
.
0= sin ,

\]

^ = M cosa,

[d ]

, .
- [6],
x = M s'm {pt-\- ).

[7]

, ,
- [] [d].
-,

10

[] [\,
lt>

[9]

-0' *

,
. 2. = 0'/ 0>
:

= /
tg a :

*0* +

'

= ;

,

;
t . 2.
OBt
M s\n(pt-\- a),
: (. - [7]) W .
, ,
. 1,
, (. - [5])
8^, . . .

.
2. .
,
,
.
. W (. 3).
,

4" V -------------*
8" =

W c K l c

. .

3IEI

[]

________J

. 3.

,
, ,

k

3ICI
c \l~ c f-'

, , ,

11

. ^, (. - []),
- [5],
. ,
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, .
14.
.
. ,
. 4,
,
. ?
, k
, , ,
.

d

_ G -d 1
/ 32 *

de


ks.

,
:
/<" +

& =

0,

. 4.

[ 10]

: /
, .

r.D'llv\ _ W D 2
32g 8g
h , D , , W
.

,
WD4g
h
i/i d

12

[10] /
= ,

- , - [2],

= A c o s p t-\- s\i\pt.
[11]
,
: ----= 2

/ -

[12]


0 ~
Gt.d>

Gd[
32
II

[13]

,
d.
, .
,
.
, , du

dv

.
dl\K
[14]
cLl
. 5.



(. 5).
, ,
*).
, , ,
. 5,
: (1) , ,

, (2) , ,
, ) H. FrahmoM; . Neue Untersuchungen ber
dynamischen Vorgnge in den Wellenleitungen v. Schiffsmachinen, .V. D. I.*, 1902.
, ,
.

13

, . ,
, ( ^ = 0 )

.
,
,
,
( = 0 ).

. ,
,
(. 5) . -
[13] , :
V ha^V T

[]

. 5 :
-\- = 1.

[]

, [] [],

- [13]
:
32/,
.
5 7+73

I
/ ; +

1151


(. 14).
3.
.
, . 1,
. .
, W
Q,
.
-
- [1] Q.
:
W

' -\-k x -Q

[16]

14


8
p * = kK

W '

:
"

'- = * .

[17]

, Q
cos mt. zl = ~

= Qcos m t - [17]


" -\-plx = qzosm t.

[18]

, . .
, ,
- [18],
:
[)

,
- [18]. ,
[4] - [2]
- [18]. cos m t
- [18],

___ .

- [18] :
x A c o sp t-\-B s\n p t-\ j-^ -^ -c o s mt.

[19]


, ,
..
, ,
.
, -

15

[ ], (magnifi
cation factor)

----
1

= ---- 1 - - -

[20]

22
= ------ ' i ;
.
, !, . .

, (3

- [].
/
/ = 1,
. .

!). -
, ,

. .
.

. , , ,
(. . 6)
, .
Q
, Q cosm t
, .
- , - [16] 2),
,
,
,
W , . .

, ,
. *) . 29.
)
.

16

, ,
,
, - : ,
, .
4^1__ -l--------
.


V
,


Z?
0.S
/ .

1,0
[20], ,

. 7.
,
,
,
,
,
, W ( 1)
.
. 7 (3

/ = /xt.
[20], ,
< , ^>
. ,

,
,

, . .
(* 1)
,


. 8.
. ^>,

. , ,
,
.
/77.

17

.
(. 8)
5
.
,
, . 8 ;
.
, ,
, . 8 '
.

[19], .
, ,
, .

,
.
[19]
. , ,
(^ = 0) ;
[19]
, = 0
= 0 ' = 0.
, A -

5 = 0. [19],
x==J - r z r ^ i (coswtf cspt).

[19]

q cos m t
.

, .
V2 ( ) = , - [19]
= -

,i ( + sin ( ? - PJL =
p- m
2
2
2?S ^
p* m*
2

,
" 9-

"""* | ,

1 *7 / >
|

! i l *+

I
18

,
==2* ; " L = _ i L
+
,
2<7sinA^
3

m ( )
- [21] :
2 q b t_
*

qt
sin mt,
2

[ 21 ']

. . .
-
.
4.
(
).
.
.
.
, ().
,
. 1. W

. x t
-
W .
k ( ).
k x - [1],
- :
W
[22]
" 4- ( - *,) = 0,

19

\ ,
-:
, = b cos mt.
,

" -j- - q cos mt.


- [18]
3.

W , ,
,
. . W
, .
,
. ,
, . .
,

, W
. - [19]:
_L__
* /-
- [], :

h
i _ " :

, , = 10,
^ . ,
W.


, ;

.
(

20

) , ,
, .
. 10 ,
. W
.

,

; , ,

.
,


. 10.
.

. ,
,
W
(. - [5]).
.

,
. . 11 *).
BD
W,
WI

c *

k a 2'


. 11.

- [5]
. ,
1) . Schlick'a, . Trans. Inst. Nav.
Arch.*, 1893, Vol. 34, p. 167.
(Cambridge Instrument ); . Jr. Optical
Sec. *f America, 1925, Vol. 10, p. 455.

21


: I ,
. 10 ).
b . Frahma -). Frahma
,
. ,
, . 12 6;
,
,
.
.

(. 12 ).


,
^ 3)
W,
.
.

_ ( W + W 1/4)P
3E l

st~

- [5]
, .
,
. ,

, , ,
.
.

,
.

.
.
c. .
.
*) . 9.
') F. L u x ou . T. Z , 1905, S. 264, 387.
) <_ ,
14.

22


, ,
, .
3 , ,


.
= 1,2 2; ,
,
, W = 0,06 ; ,
(1 /2), s -= 2,4 ;
= 4.
, 1 1,2 = 1,2 ,
]/j 2,4 =
= 0,06 , :
k = 1,2 : 0,06 = 20 /.
(. - [5]):
f - 1 - / - /
-
/ 982_

2
2 ]/ W ~ 2 r .] /
0,06



.
, ,

*).
d.
.

.

,
. W ,
, Q , ,
, ,
. , ,
(. . 13)
Q + ir+ P c o s o ^ .

[]

1)
(
) Engineering", 1922, Vol. 113, p. 716.
. Proc. Meetings of the Inst. Mech. E n g .\ London 1923, Jan.

23


.
,
,
Pcos <x>t. k
, ,
, , 3^ , W,


) (. - [5]):
[]
, . .
() Pcos at,
2

, - [20], ,
, ,
, :
1

[]

, ,
,

*) , Q
.
,
,
, |> ,

24

49,7 /, ,
105 /2, W = 2,718 ')
= 0,068 .
, ,

, = 0,2 .
- , []
11%
.


, .
. 14
.


.,0-1
/
.

(1

. 14.


, .
.

,
.
.
, , ,
.

, . 14 .
5.
.
[19] 3 ,

, .
- ,
,
.
*) . S. Timoshenko and J. . Lessells, Applied Elasticity, 1925, p. 334.

25

, ,
- [6] 1. - ,
%'
t :
sin pt.
p

[]

, , . 1,
, q
, (. - [17] 3).
= 0
t t1 M N,
. 15.
t u
dt. q
W (. 1)
,

d x'
dt = ?>

dx' qdt.

[b]

. 15.

- [] ,

tv [b], tt
(. 15) ,
d x (~- sin p {tl t).

[]


dt.
, ,

[].
h

= -

j ' q s in p fa t)dt.

[24]

,
q, ^ = 0 t t v
,

26


.
,
, q .
[24],
*).
,
q a c o s m t (. - [18]
3). q - [24],

~ ~

J cos ' sin

16.

~ ' 0 <# = p

tni (cos m tx cos p tt).


[19], (. 3).
[24]
,
W (. . 1),
. ,
, ,
W t', t",
t '" , . . . ,
\ ' , 2', 3:',....
- [b] [24]
tx :

- jj^x'sin/? (tt t') + .;' sin p (t^ t") + 3:' sin p (tt t"') -J---- J.
,
^ ', 2;'... ,
p i t , f), p ( t x t " ) ,... (. 16).
1 ,
, ,
-. , t 0
W (. 1),
ti - [24]:
x = - j j S i n p (ft t)d t = ^ (1 cos pt,),
[d]

q/p5 q (. - [17]).
- [d] ,
*) .

V.

Sanden, Practical Analysis, London, 1924-

27

, ,
, .
6.
.
(. n 1)

. , ,
,
,
,
-: ,

.

- *). ,

,
, .
, ,
,
.


.
,
.
,
, 2),


,

3).
') . A. Coulomb, Theorie des machines simples, Paris, 1821; A. M orin, Mm
prs. p. div. sav., toma 4 (Paris, 1833) 6 (1835).
. R. . Mises, Encyklopdie d. Math. Wissenschaften, Bd 4, S. 153.
, . G Sachs, ,Z- f. angew. Math* ufld
Mech., Bd' 4 (1924), S. 1 H. Fromm, ,,Z. f. angew. Math, und M ech .\ Bd 7
0927), S. 27.
*) . A. Stodola. .Schweiz. Bauzeitung', 1893, Bd 22, S- 113.
3)
. Lehr, Die Abkurzungsverfahren zur Ermittlung der Schwingungsfestigkeit von Materialen, Dissertation, Stuttgart, 1925. . A. L. Kim
ball, Mechanical Engineering", May 1927, p. 440, Ormondroyd' Den
H artogz, Trans. A. S. . E.*, Appl. Mech. Div. 1928.

28

,
,
.
*).
,
2). , (.
. 1), ,
W; ,
, ,
, .
(. - [1] 1):
W

W " ax' = W - \ - k x ,

[]


" -\-2nx' -\-^ = 0,

[25]

2 = -

1261


= * - ,

[27]

- [25]
3):
x e"nt { \^-\- cos p j) .
[#]
,

Pi

2* - 11-

, ,
(. - [27]),
,
, ,
.
1) ,
. H olzcr, Die Berechnung
der Drelischwingungen, Berlin, 1921, S. 92.
2) , , W. H ort'ou,
. Teclmische Schwingungslehre, 2 Aufl. 122, S. 44.
*) , , , ,
Vp* ;
.

[28]

29

, ^ [], -
~ ,
.
,
- []. 0 0'
, ,
= 0 , -
[] :
0= .

0',
= ~ ( 0'- \- 0),
P1

- []
= e~n^ ~ s\n , t -\- {cosp tt-\-

sin/V )J-

[29]

- [29] . ,
,
xl
_
Pi
Pi
. .
= ~ cos p,t,
[]
, . 17. 0~ 3... t 0, t = ,
t 2 ...
= x^e~nt /,,
2' . . . t 1/ 2, t =
8/sx


,
, -
,


. 17.

, ,
Kpa$pr .

30

(.
- [25]). - [29] ,
:
o-nt
[d ]
.

1,

. . , .
- [d]
.
,
.
7.
.
, . 18. , W

0 ;

.

:
1) , k x l)\ 2) - W / g x 3) R
.
-
k x " -[-/? = 0
g

[]

" -\- ( ) = 0;

[30]

, (- [3]),
kg

[31]

.
, /?.
, - [30]

+ ^ = 0.

1) .

31


[2] (1),
:

1) .
2) ,
, R
(- [31]).
,
02.
, -
2 .

, ,

2. ,

. W
, .
, ,
.
8.
. },
, . 1, ,
1) (. - [a], n 1) W
Qs'mmt.

2)
" -\-2 n x' -\-* = qsm m t.

[32]

, ,
(. - [25] 6),
- [32].
= sin m t - f Afcos mt.
- [32],
N
Nm?-\-2M m n-\- N p2= 0,
M m1 2 Nm n + Mp- = q,

*
*

l)
W. Eckolta. Zeitschrift f. Tech. Phys., 1926, Bd 7, S. 226.
) n6.

32

v _ _ ____ 2 ______
{ /2)2 -f 4--

_____ (* *)
~ (/J2/ra2)2+ 4m2*

- [32]
co sp i* )-

q (2 /2)
:- .
.

1 ( p 2 /ra2)2- f 4/22

sin/*.

[33]
1

, ~,
, .
*, q,
.
2
. 1= ,
,
.
-t!
.

* :
( p 2 /2/

+ 4 ~= ~~ Csm

*)___ Ceos
( 9)* + 4*>_"

fcl

1J


(cos a sin m t sin cos mt) = sin (m t a).

[34]

[b] []:
\ \ - /2)2 ~j- 4 /22

[35]

- [34]
.
[] [], :
,
2/
1
tg a =
----- =.
[36
&
- /3
L J
/?^>/, ,
,

33

' " - [34]


,
^sin mt.
p < im ,
V , <

<

i t,

. . '/s*.
= , . . , tga - [36]


,
,
.
.
,

q=gQ
4
W
kg
W

bst ,
,
.
- [d],
( [35]):

bst, 9 -

,
= /------- ------- \

[37]J

= - ,

, = Qsinm^, = ,

.
, ,
tj, 8sf.
,
, , Qsinm^
. .

34

,
, ,
.
[37] ,
.

, ,
[37] . ,


.

x/xj , . 19

35

,
(magnification factor)
[38]

P:
v

/, !).
,
, /
,
.




.
. 19 ,

, /, = 0,75 /, = 1,25.

.

.

,
(. 3)

,
,

- [36].

,
/,
. 20.
, ,
,

, .
<t . 20.

*) 1 = 0 - [38] - [20] 3,
,

30

,', < 1 , -/2


= , , /,
1.

3 (. . 16), = ,
0 .
- [34] ,
Cm,

!

____________

*
st

_ _ ____________ Zit-E _________

(,
\ 2 I 4 2 2
V ~ y ) + - ^

\ 2 , . 2 '
)+ *

,

.
,

. ,
, t q sin m t (. - [32]).

- [34]
' Cm cos (m t ).
, ,

<7sin mt Ctn<zos(mt ) =

| sin ( 2 ) -f- sina j .

[/]

[/]
, '
[/] 0,
w :
W -_

qmCsma
- -

- \)
w = -

:
2n

Tp ' ( ^ / * '
in
p) 1 \ p )

37

q
W -

[39J

w
. 2 = 0 - [39],

2-;

4'

[40]

, w max , . .
1). w (. - [39])
, z
.
/
1 \2
^1 - f z -j- J ^ 4 -2,

- [39]
w=

[39']

. 21. ,
w

. . 22 w
/ , = 0,1 7 = 0,5. ,

-- --*) = 0 ,
.

38

.
.

,
.
9.
(
). ,

. .
.
().

,
()
. W , Q sin tn t
.
,
.
(.
23)
, ,
.

. 23.

(. 8).
,

, = 2/tn ,
{3 (. -
[38]) ,
Qs'mmt . ,
,
.
/, = 4, . . ,
,
, - [38] 8 = 7 1S, . .,
, , ,
Vis .

- .
,

,
.

39

. 24
*)
,
.


.
k , ,
,
; /
, < .
.

- [11] (. 2),
- [12]. ,

(. - [20])

.
. 24.
1(

.
,
.
,
, ,
-: , . . ,
,
i ,
,
. ,

.
,
.
. . ,
) . . R. SOderberg, .Electric Journal", 1924, Vol. XXI, p. 160.

40

. 11,
.
I^ot , = b sin m t

. W W x"/g,
k ( x , ) (/l) ,
W, '.
BD ,
W X "I

I ,( ,\) ' * = 0

"

2' -f- = <7 sin mt.

[]

:
[]
- [] (. - [33]
<5. 32). (. -
[34] [37] . 32 33):
==

sin (m t )

p sin (m t ),

[]

.
, W
. - [],

X,
Xi
X

= b {$ sin (m t ) sin m t) =
= b {(pcosa 1) sin m t psina cos/u^}.

(. - [8])
[d]
A = b |/p 2 2pcosa-{-l.
,

,
. , = 0 =
(. . 16), - [d] :
= &(1).

[d']

, ^> , . .

41

. < ^ .
. 7,

,
.
- [d'\ {3 - []
, :
= -^ - ,

[d"]

. ,
,
,
f
= .
. , ,
( ), ,
.
, , (
), [d"] :

, ,
2. b sin mt-,
bm^snmt, ?. ,
, ,
.
( = )
, j3
. ,
- [d]
,
.
.
1). ,
,
.

.
,
, .
') A . S o m m e r f e l d , Zeitschrift d. V. d. Ing*. 1904.

42

,
310
. ,
, .
,
.

, ,
,
( = 310 ),

(. . 25), .

,
,


J- , 300^


*
.



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*)
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44

.
(. 26 ),
.
, . 26 , ,
.
2.

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.
,
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.
.

. 2S.

3.
, 2
,
,
Q (. . 26 d).
,
, , . .
.
,

,
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. 27. ,
Q.
, , ,

I II.
, 2, , .

:
Pi + Pt = P,

45

Q
Q, Q2. , Q, I
P-i
Q II




,


.

. 27.
,
- ,
.

; .
11.
.
,
,
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: 1) ,

, -, 2) ,

, .
-
. ,
(), ,

.
, (. . 28).

, .
,
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,

46

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;
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, 2) .
.
,
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47

ab, ,
,
,

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./2,

90
,
.

.
,

,
(. . 20, . 35),

.
,
,
, .

,
.
.
,

.

, .

.
,
*).

() (. . 28). ,
*)
- Ernst Lehr, Der
Auswuchttechnik, Maschinenbau*, 1922 1923, Bd. 16 S. 62.
v. Brauchisch, Zur Theorie und experiraentellen Priifung
Zeitschr. f. angew. Math, und Mech., 1923, Bd. 3, S. 61.


heutige Stand der
.
des Auswuchfens,

48

,
. (. 10, . 44),

,
,
. / (. . 28 ) Q
II,
, .
.
, ,

. Q,
, (. . 28 ).
III
, onpt
. G
,
,

__ I _

'f
'

G Q I

[]

. 30.

,
III , Q, ,
.
, Q G
II III. ,

/ III ,
,, <72 Q,
Q (. 30).

G, 0 2= Q,
Gi -b = Q -a ,
, - [],
_

Qa

Gac

49

,
G
III
/ - [6] []
.
J)
, ()
.
,
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.
;
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, .


,
.

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.



, .

, ,

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,
-).
.
, ,
,
') Trans. A. S. . .\ 1916, Vol. 38.
) ,
, . R. SOderberg'ou W. .
Trumplerou. . . R. Soderbergh A. S. .
. 1923 .
^ .

50

, ,

; , ,

.

. ,

, .

,
.
.
,

J).
,
.
,
.

,
,
,
.

,
(. 46).
.

,
.
00 (. 31 ) ,
01, 02, 03 ,
I, II III,
,
. A l, 2, A3
(. 31 b)
. , ,
,
. , ) .

F-1-87

! /j/

0.80

. 31.

0.S0

.s

0,28

52

01, 02, 03 (. 31 ) ,
, .
31 . , '2' '',
, ,
, (. 31 ),
. 31 . 0'
, 0'
,
01', 02', 03' /, II III
. , ',
, ', '2', '',
;
. . 31 d
, ,
' *).
, . 31
, . 31 d.
,, 2 3 ,
, ,
,
,
.
0'
.
12.
.
(. 8)
,
sin mt.
f(t) ,
,
,
:
f(f) a0 - f ^cosmzf-j- a^cos2mt -\-.. .^sin/rc^-f- b^sm 2m t-\-. . . , [a]
m
,
2it
2^- , , =
.
- [],
fit) , .
,
) G. . Kareliszou
. . Power", 1928, Febr. 7 14.

53

cosim td t
= 0 t tj. , :

J*a0cos im td t 0; j*a ,, cos km t cos im td t= 0 ;


0

T1

'I

J b ksin km t cos im td t 0; j*a,-cos2im td t = ^ zv


0

i k 1, 2, 3 ,...
, :
1

at =

j f(t) cos im t dt.

[b]

, - [] sin im t dt, :
T1

bi = ~~~J* f(t) sin im t dt.

[c]

, - [a] dt t = 0
t \ u :
a0= ^ j f(t)dt.

[d]

, , [\, [] [d\,
- [], f(t)
. f(t) ,
, [b],
[] [d] -
,
,
J).
, ;
(. - [32], . 31):
" -f- 2 ' -f- - 0-f- a, cos m
bt s in 2

t cos 2mt + . . . -j- bt sin mt -ft .


[e]

) ,
,
. v. Sanden, Practical Analysis, London, 124.

54

- (. - [25], . 28)
.
.
, ,
- [],
,
[].
, 8,
[33] (. . 31) ,
,
[]
, . . ,
.
, ABCD
(. 32),
<. ,




- .


.

8^

Q,

(
. 32.

). ,
,

55



.

: , .

,
, (. 32 b).

aPr cos mt,

[/]

, , t
, X .
, , .

X . :
l( 1 C O S f ) +

/( 1 COSIU f)

[ ]

rsin<tt= /sinp.

[h]

[h]

r
-J- sina)

sin p

l , ,
,

- [g1],
/*2

x r( 1 cos)) -{- 2J sin2 mt.

[&]

sin mt -f-

.
j- sin 2mt,


M x " = (oV(cos

I cos2^).

[/]

[/], .
, : ,
, , , -

56

. ^

: ,
1/ , ,
.
CD
,
,
. , [/]

.
.
, ,
,
,
, .

. , ,
,
, .
,
, 5.
(. - [29], . 29), ,
, t,
0',
e ~ nts\npt t.
Pi
f{t) ,
, d x t ,
fit) ty
tx -\-dt, (. -
[], . 25):
d x = ^ ^ - e ~ n^ ~ tl) sin( tl)dtl.
f{tx)
t t, = 0 t, t
:
1

[41]

57


, /( ,)

[], ,
.
13.

. , . 1 (.
. 7),
.
.
. 1 ,

W
g : ( 2-

[]

:

, .
,
, (8^ -j- ) ,
:

2
( = 0):

, :

= &8"X + j - = W x + ~

[b]

, ,
,

Wx.

[]

[] []
:

58

, W
,
bst, [d]
, , W 0
.

.
- [] [d]

W . , .
2^ ( ) H 2 ~ ~ cnst-

, ,

[]

- []
. , , t 0
0 0 ; - []
:
W (1 , kx2 _ k x02

2g
2
2
1/1
,
.
0,
W
. ,
,
,
- [ / ]

2g

lgJ

,
,

.
- [g]
. ,
, . .

X =

X q COS p t

( ^ ^ .

- [g-], :

~ W
- [3], (. . 8).

59

,
, , ,
. 33. W - ,
.
,
, W
, , W,
.
,
W


W
.

, %

k,x 2

[h]
W ,

[ ]

. 33.

2g

1
2 ~'
,
[], [h], [] [t\ :

k3 cs ,
"2 # / )
, ,
[], W jg


W . I

60

*-

14.
.
, . 1, 3 4,

; , ,
. 1 ,
W, , . 3,
, ,
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,
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.

, *) ,
.

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,
W,
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'

I")

I .
, ,
,
, (. - [d] . 57),

. q .
*) . L ord R ayleigh . Theory of Sound, 2d Ed., Vol. I, pp. I l l 287.

61

de qdc/g,
- []

t
q f (' ,

'2 ql

L i *=5
W;
:

2 (W I

I ^~ __ ^ ~

- [ / ] ,
,

W.
, ,
,
,
, W. , <7/ = 0 , 5 W
V*/o- q l W
3/ 4% ql = 2 W 3% *)

, (,
. 34). ql *
W, __________ | | ; i
, - ____ 4


w
, . 34.
. , :
W ,
qdc
3 1 4 3
-------- .
:

7/2 <7 / , - 4 . _ 1 7
-V ' ------ J ------ ) d c - ^ q l - - .

) 48.

[42]

62


Wx"*/2g , ,
; . . ,
,

W + \ 7/35 ql.
, - [42], ,
W,
. , W = 0
, 17/35 ql
, .
17/35<?/, :

17/35
- [5] (. . 8)

' = 2 ./ 5 = 0 ,6 3 2

j / g

*)

,
1 %*
,
. 35. ,
, __.
, ,
-LL
' ' 4 1
W, , *

. 35.
:

."1

J l * 2 / * = 4 0 ?' 2

q ( , 3 *1 3\ 2 .

I43

33

,
, : W -f- 33/140 ql.
*) . 42, ^[137'].

63

, ql
W, , , ql
. , W = ,

i

'*

140

37*

*)
_

2.

3,515

q l1

E lg

,
17*7..
W = 0 .
,
, .
0
-:

* j Vs + '/j-y
0==

j*) | ,

qiK , .

/,;-

i
T = 4 ,ft > d c .
(. . 58)
, COS p t
*) . 43.

( % *

64

(. - [g-] . 58):

[] ,

= 3,530

2
~

sL

E l :'

[d],
,
7 % ,
.

,
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, . . .
, . : , ,
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- .
(. . 4)
,
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idc ^c<?'j2

/ --f

f441

65

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, ,

I + *7/3.

.
15.
.
,
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,

).
.


,

(. 36 ).

, . .
. -
.
36.


.
:

kx.
k ,
. , ,

,
48 EI
R = --- ~-- .

:

-kx,

[]

') " 32
* }>

66

------- , < .

- [] :

[\

(. - [3], . 8),

[],
, , . .

. :

[] 0,
. ,
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,
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. 36 . - :
( ) 2 = kx,

, <
, . .
, ,
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, .
,

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(. 37),
. W it Wt, Wt ,
*

67

.
, , :

Wtxt
2

Wtx,

W3x>

'

'


, . 37,

. Wu Wt
W3 :

Xicospt,

x 2cospt,

x 3cos pt.

[e ]


, . 37;


w ~~ ------- \pi
- .
- 37
,
. , [] ,
, , p x t , ,

If]

[d\ [/], 0-:

W {x * + Wtx t* - f 3 3

1401

2
x

, W
-

. ]

+ flW
+

.
5

.
1

, n ,
;

[47]

gJLWto
1

68

,
, . . .
.
,
.
..
, ,
, ,
.
, , , . 38 ,
, , .
(. 38 )
(. 38 ),
.
,

, ,
,
( h = 36 240 ).
,
,
, ,
.
,
/ 0//, /
/
.
,
(. 38 ).
, .
, ,
2.
(. 38 d).
hu EIJn, 1
( = 200).
, 1/
, . . *,
.

(. 38 )
, .
,
, ,

. 3,

70

,
. ,
- [47],
1.
1 .
w

xt x 10*
CM

x f X 10*
CM-

-cm

Wxf
KZ'CM*

2038

4,45

19,7

91

4,01

4213

5,26

27,6

222

11,65

4213

5,56

30,9

235

13,09

4213

5,71

32,6

241

13,80

4213

5,71

32,6

241

13,80

4213

5.71

32,6

241

13,80

4213

5,56

31,5

235

13,09

4213

5,26

27,6

222

11,65

2038

3,96

15,7

81

3,19

? ;= 1809 -\ 2 Wx? = 98,08 - .



:

N = 60 = 30

g z w iXl
V IF ,-*/2
i

981-1809
98,08

1284 , .

, ,
,
.
,
, - , , -

, -
,
.
])
*) . . Dampi- u n d G asturbinen, 6 . Aufl., 1924,
S. 383, ,
,
. . . Eck, V ersteifender Einfluss
der Turblnenscheiben, V. D. 1., 1928, Bd 72, S. 51.

71

,
.
, (. 39),
,
, -
,
d, ').
,
. 37 -....... - ~ ^
*-.
. d
_ 0
- t
__
s* J
,

39.

. , ,
,
.
1 3

W u
W3.
.


.
16.
. ,
, ,
:

" + 2 ' -{- * = f(t ),

[]

, .
,
; t.

, []

.
:
1.
, . . .
2.
^:
.
3.

.
4.
,
, .
5.
, ,

.

.
, - []
, -

73

. ,

.

: 1 ) ,
, 2) ,
t

.

,

.
17.
. ,

, . .
. ,
. , ,

, .
,
. 40;
.
,

.

,
, .
, . 41, . . ^
.

.
/

/
, , ,
* . . 41.
, ,
.
.
, ,
, , . .
. . 42
, W,

74

.4.
.
,
.
, , . 40, . .

.

, ,

,
.


:- ,

(. 43).
. 43.
S
,
,
, .
, ,

V / + X2 / _ ;2
I
~~2'
,

S + AE

, (. . 4 3 ),

_ , 2P J

2 ...-

P +

25

2 5 :

v*3

A E -jr - = 0.

[]

,
5 , -

75

- [] ,
.
.
- [].
, ,
.

(. 44), '
W
, - :
y /0 " + lF s in 9 = O

0 + ^ s i n 6 = 0,

[]

. 44.

I , .
, ,
sin

. ,
,
. ,
, ,

. sin
, - [b] -:

- - [], , ,
(. 45),
, ,
.
V/
_ 1
* ___ __
.
. 46 ,

. -

76

, .
, '
, . 47,

.

,
.
, .,
( t 0)
v X . ,
, , :

[ci]
,
, X
. ,
v 0 (
), (. - [5], . 8):

- i / 1k

= 4 & + ) = +

f .

[f]

,
k
v.
v v,
(. . 48)

v oo.
,

.
,
t
v ,
. 48 I.

77

v
(. / / . 48).
= =
,
, 0,
,
, .

*).
18.
.
, -
:

J x " + k*f(x) = 0

[]

* " + /> 7 ( * ) = 0,

[48]

f(x) ,
, .

dx

- [48], ^ ,
:

Y d (w ) +

'

* =0,

[61

* ( )* +
f(x )
, - [b]

. ,
,
(. . 49)
t
, 0, -

. 49.

) . A. W iechert, Schttelerscheinungen bel elektrischen Lokomotiven, .For'chungsarbc-iten", Heft 266, 1924.

78

, .
:

- [b ]

MS)=XIf(x)dx

{]

, , ,
,
,
*,
. . 49
.
- [] ) :

d.t =

dx

[d]

2p ^ f ( x ) d x
X

- t
:

dx
-

= .

j f(x)dx

[]

, ,
.

f(x) = x.
- [d ] :
^

Z1 _______ dx^_________

, \
d - I
/>________ x j

J -p]/ *>'-* J - /
4

t = arc cos ,
P
x,

= cos pt.
,
.
*) ,
.

79

[49]


- [49] , re 1, . .
,
0. 2 :

[49], :

. . .
, , ,
. 43 (. . 74), S
.
,

f ( x ) = a x -\- bx1 -f- cx3,


- [48]
*).
.

- [48].
19.
. - [48]

*) G. D ilffinga
frzw ungene Schw ingungen bei veranderlicher Eigenfrequenz, Braunschweig, 1018

80

, - [b] [] 3.

-,
,

.

(. 50)




.
. 50.
- [b] (. 77)
, ,
, ('
.
.
abdfhlno ,
A a b c = [\cde, / s e f g = &ghk & k l m = ,
, abdfhlti X ,
X.
,
,
, , Pr, Ps.
D, \} Pr, f xl, Il Ps 1 t ||

, abdfhlti. ,
a^bifJiOi abdfhlti.
(. . 50),
, a vb J xl,ox
\
k , ,. a ^ k jO ,,
a xb ,f xlxo, alt



( = :0)
( = 0).
2p 2f(x) (. - []. . 78), ,
, a 1e ikol,
0, ( )*.
' -

(. . 5 1 )
,

- 7

81

X.

,


( = 0)
(
. 51.
= 0), (. - [ ] . 78):

J
*

'

, t
(. . 51), ,
. /,
, 0, t. ,
, t
0.
, = 0, ' = 0 , . . ^

.

,
, , ,
, / { ) (.
- [48], . 77).

*) ,
.
) . Lord K elvin , On G raphic Solution of Dynamical Problenu, Phil. Mag.*, Vol.
34. 1892.
- W. H ort n Die Differentialg'eichungen des Ingnieurs, 2 Aufl., Berlin, 1925,
. . . von Sanden. Practical Ma
thematical Analysis, New York, 1926.
,

82

-
:

" = f (, t, ').

[50]

-
t.
- (. . 52).
,
, . .
.
f 0
= 0
' / .

- .
' - [50],
".
-
:

(-f

[]

0 -.

0, -
X
/ 4
1
T '
(. 52), ,
AT
' {'
\
,
,
X. \
il
" - [50].
\
- []
*0
w
1
= Pj,
'4
i:
,^ .
\N !! 1; / , ,
x%
t *
-
.
\

. 52.
,
-.
9 ,
x' = tg 6

x " f ( x , t, tg).
- [],
v ' + W 8
' , t, tgO)

1
cos 36 f(x, t,

83


, , ". "

, ,
(. . 52).
, ,
- [50] - [48], :
, /
;.
t 0 0
= 0, -
, . 53.
,
,
X
.

,
.
. 53, ,
,
:

" - f '2 = 0

__ 2

~ '
- [\

1
cos 36
' I

. 53 20 *
, 0 100 . - ['\
6 = 0 :

~ j/2 0 100 = 44,7 .

[]

, ,

[],

84

. 53 .

, [],
1 4X69,5
6,22
"
44,7 ~

, , 7
, 1Vo20.
.
- [48] [50],
. , ,
.
:

" + f(x) = 0.

[\

= 0
= 0;

' Q.

[]

0 - [],
0". 0", t = 0,
, . .
t v = 0.
At
/ = 0 t = t v !' ,,
-:
x.' = x 0' - f x 0"At;

x t = 0 + ~^Xl At.

[]

, - [], ,".
,
/ ,
:
0
x ti = 0i -I f *

- nti

j.
X, = 0 +I *-0S - ----- At.

[d]

, , (- [?]) - [],
" . ,
, x u ,' ,",
2, 2', x t " t = t i = 2 At ,
. At
t ,
, ,

85


, *).

,
, :
= 0.
- [b] :
x = x 0 cos pt)

' = 0 sin pt.

[]


2.
2.
t

X'

0
<(
1

0,8774

0,4884

- 0 ,8 7 7 4

0,8788
0,7321

0,4769

0,8788

0,6966

0,7321

0,7344

0,6783 .

0,7344

0,5419

0,8619

0,5419

0,5449
0,3184

0,8378

0,5449

0,9740

0,3220
0,0755

0,9457 .

0,3220 .

1,0262 .

0,0755 .

0,0794
0,1719

0,9954 .

0,0794 ,

1,0153

0,1719

0,1680

0,9838 ,

2/ I
'
<1

, j(
)\
Dt

1
(

6( !

[
(

7t

'

0,9687 *0 0,2500 0 0,9687 - 0


0,9692 % 0,2461 .
0,9692 .
.

sin

pt

0,9689

0,2474

0,8776

0.41

0,7317

0,6816

0,5403

0,8415

0,3153

0,9490

0,070/

0,9975

0,1782

0,9840

4^

cos p t

X"

*0
{

M = = 1/ ip
, = 2 //?,
At, , / .
. ,
)
, ., - [50] (. . 82).
(.
*, . , 1912)
.

t = /^, - [].
. ,
;,' \, - [d],
.
.
cos p t sin pt,
[],
. ,
.

1 %
0.
,
6 . ,
,
.
,
. , , t = 6 M ,
- ,
0 ,0 7 9 4 x Q. t 7At,
0,1680 0. -
t , .

:
1
. .
0,0794
, = + " 00794 + 0,1680 = 6'32 <

6,32

1,58

/2 = \,7/.
,
1%.
,
,
, .
2 1 . .
, ,
,
, sin mt. , - [48],
-:

" + ) = a sin mt.

[51 ]

,
- [51]

" -f- ^ 7.V3 a sin mt.

[52]

87


; , , ,
.
, ,
, , > 0,
. , - [52]
,
,
- [52], .
, a sin m t
,
,
,
.
- [52] ,
-
.

,
,

.
,
, .

. . - [52] .
:
" -f- p ix = a s m m t

" - f a sinmt.

[]


- []

x t = A sin mt.

[]

- [],
- :
= ( ) sin mt,

2 .
,
Xt sinmr,

88

,
x t

*
*

2 2 '

(. - [19], (. 9).
- [52] (=0),
, { = sin mt
.
- (. - [52]):

Lnx
= - j -|- 7Xj3 - f a sin mt = (a 2) sin/n-j- 3 sin 3mt. [e]
,
sin 3m t = */t (3 sin m sin3mif),
- []:
~ 1 1 - - |- 3 )sinm t -jsin3 mt.

tn 'y
4
J
1 36 m

,

,


a - f - (2 2) = ~ - 3-(.

[53]

X = A s i n m t - \ - ^ ~ sin3 mt,

[54]

A - [53].
, - [52)
, .
, (/2) 2
; xo-

89

*)
[54] .
- [53]
.

tfl

3
'

. 54.
, OD,
m - [/],

/.


,
,
, 3
- [52],
.



= 2 it/p.

. 54
,

,


. 54.
*)
G eorg D uffing, Erzw ungene Schw ingungen bei veranderlicher EigenIrequenz, Braunschweig, 1918. . Rdenberga, Einige unharm onische
Sch win gun gsfor men mit grosser Amplitude, .Z eitschr. f. A ngew . M ath, und Mech.*,

1923, Bd 3 S. 454.

90

(^>). ,
,
.
, . . /.
t n = p ,
.

.
, < OD
, - [f\.
-:

(. - [d])
, ,
A t - [53]. ,
,
,
. ,
, . . ,
. OD
, , , , 1 1
. 54. .
, , ,
,
2 2,
.
, 2 ,
3,

. ) , ,
, )
. M artienssenou (Phys. Zeitschr.*, 1910, S. 48).
, , ,

. .1 . 76 G. D uffing' .

91

, , (. 54).

, 2 2 , ,
- ,
, (180), ,
. 3.
,

.
= 0. . 54
.
(0 < ) , ,


(- [g-])
.
, ,
, -
,
, .
, , *
,
.
, t n = p , ,
,
",
. <^ ,
, Q . 54,

.

m , ,
, . . 54 , ,
, ,
,
,
.
22.
- .
,
, .

92


-:
" + 2'-\- f{t),
2
.
,
.

I (. 55).
/ .
,

. W/g
: /
, , .

,
(Wig)lV.

. -
( ! ' ) = - 7 , ,

r + T 1' + f si ne=
sin , ,
+

+ 7 =

[55]
- [55]

[55']

- - [25] (. . 28),
, , , dlidt,
, - [25].
I
*.

, ,
. ,
,
I .
I,
,

93

, . 56,
d/dt dl/dt
.

,
d/dt
d l/d t
,


.
, I

db/dt ,
/,
. ,
,
W, , ,
, . 56, , ,
I , ,
/.
.

, . 57.
,
I,
,
,

. W /g
.


. ,

I , *):

W+

\V tf\
!g i )

/.

f]

v W/g , *) .

94

. ,
,

WAl cos .

. [6 |

= 2 . | ( ' W' + y y j / WAl cos


,

v* 2 g l (1 cos ),

= 6 1 / (1 cos ).

[]

- , ,
. 57,
.

, W
(. 58).


.


,

,
. , 1 1
(. 58 ).

X
:

,
W,
, .
,
i. - [d] a ut, -

95


W ( [d])

. .
, .
1 = 0,841,
, ,

,
,
I


_
W. |
- |
. 59. t
- f^j*
I

U7,


&
C K O 1300 . 59.
.
.

, (

).
. (
WKp, 1/4 )
2600 .
.
,
, .,

(. 60)

,
. .

96

, , ,
.
23.
;
.

.
,
,
.
,

. ,

,
. ,
,
*).
.
,
, ,
. 61. Mr, ,

0 , 0 , 0 0 , 01
0 2 11 22.
0 , 0 ,
0 0 . Mr"
*) , , :
1. Prof. . Meissner, U cber Schtittelerscheinungen in Systeraen m it periodisch
verndlicher Elastizitt, .Schw eizerische Bauzeitung", Bd 72, 1918, S. 95;
2. . E. Mller, U eber Schttelschw ingungen des K uppelstangantriebes, .Schw ei
zerische B auzeitung', Bd 74, 1919, S. 141;
3. L. D reyfus. Eigenschw ingungen von System en m it periodisch vernderiicher
Elastizitt, ,A . Foppl zum siebzigsten G eburtstag*, 1924, S. 89;
4. A. Wiechert, Schttelerscheinungen, Forschungsarbeiten", Heft 266, 1924;
5. E. E. Seefehlner, Elektrische Zugfrderung, 1924,

97

, 11 22
,
= -j- j ' ,
j ,

2< -
. S, , *s ~ - V ,
,
.

= 5 j r s i n 9,

[]


(
. 62).
3 = 2? sin <.

[d]

S l = 8I
- [] [d]
~

' I

9:

/<2 Sin 2<


*)
*? ?

^? i 1
j~
1 2 cp'/ '
Ki sin


22. ,
)
.

00

98

,
, , :

1
c o s 29 ) '

- [], [/] [g] :

sin2 <cos2 -f -

Ai
/ *-------

..

) {

- ^ + 7 f , - 7 c ; C0s4

: -

[k]

,
+

1 '

/ ^ cos4c?

ut,
8

+ ,
8 , 1
>
, ~
1 / <

= ,

i=rf.

Af - A f l - ^ c s 4 ^
d co s4 *

[56]

,

,
. 63

.

{ 1+ ^ )

v (t = 0, -jj-, . .
$

t=

3^
4 4

99

, ,
, . . {, .

.

- [a], [f] [g]
.
-, ,
).


(. . 64); ,
AF
BD

1
**)

,
AD,
". ,

sin 2 <

. .
, .
,
. ,
,
. *),
8 (. . 62)
:

= + 1
, - [] [d],
.

2Y

'

sin = - 4 - ;
r
sin ?

sin 2 ?

sin ? '

) A. Wiechert'ou, .
. 96 .
*) .

100


9 == trp -f~ 3<:

i
j 1

sin 2 < ' sin

[*]

, ,

" ,

= -

"_______
/<gCos2<p cos <? '

[/]

- [&], [/] [] '


" ?.
. 65.
, ,
Afr.
DF LK

- [k] [/]

" .

-
.
,
<?
. 65.

" .
. 65 , ,

cos <

r sm 9; + \ /<,

1
,
sin 2

" . *),
- [/], 11
, ' '.
, , -:

r s i n

( 1 ^

r COS? ' \ Kl ' /jcos2

[]

' = 0 , 22.
(. 65) ,
- [ ] [], - [k\ [/]
,
- /
,
*) , . 62,
.

101

/<?
it, , . 63.
.
, . 61,
: /, ,
0 0 , /5 ,
0 ,0 <?!, 0 0 0 ,0 , ,
= , 3
, , <}i
,
, , <,
. ,
(- [56], . 98),
^

<

a bcos4oit
d cos 4 '

r_r,.
J ^

M r, M r , I,
/2 .
, I,
(. 61),v
<2),

0 0 .
-

+ - -?1 -

[]

9*) = 0 .



- / 2 -

? 1 - < 5) = 0.

'

[b]

I, 1.
,
.
- [] [ b ] :

'fi

= -v,

-:

4~ 7 7 ~ = 0
il

102

.
, . 61, - [56] (. 98)
9 _ , +

/j/. J

/,/g

6 cos 4 at
d cO sA u t'


, b d - [57]
(. . 98),

2 /,
,

(. . 13)
:= 2 . "
* .(/ + /.)

, !)
.
.
.

,
.
, -
" + = 0,

[59]

.
,
, - [57].
, a x(t)
- [59]. , *), ,
,
, :

x ( t T ) x(f),
x ( t T) = x(t).

[i/]

[e]

\d)
- [59] , []
. , ,
') , (. 12);
, .
*) . . 96 .

103

,
, - [59]
, .

,
- [59].
]59] ).
- [59], ,
:
* = (0 + )(0 .

[60]

av , , i],(0 )8(0
- [59], ,
:
.
(0) = 1, V ( 0) = 0, ,(0) = 0, V ( 0) = 1.
[]
, = /> 2, , :
11,(0 = cos p t;

sin p t
11(0 = ^

, [] , ,
[60], , :

ei = (*V-o=*o.

f = (*V -o=*<>'

, ,
[60], ,
0 , '.
,
- [59] ,
, 19 20.
,
,
. ,
t. , [] , ,
4 ,(0 4s(0 0 ^ t
.
- [60]
, :
* = 1;

* ' = 0

* = 0 ;

*' = 1-

- ,
i)j(f) i],(0 0 ^ t ^ .
, - [59] , -
, t t + . i),(/ - f ) i](f -f- )
- [59] , [60], . .
* + ) = ),(0 + **(0 ;

,,,

<!.(/+) = ci),(0 + <fr),(0 .

11

)
.

104

^ = 0 - , ,
, , d :

= % (D ,

= >is( ,

),

d = n s'{T).

, , <],(/) ris(t) 0 ^
^ ,
T < t < 2 T , - [i)
[i]. ,
, ],(<) )(/) .
- [59
N (t) -, , ,
, , ,
:
N (t + T) = kN(t).
[d]
.. - [59], h (t)
JV(/) = e,i) (*) + . ( 0 .

'

N (t

T) =

+ ) +

[e]

-)- T),

, - [b],
N {t + T) = a, { ari^i) - f briz{t) } + a, { rq,(f) + d r^ t) }.

\j\

[<?] [f] - [d\,


, { (t) + (0 } + a i {

} = k { ,),(0 + asris(t) }

- t,
aa t -f- 3 = ,;
bcii -f- du 2 = k .72.

,
as

. . -:
(a k) (d k) = bc,

k- ( + d)k -\~ ad be = 0.
[h]
- , , ](<) )$()
- [59],

."(0 + . = 0;

,"(0 + = .
6,

i," W % (i)-V ' 1W = 0 ,


:
= const.
- ( = 0
- \\ - [],

\ = b c ad.
- []
h% (a r\-d )k + 1 = 0,

[]

05


a -\-d

1/

) - 1*

1/1

- [g]
~ , -

(. - [e]) N t(t) N2(t),


+ ) = k tNAt),

N ,(t + ) = ksN,(t).

, N ^ t) N ,(0
, 2 - \].

a + d \l
,
\]
2 ' >
, , klk = \,
. ,
. , ., |,| > 1,
, ,

NAt + n-o=kfNAi).
, |,|.
[ ] ,
.

- [ ] ,
).

a+d

, , = : 3= + 1, &, = = 1 - [59]
, (. . 102).
/, = 3= 1, N(t
T) = S (t) \
k l = k ^ = 1, N (t + ) = N(t)
(. . 102).
2
, = 2,
4, 6 . . . ,
= 1, 3, 5 . . . ,

- [59], - , .
.
).

*) . . 96 .
s) . K a rl . M ller, U eber die Schttelschw ingungen des Kuppelstangenantriebes, Dissertation der Eidgen. Techn. H ochsehule in Zrich.

106

.
, 6 -
x" -j- 0 = 0

[59]


g __ + b cos 2o>t + cos 4</ / , + / 2
p + q cos 2u>t -f- r cos 4t
/,/s

, , b ~ q = 0,
, - [57'], . 102.
, 0 npefepneBaeT
, , , q - [61]
, , -
:
= -f HS- cos 2u>t 4- cos 4<t ! ( l f cos 2( - f cos 4t \ 4\
p
p
) \
\

I. - j ^

cos 2 mt + cos U t

[a]

Vs

_
P

= gls;

Vs

JL gsr, =r 4e,

PP

g i.
gs &4 , g a,
. ,
2 cos 2m t cos 2 n t = c o s 2(m -f- n)t - f cos 2( n)t,

[b]

- [] :
9 = * { 0- f ( , cos 2 u t + cos 4 a /) -f- ?(, cos 2/ -f - 4cos 4 / -j- 5cos 6u>/ -f- cos 8<u/) -j+ 3( , cos 2/ -[------) - |-------} ,

[]

0, ,, 2,
g 0,
::, , , ,

r= l,

. . .
[59']
<, , t.
-:
<= uit
[]
:
dx
dx
d t ----- d<f'

dx
------- dt*

8 d*x
d<f2 '

- [59'] - [d],

2
+ >

[62]

- []
0 = its I 0 -f- (a, cos 2tp -f- cos 4<p) -f-

cos 2<p -j- a4 cos 4? - f a5cos 6 + ae cos S) +

- f e(a 7cos 2 + ) + - ..} >

[/]

107

. . 0 it.

, - [62]
, . .

*(? + * ) = *(?)

[g]

*(? + * ) = *(*).
, , jc(-f)
:
= 0+ 1 + 22 + 33-|------ ,
[]

*(?) = *(?) +

+ ****(?) --------

, - [ /]
[/] [ft] - [62],

+ (..+ .,.+ .* + -)
X { 0-f- s(a, cos 2 + a 2 cos 4tp) + 5( cos 2? + ) } X
X { * o (< p ) +

eJtT i(tp ) +

8 ( ) ------- } =

0.

-
, -:

+ 8*(?) = 0,

[]

+ 0! ( ? ) + *(?) j 2 a0a()oJ - f , c o s2<f - f a s cos 4?) j = 0.

[/]

- [k ] ,
:
0== A cos ( -f - f 50),

[m]

n = j / a 0 / ,

[]


80 .
[g],

.
- [h] 0
6,

= = 2 , 4, 6,
= 1, 3, 5,
- [] ,
, 0 = 0

Va

'

___ 1

[]

= ], 2, 3 .
' = 2/^0
, 0 = 0, ,

. 2

, 0 0.
- [59'] ,
\ ] - [/].
- *

I L[

+ 0*,() = 20 a^o, A cos ( 5)

0" /1 cos ( S) (ai cos 2 + cos 4cp),

108

, [],
~ ^ - + <*oo2*i(<f) = 2 e0aoa, A cos (? \ )
^

A j cos [( + 2)? 80] + cos [( 2) 8] |

- ^

A f cos [( + 4) 0] + cos [( 4)? 0] | .

[]

- :
,

Beos (<f J,
Si , aaa J ,
.
[24] (. 25). R('-f)
- [], :

?
j R (S) sin ( ') <11.

[\

- [] :
N cos [( +: m)'f 8].
[], :
CD
N
N
\
I cos[(re i m)5 8] sinn(p )rf? = ^

j cus[(n /) o]

0
cos ( - o) j +

{ cos i

m)'f S] cos (< + 5)

j.

[9 ]

= 0, 2 0.
( = 0), - [?]

N ? sin
(
/
5
2^+I 8).
[(2 ) 0] - [q]

^

sin (<? + 0).

- []
:
x t cos ( 8,) 200000, 2^- sin ( 8,,)

~ 8) ~ C0S

^C0S

+ 5)]

[cos ( + 2 ) , - 60]( 21- ~ +

02
( _ 8 0) ( ^ . 1

1'+

COS [( + 4)? -

cv

1 2 + 4 +

4 ' C0S [(" " 4)? *1 ( + 2 5 = ) +

2 - 2

+ COS (

[]

4/ +

+ 5(= + 0) f^ q r 4
,

109

2 4

200,

< sin ( 8),

; [*]
<^ = 0.
,
[hf,
. , 1 = 2 .
1,

02
2

cos [( 2)-? 5 J
lv *

/7

2/ z

- COS ('2 + 00) ~

2 2 )

[]

1
- ~

i j \

? S ln ( + S)-

[]

)
. \
/
5 4 02 1
- 2001-^- ? sin (tp 0) ------- - - >sin (< + 0) = ,

sin es COS 00

V fli\! +i

----- ^

1 \

- /

COS sin 0 ! 001------- ) = 0.

-:

1)

80= 0,

00

V i = 0,

4 0

2)

a oa i

40

- [] 1
, - [], 1, 0= ----- ,
:
1

(T'Orn Va

Vaa 4o

[64]

:-L + S - L . ^
J'e
, 4ao
, , = 1 - [63],
( ) (Ti)max.

110


. ,
60
5 = 0 50 = /2.
, = 1, ,

.
<
= 2, . . ,
, ,
165]
, 3 4,
- . -
- [] , - [] [/]
.
,
- [59], .
,
. - [] . 1 0 !)). *),
, ,

- [63],
.
,
.
- ,
,
.
, ,
8).
. 44 (. 75).
.
, ,
.
,
. ,
, .,
.
.
,
*).

) . . , . 96.
8) . , . 105.
)
.
4) ,
. 96.

, .
24. .
,
,
(. 1, . 8).
.

.
.
X, V Z ,
, :

= 0,

Y = ,

Z = 0.

[66]

, -
,
, .
.
, 3; 2 ",
", mz",

X " = 0,

" = 0,

Z mz" 0.

[67]


, - [67]
.
, ,
, ,
,

. 66
.
(. 66 )

*) , - ,
, . , ,
,
, . . , / t.

112

I . , z
-:

-y* + z* = P.

[]

( . 66 b)
-:

-2 2;
( ^ )5 4 ' ' \~1--

[]
[f]

(. 66 )
, X

\--- 11------

,
V

\%
. .
* \\

\|!

.
'

T SI*-k j,N. ;
i
;
/

->> ^

/
/ v mi f

'\
7
.
. ,

,

. 66.
,
(
, . . ,
)
. , ,
X , Z
, , -
:
& - f -f- Zbz = 0,
[d]
Sx, 8, hz ,
. . , z ,
[].

* )2 - - ) -j- (z -f- Sz)2 = t 2,

, ,

xbx -f- yby -f- zbz = 0 .


- ,
I ,

113


. - [d] ,
, ,
,
.
,
', -
, . ,
, ,
, -
:

( ") 8* - ) - ( ")

[68]

mz") bz = 0,

8 , 8 , 8z ,
. . ,
[]. ,
, . . . ^ 1 Z 15 ^, Z 4). . ,
- :
'
( ( { ") ( + ( -') 8y t + (Z, ( () bzt 1 = 0, [69]
= '
>
5Xj, 8 8z,, . . .
, . . ,
. ,
(. 66 ),
(. - [], []):

(3 4

(x i + ^ ) 2 + (\ 4 )2 = 2

6-2, 8,)24 ( 4 * \ tyi)1= /

, Z 4
,
,
, ,
, ,
,
.
, Z, ,
.

, 8(, 8j/i; 8z { - [69]
, - [69]
,
-

" 0 ,

" 0,

Z , mz^' O.
3

114

- [67],
.
- [69] ,

, . ,
26.
25.
.
, ,
, ,
, .
-,
, - [], [] [], .

, .
, .
; ,

.
, ,
*).
, ,
(. 66 ).
, .

. tn
< .
,

x = l s in 6cos<?,
= / sin 0 sin ,
z = I cos .

(. 66 )
< ,
,
:

x l = l1 sin ,
2 I, sin <-f -1sin ,

, = li COS<,
3= /, cos <-j- 4 cos .


,
,
*) *, . ", .
Thomson ' Tait', Natural Philosophy, I d., Oxford, 1867.

115

v V .
v

.
, (. 67).

,
,


,


. 67.
:

. ~ .

. 1 ,

3vx

a, sin - f 2 sin - - -f- 3 si


sin - f . . .

[]

,
,, , , . . .
, .

,
,
. , ,
(. 66 ) 8?
, mm , = / sin 0 5
.
S9 1
.
,
.
, (. 67),
(. - [])
sin (./1),
.

.
,
.

,
.
, , P, Q R (. 66 )
, ,

116

,
, . 8
, mmi = l sinQS,
, , ,

Q mm, Ql sin Sep.


Ql sin ,
, ,
8<, ,
.
X
.
. ,
, .
, ,
6 ,
, ,
.
,
, v
,
, p v ,
v.
, ,
Plt Pit . . . (. . 67).
[]
av 2, 3, . . . ,
, ,
, ,
,,.
.
, ,

9, .
, 3,
8
, 8 sin (,//).
8 sin (nnCo/l) 8 sin (~3/) . ,
Pi, 3 ,
.
. , . . . _ . 3\
3an I Pi sin
P s m y i - f P s s in

. ,,
[d]

, ,
.

117


2 , .

El .
- []
,
' .
.
,

. , mit
1
_>
'i
sm - y - s i n j - a x = Q\
j sin - - j dx yri

m a n ,
2 ( W
V

a l2 4 ^
' 213
'

\ _ ^
1
4b ^
n
n= 1

,
, - [/]:
dV
Eh*
^ = | .


. , ,
[g-], . - [d] [g]
, ,
. 67,
0 . .,
. - .
. ~:1
P, sin
-f- 2 sin - ! + 3 sin

f /* 1

'.

[h]

,
.
'/ <7>--- ,
Qu Q2, Q3, , Q^q,
,
Sg'jj Qfiq, ,
S^2, . .
26.
.
[69] ,
cxj, 8 bzj

,
.

118

. q qit qs, . . . qn
,
:

= = ?1

(<7 <72> qi)> ==

(.qi> ?2i

)\

==

( ? ? * ! ?n) [^]


. ,
t q,', q2',. . qn'.
- [69]
, :
*2 O i" +" tyi + z ozt) = (Xi 4 - fyi + Z 4ozt) [b]
i
- i
,
S<7, - q ,

(. 25) , - [
, ,

Qi

[]

Qi ,
qt.
- []
, , ,
qit
,

,.
.
,

d z,,
, = '8
djdqt qif a x , y itz{
- [].

119

- ,

T = ' / t z n mi
<i

+ ,' )

.
- [], - , { , z
qx
q,
dT/dq' dT/dq{

'

,'

XP= >

,' .

,d Z i\

m i i x i + - H ^ + Zi x r H -

i =- i

dT
v"
/ , dx,' . ,dy,' . ,dzi'\
= 7 m i'\ X q,
i +1
- dft +
z i dqt .
i

= 1

[e]

'

r_

Ui

'

dx
dt

d<7,

, , , ,
d</2

dx:

dx'
dx
q ^ ~ W i'

dx'
dx
q i ~ d qi '

dx'
dx
dqj~dq~n'

- [e] :

I >Xi .

, {

, dzA

i
- [d], ,
,

,
d d x,__ dax f
^ d^j
dqldqi 1

dax,
d /jd #

,
i d"X( ,
2 ' *" dqndq,

, - [g],

d __ d a?Xi_dXj'
d t dqt
d<7, dt
d</, '

d __dyj
d t dqt dq,

d dzt _ dzdt dq{ ~dql *

- [/], :

r ,.

120

, - [h] [k],
[d\, - \\, :

d ( \
d t\d q i)

dqt '

[],
:

- ').

,
, . .
.
Q ,, Q , , . . .
.
, .
, , V
. ,

,

Q M i + Q M 4* Q .t y , -f- - == d q j ^ 1 dq~2

~dq. 5^ 3 * '

, , 8qit 8^ , . . .
,

dqt


Wi~

dq

dq3 - "

[70]

d t \dqi )

dqi

dqi

0.

[71]

. : 1) ,
, 2) ,
Q,, Q2, Q3, . . . ,
:
d ( L \-.* L ,d V

d t\ d q { )

dq{ + d q ~ Ql-

1) Lagrange, Mcanique A nalytique, Paris 1788-

[721

121

,
- [],
', 1
. , , ,
, ,
, - []
, :
X,- = ? (t , qx, , . . . qny, y t = fc (t, gu q* . . . <?); z t = 0, (t, qx q t .. ,qn)
, , , ,
I, . 66 ,
, -
.
27.
.
- ,
(. 66 ).
< , ,

v | / ( / ')2 -)- ( / sin


j (/ 6')2 -{- (/ sin 7 j .

[]

, mg ,
, , 25, ,
, , , ,
, :
= mgl sin .

[b]

[] [6], -
[70] - :
6" c o s0 sin 0' 2=
sin20?' = const = /z.

[]

[d\

.
m
, ,
- . <?' = 0, - [] -
:
0
J- sin = 0.

122

,
6 , '
- [d\.
= ;

9 = .

- [] [d\
.

g
/cos

'
sin* '

[]


, .
,

,

.
= -j- ,
[f ]
\ 6
.
I,
sin = sin -{- cos a;

cos = cos sin et.

- ]] - [/],
*
sin

COS .

. / 3 COS4 a I .

g , .
,
\
U - 7 ----[- Sin 1| = (sin + cos ).

, , []
,
5" 1+ 8*> = *0,

2*
|/-f~ 3 c 0 S ^ a
, /, . .

.
28.
. .

,
,

123

. .,
' ,
. ,
, , <?, ,<7-2 <73. . . <7
, ,
,
. , ,
, ,

, . . qu qit . . . qn.

:

,
(. - [] 25),

2 T auql'2-\-aiiqi 'i -\- -j- 2aiiq1'qi' -}-----

[74]

, , . . .
qlt q ^ ...,

.
[73] [74] - , :

2 V = c uqx*- f *+ 2\\,
2T = ailql'!i a&8<7s'J 4~ 2anqxq^.
- [],

" 4 " " 4 " \ 4 " 0 ,


Onto" 4 - a ltqt" 4 - cn q* 4 - c i 2? i = 0 .
W
-
:

COS (p t -f- a);

qt

cos (pt -f- a),

le]

l 2, p a ,
. - \d).

124

[] - \d],
,(<7-

Cj j ) - f - 2( 1/7"

12) ,

{- , , ) - f 2( 2,/>3 ) 0.

1/1

Xt 2,
(a ilP~

) ( 2'2 '

2?)

( ~--- )* 0 .

[g]
- p-,
, .
, [b ] []
, ,
, ,
:
(1 ^>0,
^22^0,
Cj-2'
[A]
au > 0 ,
a 3i> 0,
a 123 a n a 22< 0 .
[*]
- [g] 0 />2 -|-
[h] [k], ,
- . ,
p n
= { f u l a ) = ( / ) - [g]
. , />" 0 - -\- ,
- \g],
, -.
p i 2 .
- [/],
1

^1'

,
X, 2,
, [] :

(/, = V-uP? !2) cos ( p ,t -j- j);

qt = ,( anp* ) cos

,
, , pi
.
2 - [g]
.2 .2. ,
- [d]:
<7i= V-i(12P12 ) cos ( ^ + at) - f 1*,(, 2/>s2 c) cos (p3t - f a,),
={ ii/i*)cos(Pj^+ et) + I(eii n /V jc o s f o f- f -a ,) ,

IJ


|2, j 2,
,
q, /,, q i <?2.

125

,
,
- [g], .
qx
q
.
.
, ,

,
.
,

;
.
q , <?2>
, ;
.
, , ,

[] ,
2 V cnq, - -f- ci3q^,
2 T = au qi* + 222'.
-
-f- Cll<7x 0;

4"

0>

-,

.
.
,
[73] [74]
- [],
- :

anQi" -\-aii.q<' + at9q," + + 4 ' 0'* ~\~ 4-----

............................................: ................................................................
^1\

0. ~ ' + * ---- \~ + !^2 4 3?3 4 - 0. /

-
, .
- , :

qt A, COS {pt 4 - ), * ,

qn l n COS (pt - f a).

126

. ,

- [], :

\ ( '



,
-
,

) + I- X{\~ ) 0.

..........................................................................................
) 0 .
^ ( 1 '
\) + Kl{a ,P ' --- ) + + ^nfannP*

[ ]


Xt ,..- X n - [],

*(*) = 0,
(-) :
( (^ 2

),
^ n l)>

( 12~
--

[75]

[ 2 as
2

12), , (1 3 ctn)

( ~

cnn)

1 *\

2 a !|
\

>

V
im

a2

>
()

)-

()

(d)

^ '+ '+ * )
- [71],

,
,

- [/]

(2', y t) -(- ,

* " ~ ( 2 \

'

-" + ~ (2* *) -

[]


<xs
. , ps, ,
X ^ X g ;..., .

2it/ps as, .
- [/] , [],
- [75]2).


*) ., ., . Lamb, H igher Mechanics, p. 222.
*) -
. Lamb. H igher Mechanics, p. 222.

Xj : 2 : X, : : ,

<7 = X c o s O / + o g .

(. 68 ). ,

. 68.

- [75] - - '
1), -
, |
. p s2
. - [], ( 1)

a4

= Cvi2

K cos {pst-\- as),

1 )* i

127

I
i

= Xj cos {pt a); = X2 cos {pi a); y 3= K cos {p t a)


- [], :
*,(/> 2) + ^ * ,
0 ,
^ + ^ ( * - 2 ) + , ==

9 4 - 3 ( 2 2 ) = ,
|

[S]

- [s], -
:
( ^ - 2 ) ( ^ - 4 2 + 22) < ).
*

2= 2$ - - [s], :

., -,

2= 0

1==

3;

. 68 .

128

2= ( 2 2)3 - ( t ),
- [s],
1 = 3 = : - W - 4.
1/ 2 '

. 68 d.
(), ^
, ,
. (d)
, .
29.
. ,
,
. - [72] V
[74] [73] - :
<7 ' 4" \'
------- cuqx -f- f cnq^ -J- = Q, \

[a\

iq" +

+e9---- hcmqi+Cntf* + Cn - + =

Qn

,
,
,
Qs bs cos (mt -\-$), m
.
- [] :
cos
-j- P); q^ = X2 cos (mi -f* fO ! <7 =
cos (/n-(-).
- []

il w2) *1 + (cia 12 w 2) --------b ( ainm2) K = bi }


...................................................................................................... [ m
(Cm an\ m2) h + ( c nz an4m?) X, -|--------)- (cnn annm2) X = bn j
- 2)-->,
.
, - [b]
, . .

, .
,
.
qu q2-'-qn
,
:
2 = au qt - -f- 22^02 -j- -f- (innqn'2,
2 V = c nq12 - f Citq 2 -j-------- Ycnnq 2.

129

- [72], :
a ii?i ~\ Qi > )
....................................
^ "f ^ Qn

[76]

Qs = bs cos (mt -f- ,8),


i = XjCOS
+
? = Xcos(m/ + p),
- [76]

bs
= bs
" css m-ass

1
m2

?
bs/css Qs
, */
.

(. - [20]).
.
,
, 1),
j : 2 : 3 : . . . :
, ,
,
,
,
.
.
30.
.
(, ),
, .

,
2) (. 69).

,
:
z
> gg.
1) . Lord Rayleigh, Theorie of Sound, Vol. 1.
*) .
.

130

, . 69 .
.
W ; I (W/g)i-
,
; i ; klt kt
;
I
!).

1 W

1 W

8 , 8ft
,

,
It/V|
T

Wlt
b = lk ~

. . .

[(Z- /,) + KY + [{Z + /20) + 8J - ^

, [],
Vt = ~2l (z -

)2 + ^ ( + V)* + Wb

Vt = Wz.

:

V =V t

= ^ (z - /,0)2 + (z - f /,)*.

[c]

[] [] - [71],
- :

^ z " = k, (z /,0) s( z + /20),

i26=

( /,0)

(- f /20).

*) .

131

" + + = 0,

-

, , , , ,

z- ,

z, 0.
, - [e] 0.
,
[/]
. .
. ,
,
.
, / = /2 , = 2.
,
- [] :
ZA

COS

a);

= COS (p t

-j-

).

- [], :

( -) + = 0,

- [g], - :

- [], - ", :
1 le .

\ . _ 1 / "

V5

, 2

13?

[d],

" g
, - [h] .
, [k] - [g],
/
: .

) * ] / ! (- ) ' + ?
(-f-), [k], ,
, ()
.
,

^ > 0

j /,.

,

, . 70;


. 70.
0.
,
[/]
, ,
.

. 71.
()

,
Q
. ( b),

,

. Q
- ,

133

= ----------------------------------- .
. - , _! X
1 /
\ . - \ I
\* , />
2 \( '2
) + i*
~ ")/ +1 1I 4 \ 1
X ------------------------------

- - " . = ? .

f2

[ml

, , . . klll = kili ,
,
. ,
,
.

, ,
,
.
, b, [(c/i2) ] , ,
- [], ,
.
.
).
: 1 ^ = 4 3 7 ; 2 = 1,21 2; /, = 1,22 , 1
= 1,52 , k, = 2293 /; % 3568 /.
(. - [6]) = 10,2 ; 8 = 5,5 .
- [d] = 133,3, 0 = 56,9, = 265.
[k],
,2= 109, .? = 244. : , 10,5
/?2= 1 5 ,6 ,
N t = 100 /2 = 150 .
- [1\

2,35 - = 0 ,5 2 5 .

,
2,35 ,
41 .

0,525 , 9
.
,
*) . H. S. R ow ella ,. Inst. Automobile E ngineers", London, 123,
Vol. XVII, P art II, p. 455.

1 3 -i

,
'
V _ 2,35 1,52
12^35+ '1,22 ^ 0,23,

.
,

.
, (. . 69) ,
,
. - :
(/+ W l A

+ V 2G=;0,

"

, ,
' = 2' 7 4 - /

437 - 22-" --------- = 10' 7 -0.21 + 1 ,5 2 * )

10,5,
. ,

, /?.2'= 1 5 , 0 15,6,
.

,
,

.
.
.
- [] , p t , [],

z = A, c o s ( ^ - f t) - f 2 c o s (Pit + a),
r_i
0 = By c o s ( p t t + a ,) - f B t COS ( p 2t - f a4),

(. -

136

[/])

.
b
.
g ; - * * =

.1
lsJ

[]
A ,, A t , <*, ctf,
,
. , ,
X ,
.
:
( * ) , _ * = X;

( 1) / - =

0;

( 0 ) ,- =

( ')/ = = 0 .

- []
a i

= ).

0,

Pi Pi *

* ~

5
4 (Pv* ---.2-

__4 , ( / V ^ - ,.
>1---

?
)

,
, ,
, ,
,
. ,
. .
.
- [],
= n0

i*

b = ,

8 .
= ;

/72s = rt-j -8

[] :
^

= ;

* \ /3, =

3= - - .

\\

z=

(cos p it -}- cos p j ) = Xcos ^ - i * t cos - ~ ~ t,


[]

( COS /7^ - f

COS /72/) =

y sin

s in P1 ^

136

, p t ,
cos {(/>!+/>,)/2 } *

sin {{pl +p<l) /2 \ t

,
,

sin |(/7t t

cos |(/?j )/2 } t


.

(. . 9).
. ,
, .
,
Q
(. 71).
Q.
, ,
,
,
Q. , .,
;

. , ,
.
, ,

t , ,
v , l/v. ,
v
,
. t ,
, , t = (l/v )
, . .

t = m1x1= m418 ,
tnj .
, *)
,
.
*) . P. Lemaire, La Technique M oderne", 1921 . . #
H. S. Rowella, .

137

, , ,
, ,
. ,
.
Wt W* (. 72),
. :

wt

4.

,/ _

1~ ~ ~

w xi* - f w y.22 = w t \
. 72.

[77]

- [/], , Q
(. . 71 ) ,
, ,
, . ,
4 = 4 [77] , . .,
.
, , - [77].

, .
. ,

, .
, . 72,

, . 73,
Wt ,
1),
,
, v

,

:;
Wx W2
, . 73 ,
,
. ,
*)
,

138

,
-:

' ,

= 2 I 1 - ' 05
, X
.
, v
, ,
, -:

h (
2 Tivt\
* 1 = = 2 \ 1 c o s J.

. .
[a]

h 4tPv 1
2v t
' ~ Y ~ 1 J ~ C0S~ T ~ '
,
, :
17 . Wx h 4 * V
2w t
V + 7 I T - C0SX '

,
,

Wi h W
1 + ' ^ _ - , , ,
.
,
[6], , ,
. :

W t-k ix s -x ,),

[]


, Wx
-

+ ( * , j c ,) = = 0 ,

^ . .
[] ,

W,

. ,

- -f- kx^ -

kh (

1 os

2Kvt\
j.

,
\\

139

, . ,
:,' = 0, - []
{ = * =0
:
2- t
2~t
h
COS
* ^
[/]
_ 2 COS

i, = 2 \ / { W -J k g ) , 2= (//) ,
X. , , - [] []

kh
,*
(
2
2t\

'

S V

[ !

[b] [g] ,
,

Wx h 4 2
2vt
T 2 COS

7 2

kh t,
2 v - V

cos

2it t

-cos

2 irfi

[h]

,
.
,
,
, ,

.
31.
.
.
(. 2)
9,

Ps

\
a
d
b
r
.


4
4
4
i
(. . 74). . 74.

,
1). / / 2,

,
<?2, 3, . . .
, kv kb k s>. . .
*) *I i , F. . Lewis'\ .
jns. Soc. of Naval A rchitects and M arine E ngineers, Vol. 33, New Jork 1925.
. 109.

140

, ab, cd .
&,(<?!. <,), &2(<? 3), . ..
.
/,, / 8,. . .
,

,
,

V = Y ^ <?2) +

~ ^

+ Y

[] [b] - [71],
- :
? " + * *) =
I f W + * ( ? a ? )
/.? * " + *(?3 <P)

,
Ai ( ? i ? 2) = 0 ,
?) = 0

"f -(?-1 ?)
*-(?-1 <) = 0-

kn-('n-

[ ].

?-)--

,
? +

=0.

,
.

.
,
, .
(. . 125)
- []
<?, = , COS (/?-{-),

92= 4 cos (pt -{- ).................

[]

/ 2 ,(i , ) = ,
/ Xjp2 - f Aj(X, 2) k 2(XS X3) = 0,
* *r U

l ^) == 0.

- X., Xs, .. . ,
2.

.
. - [d] :
i i K p ' - kA K - h ) = o ,
^2 -(- Aj(Xj 2)

3) = ,

[]

^ 2(^2 h) 0.

/ -

-,
/ jXj -}-12.2 -}- / 3^3=

- []
&,
~

. _

lj'-K '

AgXj
Iff]

I-iP'1 &2

-- [/], - :
I J

i h

1 ____

Ms

(h \+ h h
[
* 1

- IJ* W
h

( + / , + /,) = ().

[77']

- , ,
, 2,
.
/>,2 p s2 - [^],
,/2 2/3
1),


.

. 75. , - ^ - i........
, . 75 ,
'
- 75
. 75 .
. -
, - [d] (. - [75]
. 126). , , ,
i y k1

0
0

k,
lip"* k , k t
kt

0
0
- k3

k$

0.

*) - , . H tte, 25 Aufl. 1925, Bd I, S. 409.

142

/ / 2, / 3 / 4
:
2 __ v .

/ ------ j

v . *1 + &2 __ . ^2 + *3 _ . k

------ *2>

------^3) /
'2
'3
'4

: * 4;

------

I*

U
-
X Xj
X 2

-23

;.

-
2
,,
4

= 0

X 4

, :
X x2
(X X i)

nn

X,

33

X X4

x4

22
X x3

22
X x3

x4

n33

X x4

( ,) ( >)
( ,) 22

33

3
4

,
1"-12

X 4
X 3
W33 ! __
,
: x j
4

( ,)( 2)( 3)( 4) ( ,)( 2)433


( ,)( 4)22 23 ( 3)( x 4)xj12 + , 4/123 = 0. |]
,
2 =

-f- ,

3 =

23 - f - 33,

- [h] , .
.

. - [], ,

.
.
): /, = 3 4 7 2; /., = 100600 - ";
/ 3= 1380 *; / 4 = 0,429 -; k, = 363 106 -
*)
, I. Ormondroydou,
W estinghouse Elec. and Manfg. Co., East Pittsburgh, Pa.

143

; 2 = 131,7 10 ; 3 1,25 10
.
- []
0,0001 />2,
:3 407 2 + 34492 296230 = 0.

[]

- ,
, *).

:

f(x) = -t- ^ " '1 - f . . . -f- d\X - f a

[/]

. ,
, "-1, . . . , , _...
, .
an_v a_t'
ak-\-an_x. , _, _2,
_' _,' -)- _2. ,
_3' = _2'-|--3 , , al' = a ^ k-\-ai ^ , -\-)- 0.
:

&n
t
^71-2 *
^2
_,' ... 3'
\

-2

Cti)

0
A /

[m]

(L\

, 0', ,
/( ) [/] x k.

f(x ) :
f{x) 0' -f- ,( A) -j- 2( )2

,,( ),

= /( );

, = _

&

_ .

, :

f(x ) = a 4x 4 - f 3 8 -f- a 2x* -f- \ + .



/(* ) * ,' + ,( - ) + ,(* - + 3( - )3 + ( - )1, []
, *
*)
- . v . Sanden, Practical Analysis,

144

[], f(k) = 0',


[]
1

(13
kaK
3

CL2
k a 3'
CLi2

k a r,
3

k a 3"
<
ka '"

a :,

a0
k a t'

* k a 3'

a;
kdv

o'

= ,

ka,t
-_________ ------------- _ ---------------------------- III
_ ill
4

III

IV-

Ill

[]

kaK

ai Ag] a3 =

a 4, 3, 4', . . . 0'
, 4, 3, .2, ...
, 0
. II .
, /',
[]. ,
{ ' ~ 3"" = 3 4= 4.
[ ] .
[]

:
/( * ) = * + -1*"'1 + + + = 0.

[]

k .
, , [], : k = u,
-

f(x) = - f _~1-]-. + , -f- 0' 0>

[?]


k. ,
, -
[q],

aJ
- []

X k-\- uv
, - [q]
, - [/?]. ux v

1.45

, [],
- v

Bnv n - f Bn.iv"-* - f . .. - f Btv - f a" = 0.


:

vt =

= k -f- j

v t.

, - \]
.
- [k]
= 9, :
1
1

1
1

407
9
398
9
389
9
1 380

34492
3582
30910

296230
278190
I 18040
3501
[
27409

- 9

3 380 ? + 27409 18040 = 0.

[]


18040
27409'

0,6

- [], ,
:
1*
380
27409
0,6

227,6
1
379,4
27181
0,6
1
378,8
I


*
18040
16309
I 1731
227
26954

0,6
1

1 378,2'

v 3 378,8

+ 26954 v 1731 = 0,

10

146

V> ~

6 9 5 4 ^ 0,064

- [k]
Xi ~

9 . + j - f D j = 9 ,6 6 4 .

-
^

2 =

105;

3= 292.

:
1 ^ 1 ^ 1 = 49,5;

,"

2,

= 163;

= 272.

, ,
, /, / 3 /*;
, / 4 / 3.
, - [12]
(. . 12), .
/ '' / 4,
/ 3

/ _

moo

/ 3~~ 2

, 7_
1380

4 93

.,

49,5,
.
/,, / 2
, / 4, / 3
, :
1
f k x_
2 | / 1 ~

363
2 V 347

1000

272 .,
.

.

, , ,
.
, , , . 76,
, ,

147

,
*).
(.
. 157 ), = 1010 \
,
,

, / 3 = 93 X 6 -f- 7 -}- 6,5 572
57,5 - f 2,5 X 48,5 179
3000

. 76.

. , , ,
- [77']
^ 2= 4 9 0 0 0

2- = 123000.

* = 49840

^ = 141000.

,
. ,
(. 14).
. b
, , ,
. 7 6 6 b
, , ,
, -:

*) . 28 ..
.

148

, : = 0 = < -
<, 10 . - [] - [d ] :
<ps = ? l

tl

10, ,
.
:
. / f ai )'

2 ~ "2" J

cf<PiY

[dxj

?! ( 1 - )

--------- :b

~ 2 \~ + J

*=

_1i V
=
~ 2Z Z i

k= 1

'

, - [] [s] *
k ak =

= 10

+ *,,(l ~ )(1 ~ ) '

= / '* + 2 / ^ 10
-2

[]

[/] [f] - [71]


?! = *! COSQ/+ P),

<?io = X|o ( ? / + ?),

-:
* = 10

T - f f o - r t + H l

^ 2 ' *>'
fe=2
=10

+ ^ I -g- -j- + -J- ^ /*/((1 ak) ; = 0,

- 2

| +

4=10

=10

} = 0'

t
- , - ,
, . 66 b .
3.

3.

*!

149

-------- -

~ \

><

4*1*

if
1
es

*-

1 2201
2 3000
3
4
5
6
7

ce

je

---

0
i
0
0 0
2
93 57,5 0,1091 1,8909 0,2062 0,7938 0,0425
93 106 0,2011 1,7989 0,3618 0,6382 0,1309

3000

0,6301

0,1637

0,4073

0,2309

0,2496
93 154,5 0,2932 1,7068 0,5004 0,4996 0,2504
186,2
0,1429
0,6220
0,3780
0,3869
93 203 0,3852 1,6148

133,8 0,2351

93 251,5 0,4772 1,5228 0,7268 0,2732 0,5282


0,5693 1,4307 0,8145 0,1855 0,6634

93 300

7 377

10

6,5 527

0,7154 1,2846 0,9190 0,0810 0,8446


1,0000
1,0000 1,0000 1,0000 0

ft

fe= 10
2
ft =

w
2

~ f t) s
ft =

0,2500

121,2

0,0746

0,1986

0,0344

0,1511 )
0,0744
0,52

5,91 0,0065
0

6,50

0
fc= 10

10

198,6;

t
Je

3133,8; \

L
ft =

^ft3ft(l - - * ) = 121,7.
2

-
= 1,563,
[] :

- = 50000.

/e0/o -
4,5%- , , ,
).


.
,

.
.

, .
,
, ,
*) . . .-
", 1905 .
*

150

,
.

.
, .

- [d] .
- :
N
^3 ^2

[]

** = * . - ( * 1 + /*> + / ) ,


-
15 - [w]
, 2. - []
3; - [z] 4 . . %
, -
1

1J 'P 2

InK P 2

- [d\, .
, 2, 3, . . .
2 ).
.
4 5
, . 77 2).
,
, , .
.
.
,

.
, ,
*) //. H olzer'z, Die
B erechnung der D rehschw ingungen, 1921, Berlin, . J. Springera. .
F. . Lewisa a Toile, R egelung d er Kraftmaschinen,
3 Aufl. 1921.
4
*) <'? F- . Lewisa, . 139.

15]

.
. 5
.

. 77.

. 4 /? =
= 96,2, 5 .
/7 = 9 6 ,8 ( 5)
. ,

3 5 .
3, ,
, . 77. 5 3.
(. 77) /7 = 96,2; 1 9250.
J

2
/

/*

*\

l/p U

814

7,42 X 10

7,42 X 10

7,42 X 10

2380 X 10'

0,0031

4510

41,7 X 10

0,9969

41,6 X 10

49,0 X 10

840 X 10

0,0585

4510

41,7 X 10

0,9383

39,1 X 10

88,1 X 10

840

0,1050

4510

41,7 X 10

0,8333

34,7 X 10

122,8 X 10

840 X 10

0,1462

4510

41,7 X 10

0,6871

28,7 X 10

151,5 X 10'

840 X 10

0,1803

4510

41,7 X 10

0,5068

21,1 X 10

172,6 X 10

840 X 10

0,2060

4510
8 160700
9 30400

0,3008
12,5 X 10
0,1002 149,5 X 10

185,1 X 10

462 10

0,4010

1487 X 10

35,6 X 10

1534 10

0,0233

281 X 10

0,1235 34,7 X 10

0,9 X 10

41,7 X 10

152

4.
(. 77) /7 = 96,8; />2 = 9380.

2 r '

l
1

814
4510

4510

4510

4510

4510

4510

ip- X

llp*\

Il/psx

2380 X 10e
840 X 10e

0,0032
0,1069

7,65 X 10e
42,2 X 10*

0,9374

39,7 X 10e

49,9 X 10e
89,6 X 10e

0,8305

35,2 X 10"

124,8 X 10e

840 X 10e
810 X 10e

0,6818

28,8 X 10e

0,1988

42,3 X 10*

0,2908

21,1 X 10
12,3 X 10e

840 X 10*
840 X 10e

0,1830

42,3 X 10e

153,6 X 10e
174,7 X 10
187,0 X 10e

462 X 10e

0,4040

16,2 X 10e
0,1238 35,3 X 10s 19,1 X 10

1531 X 10e

0,0106

42,3 X 10e
42,3 X 10e

285 X 10e

8 169700
30400

0,9968

7,65 X 10e
42,3 X 10e
42,3 X 10e

Ip*

X 10e

0,1132 170,8 X 10

7,65 X 10e

0,0594
0,1487
0,2080

s-

,
1 .
- X,,

3 5 X,.
*).
sin mt
,
= (2/),
Xsin mt.
,
. ,
,
, .


. 5 -\-,
,
,
.
1)
D rehschw ingungen in K o'benm ahchinenanlagen, Berlin, 1922. . . 139 F. . Lewis'
John a F. Foxca. Some Experiences w ith Torsional Vibration Problem s in D ie se
Engine Installations, .Journal Amr. Soc. of Naval Engineers*, 1926,

153



, .
ate,
,
. ,
,
, . . ,

, ,

. em= >-msin p t
,
.

, .
,
,
90. M z o s p t
, , < \ sin pt,
,
,

, , ,
.

,
?m = ^mSin pt\

? = XSin pt,

'

[*]

(. . 77),

154


,
.

, X,
- ['\
.
(]
,
.

. ,
, , ,
,
.
,

. ,
)
) 0 + -i cos + 2 cos 2 ? -f- -f-^i sin<?-f-2sin 2 -f- , \d'\
<p= 2u .

.
, ,
[d'\
.

1 , 2 , 3 , . . . ,
.

/. 1. 1*/ - - - , . .
.
.
,
, , .
,
,
1) H. Wydler'a,
. 152, F. . Lewis, . 139.

155

. ,

( ),
, , ,
.

.
, ,
, , ,
*).


.
.

,

. 78-.

. 78.

. 78 . /,, / 3 ,

, iu i3
, ,
( <?2)
, ku kt
< .
:
T A(?i')* I *1(?')* 42
2

42

[*']

/ = *,(?, - ? 2)2 + 6*(? + ?-

[f ]

)
E. Le hr a Die Abkiirzungsverfahren zur Erm ittelung
<ier Schw m gungsfestigkeit, Stuttgart, D issertation, 1925.

156

n% = It; n-I-i = /,;

= k3.

? = ,;

[g']

- [a] [b]
r -

* ( ? ? 2)2 + ^(?2 ?)2 , [] [],


(. 140) .
, -
, . 78 , ,
- , [g'].
;
*).
. 78 ,
/, / / 3, / 3 / 4 , a klt kv
k3, ki .
, <?, <?1( ? 2 ... / 0, / / 2 . . . / 0

, 0= 0, :
( ?,'2+ 1 ^ + /?2 + /*?*'*),

V = z \ {*|?1* +

?)* + *(?8 + ?*)* 4 *t(?i + ?*)9J .

- :
W ' +
+
?." +
W +

,<Pi *(?2
= 0;
Aj(ps <?,) + nkt(<?j + K?9) + ^4(?i + ?a) = 0;
^(? + 2) ==0;
&*(?4 + ? ) 0,

- ,
.
-.
.
-
1) . . Smith .'a Nodal Arrangements
of G eared Drives, .E ngineering", 1922, p. 438 467.

157

(. 79).
. ,
,


,

,
-
. 79.
: )
, b) )
.

TidxlG
,
32
*r.d^G

p
2 22------ , ----- Cj =

.
,
, - ,
2, = 2 + 0,9A aj = 0 , 9 / ,
*). ,
,
0:

2btM T , . 2

~\
h~~~



.
-

0 , .

- 1-4 - -?14- - ^ , '

[78]

*) ; .

Seelm anna , V. D. I.*, Bd 69, 1925, S. 601 F. Sass a M aschinenbau", Bd 4,


>925, $, )223, a F. 1. Lewis'a, . 139,

158

,
, .
/ - ]):
' - {

t +

[79]

3
**
12
_L ____L
r{a-\-h y
_ _L h z
' 24 245,
' G 2 F j~ F j
43
ar .
2C,
26

'

[80]

3h3G

Ci = :3 (2 - f h 2) ~

itdx'E
- , F, Ft
64
,
.
, = 2, , = 5, ,
- [?8] [79],
1 : [1 (/2k)].


.
,

,
. ,
2) :
, = (///2) , = (I/P)
, /
.

,
,
(. 80)
Mt.
> , <af
,
*)
.Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. E n g .\ Vol. 44, 1922, p. 653; . A pplied Elasticity.
*) . M ax Tolls. R egelung der Kraftmaschinen, 3 Auf 1 .1921, S. 116.

159

, . 80.
j , , 12
(. 55),

T = Va r r 2-j- l/ tM cuV2f sin t -{-

sin 2 oot J .

T :

,
, ,
, ,

,
,

, ,
. ,

. ,

,
.
1),
"
.
.
,
, , ,

.
,
, ,
) . G. R. Goldsbrough, Torsional V ibration in R eciprocating Engine
Proc. of the Royal S ociety. Vol. 109, 1925, p. 99.

bhafts.

160

, . .

.
32.
.
. ( 15)
,
, ,
,
. , ,
,
,

).
.
,
.


,
(. 81), w x .


:
y l = a il w l - \ - a u w ,
[]
y t ^=an w - f an w t,
[b\
. 81.
, 15,
21 a 2
.
, w t (. 81 )',
-

3 + ^),

R%
, (. 81).
- []
'
) A. Stodnla, Dampf- und Gasti
binen, 6 Aufl., Berlin, 1924.

161

/?2 ,
, :
g g ( - V + Pi, - %%) = ^

( - 3 +

- 4% ),

a(/P / , V )

" 2742

< ~

/?,,
,, R = R x-\- >.,
, - [], _,, ,
* /?, [],
a ,1 = W
* =

^ 4/l2(/-C l),C l~ Cl( c,i,+/2Cl" " V C l)(/2 -/2 3 ~ c,i,)}

j
{2 A 4 < V , ( / * ,4

H
, ) ,(/

,* ) ( / , 4~ < ,2)} .

/2 /, , ,
-, *, 22 - [],
, ,2 = 21, . . , D (. 81),
F , ,
F, D.
.
, 3
, .
3 , 2
. ,
, :

[]

+ g *')*.



[] [6] .
, alt = ai ( ~ b , *),
- [] [b] ,
_, _2:

by* .
~~

') , b ,
[d].
.

162

*):
i * _
1
( o V + 3 ).
1 2
2 (ac-b*-)

\f\

[] [/] - [71],
-
:

w,

W9
g-'
" '

b
b
2

= ,

,
, - [g]

, X, COS ( p t ) ;

=\

COS

(p t

),

w.
b
2= 0,
.1 2' I____
1 b*
g
[h]
/
Wt
1
* = 0 .
^2 1 - b2
g
- ,
- .

w
[ft]
=0,
2
bg
( 2) '

P2

I ___ J i
2 ( 2) \ Wj
>2

|/

( i \
, ' w j

4( ~ &) 1
w twt j

[81]

2,
.
-
[],
VA*
2 ,/
, . .

. 82.

,
, . 82. 1) , w t w 3
, ,
,
(. . 57 58).

163

2 - [h], X,/Xs
, ,
. 82 . , , ,

(. . 81) w l = w i = w; 1\ 1 = 1/2 , = = 1/4.


[d ] , :
23
/3
~ ~ 4 8 - 2 5 6 El

._

_____9__ _
4 8-256 EI

- [81], :

________;

( ) )

gASEl
: (//,)*

g768EI
P i 7 (/

" ,
- [5] (. . 8) :
,Jst

US t

: 48 E l

7wm 3
' 768El

,
. 83.

.
- , -
. , ,
. , , 2
w t w 4
, : {w1/g)yl" (w jg )y '.

, - ,
-, - [] [],
:

W. ,W 9
= a ^ y t b j y *
.w ,
w.,
= ^ , - c - h i
, ,

y t = Xj COS (pt a);

y t = X2 cos ( p t a),

V]

14

- [/], :
X f'l

*\
S j

i b -*/>* = 0,
g 1

[/n ]

- , -
[k], .

\
*/*..


%
,
,
.
. 84.
, , ,
. 84.
, ,
^
:
\ = . + a itw t + d a w * ,

2= atw t + 223 -f- a riw 3,


=

[]

+ 33 ,

, 1, . . . ,
,
. ,
= ai3 = aa.
3
, -
[] - :

W, ,,
Wa ,,
w* ,,
1= an ~ y t a13- ~ y 3 ,
w.

2 ~

= 1

w,

w3

a m * * <

- , 3,
. -
*).
, - i
') - . R- Sderberg'ow ,Phil.
M ag.-, Vol. 5, 1928, p. 47.

165

,
,

. 15). (. 81)
, , 2 , 1)
(,)"* (w t/g')a>iy t .
,
(. - [] []):

= j

+ 12 -

= *. ~ *1+ 22

'.

[]

- y t , ,
, . ,
- [] - [], ,
,
-, - [k\.
.
, ,

,
. . ,
,, (. 37).
, ,
y i t .. . w u wi t ...
, ( w jg ) ^
(*/)<*, ..
, , 15,
.
,
/ , %\ . . . , ,

,..., ,
-
[82]
.
<>, - [82],
,
) " ppa ,

166

y j y ^ ,
,
, ,
. , ,
- [82], ,
.
(. 29).
.
*
, ,
, ,
.

,
, , ,
').
,
(. 81).
,
,

y l = a ll'wi ~\-aiiwi,
= a21w t - f a2w 3

[']

[b']

.
, 12, . .. ,
, w t
(. 85);
C1-- -
t~C
2~
r
/ , 2
A*
,

()
, (.
. 64). ,
,

()
,
. 85.
R',

, " , 2 ' (. 85).
, ,
R - 2)

'7>

\)

*) (. 13),

>, .
.

167

D , w lt


=
" '

- - [] ['\, :

w, = ..

Vc

< = 9 ->>

21.
, w t, 12 22.
- ['] [b'] ;
[81],
\ b = 1 = = 22.
R
.

.
, ,
,
*).
. 86 . ,
, ,

(. 86 ). ,

,

. ,
, y v
Wv
W3
. Wv
Wt, W3 - [] , , . . .
- ,
.
*) ,
J. p. Den H artogou, - W estinghouse E le c tre
and Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh Pennsylvania,

>68

, , .
*
, Wt (. 86 ), 1 J
, 15,
,,' = 13,7 X _6 ?, = 13,1 X ~8 . .
, 1 ,
,

7, = 3 ,6 7 -9 (. 86 d )
3 = 3 ,0 1 '9 (. 8 6). ,
W,
, , . 86 .
, ,
, , 1 ,
Wt,

= ,
4-

169

- [],
.-.

= 1 0 9 -7;

33 = 42 7;

== == 20 X 10 7j

2 = 21 = 101 X 7;

== ==

26 X 10 7.

- [] W ^ y j g - ,
?y d g WzPyjg Wlt Wt, W3,
-:

W, \

a ,, ly,
T r 1

a.21

+ ^ 1 22 -

W >*

W, 4
ir/ "'2
a 12_y2 a 13 0,
ai' ~ g ~ ' a
g

. /.

?>
.Vi

or
- J 23 - ^ ^ 3 =

W >*\

' H- 11

0,
-

0.

- , , 12). ..,
- :
( -7)3 3,76 (* 10-7)2 - f 1,93 (>9 10-7) 0,175 = 0,
,
, :

= ^

= ^60_1070;
Z7T

Ztz

= 2240;

3= ^

Ztz

= 5620.

,

, .
,
(. 82 a ),
. , ,
:

w
-

<*>

(2 J /2 .

,
, ,
,
,
-, - [82].
, -

170

, I
*).
"
|
I
, I
. , I
(". 87 )


, . .
,


.
,
, ,
,
,
. 87.
. 87 .

, R',
(. 87 ),
R ,
, - [/?].

, -, - [q\.
, , ,
_, (. 87 ),
,
:

= '- " ,

= "~.

y ib y ib

1-\- -^*)-
) , ,
, ,
, . .
.
*) .

171

,
:

~ _

"- -b

-:

[83]
[] ,
,
). ,

1
)2 -:
= 1
la = = -

.
-
ib
*

bt #.2.

,
== ,L
.p, -:
= -\- = 1
= +

= 2^1

4 -

:
(1 at <o's) y t /?, 2y 3 = 0,
a 2 *1+ (1 w2) = 0.
-
-:

(a,

[s]

a 2 b j w4 (a, + ) o>2 + 1 = 0.

-, y j y t - [s]
, (. 87 )
.
/>, - [s],
') Borow iczt Beitrage zur Berechnung

krlt. Q eschwindigkeiten zwei und mehrhaft gelagerten W ellen, M nchen 1915.

.1 7 2

,
.
.
33.

. .


.
, ,
,

.

(. 88).
,
z

,

z
' (3 ,
,

. 88.
,
X Z XY,
X,
. W
*),
- :

= > Y z " = Z

Z
Z.
, z {3, ,
.
, ,
, (. 89),
. *) ,
.
(. . 186).

173

P aW
M a b ( a -b )
3/! 1
1

( 2 ab + 1)

11

'

. .

IC J

- [b] [] :

ab~h * . 0 )
{ w / r - y + s w ? !

= 1 ^ -

) .

[d \ , - []
:
^ ' + + = 0;

~ z -\- -\- = 0,

[84]

olt,ra-b
3/7
.

[]

/ * ab + b*

31EI

...


, , ,
, ;
.
, , Z
Z (. . 88 ),
, :

= ~ ' + '
Mz = ' '$,
! ' , .
2).
.
, (. - [\ ), :

olc..b a
ttL 1 a-bl
~

^ "

31EI
ab

1) . A pplied Elasticity, p. 86.


*) , , ,
.

,,
[ft]

174

- *
,
, ,


.

,
,
*).

. 0 0
.
.
OOZ, (. . 88 ).
OZj. OYt.
0 0 ,
Gj = /2 .
0 0 6
0]' ,'
).
. 88 .
OYt OZt,
,
0u>p
flajf-j-jf' . ,
, :
=

^ ( + 1') = /2 ,

[/]

, - [g-],
Gwp' Oi" = / n 'z - f n'y,
> -|- , p = m'y n' p.

r85 |
1 1

- [84] [85], ,

= Asinpt-,

z = cospt;

$ = Csmpt;

= D c o sp t [m]

-
, , , D. - ,
*) ., , . Lamb, H igher Mechanics, 1920, p. 94.
!) , , if .
f '
.

175

- *).
.
, , 0 0 ,
, ,
X
>, .
, < X 0 0 (. . 88 ),
:

z= r cos mt-,

z = sin <nt\
'( = cpsin 4>t.

P = <pCOS<o

cp
,
. .

X Y (. 90), - [ ]
P=<p;
1 = 0 ;
=
z = 0;

P' 0 ;

P" =

cu2;

T = ?<*>;
0;

y"

0;
----2.

n=

Z = m-,

z" =

0.

- [84] [85],

W
g

+ + =

( ,) 2 = m'y '.
, * ,
= ( ,)2,

.

= r cos (Ut,

== <cos )t

- [],

f |+*.

,
\]

m 'r -f- { ' + ( 0j) 2 } f = 0.

, , , -
[] < , , . .
, - J) . A.
S. 252, 1920, S, I,

Stodola ZeitschriJt f. d. gesam te Turbinenw esen", 1918

176

. -
:

--^

= 0,

{/. -J- (0 ,) 2}

[]

, [h] [k],

' = 1,

( by
2 +

( 2 2) (<7 -|-< *)

cplqi =

4 ( * #2) * piqi ( \ ) = 0.

[5 ]

, ( < 1 ) - [s]
2, :
>2 = Go2_ q2) + y / ' U W - q ' ) ' + ( 1 - W

,
[r] G Gj = 0, :
<2 W

'

'
'

31EI
tfb 2

_
-b'1W

aW W

W.
(. 15),

.

177

, -
,
. , .
, ,
X,
y = r zosU\
z = rsm ^t,
p = cos ?;
Y= cpsin
- [/] [/], - [] -:

" + + = 0;
(X Oj).2) p m'y /'(3.
X= ta, . = >,
- []:
(
(- 6,) 2 p = m'y ri .
, ,
,

= ( + 0,) 2.
,

.
<,
X= . ,
,
= ,

,
*).


,
,
32.
,
, ,
. . 91
, = .
,
, (. 91 )
') . A. Stodola, Damp!- und Gasturbinen, 1924, S. 367.
.

178

, (. 91 cf
. 91 d.
,
(. . 69).
.
,

(. . 92),
.
, ,

,

- [5], 8

,
. 92.
.

,
. z - [85]
,
' ,'' = ',
'
," = /,

[86]
ri .
ri , !$
Z,

.
- [86 ] -
.
(. 93 ), 0 0
, .
, ,
, . ,

, ' , 0 0
. ,
, , '
K,Z

179

. ,
' (. 93 ).
, ' ,
',
, &v

, '

v
, (. . 93 ).
- ,
- [v].
.
, -
[v] :
== A cos pt;

y = B sm pt.

- [v], :

A (ri , p 2) - f 6/? = ,
/> + 5 ( ' /?2) = ,
- :
(' ,/?2)2 0 * =
- :


, ,
,

.
, ,
. 94.

180

, = 0, :
=
, '),
6V

2/
, - [87]

=V\ ^3- '


:
A = 2 ,4 1 4 j/^ ;

p 2= 0 , 4 1 4 l / ^ .


2 u/pj 2./.
,
. , ,
,
; - [86 ] -:
" = ' n'P + PcOS(u^,
= Ocup' riy -( P sin

r ,


-.
= A cos <ot\

= sin t,

- [w], :
.

( ' ,>) + <*:=/>


02 - ] - ( ' -) = ,

* .7

( + ,)}

(n O ^ y OW
,
(' 0,2)3 G V = 0 ,

'

)
.

181

,
, :
.

[ 88]

.
- [84] [85]
, (. 95)
y xz x y 2Zi
. ,
,

(. . 95):
U
=-[- - -I >
/, ,

/,

_*
I
z% z,
I
, dx d% ,
, cty lt
CjJAj , dxz , , d 2z 2
, ,
, , Z. -
[84] :

( + h y ') + ~ 0>
[a'}
-

(4

z \ " ~ \~ Ji z i )

d i zi

+ ^2 z i

0-

- [85], Z,
:

zi 2 ,
>------ ~

z, '

* V,
I

182

- ['] ['\
. -:

y x= A s \n p t\ = %-, z x= cos pt:

zi = D cospt,

- , , D.
- , - .
,
.
,
.


^ ^

Z = sin wt,

= s i n tot

MZ= D COS wt.

- [1] ['\ :

W
-=i ik y " + ") + Ci + -= A COS eut,
w
j (loZx -j- l\Z{) - f dlz l -f- dz 2 = B sin ^tf

Zn' ~ Z-1'- +

Z.,dj*

-z A lt

-f

S in <

= - , + y lCllt + D COS eut

-,
, :

= A^cos wt; = cos >t; zx = C sin wt; z, = D sin wt.


- ['],
. ,
-:

(a -f- bx) cos wt,


z = ( -j- dx) sin wt,
a, b, d . ,
, -

II

183

\=

fi x t =

^ ,

,
, , ,
. 96. ,




(
),


,

.
. S6.


(. 10),
,
, ).
- ['] ,

,
,

- 2).
34.
.
,
,
.

,
.

*) V. Blitssa, U eber den Massenausgleich raschuralaufender K orper, ,Z. f. angew nndte M athematik und Mechanik*,
Bd 6, 1926, S. 429.
*) (. 35).

184

11 *).
.
,
,

. ",
, ,

.
X Y ,
(.
. 97). 5
,
,
C S = e ,
.
: ,
,
;
, . / .
X Y ,

; < = |/ ( /)
(. 15); ,
; < ,
SC X;
; <{< .
<= + .
< ,
XY.
-
, ,
, ,
XY. OS
, Y,
S, ( e cos <)
( esin<p). -
:
" = ( e cos );
" = . ( e sin <)
) . .
, 6 ., . 929. . T. PschL'a
Zeitschr. f. angew. Mathem. u. M ech.", Bd 3. 1923, S. 297.

185

- : C O S ? ,
' ' + - . : sitl .

[]

- ,
.
, -, ,
<?' , ,
-, (x ')
, .
-:

jt { \ ' - f (x ') J =

mi*" + (" ") = ,


,
.
- [] []
. = ,
- [] [b] ,

OS
<' = .
, - [] x = rcos<at; _y= r s in u ^
tf mt , . 98 , =
-j-
, . 98 ,
< 3

/2

-<0*

<>2
ukP

),

0)

I JKp-


(. 15).
*), /
,

= (" ").

[]

- [] ,
(' = >= const,
*) P. SchrOdera, Die kritlschen Zustande zw eiter Art raschum laufender W ellen, Stuttgart, 1924.
.

186

, :

[d]

? = *+?*,

0 ,
.
[d] - [] wKp- = ./,
:
" - f wKp- X =
cos (wt + <0),

" + ^^ = p2 e sin (wt + <pg).


,

X = COS(w,.p t + Tl - f <p0) 4- !^ - cos (wt 4- ?),


[/]
! sin (wKp - 1 4 - T) +

eT p

sin (* + #)

- [].
[/] - [], :
= Af, sin {(w ) ^ 4" Ti}

'

[g]

,
[g] ,

, - [/].
,

= sin { (wKp -fa) 1 4 - Kg }


<,
, -
:^ c o s K P1 4 ea

^^2

i i

) 4 - - <*

wKp - w

cos (wt - f <p0),

'

j t

^
\

sm K p * T* ? i) + ~ ~i __ sin (* 4 - <?0).

[f\ [h], - [],


.

, .
, ,
, , ,

187

. 99 . 97. - [] [ft]
-:

" -f- = c o s <?,


" - f a y sin ? mg,
" - f (" ") mgx.

[/e]

,,
. 99; ,
i mS

= ~ \-~ ,

. 99.

- [k ] :

" -J- cos ,


" -(- a y t = sin ,
" -f- ({" _,") = mge cos .

[/]

- - [] [b],
mge cos?.
, 0
= 1/ .
:
mge cos mge cos (<ot) = mge sin (? / 2 ) =
= mge sin { , (u) t r./2 }.

fm\

,
, - [g-],
, , <u 2(%
,
- [/].
, -
*). , ,

(. . 95), , ,
,
.
35.
.

(. 10) , .


. , ,
,
J) . . Foeppl, V. D. I., Bd 63, 1919, S. 867.

188

, ,
, ,
,
, -
.
,
(. . 100).
Wx
, Wt.

Wt. -
Lr ,
;

- i ------- J
:

Wt + a w
y = au Wt + an Wt,

.. loo.

r -i

an, , 21
: . -
,
- .
/ ,, % I II, < ,
I II ,^,

I II, Yit
, . , I
,
, , :

(<?1 + ) -;

Y = ,

, -, - []:
, =
Y2 ---m2

( , - f ait ),
Y, f722 1

ex m y (1 2)
(1 ) (1 22 ) 2 12 1

v*

(1 2) (1 .2 >2) % 12 ax '

at *

, , , 2,
,
Yt. ,

189

, Rx= , -f- Yi
:
__^ ici ~t~ I
y i + V *

-i

, - [ft], I,
1
, /, / 2
.
, ,
' II,
.
,


.
- []
- .

*) ,

.
,

.


. , ,

,
.
.


. . 101
, .
/ 4 , 4
1 /, /3.
,
, )
Blilss', . 183.
. 101 102.

190

, .
,

.
. 102. , ,
2150 , /, 13
.

.
,

191

. W,
k x (. 103 ),

= 2 j/(U V & ,g -).


Q cos mt,

, = (2//),

IF,.

,
, ( .. 14)

Qo

= 1 --------2" C0S
1 1_

la J


, /,
. ,
Wi
kt
(. 103 ft).
, []

W2 .
, % U/, Wt
,
:

- ^
~ 2g '

k xX
f2 W
g

[b]

[72]
. 101.

. 102.

,
, -
.
36.
.
, ,
, ,
, -,
).
,
, ,
, .

, . 103.

W
S

- ," - f &,*, /( 2 ,) = Qo cos mt-,

x ,) = 0.

,
- [] x ^ A c o s m t , = cosmt.
- [\,

Qo

Wo
k* m*
g

cos mt,

[d\
x t == Qo

*) . J. Ormondroyd'a J. P. Den Hartog'a Trans. Amer. Soc. Mech,


E ng., 1928.

[]

x 2 -j- kt(x3

cos mt.

192

W, ,
IV

- * ^ = ,

= . f h s
V UV
. .
. - [d]
,* 1 = 0 ;

2 = -^cos mt.

\g]

, :* W2 ,
, Wx, .2x 2 = Q0 cos mt, . .
.
,

W ,,
[] . ,
k% W2,
. - [g] ,

, 3 ,
, . .
.
[i] [g-]
, Q 0

W2.


,
. 104. ,

1 , / 2
0I ==
k,

,
()
(. - 15)

()
. 104.

:= 2*

/ i i r .

I"

M t cosmt /
/ , / 2,
,
1 ,

193

i k x (.
104 ft'). k, i ,
,
.
,

i -

'

/,/,

/,, / 2 i

?, =

?2

0;

Mt

<3 = cos mt,


j



Mt cos mt.

.
- [], - ,
. ? m yi - :,
/2, ,
[d ] . / 2 ( - [d]):
i\

\ *\

X,


. 105.
, - [/],
.

, ,
= =
.


. 105.
, ,
.
. 106,

30000 .
1800 .
, .

13

194

50,8 ,
22 66 , 11,32 ,

.


.

,
. . 105 ,

, , ,
,
,
,
. , ,

W x W 2 (. 103 ft),

( / 2'). ,
,
-
- [] :
k<b(x2 *,) = Qo cos mt - f a(%2' Xi),

- , " - f
g

w
* i" + *s(* X>) = a(x t **').

[k]

.
,
.
. ,
,
,
.
,
.
- [k],
, k ig /W i = kig /W i,
1):
*) .. J. Ormondroyd'a J. P. Den-Hartog.

195

Xst

[/]
*

W jg ; x st= ( Q j k x)

Q0;

, -i

x,/xst


, . .


Q cos mt. . 107


/7 = 20 , 0 = 120
W, = 45,3 .
= 0,32
,
.
_..

x j x st
. %
/0,
. 107.

,
= 1 .
(. . 107)
.


, U T W
'
,
. 108,


.
,
. 108,
. 108.

0.0

1/.

7,

7/

196

.
. 109 ,
,
, .
, ^ ,=
= 45,3 /0= 120,

.

,
[/]

4

Wu m0K ,
a/m0W

.
(
109)
W,
0,
[5436/0,]^ <xpt.

.

.
,
1911 1) .
,

1
(. 110).
1
.
, ,

. 103;

. 110.
, ,
- .
.
--------------
*) H. Frahrn, N euartige S chlingertanks zur Abdmpfutig von Schiffsrollbewegungen, Jahrbuch d. Schiffbautechnik Q es. 1, Bd 12, S, 283.


.
.
, (. . 11),
, ,
,
.

, -
.

.
,
,
. - ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
,
.
,
,
, . . ,
,
. ,

.

. ,

, *).
37.
.
- .
,


.
,
,
,
)
Lord Rayleigh, Theory of Sound. . H. Lamb.
The Dynamical Theory of Sound; A. E. H. Love, M athematical Theory of Elasticity.
4 ed. 1927 H andbuch der Physik, Bd VI, 1928.

199

,
.

J).
-

(. . 111),
, .

-
,
,
,
, S = AEe
,
. 111.
, /
.

<?=

S= AE


n , jo
-!u , ^ , \
S+ dS A E ^ + ^ d x ) .
,

A-(dxd*u
~ g ~ d f* '
,
- 1 1

d t3

_i_

~ ^ '

,-

~ t-~ lV -'

[89]


, ", L. Pochhammer , .Jo n rn . t. Mathcm.* Bd 81, 1876, S. 324.

200

*)

[90]

.
, t,
t,
- [89]. -
, , -,

, , -, ,
,

,
. ,
, / 2 it.
- [89] :
= ( cos p t -}- sin pt),

|]

, X
,

, .

.
,
(. . i l l ) :

[b]
[a] - [89], :

i/

1) (. 286),
.

201

[],
D = 0 . [] ,
s i n ^ = 0.

[91]

,
;
. -

=

i . == , 2, -3...,
.
i = 1 ;

1931

. I l l b

kk, :
X , = , cos

= , cos ^

. I l l ,

n
= 2 lt:
a

. =

itx
I

C O S T .

[] - [89] :

{ .
ittat . n , iita t\
u = c o s - -! / c o s j -j-fi/S in j J.

. ,
[e]


')
:

/ .
in a t . . iizat\ .
cos j I A j cos j [ -5 , s i n -j I .
11,2,3..
0 .4
'
'
V

,,
[94 j

*) , , .
, ,
. 207,

202

,-, 5,- ,
.
, , t = 0
- (u)t_0 = f(x ), -
(');=0
= 0 - [94],
=

f(x) = V ,- cos

\f\

=1
t = 0 - [94], :
/*00

/ \
V

*) = 2 j Bi cos ~
1

=1

At Bt - [f] [g]
, (. 12), :
, =

i
f f f(x) cos l~ ~ dx,
0

[h]

' = , / /
0

7 * '

, , ,
, , ,
= 0 .

()/-.=*) = \

fi(x) 0,

t = 0 ,
- [h] [k\.

^ 1

~
7"1=9 i ;

.
= \0 i ;

Bt = 0,

[94] :
i = oo

4el

iT t X

ir.at

C0 S~ r C0S T

1= 1, 3, 5,...

= 1, 3, 5 ,...
,
.
[94], ,

203

,
.
.
- []
qi , :
/=*

'/

<7,- COS - J - :

[/]

1=1

,
, :
..

( \
2

. 2 I Vi .

) ~ W ~ J
4/

. ir.xV ,
Sm ~

_
i=i

2 ^ )'dx
, <7,- ,
, (. 12).

/

1**

T-%f

i 1

V - [71],
q -:
+

[]

.
tit at i ~* . i at
q; = Ai cos ---- f S,- sin - y - .

r 1

\p\

(- []). , - []
qL.
, *
(. . 125).

204


.
,
.
- [94]. ,
,
.
, [94] i \, 3, 5 ,...
,
,
, .
/
,
- [94] 2/ I /21 cosiicx//.

/ =*00
V
I
. _ . i -a t\
rrir,
=
sin- W \ AiC0 S ~ 2 l + B iS in ~ 2 T
/= 1 ,3 ,5 ...

'

'

,
qt
, :
/=*

V
=

,,s.-


4sm ~2

1,= / ( & ) = 1

'

1961

1 ,3 ,5 ,...

1,3, 5, ...

- ,
qb :'

9" + 4 =
:

.
iicat . . incit
i Ai cos
+ , sin
.
(. - [95]).

205

.
, - [72] :
/ , .
-
l i -17'
8

4/ 2 4~ A f l

Q; ,
qt.
, (. . 115).
bqt qt. ,
- [q],

* = bqi
s s in -
bu

, *
. ,
bqt, Q,. -
[], -,
, , ,
Qt.
1).

.
ir,at . _ . in a t .
qt Ai cos
- f B i sin - g j - +

4g-

t
. ,,
J Qi sm
a

....

. .


,
. , . [s] - [q],
.
,
S = f(f),
(. . 112). bq
qi}
(. - [?]):

8 S ^ s i n - ^ .

2>

,
,

Sbqi sin

206

[s]
, ,

[<7]
( = 1 ), :
1=00

( ^

= ^

T J s s i n ~ ( '- ' ) *

/= 1 ,3 ,5 ,...

1"!

S = f ( t t)
[] .
, , ,
,
(t = 0). [] :
=

1981

1
/ = 1,3,5,...

'

,
,

41
ai

Xi

,_

1
ai
xt ~ 41 '

(ivat/2) = 1.

( \

16? / 5

it '1 Zi
1

/=>1,3,5,...

, ,
,

Eg

-=

'

>

---75"
! ! - * --=
-5 * + ...

/= 1 ,3 ,5 ,...

_
"i

IS

207

,

, , 1).

(. 111 ),
S, = 1.
, - [I], q0
,
:
.
tzx ,
2 .
3 :
11 = + c o s -j- + q2 cos
- f q3 c o s - j [v]
[ ]
[] :

..

. 1 \

A'(l

2 d
?
/-i
- :

<

Q^

[w]
A 'tl .
~2 ^ Qi H
27

, (. . 205),
,

Q, = S

Qt= ( - i y s .

, ,
, - [w\:

a -J S &
~ 2 1
-
i~ (

^
- , \ ( t \ d t t z M lA { \ '
>A*atfJ
I (
) ~ -*
I

'
- [v],
, S:
IV

St* ,
U~ 2 T l +

2glS
Z

i=i

(-1 )'* /,

~?r

cnJ * at
t

1 _ cos

C0ST

'

)
(. 214).

208

, -'
.
.
5 = (Sl/AE) ,
S, = (2l/)
, ~ / :
, .

. 25 '

( ) _ ,=

1 /.
/2 ( 1

+ ^2
i1

, ,
t (/2).

f \

8 . 48/1

1 t 1
'
8 . 48 2
+ T r 25 + ' " j = + 1 3 = 5-

,
,
.
38. . .
(. 113)
, ,
(. . 22).

!..
, ,
(, . 1).
.
e r r
I
- [89] ,

, :
. 113.

dt*

*39']
* J

q
k , , , , , /
, a q .
.
, :

()*= = 0.

209

, ,
W, '):

<L=-(SL

[*]

, , :

= X ( cos pt - f sin pt),


[]
X ,
.
[] - [89'J, :

,( ,

!V

\d]

X == cos + D sin

'

'

1 '

D .
[], = 0 [d].
[] :
.
pi1 W,7
W
. pi
cos = p - sm
[V]

d l - ~ W = ~ . - [&]
:
a = p tg p .

[99]

0,10 0,30 0,50 0,70 0,90 1,00 1,50 2,00

II

,
, .
,
) - [99]
:
4,00 5,00 10,0 20,0 100,0

00

P != 0 .1 0 0,32 0,52 0,65 0,75 0,82 0,86 0,98 1,08 1,20 1,27 1,32 1,42 1,52 1,568 /2
W,
, - [99] , tg p = p;

- = .= 4 '
:

l/ il

[/i

,f -

~ i V
bSj ~ Wl/AE
W.

w ~ V bs;

*) W,
, .
; ,

14

210


(. - [3], . 8).
- [9] tg fi = ? + 8/3.

- /3) =

[] -,
:

[]

[] [/] ,
W .
, (. . 65).
[h]
, = 1 ,
, 1/0. ,
,
.
, p,, fi, , . . . -
[99] , 8,// [], :

i .

:

.4,- ,-
.
, ,
S, ,
= 0 . [ 1
- [] , .
, ,
.
:

()/-

- [k] t = 0 :

'

'

211

,- , -:
/=>

Sx

. P/JC

/,s,n / =fc-

[/]

- i
,
12. ,-,
- sin ($-tx jl)d x * = 0
= 1. :

xsin ?iXd v SP (
1 / '
\

c o s 3i I sin^A
+ p? J

, - [99], .:

i
sin bs!L dx sin , Sin

J*sin

sin P/Sin i V

0
, - [/]

I
1=00
i
fI -sin P ( * *V At
, sin
. ~dx = s p
. a,*.
I v sin - - dx

I -a

ae J

I L

sin2BA

2 \

2/ J

I . a

aSln ^

. ,

OUIif
^mSH

m 1, 2, 3, .7 7 7 1, i + l , . . .

cos 3,-

sin p;
+ IF ,

, - []

V>

sin

= ( )* = ; / sin 3, =

/= 1, 2, 3---(/1), (/+ 1)----

s/

sin

' =0

i ( -

<( -

') " ( - +

, , ( - [99])

1 sm
.,
1C0S ^ ,

^ =

. _
4S/ sin [5/
' _ gpr(2?/ + s m 2 ? /) :

212

S*

4s / v
=

sin^ sinT
p z (2 ? , + s i n i 2 3 i)

1100)

/1

:
* 5 ? sin f o r i n t

4S/ V

COS

^2/

P/(2P/ + sin2M

f-'lOl)

l=-\
.
, - [ft]
.
/

1

I \1

..

( \ .

AE

= ^ )

2P-J

V 8,, cos ^

\,

, - [99],

I
J*cos

cos

dx = 0,

dx _

J*cos*

^ 1),

, :

:
,
:

At
T~ 2 g

[mj :

*) , q , , qs>. . .
;
.

IIsin ? sin
*.
J =
-- dx

W sin

1 1
, sin

213

/ ,

:
4/

2 9 ,

sin ?

/i

97 V

2 ^ j + 2 2 9z

/=-

- [99] :

= ^ = M g ? i

/ =

/ tg (5,

=
4^

1= 1

, *ta2|j\
2 , j

b ,,

, [] []
qi q'j.
, [ft] [/]
, qi
(. . 125). [] [] - [72],
- q(.

Qi , qt.
, ,

, - [] ):

i l S P T F iW j

, ,

sin (' - '*>

S i.

- [//], :

sin sin


Qt. 1. W
.

%
214

, . , , ,
S, . .
Q/, ,, (.
. 115) :
Qi S sin p,-.
* - [102], W
:

{U)x=l =

2 + h 2 p,) ( ~ cos

/=

'

1:1,31

, W,
, , ,
. - [99]
, - :

( 2 / 1)

- [103], ,
(. - [98], . 206).
, W
, - [99] . -

&= (< 1) t [103], ,


.
[103] :
.

4 gSl
sin2 ,
/
pl(2p1 + S in2pl ) ( 1

\
C0S I j

, sinp, = , s l n 2 p , = 2 p , , :

w ~ I f t (1- - cos^
,
COS- - 1,

vvm ax

, ,
, , .
, W (.
. 206), - [103]. ,
,

. ,

, ,
, ,
.

215

, -- [103], - [99] ,
,
.
,
.
. ,
,
, ,
. ,
,
,
. , . 113.
, S sin p t W,
(. . 22).
, []. qi
,
vqi s i n $tx
-j S sin p t
S sin p t sin }p q i.


?/ = S sin

sin 3t-,

[102] ,

/= .
( . . p i . a$[t\

I'

-I

_ 2 g S \
7.

(+4(4-',
i

77

\ '

1,1

, : -,
, sin pt, ,
, -, , sin ,-<//.

, ;// ,
. [q]
, (. . 15
128). ,
, ,-// [q].
, pl/a^t,
,
/=

,.

4/S sin Pt Y

( ) -

AE

sin fo___

Pi (2 fi* + sin 2 ? ,)

]
[]

i=i
(. - [100]).
[] [q]
).
,
.
*) .

216

39.
.
. (. . 11 130)
,
, .

),
.
,
,
2).
GIp = ;
;
(. . 111 ) ;
1 , / 2
, ,
.

{,
:

-
(. . 111)

T lp W -G I
g dt2~

,
[1 0 4 ]
7

) _
dt 1 ~ ~x 1

[105]

- - [89],
,
. , ') . n . .-
* 1905 ., U eber die erzw ungenen Schw ingungen von prismatischen Staben, Z. f. Math. u. P h y s. Bd 59, 1911.
*) L. ,
. 199.

217

-
- [91], (. - [94]):
I

cos

i -

.
,

it .

at

^ c o s ^ + ^ s in ^ p

[106]

:
. ,

, :
t
,

ll U 2 ,= ~ G,p[ L o
.
( \
) ^

[] - - f ,,

(d* )

-------------- ^

7~~'~
. 114.

,
; :

= X (cos p t -\- Bsm pt),

[]

X ,
.
[] - [105],

X = C c o s - f- D s in ~ .

[d\
1

D
, .
[d] [] [] :
-

, =

~ G!p,

-(Ceos + D sin
) = 2- GIp ' sin - f D c o s ^ .
\

)

1
)
D,
:

' -

218

pL


~ 70

_6 _

ri
^

/0

Io {'iHp/g) ,
- [/] - :
(1 / tg ) = (tgp + mp)

to _ ( + )

71

[1071
2, ,. . .
-, -
[d\ [\ :

Xi = Ci [cos

tn$i sin

:
=

V [cos

,- sin ~ - j j Ai cos

j- 5,- sin

. [ 108]

*
/, / 2
/ 0 , - [107]
, -
, 2 ~ , ... [108]
[106],
.
,
, /, / 2
/ 0; .
- [107]
8 - [107] :
p t g p = ( l / m - f 1/).

[109]

- , - [99] (. . 209)
. -
,
tgp, = pt.
Pj = | / l M - f 1/.

[h]

- [10^]

Ir

219

, - [104], [g] [],

^
- [15] (. . 13),
, ,
.
- [109]

= + 1 1// + 1/);
p3 = 2 it + l / 2 it(l/m -j- 1/ ) ; ...
[ 1 5 ' ]

,

.

- [107], tgp, pt -J- 1/3 ^,
_l 1

Pi ( +

")

$ ,4 1

os

Pi*A
3
- (3, - [h]
,
:

= i

/
|/

3 \ 1
2 ]'

f _ ^ = - i / i - 4 - - / J - - 1 ___ L \
2 /
2 /
m
n
3 2
w 2 /

mm
* ^

f - 1 /9
J l~ 2 * y
^ 1 1 Jo.

- [15'], /, / 2
I;:

/ + / / 7

/ + 7 7 7 T v

, [ 110 ] , (. 11 14, . 60).

220

,

.

').
.
- .
, t, [108]
, :
=

= 2

qilcos^j- m f o s i n ^ j ,

[108]

^ - [107].

i=i

,- = 21 +

sin 2P/ +

^
sin 2f5, -J- 2& (1 cos 2,3,). [k]

, , [111]
- [107].
, ,

.

:

i
==

/ (') ^ + ( ,), + Y

, [108'] , :
i s m

'2

A b q,')'-

11121

1=1

, [&].
*) "
F. . Lewis, . : Torsional V i b r a t i o n
of Irregular Shafts, Journal Am. Soc. of Naval E n g s \ Nov. 1919, p. 857, Critics'
Speeds of Torsional Vibration, Journal Soc. A utomotive Engs", Nov, 1920, p. 413

221

- [111] [112], -

. " 4- -
i f , 9i + 4/ 4i~ A tQi

Qi ,
qt.
,
, - [/]
f
, = 4/ Qt sin
(t tjd ty

- [108'],
, :

2 i ( cosT ~ m M n ? r ) / Q,sin (<- -

11

'

'

!1

,

, .
1),

.
40.
.
. ,


,
-
/jg

>.

[114]

El ,
.
,
. 115.
*) .: .

222

- [114], :

dM^
dx
dxdx ~
(p
dQ
d x'-\^ dx '1 = ~ d x = q ----------------- q

-, -
,
q,
- .

,

,

:

"-
~~ g t -

. 115.

[b]

,
.
[ft] q - [], -
:

x* \


' g ? '

x-

[115]


El ,
- [115]
_
^

E' w =

g t2

2dtV
.' , dx
1 0
1

[116]

- =

EJg
'

[117]

.
,

:
(A cos pt {- sin pt),
[]

223

,
.
". [] - [116],

dKX _ y y
d ^~ a * X

. -,
t118]

5=w=*-

11191

, sin kx, cos kx, sinh kx cosh kx


- [118], -
:

= , sin kx -f- %cos kx -f- C3 sinh kx -f- C4 cosh kx,

[120]

Cj, . . . , C4 ,
.
, , . .
,

|&

=0;

?-

, . .
,

*=*

;-


, :

%-; ?-


,
[ 120],
.
.

[]

= 0 0

(Ai cos p(t-\- i sin p tf)...

[121]

224


.
.

, - [ 121]
. qh
/=00

11

q ,x t.

[122]

- ,
.

:

v=/ (a?)*=T '1 " f ( W * 11231

<1 0
:
0

T = :1 h " d x = ' % r - j x ? d x .
6 0
& 11

[124)

, ,
[123] [124]
(. . 128).
.
,
,
/2 /2 ". - [118] :

dxX m _ ?
dx'
-
< -
dxK ~ '
- , ,
, :

, , ' :
/
2.

f xx*dx^

_1 *
\ m dx 3

dX n x m
dx dx 1

n dx 3

225

d X m dr-, 1
dx dx 2

[125]

[d\, [] [/] ,
- ;

I
j d x = ,
, ,
- [124]. ,
, - [123].
- [125] , :

[123] [124]
.
, -
, - .
[g]
. - [125]
, - [118] [119] k
bk, , Ik
.
__: {k + bk)* k' + 4ks bk,

P n Pm 8 __

4^3

bk

a2
X .- X .+ *.
- [125] ,
:

i
\ 2 dx d d 'X m
A m dk dx *

dX m x m
dk dx3

d dXm <?xm
dk dx dx *

dXm d d3Xl\l
dx dk
|0

X , X " ,...

X kx,

_t, t.
dx RA"

dXm _ ,
dk

m'

- [118] :

X"" = X,
.

15

226

- []

i
4k* J *dx = j V '" + k*x * - kx ' +

"

v.

+ V " (* + kx " ) - kX m' (2kXm" + k*X '") I'


'

4k Xm* dx = I 3XmXm"' + kx Xm* - 2kx Xrn' Xm'" ~ Xm Xm" + kx (Xmy I . [k}

[rf], [] [/] , - [k],


"' ' ",
;

J Xm*dx = \ { * - 2 ' "' + ( "}\ =

= 4 { x ms - 2 ' "' + ("

[126]

- [g]
. ( = L) ,

(Xn ' % = i -

0;

-1 =

0,

- [126]:

i
f x mdx = - ^ ( x m*)x _ l .

[127]

, :

i
^ = -^{"-1 .

[128]

i
= - - ( ' "')_ ,.

[129]

[g] -
[118]. - X , :

J-*-

- , :

227

- [126] [g],
[123] [124] V . - [126] [130]

, .
41. .

, - [114]
. ,
.
,
.
'). ,
, mnmji^ (. . 115), ,
. ,
,

dxdt

dy
xdt2

^ ,
XY, 2)

__ *L dX
g

dxdt 2


. - (. 2>2)

dM

*
dx
g dxdt 2 '
^

dM

- , :

EI

dly __
dx 4

d-M
dx"

, [b] (. 222), :

d'y _
dx4

i 0
g dt* ^

If d'y
g dx*dt*'

1 1

-
,
.
). -
, ,
, .
,
*) . Lord Rayleigh Theorie of Sound*, 186.
s)
) . .Philosophical Magazine* (Ser. 6) Vol. 41, p. 744
Vol. 43, p. 125,

228

. <|<
, (3
,

-* + *

-:

M= - /S -

Q = W O = i'f - * ) A O .

k' , ;
, G .
- 11 (. 115) :

. , .

dx

----- j

d x + Q d x=

dt 2

dx.

- [b], :

-
:

dt2

dt8

* \ *

dx

) ? = 0.

- [] [rf],
- :

d*y
dx 4

dt*

Ht
\ g

E I t \ *
g k ' j dxt-

/
t *_
g gk'G dt4

- .

42. .

.
[ 120] :

X , (cos k x -f- cosh kx) -f- C, (cos k x cosh kx) -j-f- Ct (sin kx
sinh kx) -f- Ct (sin kx sinh ;). . . . [133]

( 1) ( . . . -

(2) ( " )

= 0;

() ,= ;

) ( ^ 1 .,= -

[] ,

229

, 2 [133] .
(3) (4) 3 =
s in /= 0 ,

[134]


. - :

kl= Tt, 2 , ,. . . .

[135]


- [119]:

72
4ait2
9a *2
riocl
= )2= - ^ ; . = p - ; p 3 p - \ - - ' ,
[136]
/ -
. _ _ 2 1 _

^ 2

2 /2 ~ 2 /2' ] /

7|

:
"

fn

fg

,

.
,
.

, - [137],
.
[137],
.

[133]. ,
1 = 2 = 0 C3 = Clt

X D sin kx.
k - [135], :

. v
. 2 -
. 3 ~
= D1 sin ; 2= D.j sin - j - ; X 3 D3 sin ; .
,
,
1, 2 , 3 ,. . .
,

230

. [ft]
[121 ], :

= sin * (- cos pit -f- Bi sin Pit).

[138]

i= i
, Bt
,
. , ,
-:
)<= / () (y ')t = ~~~f i 0 0 t 0 [138]
t, :

0 0 , = . = / ( * ) = 2 <8 ^
/= 1

( ) , = =

(X) =

^ B i sin

[d ]

>=1

,- ,
[] [d\ s\n(i*x/C)dx
- 1. :

i
Ai = j j f( x ) s i n ^ dx,
0

[e]

B= W - f f ' w sin l~ T dx
o

[/!

, , , v
,
. f ( x ) / j ()
= , f x (c) v .
\) [/],

Ai = 0 ;
[138],

B i ~ v Ssin^.

231

= (1/2), . . ,

v=

2vb / 1
I

&

, .

sin-- sm P i t sm - - sin p 3t + sin j - s m p st ... =

\p 1

P3

Ps

2 vU (\

1 .
= ^ l T SinT Sm^ - 9 Sm^ r Sin^

'

. 1 . 5
,
+ 2 5 Sin- r Sin p '

,
, ,
,
- [g-], 1/2.
.
, - [116] - [132].
Ai
- [132]

'

I '

r*(i

) - '

{ + k G j dx*ts +

4 + dt 8

gkG dt 4

1 1

-,
_ . -
.
_ = sm j cos pn t.

...
[k]

[132'], - :

az

'~ 1
p

rm
'

rm
Pm

, .---p
~

m V rs
rm
Pm

p
~~

. 2
kfoQ
Q "
i ggfoG
k(

[140]

-, :

X =

--2
p

-JT

, .

[136].
2/*2

- [140]

,
_

aii8 / . ___
2*2 )

I
, ,
X, . .
.
- [140]. [/]
-, ,
, :

.3

8- .

232

g
= y

, :

A'G
,
.
, X , , :

72

' ~*~ = 2 ' 1 = 0,004


2 / -

43.
.
.
:
(\

, (d?X \
(2H d F L . = 0 ;
.n
_.
^ { d x * } x = ~ 0]

[al

{4\ d x * ) x=l~ '

(1) (2),
[133]
2 = 4 = ,

X = C t (cos&K-f- cosh kx) - f C 3 (sin kx -j- sinhfoc).

[b ]

(3) (4) :
,( c o s& /+ coshfeO -bC 3 ( sin&J-f- sinhW) = 0 ,
Ct (sin//-|- sinh/) -f- C3 ( cos/-f- cosh/) = 0.
Ct C3, ,
, - []
. - :
( c o s kl-\- cosh k t f (sinh 2Z sin2&/) = 0
, ,
cosh a-kl sinh 5 k l = 1 ,
cos 2/-f- sin 2/W = 1,

cos& /cosh /= 1.

[142]

-
:

k tl

kyl

4,730

Kl

7,853

Kl
10,996

Kl

14,137

Kl
17,279

233

, - [119]:

__ ..

7 l~

j.

___

__ k ^ a

'

J * ~ 2 n ~ 2ic

___ 3 __ k3za

2ir

2 ic

- [142] - [],
C jC z
- [b]
. . 116

.

.
k tl = 0.
- [118] ,
, []
, X = 4 - . - .

,
(. . 206).
.
:
( 1) 0 = 0 ;

<2 ) ( 1 _ 0 = ;

( 3 ) W ,_ ,= o ;

( 4 > ( ) ,_ ,= -

,
[133]
, =
.
-:

2 (cos k l cosh k l)-\-C l (sin k l sinh&/) = 0,


(sin k l-\- sinh kt)-\-C k ( cos k l -j- cosh kl) = 0 ,
- ,
(. - [142]). ,
,
*).
*) - [118]
,/ = 0,

' , ,

234

,
. , (* = 0) ,
:
( ! ) ( * ) ,- = 0;

(2) ( g ) , = 0 ;

. . -

,
[133] 1 = 3 = 0.
- :
cos k l cosh k l = 1.
-
:

Kl

Kl

1,875

4,694

Kl

7,855

Kl

Kl

Kl

10,996

14,137

17,279

, , ,
,
. :

i Pt _ ak?
2

J '

, , , :
/ 1 ,8 7 5 \2
2*
I )

P _
2*
/ ?
1,8752 3,515 | / E l g '

1 _ 2*

Xl / ,

1,5 /0 ,
(. . 63).
,
. - :
tg kl = tgh kl.
- :

Kl

Kl

Kl

Kl

3,927

7,069

10,210

13,352

Kl

16,493

1). , ( 1)
1) . E. R. Darnley, Phil. Mag.*, Vol. 41, 1921, p. 81. . D. MSmith, .E ngineering*, Vol. 120, 1925, p. 808.

235

.
/2, /
,
.
, [120] (. 223)
.
, (_>= 0)
,

X , = a, (cos k x cosh kx) -f- , sin k x

d, sinh&x,

[e]

a , dr .
[] :

= ar k (sin k x -f- sinh kx) -f- cji cos k x -f- d fi cosh kx,
X " = (cos k x -f- cosh kx) crk? sin k x -f- dr sinh kx.

[f]
tel

x = 0 - [/] [g-], :

(X ;)

- k{cr + dr) ;

(X r") x=0 = ~ 2W ar

, cr -\-d r
, ,
.
, 1 = + = 0 .
, :
( * ,) ,- /, = 0; (Xr')x_lr = (Xr+l')x_ 0- (Xr")x. lr = (Xr+1")x.
, - [], [ /] [g"],

a, (cos klr cosh kl ,.) -f- c, sin klr - f dr sinh klr = 0 ,

[h]

a, (sin klr -f- sinh klr) -j- c, cos klr -)- dr cosh klr = c, + , -f- dr +, , []
a , (cos klr -\- cosh klr) -(- cr sin klr i r sinh kl, = 2arJrX.

[/]

[h\ [/], :
a, cos klr -f- c, sin klr == a , cosh klr dr sinh klr a, +, ,

, sin klr ,

_a r+ i a r COS klr '


, __
Or + 1 ~ a r cosh klr
r
sin kl,
4

sinh&Z,.
cr -\-d r = a, (ctgh klr ctg klr) a , + , (cosech klr cosec klr).
r

, ,
1 '

[n\

ctgh klr ctg klr=<fr ,


cosech kl, cosec kl, = ty, ,

:
C ,~ \

d, =

0 L ,f,

O,

+i

'\r

'0 ]

236

, r-f- 1 :

cr + 1 f" dr+ 1=

ar

+1

+ 2 + 1

+1

\\

[/] \\ - [k], :
^

V r

+ i

(.9~

tV + i) ~ b

24 v

+ i

[?]

- ,
-' ( 1) -:
2 (?i "f" ?)
= 0 >
^2 3 (2 -f- ) -\~ ^ = : ,

- 1

-1

(? -

1+

?)

[]

0.


, -
.
, . ;
- [],
'Pi + = 0

<, =

<2 .

[S]

(/,) = <(/,).

R sb ,


- < <
.
. 117 <?
k l ,
.

,
X ,

? ,

.
/, : /2 = 6 : 4 ,5 ,

kl, = 3.416.

237

, _&,*__ 3,4162
' 1~ 2 "
2?

kly = 4,787.
k lt = 6,690,
1 :1,96 :3,82.
, ,
. 117, klx =
= .

.
,
,
,
.
[]:
*

(, + ?) + 2 = 0 ,
^9 %
(?9
?) ~ 0 ,

- :
< -1),
- [/] .
44.
.
.
- [138].
qt ,
-:
[]

- [123] [124] sin (i-x/l) {:

*) E. R. Darnleyn, ci . 234.
D. . Smith'd ,
,
.

238

/ =

=%

1,441

, -
[72]
:
/
-

44

n / j-

*-L

Qi

Qi

,, , 4 5 2
2.?
H ~ F ~ 4 i - - ^ Q i ,

...
M

(^- , <7,
2 [117]. - [b]

. . l'-r.-at

2g ,,

. iV -a (t /.) ,,

Qi p, +5,-sm p h a-tlJ Q<sin

r.

^ i- W

10

, ,
,
.
P = P 0sin n tl ,
(. . 118).
Qh ,
i

.
bqt
i

----- [] :
_ - . c n ^

. 118.


P . 8s <7(- sm* - y .

n . L"KC

|~v . VtzC .

Q ,.= P s i n - y = sin - j - s m n f ,.

[a]

- []
, , :
2g

. i-.c (

, = Aj sln T W

I3

sm n -

. iV a t\

sms -

, ,
[e]

239

- [], :
--

v _

. . ITZX
s m

- -

S in

1 .J n n t i'rJa?
*

i= 1

. . . i~x
... = Sin j- sm ,
VgnPJ5
I
I W at
A'{^ a Z
2/4)
P

,
sin tit. , ,
.
,
. -
,
, -:
. .
2 P o / 3v

s i n T

s i n _ r

= - 2 . . v , ' - - , - 11'
i= l

rj1 \

.
,
, -l1
[/] ;
2gPP v 1 . i~c T'X
^ = 4 2 8 81

, ..

1=1

, [117],
1=00

2 VI 1 . .
) , = ? 2 ? !' ! (=1

, ,

,
'). ,
, . . ~

I
2

2 f .
1 . 3 . 1 . 5 irx
\
y = i 7 \ s m T - sm - r + d-'s m - l ----------)

14

,
1) . .Applied Elasticity*, p. 131,

240

, .

_ 2 _
~ ~ 48,7
IV j Vo :<
,
/2
[/], , :
/=

2P0sm n tl3'\ Sm I Sm I
E h r4
i* a 2
i= i
,

' .
2P,sinntP{ SmT
E h t4
VI a 2

,
T
,
3 4 a2

, 5
T

[fcj

a
, , [k] [h], ,

, = r1^- *2

, ,
,
6 % .
,
-,
-, ,
,
,
.
,
.
, ,

q = q0sin nt.

.

241

, - [ / ] qdc
- = 0 ~ 1 .
:

/->
i

? = -% -

.
s in 7w

i= 1


, /2/4
[] , :
/ .

4 W

sin
-j

. 5

sin-y-

SinT
j

35

1
1

5 5

, q.

* = 2
:

'

,
V40/0-
,
-, ,
,
, [/].
. ,
,
- []. v

^ = 0 ; t = t t
v tt.
Q, , ,
qt []
bqt.

/ (8 )*-. vti = PS^jSin


_ . i~vtx
Qt = P sin y J
.

16

242

- [],
, '):
.

1=00

S in V-

_ 2gPP

~ -(- 2 j ?

. nvt

vH 2) Sin ~

i1

.
Sin I
. pn'cit
*3 Z ? ( i V a - s V ) 8111 P '

2g P P v 'y

,
l146l


, .
v ,
v = 0 v t = c\
/==<
2gPP v ' 1 i~c i~x
2 ? s ,n T s m T - '
(= 1
, ,
(. - [/]).

vH 2


[146]
. . n v t
, = ooSin j-sin
_ 2 v
I
I
~~ 1> Z i
i 1

a 2)

. .

,
2), ,
*)
. . . ,
, . , 61, 1905 ., .-. .
", 1908 .
( Zetschr. f. Math. u. P h y s .\ Bd 59, 1911). . C. E. Inglis
Proc. of th e Inst, of Civil E ngineers", Vol. 218, London, 1924,
.
) . A pplied Elasticity, . 163.
, ,
[] .

243

c = v t ,
S, ,
5

s l* _

S Kp

r 1

**

[3]

S Kp ,

.
[s] [q] :

g|gV

SI*
v*P

2- 2- ;

/ .

S=

[t]
g
1J
,
,
, []
.
v ,
[146]
, . , ,
ah 2 v ii.

[]

, 2/,
2 l/v, , ,
, .
- [146]
[] ,
. icvt ' lv . -it-at
- nr.
s m -,----- - sinp 2gPl3 . T.x
l

/-sm
A v r2

u2a 2 z/2/2

0/0 ^
:

w t . ,

'

cosT

sm T

Pgl

. scvt .

+ A f c * sl,,T

s,,' T -

, t = ~ ,

Pgl ( . -v t

icvt

TCVt\

. T.x

( ~ r cos - r j I/s,n T = s,n T

r ,

244

, [v]
,
- [146], ,
[] 50/0
, ,

48
,
, .
;
.
,

, ,
, R . 119.
(. 119).
,
P (dy/dx).

t

l/v

W = f (^)
vdt.
J \d x /x =vt
y [w], :
l/V

P-g C ( . * v t K vt
w t\
j \ sm
cos T )

,Vr
r

KVt
cos

,,

vdt =

P*gl
T s fc

It*
-4

, [] [117],

W-.

'
4

*)
t = l / v .
, ,
,
) , ,

P-l1

, V = -QQ-

2, 43.

, ./ 48 \ 8
(-^ ] = 2 ,3 8 .
.

245

, 2, [q], .
- [146] ,

,

2gPP f
1
, vl
1
\ _
2 \ 2 2 v^P
2 /2/2) .
_ 2 1 + < __ 2 1
[147]
~ ~ / 2 ~


,
.
,
*.
J).
2).
,
v.
, ,
f
!____
'
M L
(. 120). v j
;
1___________ >----------------- , - 120.
, 3) P c os <u
.
, ,
, qt :

Q i= P c o s <uj sin

[], :
. Im v , \ ,
sin
+

1=1

i (P +
. pTz'at
Sm ~ p ~

. Ih v

sm (-J -

) . pT^cit
f (P U
s m ~p~~

- 2a 2+ ( i 2p)2 ^ P a 2 + (P - f p )2

HI

f1

[148]

J) . .
!) . Phil. M ag. , Vol. 43, 1922, p. 1018.
*) ,
= 0
.

246

a = vl/cnz = 2/-
, = l/v,
, ; (3= / 2
= 2 />
.
2
, = 1,
.

t = l / v , ( i = 1)
- [148],
,
1 2 . .
.
sin ~ sm <of,

_ 1 2 /3 __2,

......

' /* *

,
, = l/v
, ,
, ,
2 / E h 1, ,
. - [149]

.
45.
. ,

, , .

,
*). ,
, :
1) ,
2 ) '
3) - .
*)
Theorie der Elastizitt fester Krper, -
(, 1883), . ^ 61, . 597.

247

.
:
1)
; 2 )
_________ ________ ^
.

.


R,
. 121.

(. 121), -

__Rx- ( I )
N
3 IEI
R,
(P/g ) (d-y/dt2). ,
v, :

dy
dt
V dx
:

d t- :

R = p ( 1 -\

,d?y
dx2

/2 d\y

g dx2

'

- [], :

j __ v n- dry

g dx-

x?(l x) '

[1501

-
1). -[150], ,
, (v = 0),

2 (/

-.
, ._ ,
,
-2 1 \
g )

) - WillisoM, Appendix to th e Report of th e Comnissioners,,. to inquire into Application of Iron to Railway Structures. London, 1849-

248


, , :
'

t 51J

,
- [150] *),
.
, ,

.
,
,

44.
, ,
8,3 , 36,6 ,
109,7 / 5):
/ = 1 8 ,3 .

( ) = 36,6

36,6

== /

109,7
~2

/la

v 36,6 /,
,

l/v, .
[147] 3),
18,3
- 12/0,

*) - [150] , . .M ath , and Phys.
P ap ers', Vol. 2, p. 179. , .
Die Schw ingungen eines Traegers mit bew egter Last, Berlin, 1896.
, - [150]
, , (. . 84).
.
, . . *, 1903 .
s)
: A. Bilhler, Stossw irkungen bei eisernen Eisenbahnbriicken, Druckschrift zum Intern. Kongress fr Briickenbau, Zrich, 1926, W. Hort, Stossbeanspruchungen und Schw ingungen... .D ie Bautechnik*, 1928.

. H. Reissner Zeitschr.
f. Baut.*, Bd 53, 1903, S. 135, E. PohlhausenoM .Z eitschr, f. Angew. jviath, u
M ech,' Bd 1, 1921, S. 28.

249

.
, , ,
.

,
-
, .
,

10%.
, ,
, .
.
,

.
,

, . , ,


, ,
, 30 .
,
- [149]. P t
,
;
.
- [149] -
. :

2 2 | /3

* / !

[152]

, ,
, :
1) , 2)
3) .

, .

, - [152] *) 100 ) ,

. 242.

250

, 36,6 . ,

21,75 , 4,6 ,
,
8,18 ,
,
(2/1*) (124,6). ,
,
(2 / 1) (93,3).
= 8 ( 1,45 )

,/ 2 = 8,5 /, ,
[152], (2/1) (136).
, ,
, : (2/1) (229,3).

: (2/1) (124,6), , ,

84%. 6 (
1,98 ) ,

56% .
,

,
, [148]
, , sin [ ( ^ / /) + >]
sin [(kv /I) ai\t sin if-at/P
1 t = l/ 2 v , . .,
. - [148]

8-

1
1
1 ( _|_ )2 - 1 (

- (TTp) 2Z ^ 2 -

_ 2 ____________ 1 g____________
- (1 _ f[l + /?]) (1 + p [1 - /])

11

, , 18,3
, .
(2 / )-(78,4).
6,1 6
, , ,

251

8,5 ( 6/ ) '= 12,2 . ,


9, - [153]:
= ^ ( 1 2 , 2 X 2 , 5 7 ) = | , (31,4).

. __78,4 -(- 31,4__


.
78,4
40%

,
,
(

30 ),
,
.
,
, ,
. ,
,
,
,

,
.
,
, .
,

.
, ,
,
,
,
. ,
^ *), ,
,
,
[152]
, ,
1) . 1925 ., Governm ent of India Central
Publication Branch, Technical Paper Ns 247, C alcutta 1926.

252

.
P t
450 ),
,
.

.

, ,

,
,

.
,
.

-
. ,
, , . .
,
.

,
,
(. . 137). ~
,
( ), .


. ,
,
,
.

,

.
46.
.
.
*) P t '
.

253

, .
S (. 122).
, (. - [138]):

qt s in - j - .

1
[]

t 'K X

' = 2

f^ i


. ,

^
, s
_______________ s
.
------------ ' ----------- ,
. 122.
,
), .
(. . 122)

/(& -< & ) = 7 . / ( ! ; ) * * .

2)

. / ( ) 4 /

( 2

1=1

? ' 0 5 = ) =

I)


, - [\ S.
[143].

i ='

i= 1

i= X

[144]

1) , .
*) , ,
.

254

- qt :
A l , /* (
2g q
2 V

SP
*

^_ E Ig

SP

[1561

:
aV

,,= C c o s ( ^ |/ l _

+ D s J ^ - |/ l - ) ( .

[157!

- [],
.
[157] [136], ,
S,

1 _

i-

2 1,
, ' 2
5 Elr^/P,

.

S, .
,
2 - [157].
^ = Cco s p ? j / ' + ^ ) t + Dsin{C
^ ] / r y+^ )t-

f157']

2 (
),
2//2, - [157']:

* c s 7 j / i f ( + Dsin

255

[],
=

= 2 Sin ^

f Ccos

* + D sin ^ | /

[1 58]

0
,
.
.
,
.

(. 123)
q
. 123.
-:

2 EI

1
3 fa ' + 2 r

-*

v - I L f ( ^ y y dx- j ! l
2 J \d x * l
40

[d]

cospt,

-8

[d\ [],
(. 123 ):

/
9 0 X 9

ql*
_ 2
f ql
Elg
3,530
1/ :E lg '
E/g

[159]
[160]

7'/ (. . 234).
,
S (. 123),
, (- [d]),

S_ f f d y \ *
2 J \d x )

Sq'P ___
8 -1 4 C T

256


5 .
Iff]

[159]

[161]
, 5/14 S l2/E I
10% .<x * = 4SP/EIk2,
S
.
s
(. 123 ), ,
,

[f], ,
,
7/ .


(. . 271).
47.
, .
,
,
k
. k , ,
.
, ,
, .

. ,
,
1 =

[]

257

(. - [143]),
.

* [144] :
/=*

T -3 L , - qt\

il
\ o n
q
+i /1 V
2/3

l
4'
1

2 ) ~

7A

? / ' + " ( i * + P ) ? , = | f jQ -

Qi ,
qit
E lg .
R_ 1
111

E h1
f 6 ^
P = 0, - ,
(. . 238).
:

+ h

[]

- []
t

qi = A l cspit + B i sm pit + ~ ^ l - - j : f Q, sin/ 7,

[d]


, .
, Q,.
,
[], ,
.
,
P = P 0sinnt
(. 118). ,
qt,

Itzc
Qi = 0 sin j~ sin nt t .

[e]

- [d\ ,
, :
2g )
I3
J- - sin n t g sin

0
l 7*(i - fp ) .

sin / , 4
17

258

[], :
. n 1
( . .
,
__2gP j^ \ s i n si njs m n t

yA

, .
\
n s i n - - s m - , sin p {tl

L I_____-_____ -________________

1______ (

1/1

'
rJa2(il + ) *
P p tW -r-n * )
'

, . =
= 0s in tit,
n n ' f .00 . .
2 V s in jsin
i
i
2 ; -
'
* a
f , 65l

= //2, '

.
, 5
213 ( sin ~
s in ~ T , sin ~ T
~ l + p
3 4 + p + 5*-(-p
/
f166^
- [] (. 240), ,

.

. .
,
. .
n
sm - sm ' sin 7- s in j __ 2P13 Vi
I
I
_ 2 g l i P b s in n /
I
I
~
lA
Z i t ^ ^ + P)
7 7 ^
ft ~
i-i
i-i
[165], ,
.
(2/4/^ 4# 2).
[164],

ft2/ 1 __ klK
'~; __
ll (
-jti-A ]
4 2
Eh*
te*E l g
Eh* V
g
,
,
k (^rf-A/g)
.
.
, ,
*).
48.
2).
(. 14),

n . ,
Intern. Congress for Applied Mechanics, Proceedings, Zrich, 1926, p. 407.
s) Cm. Walter Ritz, G esam m elte W erke, 1911, S. 265.

20

= X c o s pt,

[]

. ,

.

.

, ,
.


.
,

,
.
,
,

,
,

.



124

(. 124). 5
, q , 21 .

, :

X , ,
. ,
,
5 ,
, , 5
.
,
:

v = s f { ' d*-

260

,
.
cos p t = 1
= 5 / ( )

i
T= ^ S W d x

,
, . . cos p t = ,
,
p*q
' f x dx.
[]
, ,
[6] [], :
2

J (\
dx

dx

' = - 7 ----------- '

/ X'-dx

[d\
X ,
.
,
, . 124,

7
. ..

[ j cos
; 2 = s m
X 3= 3cos
.
[d\, (. - [158]):

Pi ~ 4P q P ~~ P

q ~ 4 P

11

f I

Li/ .

2 4/ | /

f i/ -

^ * -/2 4/ | /

q 'U~ 4 l\

'

- [/1
/ , .

261


. tpj (), 2 ( ),. . . ,

X . ,

X ,! () + 2?2 () + 33 (;) - f . . . ,

[g-]


.
, , [g],

, ,
- [d], ,
. ,
, , 3, . . . [g]
, [d] .
-

[h]

= 0.

, :

^j

>

xi

0f

I t s

'

"of

X ' d x

, - [d],

S() dx=75
g6 S f X,dx
- [k]:

i
I

0

2, . . . -,
1 , 3, . . . [g-]. -
, 3, . . . , ,
- .
,
.

262

,
. , ,
2,
|( y )^ = , = 0 1 ,
, .
2, x k, . . .
.
:

= 1( ;2) -}- 2 ( ;2) -f- 3 1( 2) + . . .

[]

,
' [/],
:

1= 1 ( 2)

- [d\,

[], , 2/4
3/ 2 0 ,66 /0 ,
[ ], ,
,
.
,
[ ], :
ftj
, ,
.
, , [d\
, , [1\
.

2 = ( :2) -f- .2 2 ( ;2),


:

263

- [/] , ,
:

(Vs - 7 33 "--) = ,

, (1 */. 2/2) +
, (1 -

V , 2/ 2) +

* / 2 (>V7 -

* / 2/'2) =

[]

* =

- [] ,
&4/s 28 -
)- 63 = 0.
%

- :

k t*P = 2,46744,

= 25,6.

, ,
, . - [/>],
ijepBoro :
2_ 2,46744 g S

, _ 2 5 , 6 gS

Pi

[]:
2 _ * g S __2,467401 g S ,
Pt ~ 4 l* q
/2
?

_ 9 * -g S _ 2 2 ,2 0 7 g S
Pt 4 / 2 q ~
12 ? ;

, ,
, ( 0,0017)-
6 ,5 7 0-
[ \,
7 *7 *).
,
,
,
.

.
49.
.
.

. , , ,
, , , ,
. .,
.
*) . . 258 W. Ritza.,

264

-
(. . 222 ) :

/ .
, ,
, ^
,

, -.
:

= cos pt,

[]

X ,

:

= \ $ ' (

T = Yg f ,

dx
Eg / ' ( ) '
i


, - [d\ .
, ,
, :

X = 1?, () + 2<, (jc) + 3<3(:) + . . . ,


[]
<
. [] - [d],
:

J4S7-

ifl

265

kj'

AX'dx=-

[g] [d] :

j)
a

( d 'X y
J \d x 4

p*A-i
g

dx = 0 .

[167;


, 3, . . . - [],

dx

[h]

.
- [167] 3, . . . ,
[\. ^
-,
,
.
.

. 125.
, ,
, (. 125),

i Jl (2bxY
12 V I
I , 2 b .
:
<> ( / S L = 0
(3)

( ) .

d*X\
{ )/ J , - 0fd X \
= 0.
(4) d x !

(2)

, / = 0
= 0. ,
:

266

, ,
, = 1.
'3) (4) .
:
* . = ,( 1 - 7
*1 [d], :

,
[&],

[h\, :
2 3
^ 2== 3 7

94

2 *)2 + ~ 5 a '.(at 2 a s) f ^ j

2'[1- / ,2 . 2 ,
+ )
\3 0 1 105
280/

^

day

= 0,

= 0

:
i
3/
5 7 /4

30/
_

_ 0
\ 5 7 / 4

^ 4 -f-^
105/
V5 7 /4

10.0/
/8 0 /

= 0

-, :

k ^ _ p1) ( l e L - P L ] - ( l % * - - Z - Y = o
7 3 11 30/ \5 7 3 /4
280/
5 7 /4
105/

1 1

- /

5,319 b
*

2.

2 tz

,
,

267

1).

[168]
[/] [], ,
3%>
0,1%-

[] ,
.
,
, ,
, (.
. 234):

,
/ '
.

/.
[h] ,
/
. /
,
,

[].
,
.
.
, ,
, 2).
:
[169]
, I .
>) . G. Kirchhoff, Berlin, M onatsberichte, S. 815, 1879, Ges. A bhandlun
Sen, S. 339. . Todhunter and Pearson. A History of th e Theory of Elasti
city, Vol. 2,
* ? n. 92.
. .

268

,

(. . 234)

f P a 1,875s _ 1,758 r
'

2,

2:

2.

f g


4,359:1,758.


Y '-

i 7)

J):
1

a4

4,359

10,573

19,225

30,339

43,921

59,956


.
-:
/ - - K

T j / ? .

7.

i , / ,
, .

, .
1.
X :

= -

I = ,

[17 2]

, i
, - [171]

- 2):
= 3,47 (1 + 1,05 ).
2.
X

= [\ -- j ; I = b ( l - c ^ p ) ,

[173]

*) . Dorothy Wrinch, Proc. Roy. Soc. London", Vol. 101, 1922, p. 493.
Akimasa Ono, .Journal of th e Society of Mechanical E n g in e e rs', Tokyo,
Vol. 27, 1924, p. 467.
s) C m .

269

,
- [171]
):

c= 0
a = 3,515

0,4

0,6

4,098

4,585

0,8

I 1,0
5,393 1 7,16


.
,
,
,
(. 126),

. 126.
= "

[]

.
2)
:

i'74'

, 2 /
, , [],
:

n= 0
a = 5,593

v4
6,957

V*
8,203

3// 4

9,300

10,173



. Schwerin 3).
50.
. .
,
,
.
, , .
) Akimasa , ..Journal of the Society of M echanical E ngineers", Vol. 28,
>925, p. 429.
*) C m . J. W. Nicholson, Proc. Roy. Soc. of London*, Vol. 93, 1917, p. 506.
') E. Schwerin, O ber Transversalschwingungen von Stben veranderlichen Querschitts, Zeitschr. f. techn. Physik, Vol. 8, 1927, p. 264.

270

:
Q (. 127),

. ,
,

.
,
. 127.
,
,
.

,
.
,
,
,
,
. ,
.
,
,

*).
,
,

.
.
X Y

(. 128);
I ;
;
, -
[173]; ,
\ ;
; X ,
.
, X ,
*) . W. Hort, V. D. I.*, Bd, 70, 192G, S. 1420.

271

/
,

= cos pt.
[]
,
,
-

= * .

[]

: 1) Vt
2 )

. V1 ,
- [b]

V i = 4 - f A X dx,

[]

X ,
,
.
[] .
V , , ,
d x (. . 128),
I :

+ ),
g

[d]
\


- :

2 J \ d x )

[d\

- * L d x H a + x ) / ( d Y d x .

Vt
[/] .

A ( a + - x ) d x f ( ^ ) dx

[g]

272

,
, ,
- [], ' = .

'

| |

T = v i + vi
:
t

J (^

g j A X d x - { - j* A (a - \- x ) d x
) dx
p 8 = _o ------------------_o_-------- ------- ---------------------- .

[175]

- ,
.
-
.
2

j* A X d x
f

( 2u)*

___________________ f

'

^ ( + x)d x j
4

______

> 7* ( 21:)*

dx
_____

- [175],
:
/ = / / . 2+ 2,

[177]

/ , ,
, / 2 ,

, .
.

,
-
[173]. f t ,
(. . 269).

f t

273

- [176] :

[.
'
, .
? ).
a

's s N^

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8

1.0

1,00

1,00

1,00

1,00

1,00

1,00

1,57

1,58

1,59

1,61

1,64

1,71

1,98

2,00

2,01

2,04

2,09

2,19

2,62

2,04

2,66

2,70

2,77

2,92

3,13

3,15

3,18

3,23

3,31

3,50

3,55

3,59

3,62

3,68

3,78

4,00

10

3,95

3,98

4,02

4,08

4,19

4,44

, f t / f [177].


.

.
, - [173]
.


, /
X (. 129)
.
- *):
X
/= / 1
' sin
1
)
X
icx\
sin
7
T l '
,
At .
= / -/,

0
/
1_/7 + /.
1 / *
=
' ~ ,
7

129.

[179]

*) /< , . 268.
*) W. Hort, Proceedings of th e First International Congress for Applied M echa
nics, Delft, 1925, p. 282. , ,
, ,
.

274

- [171],

- *):
/

,=

$ %'

[1801

1 t(t ri'i

0,-
(. . . 234)2). [3,-, /, ,- ,'
:
<

Pi

/'
0,493

0,193

0,807

0,493

0,405

0,594

0,703

0,703

0,468

0,532

0,661

0,661

0,483

0,517

0,649

0,6-19

0,490

0510

0,645

0,645

0,493

0,507

0,642

0,642

,
, ,-
- [180]. <*
. 234. /, /, y t /
:

0,431

0,569

0,626

0,857

0,480

0,520

0,612

0,724

0,490

0,510

0,623

0,680

0,494

0,506

0,628

0,662

0,496

0,504

0,631

0,654

0,497

0,503

0,633

0,649

) , ', ' [10],


, 2% .
, ,
,
. ,
17% 18,5/
.
s) k? aoi - [180].

2 75

/", [177].
/ 2 - [178]
, f
[177], .
,
.
,
*).
51.
.

.
-
,
,
.

(. 48),

- [167].
,
,
,

-:
= 0 ( 1 - * 2);

= 10 (\- * ),

[]

0 / 0
. ,
x = I = - \- 1 , 21 .
,
-
= cosjot,
X :

= I ?1 (*) + 2 ?* (*) + *?*(*)+

[]

<plf <, . . . ,
.
2, 3, . . . - [167].
*) . , . 949. . W. Hort
V. D. I.*, Bd 70, 1926, S. 1422 . Schwerin, br die Eigenfrequenzen der
Schaufelgruppen von D am pfturbinen, .Z eitschr. f. teclin. P hysik, Bd 8, 1927, S. 312.

276


*), < ()
.
[133]
:

(cos :-f-cosh kx) -f- C2 (cos : cosh :).

[c]

, y :

(X " )* - i= (X " ')x- i = 0.

[d]

[] [d], :
, ( cos k l -f- cosh kl) C2 (cos k l -f- cosh kl) = 0,
C, (sin kl -+- sinh kl) C2 ( sin kl - f sinh kl) = 0.

, -

tg A /- f t g h A / = 0 ,

If \

:
A j/= 0 ;

k%
l = 2,3650; . . .

[] Cx/Ct - [],
,
:
X t = Ct (cos ktx cosh A,/ -f- cosh k tx cos kj).

, ,
1

~ v"cos2 ,/ + cosh 2 Ail


, ,/ = 0,
,
.
1/ 1/ 2 .
, ,
? () [],
1

X ai j

cos A ccost! 1 -f- cosh ,; cos /


| / cos 2 A2/-f-cosh*2/
+

[if]

) . , 2, , 1916 . .

. , .Trans, of the Soc. of Naval A rch., New-York, Vol. 26, 1918.

277

- [167],

+
/ , J (1 *)
I

- Pl ~ {1~-)

>ai ?<" ?/" *

/= 1 ,2 ,3 , . . . / = 1 , 2 , 3 , . . .

a.ajfi'Ojdx}

/ 1, 2, 3. .../-= 1, 2, ,...

[h]

-
/ (1 c x ^ 'W j d x ^ h j ,

_ / ( 1 ^ 2) ? / '? / " ^ = //>

[k]

[]

/ = 1 , 2,3,...

, - > - ) = 0,

[/]

1=


[g-]. - [/] ^Pll)

1 (11

^Pl) =

(21

, ( 12 Xpi2) - f , ( 22 22) =

0,

'fi

r2

cos k.2x cosh &2/ - f cosh knx cos k


V c o s^ k J -j-c o sh ^ k J

[k] ,
:
~ 0 ; 12 = 0 ; ai = 0 ;
+/
0 1
(1 - bx 2) (? a")2 d x =
(1 - 0,087 )-,
\)

= /(1 - 0,333/2);

= == 0,297/;

22 = / ( 1 - 0 , 4 8 1 / 2). [?]

- [] -
, - :
Pl* \
1 22.
, -
- = - ( -;0 )
, .
! = ?
F*2

12

Pu

278

_ /
2
,

f -

HucJKir.Q'fL, 2 / = .; / = 2 0 . ; .407 = 7 -9 ,8 1 /-,


6 = = 0,*;003 . .

i
Q = 20 ( 1 *-)1 = 5150 ,

- [] [</] :
= 23,40 10 " 5;

= 37,50;

= 11,14;

= 31,95;

- [s]
X= 0,817 10 " 5.
= 2- 101/*,

- J - - 2 - 107 - 0,817 10-* = 2 1 ,6 .

N = ^ 1 = 206.
<(), , ,
/ - [],
/ .
[],
- .
52.
. .
,
, .
.
,
,
, ,
, .

.
, ,
W. S
,

279

:
..

2AER-

W , ,
, :

W {h + bd),

[b]

8d -:

[]

h = \t + V b J + W f c ,

[d]

48 El

/ W.

, W

.
.

. ,
, .
, Wig v 0,
w/g,
,
v ( )
-

W
g

W+ w
g

v a= ------'-----v,

, , ,
v W
. ,
v. ,
. - [] v
,
.

280


, (. - [42J, . 61),
. . , ,
.

17/35 .
:

W vf
1
2g 7 7 T w
35 W
( W v f / g ) = Wh
- [], .
:

,
).
.
,
.

.
, ,
, - 2).
, , ,
, ,
.
,
. -
, , ,
.
,
, , , 1)
. ', .C am bridge Phil. Soc. Trans.*, Vol. 9,
1850, p. 7*3. . Todhunter and Pearson, H isto ry . . . , Vol. 1, p. 895.
s) ' . , . 246,
61, . 490.

281

,
.
,
,
).
- 2).
^
, ,
.
#= *

[ /]

k ,
.
,
[] 44.
,
Q; = P s i n ^ ,
, ,

/ = 1 ,3 ,5 ,...

tel

( t = 0)

d = a - \- y .

[h]


. v (^ = 0),
v t = t t 3):

h
'v = v * J r / p d ti>
W

, ,
.
:
^

/ / *!-

) . Zeitsclir. i. Math. u. Phys.*, Bd 62, 1913, S. 198.


-) H. Herz, ,J . f. Math. (C relle), Bd 92, 1881; A. E. H. Love, Math. Theory of
Elasticity, 1927, p. 198.
*) , .

282

[] [/], -:

Vn

) /

/=*=1,3,5,...

Psini-^ W - ^
" - / J
/2

[m]

- ,
2? ^ ,
, .
.
.
1 X 1 15,35 . -

30

40

50

60S t

. 130.

r = 1 v = 1
. 2 , 2 6 . = 7,96
. ,
0,001 . -
180 , = ( 1/ ). ,
, . 130 /.
(
,
,
.) ,
,
28 (), . . 7 6 . II,
III.
. 131.
, -

283

.
, .
/.
,
t = 0 = 1 9 ,5 (8). t = 60 (/)
- / = 8 0 (8). II.

. 131.

,
, ,
-.
53.
.
.
,
, ,
,
.
*)
.
,
,
,
v ,
,
.
, , (. 132)

*) . Lectures on N atural Pilosophy, Vol. I, p. 1244.
, -,
. 246, . 60, . 480, .

284

*),
.
t, ,
.
Vyt vt.
, v j v
( , ).

2).
,

: ,
. ,

Jt ,
i

(. 38). , !
, ,
^
, . 132.
,
- 3) ).

,
s). , -
(. . 199), ,
,
(. 132). - :

*.


,
* '= - & .
7

i]

:
( ) , - = -

) ,
.
2) . Rapport et m m oire sur les ponts suspendus, Ed. 1823.
*) . . 246.
*) . A pplications des Potentiels, p. 508.
(, .. Love, Theory of Elasticity, 4-th ed. 1927, p. 431.

285

,
, :

W
/ , [d\.

,>
t ~ ,
, :

u= d t =
0 1,
= 1 ,
,
:

.[

- [],
[] []
[ /] [g].
- :

f ( a t ) + / , {at + ),

/ / j .
{at ) {a i-\-x),
:

J b
, [h] - [].
[],
.
f{ a t ) - \ - f t {at) =

f i {at) = f(at)
at.
[h] :
u = f { a t ) f{ a t-\-x ).
[&]

286

,
:
f ( a t ) - [&]
t. /
tisr (. 133), / .
, a t
/ ,


, .
133.
,
nsr
, .
, - [k\
, X

[182]


. ,
- [k ] ,

X. [k ]
,
.

,
.

= 1.
{t 0) - [/]:
()/_ = / (
X) f ( + X),

, [/],

f ( ) f
) 0
/ ' ( - * ) - / ' ( . + *) = 0

0 < < /
. 0 < . < /.

287

/ z,
-)-* , [/], ,

/ 2) ,
- [/] ,
f ( z ) , . :

f ( z ) = 0,

[\

f ( z )
z l< ^ z < ^ l
[].
[k] - [/], :

tn l {/" ( a t ) f " (at + /)} = + / ' (at I) - f f ( a t -{- /)


, a t- \~ l z,
I

f " { z ) + -l f ( z ) = f " ( z - 2 l ) - i f ( z - 2 [ ) .

[n]

f(z)
:
[] , / < ^ 2 < [ 3 /
- [] . -
f ( z ) l< ^z< ^3 l. - []
3 / < < 5 / .
, - f ( z )
3 / < ^ < 5 / . ,
f ( z ) 2 I.
- [] -, /^ ),
- :

f (z) = ~ z/ml + e ~ z
/m
l e z/ml | / (z - 21) - ~ / ' (z - 21) dz, [p]

.
l< ^ z< ^ 3 l - [] ,

f (z) = C e - 2/ml.
[g-],

288

l< ^z< ^3l

3 / < [ z < 5 / , , - [<?]


/'

( 2) = ^ {~ 31}/1

[] :

f(z)==Ce-*/ml- ^ ( Z- 3[)e-{z- 3,)/ml.

[r]


= 1 t = (2l/a).
:
'\
\
__(\

^ / t*=2l/a0 \dt)t= =2// 4-0


= 1

^1

- []:

f ( 1 - 0 ) - (31- 0 ) = / ' (I + 0 )

(31 + 0 ).

- [rn\ , [q] [] :
v ~ 2/= - ~ 3/,

= ^ ( 1/+ 3/),
31<^<^
/ ( 2) = V * - ' " + ? ( l - A ( 2 _ 31))-<-

f (z),
< 5/, - [ ],
f ' (z), 5 l<^z<CJl, . .
f( z ) ,
f (z) ,
13 , = 1

.
:
/() =

mlv/a { 1

289

l< ^z<^3l,

}i

3/ < 2 < 5/:

/ ( ) ,
, - []
f ( a t ;) f(a t-\-x ).
< < ( / / ) , f ( a t ) - []
- []. / ( a ^ - f ),
X.
[], a t-\-x z. t = (l/a)
,
(//flX K W
: f ( a t x),
X ,
f(a t-\-x ), .
[] z
(a t ) (at-\-x) .
' ,
.

,
, . . ,

f' (at +

( ),

. 0 < at < 2 / ,
- [w] [q\
. 2 / < < 4 / , -
[w]

,
S

1+ 2 >

( , _ ^

= 0

2 at/m l= Mm - f 2 + e ~ 2/w.
,

M
19

290

-
,

21 <[ at < 4/

2 + _ 2 / < 4 /,
. 1,73.
,
, 1,73,
2l<^at<^4l, - [*].
/ ,
- 4l<^at<^6l,
, .

, ( ^> 24)

:
= - ( ! / + 1 ) .

[183]

, ,
st
- [d] (. . 279), -:

**= ~ Vm.

[184]

5 < / < 2 4 , - (183) -


/ , max = '^ - ( / w + l . l ) -

[185]

<^ 5 - :
,

. = 2 ^ ( 1 + - , ).

[186]


,
,
).
, ,
, ,

.

, ,
) , A. E. H. L ove, . 281 , . 435.

291

.
, , ,
,
1).
, ,
l/ . ,
, . Ramsauer
2) .



.
,
.

,
. , ,

- ,
, J. E. Sears3)
.
54.
.


, , ,
,
.


, ,

^ 4.
,

.
. ,

.
, *)

W. Voigt ,W ied. Ann.*, Bd 19, 1883, . 43.


8) .A nn. d. P h y s .\ Bd 30, 1909.
*) .Trans. C am bridge Phil. Soc., Vol. 21,1908,p. 49.
J. . , W a g s ta ffm , .L ondon Royal Soc. Proc.* (ser. A), 1924, Vol. 105, p. 544,

292

, ,
.

/. ,
,
:
[]

= ^- '* 2 * .
2

[ b]

[] [ft]

u" +i Eyg\r u = 0,

= C, cos p t -j- C* sin pt,

' / P

1):

/ = = . /

i ,8?i

,
. i
,
- *):

f'

^ + ? '

I188'

.
, . . ,
,
*) - , ,
,
(- {]) A i - f q, q
.
*) , . 5, . Lev, . 281 , . 454,

293

(. 135).
, ,
,

, _<,


/.


. 135.

1 X.

\d\
1 .
[] [d\ :

<p= Ct cos p t - f Cj sin pt,

:
[189]
[187], ,

1 : 1/1.
)
-:
[190]

*) . . 28! A. E. H. Love, . 453.

294

,
, ,
,

.
.
, :
,
:
).
(. 134) : 6 ,
, ,
, w
, , /

.
,
a w, :

. dw
rdb

r -j-

2 2

'

v __ ( dHi
J ( 5 ? + ) " *
24,

, [h] :
2

2-

J cos mb cos tib db 0,

f sin mb sin tib db = 0,


2

271

j cos mb sin mb db = 0,
'
0


):
= a ,c o s

a 2cos 2.. .-f- jSin ~f b2sin 2b -f- . . . ,

, ,
\g\

*)

w = ay sin -f- V2 a 2 sin 2 -f-. . .

cos1

7 b%cos 2. . .

J* cos2 mb db = J*sin2 mb db = ,

+<)

[1\

T = ^ - f (u'* + w'*)rdb.
2g
[h] [] w, :

[h]

alt 2, . . . bu . . . ,
, .
, []

dw
=
db

m n,

:
2

[/1

[ - 2):
1 __ * j

295

- (2 i
2 \ db* + /

[k]

) A. E. H. Love, . 451.
2) - J. BoussinesqoM Comptes Rendus, tome 97,
1833, p. 843.
3) , ,
.
4) : , ,
, , [].

/=)

(1-+ ) ( * - + ' > )

[ ]

, [/] [\
;

,
. -
- [/] []

- + 1 '*( -
+

/~ '

296


:
[191]
'= 1 / ^ . u = al cos6; ffijh=at sin6,
, 1
X . i = 2,
.
. 134 .

,
, ,
-:
[192]

.
[192] [191], ,
(/ = 2)
.
.
,
*).
,
.
,
,
.
,

,
- 2).
55.
. .
,
..
. , ,
,
*) H. Lambou, . .L ondon Math. Soc. Proc.*,
Vol. 19, 1888, p. 365.
*) Cm. J. P. Den H artog, The Lowest N atural Frequency of Circular Arcs,
. Mag.*, Vol. 5, 1928, p. 400; Vibration of Fram es of Electrical Machines,
, Trans. A. S. . E.* Applied Mech. Dlv, 1928.

297

,
, .
XY, : w

X Y ; s
; q .


s .

/>+(&)+ **
, , ,

dw \ 2
A-I
I ! 1 & ( +!
4
-2 \( ) } d xd y.

s I (dw \ 2 . (dw
I ( / + I dy
1
1

T
+

JJ

[ a ]

T = 2g $ S w '*dxdy.

[b]

[] [6]
,
.
.
b f>
, . 136.
w,


. 136.
71 =
W --

2 2

. 1 . ~

, S i n -------- S i n

m= 1

qmn
. , []
, : w 0 = 0
w - = 0 ,

298

[] [] ,

^ = T 7 V j ( 2 2 ^ ^ si" W +
!

f \ V

+ \ l l ^

*),

s m ^ T cos- ^ - ) \ dxdy-


12 (. . 52),
= =

s 2

Vi

= 1

== 1

( . \

[] - [b ]
:

T = i a~ 2 l ' > - " -

[d] []
,
,
.
- [d] []

q ab
. abrJ1 (m . \

,,,
i 5
\~~^-) ^mn

i
/ _ - 4 ^

+ ,)-

m n = 1.

ffi> =

TtX

. icy
h

C s m -----S i n - 1 .

.
, , , ,
:
_

. /Is

299


s
.
' ,
m, 2, 1.
,
. . 137 b
. , ,

.
:

. 2 . . . . 2\
s i n -----s i n -j-Z)sm
s in I,
a /

D . '
. 137.
D = 0,
c-o
C -0
C --D
, - *

. 137 .

(b)
(C)

. 137.

. = 0,
, . 137 . C D,
~ ( . 2

.
a

w = s i n -----sin 4- sin sin


a

2 \

- =

a I

on . TCX . izy I
~x
r.y
= 2 sm sin c o s ---- 4- cos - a

a \

,
sin
= 0

sin = 0,

. .

-

= 0.

C O S ------- f- COS

- ;
- :
__

- \ - v = a.

300

,
. 137 d. . 137 , = D.

.
- [193]


*).

- [/] :

q ab
g

" f

1
~4~

Qmn ,
qmn. , ,
= cos wt, .
bqmn qmn [],
:

J.*

cos wt bqmn sin - g - sin 2-,

, , Qmn = r k P 0cos u>t,


Qmn 0. - []
- [24] (. 25), :

[k]

[k\ [], ,
0 cos a>t.

Z, - [h] :
b a

1
. nr.v
Qm = f f Z sin ^------------
sin
dxdy.

) ,
, . 306. . Lam, Leons sur llasticit, Paris, 1852*

301

, , Z
( = 0),
[/]
Qmn

(1 cos m t) (1 - cos nr.).

, :
4ab

Z-,

[\

Qmn .
[ ] - [h]
qmn = 0 . = 0, :
_

Z(1 cos p mnf)


*
'

~ qmn**
,
Z, :

1 6 Z V
W
f /

11

1
C O S PmJ
' '
4 P - Sin
------S i n jf-,
7 ---------

r?q Ltmm

mnpmr?

, i

1J

-.
-.
,
-:
w w0 cos pt,

\]

w0 ,
, . . .
' [] [] ,

{ ( )" + ( )} * *

[ft]

2 gP~ j J* wo*dxdy.
[q] [], :

{( + ( ? ) ' }*
j j w fd x d y

[r]

302

-,
:
=

. < (-) +

at < (ty) + 3 p, (xty) + . . .

-[f]

(
).
, , , ... ,
[s] , . . ,
- :

__ / / {
.

) + ( ) } * *

=0

w ^dxdy

* ^ ( ( ) +()*}?*- {()+
f )'
[s], - :

w J S { { ^ ) ' + { ^ r Y - e& w ' } dxd)= o-

' , - [],
. -
3, . . . ,
!
- , -

!
.

, ,
_
(. 138),

X V, []
. 138.
:
w 0 = (- *)

(-

2)

(, +

2 * +

3 2 -f-

* -

f ...).

,
, = .
.

,

, = (1 + ' , + 1) ( , + bty -\-c t) . . .


( + bny - f ) S S ,
, -\- 1-\- = 0 , . . . - .
( 0, 0) ,

303


. , .
.
,-
.

,
.

<0= a, c o s + a, cos

, .

[]

.
, -
[q] -:

" = | / ( ) 2 '''-

|?

[]

W * r d r

7' = ^
2g

[}

- [] :

[] w = a t c o srr/2 a
- ['], :
f sin 2^ r d r = ~
cos '^ - r d r ,
4a2
la- J
22(i
a
esgsJ J
2 a2a

1
4a 3 \ 2

2
ic3 /

"

_A_)
gs
es \ 2
W

2 S 1 /
a y
q
*) :

7%) { :
, . 318,

804

,
,
[].
, , ... ,

.

,

,
,
, , ...

,

.

. 139,
.
, ,
-:
^

= - 1

Vf

i 197'

<*ns *).
s

=0

= 1

=3

=4

= 5

2,404

3,832

5,135

6,379

7,586

8,780

5,520

7,016

8,417

9,760

11,064

12,339
15,700

8,654

10,173

11,620

13,017

14,373

11,792

13,323

14,796

16,224

17,616

18,982

14,931

16,470

17,960

19,410

20,827

22,220

18,071

19,616

21,117

22,583

24,018

25,431

21,212

22,760

24,270

25,749

27,200

28,628

24,353

25,903

27,421

28,909

30,371

31,813

^ , a s
( ).
,

, ,
*) , ,. de lcole n o rm a le ', Vol. 3, 1866,

305

,
, ,
.
, , .

, .

.
,
,
sg/q. -,

:

/ - / f t .
i ' 98)
, -
.
*).
, ,
,
Mathieu
*).
Pockelp'a 3).
:
..............

= 2,404
= 2 .

= 4,261
= 4,443

5,135
2 * _ = 4,551

60 = 6,3 7 9 / 1

= 4,616

3 : 2 = / *
= 2. j/tg 30

= 4,624

......................................

= 4,803

2 :1
3 :1

= 3,832 /
'= / 1
' "

s= 4,774

^ 4,967
i= 5,736.

*) , , . 345.
*) .Journal de math.* (Liouville), Vol. 13, 1868.
*) Pockets, ber die partielle D ifferentialgleichung Au + ku 0, Leipzig, 1891
*

20

306

56.
. .
,
, , ,
,
.
dx
X Y
, *)
,
,
Z X Z Y (. . 140),
,

.
,

z ,
,
- 2):,

&-II
**
II

~ Z "
d*w
Z
= Z ~ d f '
d2w
22
'
Z

(1

**, evy
XY, w
,

----- X Z YZ, h

\\

.

-:

E .

I ___0 2

Ez

1 +| 022 \

) -----

Ez

Pt

_r

W xj

Vyy

Ez

__

XX)

(j

( d^w .

____ 0 2 ^

I da-w
\ y-

4 '

'
*
o d*w ^
'

d2w
)

.
*) .
*) , ,

[b]

307

,
,

dV= (

j dxdydz,

, - [] [\,

Ez 2
d V = = 2( l
, _ diw d'2w ,

I( d P w \ * ( P w y
+

( d2w \*l , , ,

r ,

- =

+ ( ^ +

7z3
------ 5 .
12 (1 )
:

*7*= ^ - j j w4 x d y ,

[200]

-jh/g .
V '
- .
.
(. 136)
, ,
:
J=_C =

2j
m

ZV

n=

mr-x 1

[d]

,
, , w, d-w/dx- d*w/dy*
.
[d] - [199],
:

308

:
- 5

t202'

, [201] [202]
qmn ,
,
.
-

fh
g

Qmn

( * . * \ *
D ^m n

2J

COS p t

+ Cs S l l p t ,

' ' Z

f - ( + )

i203'


. , , ,

1-

12041


,
.
-
.
, ,
,
,
).
,
, , ,
.
2). ,

w = wcospt,

[]

1) . Voigt, G ttinger N ach rich ten ', 1893, S. 225.


*) . W. R itz, .A nnalen d er Physik", Bd 28, 1909, S. 737. . Gesammelte W er. e, 1911, S. 265.

309

w0 , .
[] - [199] [200], .
:

D 1/ d '-w A 2
max

2 j j \ \

dx4

d 2w 0 2w 0 . 0

, (d -w ,
\

'

( d 2w 0

+ 20 * # + 2(1 ~ )- 7

j dxdy

= ^ ' fj^ d x d y ,

p 2= - grTh f

Kmax------ .

w* dxdy

[205]

wc :

w0= a1<?1(x,y)-i-a '?3(x,y)+ ...

[/]

< 2... ,
.
2)... , -
[205] . -
:
f l(d*w V , (d 2woy , 0 d*wt d*w9 .

+ 2 <1- > ( ) , - | ^ < } ' = 0

206

2,...,
-,
.

*). [/]

, = 2 2 amnum(x )v n(y),
[ /']
() . v n(y)
(. . 232).

-

,= .
8 ( /

) . . 308 .

[ 2 0 /]

310

, .
:
, = 14,10,

, = 20,56,

, = 23,91.


. 141.



.
- [207]

. 141.
,
, :
)
,
;
) , ,
,
;
) _

.
.
*), .


.

-,
,

.

[199] [200]
. , . 142,
mns, ,
dx, :
,
,

dx sin
d r dx cos; = ---------------.
__________
r
1)
. G. Kirchhoff. .Jo u rn al f. Math.* (Crelle), Bd 40, 1850, Gesammelte
A bhandlungen von Q. Kirchhoff, Leipzig, 1882, S. 237, Vorlesungen iiber math.
Pliysik; Mechanik, V orlesung 30

311

, w, ,

d w __dw dr . dw db __ dw
.
dx
dr dx
db dx
dr C0S

dw sin
db r

dw
dy

dw . . dw cos 0
- f
------------ .
dr
db r

- 3 S ill

, :

d'-w
f d
.
s i n b\ ( dw
.
dw sinO
- = -^r-cosQ---------------- - - j c os 6
dx 2
\ dr
db r J \ dr
-db r
d-w
~ d"-w sin b cosb , dw sin26
cos2b 2
dr2
dbdr
r
dr r
O d>sin0cos6
d2w sin26
+ ~db
+
P-
<?2
2,
0 d-w sincos
dw cos26
~ d f ~ ~d~Sm~ ^
dbdr
r
l~ d r
r
dw sin cosQ , d-w cos2

tJ

- 2
r+ -
<?2> . .
j . dsw cos 2b
dw cos 2b
jT-sinbcosb-jdxdy
dr2
drdO r
d6 r 2
dw sin 0 cos b _ d
-w
sin cos 0
dr
r
W
72

ri,
w

d2

:
d2 . d2>__ 1 - 1 _d*w
dx 2
d1
A?,
T?2 dr2

d2w d-w
dx 2 c'y2

1 dw ,

1 da
-w
r dr '
r1 dfi2
i d-w \ 2_d2w / 1 dw , 1 d2w \
r d /1
\ ^2
Vdxdy )
dr2 \ r dr r r* db2 J \dr r db )j

- [199J
, :
2

.
, w
, - [208] :
i

\ C {(d 4 u . \ d w \ 2 /
. d-w 1 dw \ .
l ( * r + 7 d r ) - ' ) '7 -4Flrdr- f209)

V= r-Di

312

, ,
' ( 1 dw .

1 da-w \

i ( 1

+^-) - -7 \rdUr
, - [208]:


, :

/ (
0

) "*

'


:
2
=

- J* /

2g

W,2rdbdr,

[212]

(213]

*

,
.
, .
, ,

. -,
W = W0COS pt,

[tfi

w0 .
,
, w0
. w0 :
/
r \ S
/
2 \
Wlt = ai ( l J
+ a * (l - J
[m]
.
, [/],
, , .

31

>

- [206]
:

"
:

r d

r =

1 2 ,4 1

[ ] -*[214],
:
96
__
9*
gD 10

'215

,
[/],
. (d'/ i } dw , \ 9
J W r + r dr)

, __96 /

8 , 3

, 9^ ,

9 1 + 2 1 2 M O 2 /

j w f r d r = (^ ( a li + ^ a ia i + ^ a i
- [214] :
/192
a \ 9
/144
a i \~9

*\ .
/144
*\
5/+a2\9
6/
x) ,
/9 6
x)
6/
a
' ^

n
0

[]

- [], :
s

2 0 4 -4 8

, _Q _

*--------- ^----- + 768 36 7 = 0,

1= 104,3;

8 = 1854.

[], :
t - ,
,
, 2 ?4
,

314

. ,
, .
-:

i217'

s

.
s

n= 0

n1

/1=2

10,21

21,22

34,84

39,78

88,90

,
, .
-
, - [217]
- 1):
/>, =

f / ,

[218]

^
p = 0 ,6 6 8 9 -r (,/y)
Y ft
.
, , 168
3 , , :

= 0,6689 -28 = 2,40;


7,8

= L = = 0,542.
v 'l + p

0,542
.
.

- [217].
.
') . Lamb ' ,Proc. Roy. Soc. London*, Vol. 98,
1921, p. 205,

315


s ):
S

=0

1
2

9,076
38,52

= 2

=3

5,251

12,23

20,52

35,24

59,86

52,91

, s
, '3):
5=

3,75

20,91

60,68

119,7

, ,
, .
.
,
.
, ,
, ,
,
.

, 3). ,
,
,
, ,
- 4):
/
,\ 2 .

[]

>0 ,

*) .
2)
. R. V. Southw ellu, . Roy. Soc., A, Vol. 101, 1922, p. 133,
0,3.
8) . .
J. . Powell J. H. . Roberts', . Phys. Soc. London", Vol. 35, 1923, p. 170.
4)
- ,
.
.

316

,
.
, w0 ,
:
1 fdwA* .d u
' = 2 ) +
W
:

U
et = j -

,
:

a = r(a r)

[s]

+ ...) ,

.
[s] [s] [\
- \\ [], ,
, ,
:

v i = y ^ J { e *+ e n e & ) rdr =

f 0, 250

1 a \

+ 0,1167

+ 0,300 ciCia * 0,00846 c.,a J-

a1

+ 0,00682

- f 0,00477 ^ 1- ) .

[t\

c , V1 ,
-:
^

= 0

1= 1,185 ~
3
- [],

= 0

= 1 ,7 5 ^ .

V, = 2,59 itD
(- [211]),

32

/
32 ,! / . . , . , 3\
. ,
-, ) + 2 -5 9 " 0 5 = , 0 ? ( 1+ 0' 244 )

,
. ,

317

, ,
.

q - :
V

- 8j = 2r.qbat J
,
1
1
n

2\ 2
J ~rdr 8ai 3 '

?'

= (5

MU

1 + 0,448 ^


. - 1
q,
. , , al = l/h, - [219]
= 0,89 '
11% , ,
.
[] ,
,
,
,
.
,
- [ ']. ,
q.
}' ,

- [] *):

8== T (2 + 2 +

(4

+6)

, q
, :
.

rrfqb

.
W

-------- JZ------- = =

2 6 4 a ,D ( l+ 0 ,4 8 8 % 2
1 \ 1
h

2
~

----------------------------------- V -----------------------

1) 8 4 ,

318

[220 ]

- [215], ,
- [220]
, .
,
- ['\,

. - [220]
, , . .
.

.
57.
. .
, ,

,
,
. ,
*),

,

,

,
.

, ,
. ,
,
1) . W ilfred Campbell', .Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng.% Vol. 46,
1924, p. 31, /. von Frendenreicha, .E ngineering*, Vol. 119, 1925, 2 p.

319

, ,
,
, , ,
,

.
,
, ,
,
< .


,
.

q = a0-J- a, sin -(- a 2sin 2-)-. . . -f-

cos -f- b2cos 2atf-f-.. .

, a,sincu,
,
, </2.
/ 2ft . ,

.
, ,
,
:
) ,
;
) , .
,

.

,

w = w0sin cos pt,

[a]

, , w0 ,
.

w = w<, cos nb sin pt.


[a] [a], -:
w = wl) (sin cos p t cos nb sin pt) = wasin ( r t pt),

[a']

320

.
, ,
:
n ftztp t const,

= t -j- const.
n 1
/ -\-/,
.
Campbell^ ')
, ,
, , ,
.
,

,
. ,
.
.

- 2). ,

w w0sin 0 cos pt.

["]

, ,

W = Wf, cos pt.
[b]
,
- [209]:

:, f D
b

(d^Wo . 1 dw \ *

(-^ +

/.

\ d?w 1 dw

-2 ( > j

a, 6 - ; D

rdr,

[]

3
__0^

,
h .
*) . . 320 .
2)
. aola, .S ch w eiz. Bauz,", Bd 63, 1914, S. 112.

321


,
, ,
. ,
,
_ -_

. ,
,
,

r - \-dr
. 143.
(. 143).
,
,

'I dw
V. J I dr

dr.

:
2vrh'j

dr,

,
, :
dr-7 ,

~~g

dw 0
dr

dr.

[d\

, ,
[d\ :

fd w A *
dr.
dr j
h

- :

2- ,
= . ~ 2 ^ w 'dr

[b] w, :
a

= "-1? J hw^rdr.
.

If]
21

322

,
, [g] .
, w0 ,
w, d w jd r cPwJdr2
, [], [ ]
[/]. 0
) - [^]
.

, [] [/] ,
,
b a -f- I
. ,
,
[] .

w0 :
w 0 = a! ( r )2 + a 2 ( r )3 + a 3


, w0 dw/dr .
3, ... ,
[g-] . ,
(. . 312), -,
- [214] 2, 3 . . .
-, - .
,
, ['']
[6]. - , [208] :
,
D
, D
. ) , . ,
. 70. E. , V. D. I., Bd 69
1925, S. 335, .

323

V, , ,
- [g] ,
J).
, V, , - [g-]

[g]

Pi
I hw02rdr

g J

,
.
,
. , ,
, .
-:
1max

pS =

Iff"]
7

hw-rdr

- [g]

'= '+ '-

/?, - ,
- [h\.

/?. V. Southwell 2).
-:

[k]


s
3):

s = 0
i =

= 1

14,1
438

422

/1= 2

29,0
1210

156
2840

*) , idem.
2) . . 315.
3) , (.
. 310). 0,3.

324

- {-
, X ,
:
=0
5=0

S=

3,3

1
1

.5 ,9 5

=2
2,35
8,95

=3
4,05
12,3

,3 22 - [k] [/]
- [\ ).


. , .

,
. *)
, ' 0 1
,

.

*) -
Fr. Dubois, .Schw eiz. B auz., Bd 89, 1927, S. 149.
s) Freudenreich, , . 318.

*. ' V'

"
"

1. .

,
,
,
. - '

,

. ,
,
. ,
, : ) , ) , ) ,
, d) , .

,
, *).
2. .

. ,
, ,
(. . 2 1 ). ^
. . 1 4 4 . : ,
;
, ;
: ,
D , .
,
. ,
.
2),

I ___

) . J. Ormondroyd'a, Journal A. I. E. .", Vol. 45, 1926, p. 330.


[. P. A. Bordena, . 1. E. . Trans.*, 1925, . 238
H. Steudinga, .V . D. I., Bd 71, 1927, S. 605,
,
, V. D. 1. (
).
2)
, ,
.

326

,
.
.


.



.

(
),



.



.

. 144.

, .
3.
.
.
, ,

. , ,
,
, ,
, -
.
, ,
(. . 19).
Vibration Speciality Company . 145.
.
. (1) (3)
(2); (4)
.
, , ,
2 0 0 . (5),
.
. , ,
, ,
; ,
.
;
, ,
.

327


. ,
,
, ;
!) , .

.
,

. 145.

. ,
, ,
.

, ,
. .
,
;
,

.
(. . 50).
. 146.

328

- ).

. , ,
.


.


,
,
. ,
1 8 0 0
, . 1 4 7 .
4.

.

,
.
*
,
.

,
,

,
.
C am b rid g e I n s
tru m e n t C o m p a n y 2) . 1 4 8
U
1 4 9 .
.
. 146.
,
9 1 4 ( ),
( . 1 4 9 ).
:

1200

18 0 ^
lo

, .

1
:

2~

. . . . . . .

200 400

600

. 147.
,
, ,
, . ') G. . Karelitz'ou,
W estinghouse Electric and M anufacturing Company.
') . .E n g in e erin g , Vol. 119,
1925, p. 271.

329

,
, ,
.
,
. ,

.

Q,
.


L,

. 148.

. 149.


. ,
, ,
S, .
(
),
D, .

.
D ,
,
.
, -

330

-
.


' .


0 ,0 1 ,
,
- \-

f
j f'V 'vk i l l
1 0 , Jbh*.'
\ '
0 \y V
y g j . ']

10-* 1).
. 150 151
2).
,

2 0 0 X 150 X
150 ,

. 150.
. ,

,

.


,


60 . ,

,
, J
.
^




. 151.
.
25 .

.
25-
) ,
, . .E n g in eerin g ", Vol. 113,
1922, p. 716. . Trans, of the Optical Society*, Vol. 27, 1925 1926, p. 215.
*) , , ,V . D. 1.*,
Bd 60, 1916, S. 811.

331

.
l'/g . ,
,
,
.

1 2
130 .


2 0 0 ,


. ,

' H P 'T.

***

<L
,1
w
,
~

,
,




,
(

,
).

,

- 1[. 153 .
, ,
.
,

*
25

. 154.

(. 152 153).
100 60 15
150 . . 154.

332

5.
.
. ,
, . 155. , ,
,
,
. ,
oko io 1 50 ,
.

. ,
, 1 */ .
25
, .

. 155.

,
,
, , ,
.

. 2 0 0
,

, 2 4 1 .
.
,
.

,
. 1500
,
.
,
.
-
.

333

6.
. ,
, ,
, .
, ,
*).
,
,
.
-

. 156.

.
,
. 156 ,
. . ( -)).

,
, .

, 250
1500 . .
. ,
,
)
4 : ) , ) ,
) d) . ,
, (. . 325)
. . Der Betrieb", 1921, S. 318.
2)
. Robert S. Whipple, .Journal of he Optical Soc. ol America",
Vol. 10, 1925,- p. 455.

334

, , }'
125 (4 - ). . 1 5 6
, ,
b .
6 0
______ _____ ______________________________________
1 0 0 .

.........

^ ' -

vie
- }57_
.
,
, ,
,
.
d .
, . 1 5 7 .
. 158 ,
. . j. . " , V :

. 15.
D L
1 2 . ,
, .
F . F ,
. D . J
L\ G D
L. , M , N .
L,

335

N .
,
N
. U ,
. N
,
. ,
, N ,
U
S, 4 5

. 159.
. , ,
/?. , ,
2 0 0 ,
, ,
, .
,
.
V. V ie w eg S
, . 1 5 9 ,
.
,
*).
7.
. ,

*) . M aschinenbau", 1923 1924, . 1028.

336

, ,
. . 160
Stress Recorder", Cambridge
Instrument Company *).

.
.
, ,
,
, .
,

. 160.

, D,
, .
, , D
, .

, . D
, S
. -


,

3 2 0 .
.
, . 328,

.
0,01 . 381
) . .E ngineering*, 1924, Vol. 118, p. 287.

337

(15 ), ,
:

0 ^ 3 8 = 26 6 10' *
5,62 /~.

. , 1400
,
. .
, ,
,
, .
, ,
.
,
.

. 161.

1 6 i
, *).
, ,
, ,
,
, ,
D
p q I.
.
,

/,22

338

I, - ,

.
. ,
, ,
.

, ,

.

.
\
.
,
. 162.
. 157,
.
*) ,
, .
1= 203 ( 8 )
, 70 /*.
8).
,
,


.
, ,
,
. 162.

.



. . 163
. 1
, ' 2, 3 4.
5, ,
.
2 3 , 4 ,
, ) . ,
, 1926 .
) , . S. Petersou . Mac Col', Technologic paper of the Bureau of Standards, No 247,
Vol. 17, 1924, p. 737; . -,
1927 .

339

.
,
5. ,
.
, , ,
- ,

.

,

(. 164).


-

. 164.

D.
:
' .
, . 165, ,
,
, ,

.

,
.
0 ,6 ,

. 166.
,
0 ,05 . ,
(. 164) 2 00 ,

530 / !.
, . , 800 ,
.

. ,
(. 166).
,

340

( 2 5 0 ).
,
. ,
, , -

. 167.

. 168.

,
. . 1 6 7
, ,
. 168 ,
, .

.
H. (Akimoff N.) 49, 276.
(dAlambert) 111.
(Amsler E.) 334.
(Blass V.) 183, 189.
(Borden P. A.) 325.
(Borowicz) 171.
(v. Brauchisch E.) 47.
(Bourget) 304.
(Boussinesq J.) 284, 294.
(Bhler A.) 248.
(Wagstaff J. E. P.) 191.
(Vieweg V.) 333, 335.
(W ydler H.) 152, 154.
(Willis) 247.
(W iechert A.) 77, 96, 99, 110.
(Wrinch D.) 268.
(Geiger A.) 330, 332.
(Herz H.) 281.
(G oldsbrough G. R.) 159.
- (Den Hartog J. P.) 6, 27, 167,
190, 296.
(Dreyfus Z.) 96.
(Darnley E. R.) 234, 237.
(Dubois r.) 324.
(Dffing G.) 79, 89, 90.
(Eck .) 70.
(Eckolt W.) 31.
(O ehler E.) 322.
(Inglis . E.) 242, 249.
(Sachs G.) 97.
(v. Sanden H.) 26, 53, 81, 143.
(Sass F.) 157.
(Seefehlner E. E.) 96.
(Seelman) 157.
(Sommerfeld A.) 41.
(Karelitz G. B.) 52, 328.
(Lord Kelwin) 81.
(Kimball A. L.) 27.
(Kirchhof G.) 267, 310.
(Klebsch) 246, 280, 283.
( H.) 280.
(Collins W. G.) 22, 330.
A. H. (Kriloff A. N.) 242.
K_, .ion (Coulomb C. A.) 27.
(Campbell W.) 318, 320,

(Lawaczek) 45.
(Lagrange J. L.) 120.
(Love A. E. H.) 198, 281, 284, 290,
292, 293, 294.
(Lemaire P.) 136.
(Lehr E.) 27, 47, 155.
(Lissajous) 328.
(Lewis F. M.) 139, 150, 152, 154,
157, 220.
(Lamb H.) 126, 174, 198, 296, 314.
(Lux F.) 21.
(Lam) 300.
- (Mac Collum B.) 338.
(M artienssen O.) 90.
(Mathieu) 305.
(Meissner E.) 96, 102, 105, 110.
(v. Mises R.) 27.
(Morin A.) 27.
(Moullin . B.) 333.
(Mller . E.) 96, 105, 110.
(Navier) 285.
(Ono A.) 268. 273.
(Orinondroyd J.) 6, 27, 190,
(Powell J. H.) 315.
(Peters . S.) 338.
H. I I (Petroff N. P.) 248.
(Poschl T.) 184.
'Pearson) 267, 280.
(Pockels) 306.
(Pohlhausen E.) 248.
(Pochham mer L.) 192.
(Ramsauer C.) 291.
(Rowell H. S.) 133, 136.
(Lord Ravleigh) 60, 129, 147, 198,
227, 3J0, 303, 305.
(Reissner H.) 137, 248.
(Ritter J. G.) 337.
(Ritz W.) 258, 263, 308, 309, 320.
(Roberts J. H. T.) 315.
(Rdenberg R.) 89.
(Southwell R. V.) 315, 323.
(Sderberg C. R.) 39, 49, 164.
- (St. Venant) 246, 280, 283, 284,
(Sears J. E.) 291.
(Smith D. .) 234, 237.

342

(Smith T. H,). 156.


(Stodola A.). 27, 70, 160, 17c, 175
177, 184, 275, 320, 322, 323.
(Stokes G. Q.) 248.
. . (Timos henko S.) 24, 85,
158, 173, 216, 227, 239, 242, 245, 258,
276, 281, 338.
(Todhunter) 267, 28U
(Toile M.) 150, 158
(Thomson J. J.) 114.
(Trumpler W. E.) 49.
(Tait W. G.) 114.
(W hipple R. S.) 333.
(Fppl O.) 187
(V'oigt W.) 291, 308.

(Fox J. F.) 152.


(Frahm H.) 12, 21, 196.
I (v. Freidenreichi 318.
(Fromm H.) 27.
(Fullarton) 21.
(Heym ann) 45.
(Holzer H.) 28.
(H ort W.) 28, 81, 270, 273, 274, 275,
(Zimmerman H.) 248.
(Schwerin E.) 269, 275.
(Schlick .) 20.
(Schroder P.) 185.
(Schteiding H.) 325, 333.
(Young) 283.

.
. 129.
,
41, 339.
. 111.
38.

326;
34;
8.


:
18, 39, 41;
328;
328;
330.
:

Vibration
Speciality
326;
21.
43; i
111.
:
:
49;

237:
- 45;
237:
49;
13 ;
50.
31 ;
17, 134.
38;
, :
86;
:
205, 212;

, 128.
227, 231.
252;
, - 9.
(
330.
332.
) :
238;
125, 126.

125, 128.
241;
; ,
245.
,
150.

, 129.
190
21.
318.


:
172;
178.
:
;
36;
30;
27.
41.
,
155.
324.

21, 326.

41, 339.
21:
22.

158.

50.
?<': :
73;
91.
- 265.
291:
:
291;
292;
294;
296.
267.
22.

156.
275.
, 158.
102.

136.
:
123;
:
- 65;
66;

69.
:
165;
165.

167.
172;
95.
15.

343

:
216.
11 ;
12;
141;
:
140;
141;
147.
117.
328.
, 178.
:
111;
110, 121;
92.
:
296;
296;
304.
:
247;

252.
7.

125, 26.

125, 128.
:
15;
44;
43.
102.
114.
115.
- 110.
,
252.
20.
94.
:
265;

269.
, 8.
:
315;
312;
310;
306;
4
307;
315.
:
38.
190.

344


:
18, 39, 41;
. 328:
328;
330.
:
336:
337:
33S.
324.

50.
:
205, 212;
, - 198;

203;

200;
208;
, 214;
284.
:
86;
79;
73;
73;
77;
84.
54.
15.
60, 147,301.
258.
258, 301.

181.
71.
:
122;
7;
7.
19, 328.

96.

256.
, 7.
, 275.
21.
338.
332.
:
334.
335;
333.
:
318;
269.

247.
:
, 278;
284.
13.

331, 332.
,
256.

43,
45.
:
35;
9;
32.
21, 325.
21, 325.
:
325;
8;
125, 126.
129.
:
36;
57.
147, 157.
159.

2898/. -11. 20000 . . . . . . . .


. 3/XI-31. . 6294-211/* . . ,
49392. 1932 . 25322. 1516.
7- . . , , , , 10,