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.

.
. mn, m- , n- ,
, .
.
, .
aij, i- , j- .
a11

a 21
=
...

a
m1

a12

...

a 22
...

...
...

a m3

a1n

a2n
...

... a mn

.
, .
, .
. (m=n),
.
. :
1

...

0
1

...
...

...
0

...
...

...

= E,

. amn = anm , .

1
5

1
3
6

6 -
4

0
a 22

...
...

...

...

a11

0
...
0

0
0

... a nn

.

. ,
. ,
:
. () ,
() .

cij = aij bij


= + = + .
()
() .
a11 a12 ... a1n

a 21 a 22 ... a 2 n
A
...
...
...
...

a
a m 2 ... a mn
m1

(+) =
() =
1

. = 2
3

2 = 4
6

8 ,
6

4 ; B =
3

2
1
2

5
1

3
7
2

8 , 2 + .
4

2 + = 9
7

7
9
6

10

16 .
10

.
: ,
:
AB = C;
n

ij a ik bkj .
k 1

,
,
.
.
1) , ..
. , =
, .
,
.

.
= =
, :
AO = O; OA = O,
.
2) , ..
(), (), :
2

()=().
3) , ..
(+) (+), :
( + ) = +
( + ) = + .
4) ,
:
(AB) = (A)B = A(B).
5) ,
:
() = ,
.
6) , det (AB) = detAdetB.
det (, ) .
. ,
,
.
11 a12 ... a1n
a11 a 21 ... a m1

a12 a 22 ... a m 2
a 21 a 22 ... a 2 n

=
;
= =
;
...
... ... ...
...
... ... ...

m1 a m 2 ... a mn
1n a 2 n ... a mn
, bji = aij.
(5) , :
(ABC)T = CTBTAT,
, .

= 2
1

0
4
4

3
1
1

1 , = 3 , = 2
2
1
2

= 2.

+.
1

AT = 0
3

2
4
1

4 ;
2

ATB = 0
3

2
4
1

1 1

4 3
2 2

1 1 2 3 1 2

= 0 1 4 3 4 2
3 1 1 3 2 2

4 ;
10

C = 4 ;
2

9
2

+ = 4 + 4
10
2

= 8 .
12

1

. = 4
3

1

= 4 2
3

= 2

1 2

1 = 4 2
3 2

1

1 4
3

1 4
44
3 4

2
5

1 .

11
2 4

4 1 8 16
6 12
3 1

4 .
3

= 21 + 44 + 13 = 2 + 16 + 3 = 21.

. = 1
= 1

= 2

= 3 10

2 , =
5
4 12 = 13

16 .

.( ).
11 a12 ... a1n

a 21 a 22 ... a 2 n
. =
...
... ... ...

n1 a n 2 ... a nn
, :
n

det A =

(1)

k 1

k 1

a1k M 1k ,

1 ,
k . ,
, .. , .

, :
n

det A =

(1)

k 1

k 1

a k 1 M k1

,
, .. :
n

detA =

(1)
k 1

k i

a ik M ik ,

i = 1,2,,n.

, .
1.
1
a1k. , ,
.
.
4

.
aij , i j- .
1.
:

det A = det AT;


2.

det (AB) = detAdetB

3. -
( ), ,
.
4. ( )
.
: () ,
, , (
) .
6. ,
.
7. ,
. ( , ..
.)
8. ,
() () (),
- , .
9. -
: d = d1 d2 , e = e1 e2 , f = f1 f2 , :
a
d
k

b
e
l

c
a
f d1
m
k

b
e1
l

c
a
f1 d 2
m
k

b
e2
l

. = 0
3

1
0

2
2

1
2
3 1
1
1

3
0
2
1
3

3
0
1
1
3

c
f2
m

2
2
1

3
1

2
(2 1 1 3) 2(0 1 3 3) (0 1 3 2)
1

= -5 + 18 + 6 = 19.
1

, =
:. =
3 4
1
1- : det A = 4 6 = -2;
det B = 15 2 = 13;

. det (AB).

det (AB) = det A det B = -26.

1 5 2 1 1 2 2 3


,
2- : AB =
3 5 4 1 3 2 4 3
19 18
152 = -26.

det (AB) = 718 - 819 = 126

.
.
:

1) , ;
2) ;
3) ;
4) () ();
5) ;
, ,
.
-
( ).
.
.
.
.
, , ,

. s ,
s.
, ,
.

,
.
.
.
, (-1) ,
.
,
, ,
, , ,
.

. s i1, ,is,
,
.
.
, .
. ,
:
XA = AX = E,
- , ,
-1.
,
.
.
, :
n

AX = E aik x kj eij , i=(1,n), j=(1,n),


k 1

eij = 0,
eij = 1,
, :

i j,
i=j.

a11 x1 j a12 x 2 j ... a1n x nj 0

................................................

a j1 x1 j a j 2 x 2 j ... a jn x nj 1 ,

................................................
a n1 x1 j a n2 x 2 j ... a nn x nj 0

, .
1
3

. =

2
, -1.
4

a11 a12 x11 x12 1 0



.
a 21 a 22 x 21 x 22 0 1

a1 x1 a12x21 e1 1
a x a x e 0
1 12 12 2 12

x1 2x21 1
x 2x 0
12 2

x11 2

x12 1

a21x1 a2 x21 e21 0 3x1 4x21 0


a21x12 a2 x2 e2 1 3x12 4x2 1
2
3/ 2

, -1=

x21 3 / 2
x22 1 / 2

1
.
1 / 2

,
, :
xij

1 i j M ji ,

det A

ji- ji .
1
3

. =

2
, -1.
4

det A = 4 - 6 = -2.
M11=4;
x11= -2;
2
3/ 2

, -1=

M12= 3;
x12= 1;

M21= 2;
x21= 3/2;

M22=1
x22= -1/2

1
.
1 / 2

C .
:
1) (A-1)-1 = A;
2) (AB) -1 = B-1A-1
3) (A T)-1 = (A-1)T.
8

. =
1
3

2 = =
1

2 3

4 1

, 3.

11 14
=
;
4
7 18
3

11 14

4
7 18

1
3
1

1
2
4
2
0
2

2
0
2

2
1
3

86

1
3

1
3

1
2

2
2
1 3 0

2
2
1 4 0
3

1
3

1
2

= -1(6 4) 1(9 1) + 2(12 2) = -2 8 + 20 = 10.

1
3
1
1
3
1

= -1

78

2 11 14
47

=
4 7 18
39

A3 =
1

,
1

1
2
4

2
1
3

0
0
2

0
0
2

2
3
1

2
3
1

1
1
3

3
2
4

= 2(0 2) 1(0 6) = 2.

= 2(-4) 3(-6) = -8 + 18 = 10.

: -10 + 6 40 = -44.
.
.
, s
, ,
- s s .
. mn r ,
, r+1 ,
, .. r m n.
, ,
.
,
.

.
Rg .
,
.
.
,

, .
, -
.
.
.
.. ,
.
. .
1


2
2 0 0 0 11

= 2.
0

5 1

11 2

5
,
11

11

11 10 1 0

RgA

: .
3

1
1

5
2
3

3
5

1
1

8
2
3

12

3
5

1
1

2
2
3

1
3
1
5

2
3

3 2 1 0

Rg = 2.

. .
1

3
1

1
8
3
4

4 6 2 0.

Rg = 2.

,
, ,
.
3.
, .
.
. ()
(), .
,
() .

10

- detA = 0,
. .

.

.
,
.
.
.
:

a11 x1 a12 x 2 ... a1n x n b1


a x a x ... a x b
21 1
22 2
2n n
2

...............................................
a n1 x1 a n 2 x 2 ... a nn x n bn
a11

a 21

: A =
...

a
n1

... a1n

... a 2 n
;
... ...

... a nn

a12
a 22
...
an2

b1

b2

B=
;
...

b
n

x1

x2

X=
.
...

x
n

:
AX = B.
: A-1AX = A-1B,
.. -1 = , = -1
= -1
,

.
. :

5x y z 0

x 2 y 3z 14

4 x 3 y 2 z 16

= y , B =
z

14 , A =
16

-1.

11

1
2
3

3
2

= det A =

M11 =
M12 =
M13 =

1
a 21
1
a31

1
2

5
;
30
10
;
30
5

;
30

a111

5
1

1
3 5(4-9)

+ 1(2 12) 1(3 8) = -25 10 +5 = -30.

= -5;

M21 =

10;

M22 =

5;

M23 =

= 1;

M31 =

14;

M32 =

19;

M33 =

1
1

30
6
1
7

A-1 =
3
15
1
19

30
6

1
1
;
a131
;
30
30
14
16
1
1
a 22
;
a 23

;
30
30
19
11
1
1
a 32

;
a33
;
30
30
a121

= -1;

16;
11;

30
8
;
15
11

30

C :

5 1 1

AA-1 = 1 2 3

4 3 2

5
1
1

30
30
30
25 10 5 5 14 19 5 16 11

10
14 16
1

5 20 15 1 28 57 1 32 33 =E.
30
30 30 30

5
19
11
20 30 10 4 42 38 4 48 22

30
30
30

.
x

= y
z

1
1

30
6
1
7

= -1 =
3
15
1
19

30
6

30
8

15
11

30

14 =
16

1
14 16
0

6
30 30
1
98 128
0

3 15 15
1
266 176
0

6
30 30

2 .
3

: x =1; y = 2; z = 3.

,
, .
.
( (1704-1752) )
,
. ,
. ,

12

, ..
.
, 0.
det A 0;
, -
, - ,
- ,
. .

. ( ):
. n n

a11 x1 a12 x 2 ... a1n x n b1


a x a x ... a x b
21 1
22 2
2n n
2

...............................................
a n1 x1 a n 2 x 2 ... a nn x n bn
, ,
:
xi = i/,
= det A, i ,
i bi.
a11 ...a1i 1
a 21 ...a 2 i i
i =
...
a n1 ...a ni 1

b1
b2
...
bn

a1i 1 ...a1n
a 2 i 1 ...a 2 n
...
a ni 1 ...a nn

a11 x1 a12 x2 a13 x3 b1

a21 x1 a22 x2 a23 x3 b2


a x a x a x b
31 1 32 2 33 3 3
a11

A = a 21
a
31

a12
a 22
a32

a13
b1

a 23 ; 1= b2
b3
a33

a12

a13

a11

b1

a13

a11

a12

b1

a 22
a 32

a 23 ; 2= a 21
a33
a 31

b2
b3

a 23 ; 3= a 21
a 33
a31

a 22
a32

b2 ;
b3

x1 = 1/detA;

x2 = 2/detA;

. :

13

x3 = 3/detA;

5x y z 0

x 2 y 3z 14

4 x 3 y 2 z 16

5
1
4

1
2
3

1
3
2

= 5(4 9) + (2 12) (3 8) = -25 10 + 5 = -30;

1 =

0
14

1
2

1
3

16

= (28 48) (42 32) = -20 10 = -30.

x1 = 1/ = 1;
2 =

5
1
4

3 =

5
1
4

0
14
16

1
3
2

= 5(28 48) (16 56) = -100 + 40 = -60.

0
14
16

= 5( 32 42) + (16 56) = -50 40 = -90.

x2 = 2/ = 2;
1
2
3

x3 = 3/ = 3.
, ,
.
, .. bi = 0, 0
x1 = x2 = = xn = 0.
= 0 .
:

x 3 y 6 z 12

3x 2 y 5 z 10 ;

: x = 0; y = 0; z = -2.

2 x 5 y 3z 6

.
,
,
.
.
. m n
:
14

a11 x1 a12 x 2 ... a1n x n b1


a x a x ... a x b
21 1
22 2
2n n
2

...............................................
a m1 x1 a m 2 x 2 ... a mn x n bm

aij , bi . n ,
.
. ,
. ,
.
. ,
, .
.
a11

a 21

=
...

a
m1
a11

a 21
*=
...

a
m1

a12

...

a 22

...

...

...

a1n

a2n

am2

,
...

... a mn

a12

...

a1n

a 22
...

...
...

a2n
...

am2

... a mn

b1

b2

...

bm

. b1, b2, ,bm = 0, .


, .. .

.
:
1)
, , .
2) .
3) , .

.
( )
( (1823-1891) )

15

: ( )
, .
RgA = RgA*.
, (1) :
a11
a12
a1n b1

a 21
a 22
a 2 n b2
...
...
... ...

a
a
a b
m
1
+ x m 2 + + x mn m
x
1

.
1) ,
, , ..
* .
2) RgA = RgA*, ,
. ,
, .
. :

x1 3x2 5x3 7 x4 9 x5 1

x1 2 x2 3x3 4 x4 5 x5 2

2 x 11x 12 x 25 x 22 x 4
2
3
4
5
1
1

A= 1
2

11

12

25

~
2 11 12
1

A* = 1
2

3
2

7
25

9
1

5 ~ 3
2
22

15

21

11 12

25

9
.
22

11

12

25

22

2 ~ 0
2
4

11

9
1

27 ~ 1
2
22

1 6 5 0

25

22

11 12

11 12

25

9 ~
22

RgA = 2.
RgA* = 3.

.
. .

x1 4 x 2 1
3x 2 x 4
2
1

7 x1 10 x2 12
5x 6x 8
1
2
3x1 16 x 2 5

3
= 7
5
3

2
1
10 ;

3
6
16

16

4
2

= 2 + 12 = 14 0;

RgA = 2;

3
A* = 7
5
3

2
10
6
16

4
12

8
5

0
~ 0

0
0

14
38
26
4

7
19

13
2

0
~ 0

0
0

2
2
2
2

1
1
1
1

~ 1
0

4
2

RgA* = 2.

2 0.

. : x1 = 1; x2 =1/2.
.
( (1777-1855) )
,

. .
:

a11 x1 a12 x 2 ... a1n x n b1


a x a x ... a x b
21 1
22 2
2n n
2

...............................................
a m1 x1 a m 2 x 2 ... a mn x n bm
1 a11 0, :
1) 21
2) 31
..
:

x1 d12 x 2 ... d1n x n d1


d x d x ... d x d
22 2
23 3
2n n
2

..............................................
d m 2 x 2 d m3 ... d mn x n d m
dij = aij ai1d1j

, d1j = a1j/a11, j = 2, 3, , n+1.

i = 2, 3, , n;

j = 2, 3, , n+1.

,
..
. .

17

2 x1 x2 x3 5

x1 2 x2 3x3 3
7 x x x 10
1 2 3
.
*
2

1
7

=
1

3 ~
10

2
7

5 ~ 0
0
10

15

22

11 ~ 0
0
31

11

, :

x1 2 x2 3x3 3

5 x2 7 x3 11 , :

x3 = 2; x2 = 5; x1 = 1.

x 2
3

. .

5x y z 0

x 2 y 3z 14

4 x 3 y 2 z 16

.
5

0
1

14 ~ 4
5
16

2
3
1

2 16 ~ 0
0
1 0

14

10

11

16

14
1

40 ~ 0
0
70

10

14

40
18

, :

x 2 y 3z 14

5 y 10 z 40 , :
6 z 18

z = 3; y = 2; x = 1.

,
.
:

18

x1 x2 x3 x4 4
2 x x 3x 2 x 1
1 2 3 4

: {1, 2, 3, 4}.

x1 x3 2 x4 6
3x1 x2 x3 x4 0

.
. (
). ,
.
. ()
.

. ,
. .
. ,
, .
,
.
. ,
.

, .. ,
.
, , .
.
.

- c a b

- b a; b a , a b .

a b ( a b ), > 0.

a b ( a b ), < 0.

1) a
+
b = b + a - .

2) a
+( +
) = ( a + b )+
b

3) a
+
= a
0
a
4)
+(-1) a = 0

5) () a = ( a )

19

6) (+) a = a + a -

7) ( a + b ) = a + b

8) 1 a = a

.
1) 3 ,
.
2) 2 ,
.
3) .
. e1 , e2 , e3 - a e1 e2 e3 ,

, - a
.
:
-

,
a ( e1 e2 e3 ) = ( )e1 ( ) e 2 ( ) e3

.
a 1 e1 2 e2 3 e3 ;
b 1 e1 2 e2 3 e3

a + b = ( 1 1 )e1 ( 2 2 )e2 ( 3 3 )e3 .

.
. a1 ,..., a n
,
1 a1 2 a 2 ... n a n 0 ,
2
2
2
i , .. 1 2 ... n 0 .
i = 0 1 a1 2 a 2 ... n a n 0 ,
.
1.
.

ai

2.
, .
3. ,
.
4. 2 , ,
2 .
5. 3 , ,
3 .
20

6. 4 .
.

. -
.
( ) .
,
.
, .
.
.
.
- .
, .
.
. . ,
.
1-
2-
3-

.
(x1, y1, z1), B(x2, y2, z2), = (x2 x1, y2 y1, z2 z1).
. ,
.
. ,
.

. a (1; 2; 3), b
(-1;
0; 3), (2; 1; -1) d (3; 2; 2)
. , a , b
d .
, , ,
, :

2 0

2 0 0
3 3 0

d a b c .
, .
1
2
3

1
0
3

2
1 0
1

21

1
2

1
0

2
1

a1 b1 c1 d1

a2 b2 c2 d 2

3 ( 2 3) 12 4 0

a b c d
3 3 3 3
1

d1

b1

c1

d2
d3

b2
b3

c2 2
c3
2

1
0
3

0
1 3
3
1

1
2
2
1
2

0
3( 3) ( 2 2) 12 1.
3

1
1 / 4 ;

a1

d1

c1

2 = a 2

d2
d3

c2 2
c3
3

2
2

d1
1
d2 2
d3
3

1
0
3

a3

1
2

1 2

2
7 / 4;

a1
a2
3 =
a3

b1
b2
b3

2
1 (2 2) 3(2 3) 2( 4 6) 4 15 4 7;
1

3
5 / 2;

3
2 6 ( 4 6) 18 10;
2

a ,

, :

{ -1/4, 7/4, 5/2}.


. ( 1, y1, z1), B(x2, y2, z2),
AB ( x 2 x1 ) 2 ( y 2 y1 ) 2 ( z 2 z1 ) 2 .
(, , z) /, ,
:
x

x1 x 2
;

y1 y 2
z z 2
; z 1
.

:
x = (x1 + x2)/2;

y = (y1 + y2)/2;

z = (z1 + z2)/2.

22


a ( x A , y A , z A ); b( x B , y B , z B ),
:
a b c( x A x B ; y A y B ; z A z B ); a (x A ; y A ;z A )

. a b ,
.

a b = a

cos

:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)

a a = a 2;

a b = 0, a b a = 0 b = 0.


a b = b a ;


a ( b + c ) = a b + a c ;


(m a ) b = a (m b ) = m( a b ); m=const

a ( x a , y a , z a );

b( xb , y b , z b )


a b = xa xb + ya yb + za zb;

,
:
cos

x a xb y a y b z a z b

a b

. (5 a + 3 b )(2 a


10 a a - 5 a b + 6 a b - 3 b b = 10 a

.. a a a 4, b b b 9, a b 0 .

b ),
2

a 4,

8
8
4 2

;
14 56 2 14 14 14 7

b 6,

b 3,

2
3b
40 27 13

.
a

b 6i 4 j 2k .

.. a = (1, 2, 3), b = (6, 4, -2)



a b = 6 + 8 6 = 8:

a 1 4 9 14;
b 36 16 4 56 .

a 2,


a b .

cos =

b ,


a i 2 j 3k ,

2
arccos .
7

(3 a


^ b / 3.

23

- 2 b )(5 a

- 6 b ),


15 a a -


18 a b -


10 a b +

12 b b

2
2

1
a 28 a b cos 12 b 15 16 28 4 6
3
2

15

+ 1236 = 240 336 + 432 = 672 336 = 336.

. a

b 4i 5 j 3k .

b ,

a 3i 4 j 5k ,

.. a = (3, 4, 5), b = (4, 5, -3)



a b = 12 + 20 - 15 =17 :

9 16 25

50;

17
17

;
50 50 50

cos =

16 25 9

arccos

50

17
.
50

. m

a mi j

a = (m, 1, 0);

b =


a b 3m 3 0;

b 3i 3 j 4k

(3, -3, -4)

m 1.

2a 3b 4c

5a 6b 7c ,

a 1, b 2, c 3, a ^ b a ^ c b ^ c .

( 2a 3b 4c )( 5a 6b 7c )



10a a 12a b 14a c 15a b 18b b 21b c



20c a 24b c 28c c 10



a a 27 a b 34a c 45b c 18b b 28c c =

10 +

+ 27 + 51 + 135 + 72 + 252 = 547.


.

. a

c , :

1) c a b sin , - a b ,
sin 0;


c a b
2)

3) a , b c


c ab

[a , b ] .

:
1)
2)



b a a b ;

a b 0 ,

a = 0

b =

24

0;




3) (m a ) b = a (m b ) = m( a b );


4) a ( b + ) = a b + a ;

5) a (xa, ya, za)


b (xb, yb, zb)

i , j , k ,


a b = xa

ya

za

xb

yb

zb

6)


, a b .
.

b i 2 j 3k .

a = (2, 5, 1);

b =

a b 2
1

a 2i 5 j k

(1, 2, -3)

j
5
2

k
5
1 i
2
3

2
j
3
1

2
k
3
1
1

5
2

17 i 7 j k .

. (2, 2, 2), (4, 0, 3),


(0, 1, 0).
AC (0 2;1 2;0 2) ( 2;1;2)
AB ( 4 2;0 2;3 2) ( 2;2;1)

i
j
k
1 2
2
AC AB 2 1 2 i
j
2
1
2
2
2
1

k (4 2) 5i 2 j 6k .
AC AB

25 4 36

65.

. ,
.
1

3
7

1
7
3

8 ~ 0
0
2

1
4
4

2
2
k
1
2

5 ,
5

1
i ( 1 4) j ( 2 4)
2

65
(2).
2


a 7i 3 j 2k , b 3i 7 j 8k c i j k

..

a 3b ;

. ,



0
3a b , a b 1; a ^ b 30 .



( a 3b ) (3a b ) 3a a a b 9b a 3b b b a 9b a 8b a

S 8 b a sin 30 0 4 (2).

25

.
a , b c
,

a ,

b c .
a b c (a , b , c ).
a b c ,
a, b c .

b c

:
1) , :
) ;
) ;
) .

2) (a b ) c a (b c )





3) (a , b , c ) (b, c , a ) (c , a, b ) (b , a, c ) (c , b , a ) (a , c , b )

4) (a1 a 2 , b , c ) ( a1 , b , c ) (a 2 , b , c )

5) , a , b c ,

1
a, b , c
6

6) a ( x1 , y1 , z1 ) , b ( x 2 , y 2 , z 2 ), c ( x3 , y 3 , z 3 ) ,

x1

(a, b , c ) x2
x3

y1

z1

y2
y3

z2
z3

. , (5; 7; 2), B(3; 1; -1), C(9; 4; -4), D(1; 5; 0)


.
AB ( 2;6;1)

AC ( 4;3;2)
AD ( 4;2;2)

:
26

2
AB AC AD 4

6
3

1
2
2 0
2

6
15
10

1
0
0 0
0

6
15

10

1
0 0,
0

, , A, B, C
D .
. , BCD,
A(0; 0; 1), B(2; 3; 5), C(6; 2; 3), D(3; 7; 2).
BA ( 2;3;4)

BD (1;4;3)
BC ( 4;1;2)

2
1
V 1
6
4

3
4
1

4
1
3 (2(8 3) 3(2 12) 4( 1 16))
6
2

1
(22 30 68) 20( 3 )
6


BCD.

i
BD BC 1
4
BD BC

S =

j
4

3 i ( 8 3) j ( 2 12) k ( 1 16) 11i 10 j 17 k .

11 10 17 2
2

121 100 289

510

510 / 2 (2)

.. V =

S h
;
3

3V
120
4 510

. ()
S
17
510

.
. , x, y, z
.

.
. ,
:
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0,
, ,

N A i Bj Ck -

:
= 0
= 0
= 0 z
D = 0
27

= = 0
= = 0 z
= = 0 yOz
= D = 0
= D = 0
= D = 0 Oz
= = D = 0
= = D = 0 xOz
= = D = 0 yOz
, .
, -
, ,
.
1(x1, y1, z1), M2(x2, y2, z2), M3(x3, y3, z3)
.
, (x, y, z)
1, 2, 3 , M 1 M 2 , M 1 M 3 , M 1 M
.
( M 1M 2 , M 1M 3 , M 1M ) = 0
M 1 M {x x1 ; y y1 ; z z1 }

M 1 M 2 {x 2 x1 ; y 2 y1 ; z 2 z1 }
M 1 M 3 {x3 x1 ; y 3 y1 ; z 3 z1 }

, :
x x1

y y1

z z1

x 2 x1
x3 x1

y 2 y1
y 3 y1

z 2 z1 0
z 3 z1

, .

1(x1, y1, z1), M2(x2, y2, z2) a (a1 , a 2 , a3 ) .


,
1 2

(, , z) a .

M 1 M {x x1 ; y y1 ; z z1 }

M 1 M 2 {x 2 x1 ; y 2 y1 ; z 2 z1 }

, ..

a (a1 , a 2 , a3 )

( M 1M , M 1M 2 , a ) = 0
:
x x1

y y1

z z1

x 2 x1
a1

y 2 y1
a2

z 2 z1 0
a3

28

,
.

a (a1 , a 2 , a3 ) b (b1 , b2 , b3 ) ,
.
(, , z), ,

a , b , MM 1 .
:
x x1

y y1

z z1

a1
b1

a2
b2

a3
b3

.
. 0(0, 0, z0),
, 0 N (A, B, C)
:
A(x x0) + B(y y0) + C(z z0) = 0.
. (, , z), ,
M 0 M ( x x 0 , y y 0 , z z 0 ) . .. N - ,
, , , M 0 M .

M 0M N = 0
,
A( x x 0 ) B ( y y 0 ) C ( z z 0 ) 0

.
.
+ + z + D = 0 (-D)

A
B
C
x
y z 1 0 ,
D
D
D

D
D
D
a, b, c , :
A
B
C
x y z
1
a b c

a, b, c ,
, z.
.

r xi yj zk -


r n p,

- (, , z),
29


n i cos j cos k cos

, .

, - , , , z.
p .
:
xcos + ycos + zcos - p = 0.
.
0(0, 0, z0) ++z+D=0
:
d

Ax0 By 0 Cz 0 D
A2 B 2 C 2

. , , (4; -3; 12)


, .
OP ( 4;3;12);

OP

16 9 144

169 13

4
3 12
N ( ;
;
)
13 13 13

, A = 4/13; B = -3/13; C = 12/13, :


A(x x0) + B(y y0) + C(z z0) = 0.
4
3
12
( x 4) ( y 3)
( z 12) 0
13
13
13
4
16
3
9 12
144
x

z
0
13
13 13
13 13
13
4
3
12
169
x
y
z
0
13
13
13
13
4 x 3 y 12 z 169 0.

. , P(2; 0; -1)
Q(1; -1; 3) 3 + 2 z + 5 = 0.
3 + 2 z + 5 = 0
.
:

30

N (3;2;1)

x2

y0

1 2
3

1 0
2

x2

1
3

1
2

z 1
3 1 0
1

z 1
4 0
1

( x 2)(1 8) y (1 12) ( z 1)( 2 3) 0


7( x 2) 11 y ( z 1) 0
7 x 14 11 y z 1 0
7 x 11 y z 15 0

. , (2, -1, 4)
(3, 2, -1) + + 2z 3 = 0.
: Ax + By + Cz + D = 0,
n1 (A, B, C). AB (1, 3, -5) .
, n 2 (1, 1, 2). ..
,
,

n1 AB n 2 1
1

3
1

k
3
5 i
1
2

1
5
j
2
1

1
5
k
2
1

3
11i 7 j 2k .
1

, n1 (11, -7, -2). ..


,
, .. 112 + 71 - 24 + D = 0; D = -21.
, : 11x - 7y 2z 21 = 0.
. , , (4, -3, 12)
, .
OP = (4, -3, 12).
: 4x 3y + 12z + D = 0. D
:
16 + 9 + 144 + D = 0
D = -169
, : 4x 3y + 12z 169 = 0
. 1(1; 0; 3), A2(2; -1; 3), A3(2; 1; 1),
A4(1; 2; 5).
1) 12.
A1 A2 {2 1;1 0;3 3} {1;1;0};

A1 A2

11 0

2) 12 14.

31

2 ().

A1 A4 {1 1;2 0;5 3} {0;2;2}


A1 A4 2

2 ( )

A1 A2 A1 A4 (1;1;0)(0;2;2) 2
A1 A2 A1 A4 A1 A 2 A1 A4 cos 2
cos

A1 A2 A1 A4
A1 A2 A1 A4

2
1
;
4
2

2 cos 4 cos

120 0

3) 14 123.
123
A1 A3 A1 A2 .
A1 A3

N 1

= (2-1; 1-0; 1-3) = (1; 1; -2);

j
1

2 i (0 2) j (0 2) k ( 1 1) 2i 2 j 2k ;

1 1

N 2 3

N ( 2;2;2)

N A1 A4 N A1 A4 cos 2

A1 A4

2 cos

32

N A1 A4 -4

4 = -8.
= 900 - .
sin cos

8
4 6

2
6

6
.
3

arcsin

6
3

4) 123.
S

1
1
A1 A2 A1 A3 N
2
2

3 ( 2 )

5) .
V

1
(( A1 A2 A1 A3 ) A1 A4 )
6

1
N A1 A4
6

4
(3).
3

6) 123.
, .
x 1
2 1

y0
1 0

2 1

1 0

z 3
x 1
33 1
1 3

y
1
1

z 3
0 ( x 1) 2 y ( 2) ( z 3)(1 1)
2

2x 2 2 y 2z 6 0

2x + 2y + 2z 8 = 0
x + y + z 4 = 0;
.
32

.
,
- .
.
. y = f(x)
, .
,
,
t.
.
.
.
.

+ + = 0,
, , .. 2 + 2 0.
.
,
:
- C = 0, 0, 0
- = 0, 0, 0 { By + C = 0}-
- = 0, 0, 0 { Ax + C = 0}
- = = 0, 0
- = = 0, 0

.
.
.
(, ) , + + = 0.
.

n (3, -1).

(1,

2)

= 3 = -1 : 3 + = 0.
.
: 3 2 + C = 0, = -1.
: : 3 1 = 0.
, .
M1(x1, y1, z1) M2(x2, y2, z2),
, :

33

x x1
y y1
z z1

x 2 x1 y 2 y1 z 2 z1

- ,
.
:
y y1
y y1 2
( x x1 )
x 2 x1
1 2 = 1, 1 = 2.
y 2 y1

= k .
x 2 x1
. , (1, 2) (3, 4).
, :

42
( x 1)
3 1
y 2 x 1
y2

x y 1 0

.
+ + = 0 :
y

A
C
k ; b; ..
B
B

A
C
x
B
B

y kx b ,

k.
.
,
.

. (1, 2),
1 + 2 = 0
+ + = 0.

. (1, -1)
(1, 2).
: Ax + By + C = 0.
, :
1A + (-1)B = 0, .. = .
: Ax + Ay + C = 0, x + y + C/A = 0.

34

= 1, = 2 /A = -3, .. :
+-3=0
.
+ + = 0 0, , ,
:

x y
1 ,
a b
C
C
a ; b
A
B

,
, b
.
. + 1 = 0.
.
= 1,


1,
1 1

= -1, b = 1.

.
+ + = 0

1
A2 B 2

,
xcos + ysin - p = 0
.
, < 0.
, , - ,
.
. 12 5 65 = 0.
.
12
5

1
65
65
:

1
(65 / 12) ( 13)

: ( 5)
y

12
65 12
x

x 13.
5
5
5

35

1
12 ( 5)
2

1
13

12
5

5 0;
13
13

cos = 12/13; sin = -5/13; p = 5.

C ,
, , ,
.
. .
, ,
8 2.
:

x y
1,
a b

a = b = 1;

ab/2 = 8;

a = 4; -4.

a = -4 .
:

x y
1 + 4 = 0.
4 4

. , (-2, -3)
.
:

x x1
y y1

, 1 = 1 = 0; x2 = -2; y2 = -3.
x 2 x1 y 2 y1

x0
y0

;
20 30

x
y

;
2 3

3 x 2 y 0.

.
. y = k1x + b1, y = k2x + b2,

tg

k 2 k1
.
1 k1 k 2

, k1 = k2.
, k1 = -1/k2.
. + + = 0 1 + 1 + 1 = 0 ,
1 = , 1 = . 1 = ,
.

.
,
.
. , 1(1, 1)
= kx + b :
y y1

1
( x x1 )
k

36

.
. (0, 0), + + =0

d

Ax0 By 0 C
A2 B 2

. 1(1, 1) ,
. 1:
d ( x1 x 0 ) 2 ( y1 y 0 ) 2
(1)
x1 1 :

Ax By 0

A( y y0 ) B( x x0 ) 0
,
0 .
:
A(x x0) + B(y y0) + Ax0 + By0 + C = 0,
, , :
A
x x0 2
( Ax 0 By 0 C ),
A B2
B
y y0 2
( Ax0 By 0 C )
A B2
(1), :
d

Ax0 By 0 C
A2 B 2

.
. : y = -3x + 7; y = 2x + 1.
k1 = -3; k2 = 2

tg =

2 ( 3)
1 ; = /4.
1 ( 3) 2

. , 3 5 + 7 = 0 10 + 6 3 = 0
.
: k1 = 3/5,
.

k2 = -5/3,

k1k2 = -1, ,

. (0; 1), B(6; 5), C(12; -1).


, .
:
2x 3y + 3 = 0; y

2
x 1.
3

x 0 y 1

;
6 0 5 1

37

x y 1

;
6
4

4x = 6y 6;

: Ax + By + C = 0 y = kx + b.
3
3
. y = x b . .. ,
2
2
3
3
: 1 12 b, b = 17. : y x 17 .
2
2

k =

: 3x + 2y 34 = 0.

.

2 + 2 + 2 + 2Dx + 2Ey + F = 0.
( ),
,
.
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)
8)
9)

x2 y2

1 - .
a2 b2
x2 y2

1 - .
a2 b2
x2 y2

1 - .
a2 b2
a2x2 c2y2 = 0 .
y2 = 2px .
y2 a2 = 0 .
y2 + a2 = 0 .
y2 = 0 .
(x a)2 + (y b)2 = R2 .

.
(x a)2 + (y b)2 = R2 (a; b).
. ,
:
2x2 + 2y2 8x + 5y 4 = 0.

, .9.
:
x2 + y2 4x + 2,5y 2 = 0
2
x 4x + 4 4 + y2 + 2,5y + 25/16 25/16 2 = 0
(x 2)2 + (y + 5/4)2 25/16 6 = 0
(x 2)2 + (y + 5/4)2 = 121/16
(2; -5/4); R = 11/4.
38

.
. ,

x2 y2

1.
a2 b2

. ,
.

r1
F1

r2
F2

F1, F2 . F1 = (c; 0); F2(-c; 0)


;
a ;
b .
. :
a2 = b2 + c2.
: ,
, r1 + r2 = 2 b 2 c 2 ( ). ,
, r1 + r2 = a c + a + c. ..
r1 + r2 , , , :
a2 = b2 + c2
r1 + r2 = 2a.
. ,
.
= /a.
.. < a, < 1.
. k = b/a ,
1 k = (a b)/a .
: k2 = 1 e2.
a = b (c = 0, e = 0, ),
.
x2 y2
(1, 1) : 12 12 1 ,
a b
2
2
x
y
, 12 12 1 , .
a b
39

. (, ),
:
r1 = a ex, r2 = a + ex.
. , r1 + r2 = 2a. ,
:
r1 ( x c) 2 y 2
r2 ( x c) 2 y 2
( x c) 2 y 2

( x c ) 2 y 2 2a

:
( x c ) 2 y 2 4a 2 4a ( x c ) 2 y 2 ( x c ) 2 y 2
4cx 4a 2 4a ( x c ) 2 y 2

( x c) 2 y a

, r2 = a + ex.

c
x a ex.
a

, . :
x = a/e; x = -a/e.
. , , ,

.
. ,
, :
1)
2)
3)

x2
y2

1.
25 16

: x = 0; y2 = 16; y = -4.
: c2 = a2 b2 = 25 16 = 9; c = 3; F2(-3; 0).
, :
x0
y4

;
30 0 4

.
2.

x
y4

;
3
4

4 x 3 y 12;

4 x 3 y 12 0

, F1(0; 0), F2(1; 1),

x2 y2

1 . :
a2 b2
2c = (1 0) 2 (1 0) 2 2 , , a2 b2 = c2 =
2 = 2, = 1, b = a 2 c 2 1 1 / 2 2 / 2.
x2
y2
: 2
1.
1/ 2
1

40

. ,
,
, .
y
M(x, y)
b
r1
r2
x
F1

F2

c
r1 r2 = 2a. F1, F2 . F1F2 = 2c.
(, ). :
r1 ( x c) 2 y 2
r2 ( x c) 2 y 2
( x c ) 2 y 2 ( x c ) 2 y 2 2a
( x c ) 2 y 2 4 a 2 4a ( x c ) 2 y 2 ( x c ) 2 y 2
4a ( x c ) 2 y 2 4a 2 4 xc

a 2 ( x c) 2 a 2 y 2 a 4 2a 2 xc x 2 c 2
a 2 x 2 2a 2 xc a 2 c 2 a 2 y 2 a 4 2a 2 xc x 2 c 2
a 2 x 2 a 2c 2 a 2 y 2 a 4 x 2c 2 0

x 2 (c 2 a 2 ) a 2 (c 2 a 2 ) a 2 y 2 0

x 2 (c 2 a 2 ) a 2 y 2 a 2 (c 2 a 2 )

2 2 = b2 ( )
a 2b 2 b 2 x 2 a 2 y 2

x2 y2

1
a2 b2

.
,
.
2 .
2b .
, y
. e

b
x.
a

c
1 ,
a

, .
, 2 2 = b2:
c2 a2 b2 b2
e2 2
2
a
a2
a
41

b
e2 1
a

= b, e =

2 , ().

. ,
a/e ,
. : x

a
.
e

. r , d
, r/d , .
. .

y
a/e

d
M(x, y)
r1

F1

OF1 = c
:
a/e + d = x, d = x a/e.
(x c)2 + y2 = r2
x 2b 2
: y 2 2 b 2 , b2 = c2 a2:
a
x 2b 2
r 2 x 2 2 xc c 2 2 b 2
a
x 2 2 xc c 2

c2x2
c

x2 c2 a2 x a
a
a2

c
xa
a

.. /a = e, r = ex a.
r ex a

e
a
: d
.
x
e

. .
. ,

42

x2 y2

1.
8
5

: c2 = a2 b2.
: c2 = a2 + b2.
3
5

3
8

8
2

x
y

1.
3
5

. , 2,

x2 y2

1.
25
9

c2 = 25 9 = 16.
: c2 = a2 + b2 = 16,
e = c/a = 2;
b2 = 16 4 = 12.

c = 2a;

c2 = 4a2;

a2 = 4;

x2 y2

1 - .
4 12

.
. ,
, ,
, .
.

(, )

p/2

p/2

( )
. .
43

: AM = MF; AM = x + p/2;
MF2 = y2 + (x p/2)2
(x + p/2)2 = y2 + (x p/2)2
2
x +xp + p2/4 = y2 + x2 xp + p2/4
y2 = 2px
: x = -p/2.

. 2 = 8 ,
4.
, = 4.
r = x + p/2 = 4; :
x = 2; y2 = 16; y = 4. : M1(2; 4), M2(2; -4).

.

, .

.

, . ,

.
.
.
. , l .
- ,
,
.

. .

r
44

r=

0
l

,
, .

:
x = rcos;

y = rsin;

x2 + y2 = r2

. :
r

4
. ,
3 cos

, . .

2
2
: r x y ;

cos

x2 y2

x2 y2

4
3

x
x y2
2

3 x2 y2 x 4
3 x2 y2 x 4

9 x 2 9 y 2 16 8 x x 2
8 x 2 8 x 9 y 2 16 0

8( x 2 x 1 / 4) 8 1 / 4 9 y 2 16 0
8( x 1 / 2) 2 2 9 y 2 16 0
8( x 1 / 2) 2 9 y 2 18

( x 1 / 2) 2 y 2

1
9/4
2

. ,
1/2 , a 3/2,
b 2 , = a 2 b 2 = 1/2.
= /a = 1/3. F1(0; 0) F2(1; 0).
y
2

-1

F1
0

F2
1

45

- 2
. :
r

9
.
4 5 cos

, , .
.
,
.
x2 y2
4

9
5x
x2 y2

4 x 2 y 2 5x 9
4 x 2 y 2 5x 9

16 x 2 16 y 2 81 90 x 25 x 2
9 x 2 90 x 16 y 2 81 0

9( x 2 10 x 25 25) 16 y 2 81 0

9( x 5) 2 225 16 y 2 81 0
9( x 5) 2 16 y 2 144

( x 5) 2 y 2

1
16
9

. ,
5 , 4,
b 3, c2 = a2 + b2 ; c = 5; e = c/a = 5/4.
F1(-10; 0), F2(0; 0).
.
y

F1

-9

-5

-1

0 F2
-3

46

.
.
, ,
,
:
F(x, y, z) = 0.
.
, .
,
- .
F(x, y, z) = 0 (x, y, z) = 0 ,
L.

F ( x, y , z ) 0

( x, y , z ) 0


S (m, n, p),

. S .
0(x0, y0, z0) M(x, y, z).
z

M1

M0
r0

47

r
y

- r0 r , , r - r0 =
0 .

.. 0 S , 0 = S t, t
.

, : r = r0 + S t.
.. ,
.
:

x x0 mt

y y0 nt
z z pt
0

t,
:
x x0
y y0 z z0

.
m
n
p

S , :
cos

m
m n p
2

; cos

n
m n p
2

; cos

p
m n2 p2
2

: m : n : p = cos : cos : cos.

m, n, p . .. S -
, m, n p ,
.
.

,
.
M1(x1, y1, z1)
M2(x2, y2, z2),
:
x 2 x1 y 2 y1 z 2 z1

.
m
n
p

, 1 :
x x1
y y1 z z1

.
m
n
p

, :
x x1
y y1
z z1

.
x 2 x1 y 2 y1 z 2 z1
, .

48

.

.
,
:

N r + D = 0,

N - ; r - - .

: N 1 r + D1 = 0 N 2 r + D2 = 0,

: N 1 (A1, B1, C1), N 2 (A2, B2, C2); r (x, y, z).


:

N1 r D1 0

N 2 r D2 0

A1 x B1 y C1 z D1 0

A2 x B2 y C2 z D2 0

.
m, n, p.

.

S N 1 N 2 A1

B1

A2

B2

B
C1 i 1
B2
C2

A
C1
j 1
C2
A2

A
C1
k 1
C2
A2

B1
i m j n k p.
B2

. , :

2 x y 3z 1 0

5x 4 y z 7 0
, = 0,
.

49

3zy 1 3zy 1 3zy 1 y2



4 yz 70 2 41 zz 70 z1 z1

, .. (0, 2, 1).

.
m

B1
B2

C1
1 3

11;
C2
4 1

A1
A2

C1
2

C2
5

3
17;
1

A1
A2

B1
2

B2
5

1
13.
4

x
y 2 z 1

.
11
17
13

. , :

2 x 3 y 16 z 7 0

3x y 17 z 0
,
, z = 0. :

2x 3y 16z 7 0
; y 3x ;

3x y 17z 0
2x 9x 7 = 0;
x = -1; y = 3;

: A(-1; 3; 0).
:

x 1 y 3
z

;
35 14 7

S n1 n 2 2
3

x 1 y 3 z

;
5
2
1

50

j
3
1

16 35i 14 j 7 k .
17

N2

1
0

N1


1 : = 1 = 1800 - 1, ..
cos = cos1.
1. , :

N1 r D1 0
,

N 2 r D2 0

N 1 (A1, B1, C1), N 2 (A2, B2, C2).


:
cos 1

N1 N 2
N1 N 2

, :
cos

A1 A2 B1 B2 C1C 2
A B12 C12 A22 B22 C 22
2
1

,
, .

.

.
, ,
. , :
A1 A2 B1 B2 C1C 2 0 .

51

, :
A1 B1 C1

, :
.
A2 B2 C 2

N1

N2

.
. :

l1: r r1 S1t

l2: r r2 S 2 t

r ( x, y , z );

r1 ( x1 , y1 , z1 );

r2 ( x 2 , y 2 , z 2 );

S1 ( m1 , n1 , p1 );

S 2 ( m2 , n 2 , p 2 ).


: = 1 = 1800 - 1.
. :
cos

S1 S 2
S1 S 2

m1 m2 n1 n 2 p1 p 2
m n12 p12
2
1

m22 n22 p 22


.
,
, ..
.

m1 n1
p

1
m2 n2 p 2

,
, ..
.
m1 m 2 n1 n 2 p1 p 2 0

.
.
.

52

N r D 0 , - r r0 St .
(. .) , = 900 - ,

N S .
:

cos

N S

N S

sin cos

: sin


N S

N S

Am Bn Cp
A B 2 C 2 m2 n2 p 2
2


.
, ,
,
. ,
.

N S ,


N S 0,

sin 0,

Am Bn Cp 0.

, ,
,
. ,
.

N S 0;

A B C

m n
p

.
. ,
.

53

.
. ,
, - .
, z, ..
z. OY (
)
.
:
1)

2)

x2 y2

1 - .
a2 b2

x2 y2

1 - .
a2 b2

2) x2 = 2py .

54

.
. , ,
d,
d.
:
2
F(x + y2, z) = 0, z.
: F(x2 + z2, y) = 0 ,
F(z2 + y2, x) = 0 .
:
x2 y2 z2
2 1 -
a2
c
2
2
x y
z2
2)

1 -
a2
c2
x2 y2 z2
3)
2 1 -
a2
c

1)

4)

x2 y2
2 z -
p


, .
,
,
:
: ( x a ) 2 ( y b) 2 ( z c) 2 r 2

55

x2 y2 z2

1
a2 b2 c2

, ,
.

56

x2 y2 z2

1
a2 b2 c2

x2 y2 z 2

1
a2 b2 c2

x2 y2

2 z,
p
q

57

p 0, q 0

x2
y2

2z
p
q

x2 y2 z2

0
a2 b2 c2

.
,
,
.
,
.
l, ,

n 1.
,
n .
,

, l ,
z.
,

n l ,

58

,
.

, .

r
M1
y
1 = r; MM1 = h;
1 , 1
(r, ).
OM

.
(r, , h), .
.
(r,,), - .

.

,
.
:
h = z;

x = rcos;

y = rsin; cos =

x
x y
2

sin =

y
x y2
2


.
:
59

z cos ;

arctg

y
;
x

y sin sin ;

arctg

x2 y2
;
z

x sin cos ;

cos

z
x2 y2 z2

x2 y2 z 2 ;

; sin

x2 y2
x2 y2 z2

() .
, (, , )
- (, ,
, ). , .

, (, ..).
, ()
L ,
.
1

:
1) x + y = y + x
2 2) ( x + y ) + z = x + ( y + z )
3) O , O + x = x x L
4) x L y = - x , , x + y = O
5)1 x = x
6) ( x ) = () x
7) ( + ) x = x + x
8) ( x + y ) = x + y

: L,
, () ,
.
,
.
()
. () .
,
, ..

, ()
, .
.
1) .
2) .
3) x L 0 x = 0
4) R O L O = O
5) x = O , = 0 x = O
6) (-1) x = - x

60

.
: , L
, x L
x L.
: ,
x L y L :
A( x + y ) = A x +A y
A( x ) = A x
: ,
.
x = x
. . x = x + x 0 ;

x0

0.

- y . y = y + x 0
, ( x
+ y ) = y + x + x 0 ; A( x ) + A( y ) = x + x 0 + y + x 0 , x 0 = 0, ..
.
: L
a1 , a 2 ,..., a n , b a1 a 2 ... a n
a i .
: a1 a 2 ... a n 0 = = = = 0,
a i .
: L n
, n + 1 , L n,
L.
:
.
.
n- e1 , e2 ,, en
. e1 , e2 ,, en -
:
A e1 = a11 e1 + a21 e2 ++ an1 en
A e2 = a12 e1 + a22 e2 ++ an2 en
.
61

A en
a11
a 21
...
a n1

= an1 e1 + an2 e2 ++ ann en


a12 ... a1n

a 22 ... a 2 n

... ... ...

a n 2 ... a nn

.
L x = x1 e1 + x2 e2 ++ xn en , A L.
Ax x1 e1 x 2 e2 ... x n en ,
x1 a11 x1 a12 x 2 ... a1n x n
x 2 a 21 x1 a 22 x 2 ... a 2 n x n
..
x n a n1 x1 a n 2 x 2 ... a nn x n
e1 , e2 ,,
en .
:

x1 x1

x 2 x 2
,
...
...

x x
n n

x1

x2
x e1 , e 2 ,..., en
,
...

x
n

A x x

. , :
x = x + y
y = y + z
z = z + x
x = 1x + 1y + 0z
y = 0x + 1y + 1z
z = 1x + 0y + 1z
1

A= 0
1

1
1
0

1
1

, z
,
, z (
).
=

. ,
, z .
, x z .
62

y1 2x1 x2 5x3 z1 y1 4y2 3y3

y2 x1 4x2 x3 z2 5y1 y2 y3
y 3x 5x 2 x z 3 y 6 y 7 y
3 1 2 33 1 2 3
x A y B z

x C z

2 1 5

A 1
4
1
3 5 2

249
1 16 15
10 1 3
545

6 6 21

1 4

B 5 1
3 6

546

25 1 2

3 24 35 15 6 14

1
7
15
6

0
4

33

14

24 .
23

z1 15 x1 7 x3

.. z 2 6 x1 4 x 2 24 x3
z 33x 14 x 23x
1
2
3
3
: = 0, , .., ,
, .

.
: L n- .

L ,

, :
A .

(
) , .
: e1 , e2 ,,
a11 a12 ... a1n

a 21 a 22 ... a 2 n
e n =
,
...
... ... ...

n1 a n 2 ... a nn
1, 2, ,n :
63

a11
a 21
...
a n1

a12
a 22
...
an2

...
...
...
...

a1n
a2n
0
...
a nn

, .

.
a11 a12
.
,
a 21 a 22
:

a11

a 21

a12

a 22

x1 x1
;
x 2 x 2

x1 a11 x1 a12 x2

x2 a21 x1 a22 x2

e1 , e2 .
,
.

x1 x1 a11 x1 a12 x2

x2 x2 a21 x1 a22 x2

(a11 ) x1 a12 x2 0

a21 x1 (a22 ) x2 0

.. x , 1 2 .
.. , , ,
.
, .

a11
a 21

a12
( a11 )(a 22 ) a12 a 21 2 ( a11 a 22 ) ( a11 a 22 a12 a 21 )
a 22


.
, (1, 2)
, -
, 1 2 .
,
, .
, - ,

.

64

, A( kx ) kAx kx (kx ) . ,
,
.
..
1 2,
. (.. ).
.
1 = 2 = ,
, ,
:

0 1 0 2 0
.

0 1 0 2 0

1 2. ,
.
.
5

=
2

x1 x1 5 x1 4 x 2
x 2 x 2 2 x1 3x 2

:
5

(5 )(3 ) 8 15 3 5 2 8 0

2 - 8 + 7 = 0;
: 1 = 7; 2 = 1;

1 = 7:

(57)x1 4x2 0 2x1 4x2 0



2x1 (37)x2 0 2x1 4x2 0

: x1 2x2 = 0.
: (t; 0,5t) t- .

2 = 1:

(51)x1 4x2 0 4x1 4x2 0



2x1 (31)x2 0 2x1 2x2 0
65

: x1 + x2 = 0.
: (t; -t) t- .
:
u1 t (e1 0,5e2 );

u 2 t (e1 e 2 ).

.
6

=
4

x1 x1 6 x1 4 x 2
x 2 x 2 4 x1 2 x 2

(6 ) x1 4 x2 0

4 x1 (2 ) x2 0
:
6

(6 )( 2 ) 16 12 6 2 2 16 0

2 - 4 + 4 = 0;
: 1 = 2 = 2;

(6 2) x1 4x2 0
:

4x1 4x2 0
: x1 x2 = 0.
: (t; t) t- .

: u (e1 e2 )t .
. -
, , 1, 2, 3
1 , 2 , 3 ,
x1 x1 ; x2 x 2 ; x3 x3 ,
- ( ) .
:
a11

A a 21
a
31

a12

a13

a 22
a 32

a 23
a33

x1 a11 x1 a12 x2 a13 x3

, x2 a 21 x1 a 22 x 2 a 23 x3
x a x a x a x
3 31 1 32 2 33 3
66

a11

a12

a 21
a 31

a 22
a 32

a13
a 23 0
a33

, .
,
.

.
.
1

, = 1
3

1
5
1

1 .
1

x1 x1 1 x1 1 x2 3 x3

x2 x2 1 x1 5 x2 1 x3
x x 3 x 1 x 1 x
3 3 1 2 3
1
1
3

1
5
1

3
1 0
1

(1 - )((5 - )(1 - ) - 1) - (1 - - 3) + 3(1 - 15 + 3) = 0


(1 - )(5 - 5 - + 2 - 1) + 2 + - 42 + 9 = 0
(1 - )(4 - 6 + 2) + 10 - 40 = 0
4 - 6 + 2 - 4 + 62 - 3 + 10 - 40 = 0
-3 + 72 36 = 0
-3 + 92 - 22 36 = 0
-2( + 2) + 9(2 4) = 0
( + 2)(-2 + 9 - 18) = 0
:

1 = -2; 2 = 3; 3 = 6;

67

1) 1 = -2:

(1 2)x1 x2 3x3 0
x1 7x2 x3 0

x1 7x2 x3 0
3x x 3x 0 3x1 x2 3x3 0
12

7x2 x3 1
= 1,

x2 3x3 3
1

2) 2 = 3:

2x1 x2 3x3 0
x1 2x2 x3 0

x1 2x2 x3 0
3x x 2x 0 3x1 x2 2x3 0
3

2x2 x3 1
= 1,

x2 2x3 3
1

3) 3 = 6:

x3 = -1;

u1 (e1 e3 ) t.

12

2 = 0;

2 = -1;

u 2 (e1 e 2 3 ) t .

5x1 x2 3x3 0
x1 x2 x3 0

x1 x2 x3 0
3x x 5x 0 3x1 x2 5x3 0
12

68

x3 = 1;

x2 x3 1
= 1,

x2 5x3 3
1

2 = 2;

x3 = 1;

u 3 (e1 2e2 3 ) t.

.
3

, = 2
1

2
1
1

:
3
2
1

2
1
1

4
2
0
2

-(3 + )((1 - )(2 - ) 2) + 2(4 - 2 - 2) - 4(2 - 1 + ) = 0


-(3 + )(2 - - 2 + 2 - 2) + 2(2 - 2) - 4(1 + ) = 0
-(3 + )(2 - 3) + 4 - 4 - 4 - 4 = 0
-32 + 9 - 3 + 32 - 8 = 0
-3 + = 0
1 = 0; 2 = 1; 3 = -1;

1 = 0:

3x1 2x2 4x3 0


2x1 x2 2x3

2x1 x2 2x3 0
x x 2x 0 x1 x2 2x3
1 2 3

3 = 1, 1 = 0, 2 = -2
u1 (0 e1 2 e2 1 e3 ) t, t .

u2

u3

2 3.

69

2 .
2

:
1 2

(1, 2) = 11 x12 2a12 x1 x 2 a 22 x 22 ,


,
1 2.
:
1, 2 3

( x1 , x 2 , x3 ) a11 x12 a 22 x 22 a 33 x32 2a12 x1 x 2 2a 23 x 2 x3 2a13 x1 x3


1, 2 3.
.
11 12
.
=
12 22
.
1 , 2 .
1, 2.
(1, 2) = 11 x12 2a12 x1 x 2 a 22 x 22 ,
1 2.

.
11
12

12
.
22

:
y1 = a11x1 + a12x2
y2 = a12x1 + a22x2
1 2 1 , 2 .
,
(1, 2) = 11 + 22.
,
1 2 .
,
,
. ,
, ,
.

, :
0

.
1
0 2

70

1 2
1 2 . :
1 1 2 2
1 12
2
1 11
1 22 2
2 12
1 1 1 ,

2 2 2 .

( 1 , 2 ) 1 ( 1 ) 2 2 ( 2 ) 2
.
.

.
.
(1, 2) = 27 12 10 1 2 3 22 .
: 11 = 27, 12 = 5, 22 = 3.
:

27

0;

(27 - )(3 - ) 25 = 0
2 - 30 + 56 = 0
1 = 2; 2 = 28;

( 1, 2 ) 2 12 2822
. :
17x2 + 12xy + 8y2 20 = 0.
11 = 17, 12 = 6, 22 = 8.
:

17

=
6

17

(17 - )(8 - ) - 36 = 0
136 - 8 - 17 + 2 36 = 0
2 - 25 + 100 = 0
1 = 5, 2 = 20.

2 2

x
y - .
2
2
: 5( ) 20( ) 20 0;
1
4 1
. ,
. .
5 x 2 2 3 xy 3 y 2 6 0

71

:
5 x 2 3 xy 3 y
2

a11
a12


: a11 5, a12 3 , a 22 3.

a12
5

a 22
3

3
15 3 5 2 3 2 8 12 0
3

, 1 = 2, 2 = 6.
:

a1 1m1 a12n1 0 3m1 3n1 0

a12m1 a2 1n1 0 3m1 n1 0


a1 2m2 a12n2 0 m2 3n2 0

a12m2 a2 2n2 0 3m2 3n2 0

m1 = 1, n1 =

m2 = 1, n2 =

: u1 (1; 3 )

u 2 (1;

u1 1 3 2;

1
3

u2 1

1
2

3
3

.
1
3

2
2

e1

e2

3 1
;
2 2

:
2( x ) 2 6( y ) 2 6

:
( x ) 2

( y ) 2
1
12

72

1.5

0.5

0.5

1.5

. ,
. .
5 x 2 4 6 xy 7 y 2 22 0

:
5 x 4 6 xy 7 y
2

a11
a12


: a11 5, a12 2 6 , a 22 7.

a12
5

a 22
2 6

2 6
35 7 5 2 24 2 12 11 0
7

, 1 = 1, 2 = 11.
:

a1 1m1 a12n1 0 2m1 6n1 0

a12m1 a2 1n1 0 6m1 3n1 0


a1 2m2 a12n2 0 3m2 6n2 0

a12m2 a2 2n2 0 6m2 2n2 0

m1 = 1, n1 =

m2 = 1, n2 =

: u1 (1;

2
)
3

u 2 (1;

3
)
2
73

3
6

u1 1

5
;
3

u2 1

5
2

3
2

;
5
5

e1

e2

2 3

;
5 5

:
( x ) 2 11( y ) 2 22

( x ) 2
22

( y ) 2

2
2

. ,
. .
4 + 32 + 16 = 0
: a11 = 0;

a12 = 2;

a22 = 3.

3 2 4 0

: 1 = -1, 2 = 4.
1 = -1

2 = 4

1 m1 2n1 0

2m1 4n1 0

4m 2 2 n 2 0

2m 2 n 2 0

m1 = 1;
u1

n1 = -0,5;

m2 = 1;

= (1; -0,5)

u1

u2

5
2

= (1; 2)

u2

74

n2 = 2;

e1

u1
u1

2
5

2 2

x
y
2 2
x 4y 16; 1
16 4

1
5

e 2

u2
u2

1
5

2
5

- .

10

15

10

10

15

10

.
.
. n
n, ,
x1, 2, , n = {xn}
n.
xn = f(n)

.
,
.
. {xn} = {(-1)n} {xn} = -1; 1; -1; 1;
{xn} = {sinn/2} {xn} = 1; 0; 1; 0;
:
75

1) m: m{xn} = {mxn}, .. mx1, mx2,


2) () : {xn} {yn} = {xn yn}.
3) : {xn}{yn} = {xnyn}.
x x
4) : n n {yn} 0.
yn yn
.
. {xn}
,
>0, n :
xn M

.. (-; M).
. {xn} ,
n ,
xn M.
. {xn} ,
n ,
xn M
. {xn} = n {1, 2, 3, }.
. {xn},
>0 N, n > N
:
a xn .

: lim xn = a.
, {xn} n.
: - ,
, ,
.
. , lim

n > N 0

( 1) n

, ..

( 1) n
0.
n

1
1
. n , ,
n

, , , .

76

1
2

1
3

1
4

. , n 3, 2 , 2 , 2 ,..., 2

1
n

2.
: {xn}= 2 + 1/n;

1/n = xn 2

, n, x n 2

, .. lim {xn} = 2.

. .
. , {xn} a
b, .
xn a; xn b; a b.
>0,

b xn
2
a xn

: a b (a x n ) ( x n b) a x n x n b
.. - ,

a b 0,

. xn a,

.. a = b. .

xn a

. xn a ,
xn a xn a

, ..

xn a



2 2

, ..

xn a

xn a

. :

. .

. xn a, {xn} .
, , ..
.

1
1 , n
n
x n

1
2 , n
n

x n 2.

.
. 1) xn+1 > xn n, .
2) xn+1 xn n, .
3) xn+1 < xn n, .
4) xn+1 xn n,
77

.
.
. {xn} = 1/n
{xn} = n .
.

{xn}=

n
2n 1

n 1
n 1

2n 2 1 2n 3
n
n 1
2n 2 3n 2n 2 2n n 1

: {xn}-{xn+1}=
2n 1 2 n 3
(2n 1)(2n 3)
1

0 , .. nN, n.
(2n 1)(2n 3)

{xn+1}=

, xn+1 > xn. , .


.
n
{xn} = n .
5
x n 1

n 1
n 1 n n 1 5n

. x n 1 x n
n 1
5
5 5n 5n
5 5n

1 4n
, .. nN, 1 4n <0, .. n+1 < xn. .
5 5n

,
.
. .
.
1 2 3 n xn+1
: xn M, .
.. , ,
, >0 N, xN > a - ,
.
.. {xn}- , N > n - < xN xn,
xn > a - .
a - < xn < a +
- < xn a < xn - a < , .. lim xn = a.
.
.

78

.
n

1
{xn} = 1 .

{xn} ,
.
:

n 1 n(n 1) 1


1 n
1 2
n

n( n 1)(n 2) 1

1 2 3
n

,
xn 1 1

...

n( n 1)( n 2)...[n (n 1)] 1



1 2 3 n
n

1
1
1
1
2
k 1
1
1
2
n 1
1 ... 1 1 ... 1
... 1 1 ... 1

2!
n
k!
n
n
n
n!
n
n
n

, {xn} . ,
xn+1 xn:
x n 1 1 1
n 1

... 1

n 1

1
1
1
1
2
k 1
1
1
2
1
... 1
1
... 1
... 1
1
...
2!
n 1
k!
n 1
n 1
n 1
n!
n 1
n 1
1
1
n

1
... 1
.
( n 1)!
n 1
n 1

xn+1 xn, ,
, xn+1 . ,
{xn} .
, n : xn < 3.
1 1
1
1 1
1
x n 1 1 ... 1 1 2 ... n 1 1
2! 3!
n!
2 2
2

1
2n 1 1 3
1
1
1
1
2
2

1
1
n

- ,

.. . .
n

lim 1
n
n

1
1

3 , 3. {xn}

, , :

e 2

1
1
1
2
n

1
2,5
2

, 2,5 3.
, .
, 2,71828
1

, lim
1
x

:
:

e ,

n x n 1

79

1 1
1

n x n 1
1
1
1
1 1 1
n
x
n 1

1
lim
1
n
n

n 1

n 1

1
x

1
lim 1

n
n 1

e 1 e;

n 1

1
lim 1
x
x

e
e;
1

log e x ln x y, .. e y x.
2

10

2
4
6
8
Graphics

y = lnx.
.
= 10, lnx = ln10y , lnx = yln10
= lg x

ln x
M ln x;
ln 10

1
lg x , = 1/ln10 0,43429- .
M

ln x

.
y

f(x)

A+
A
A-

a- a a+

f(x) = (..
= )
80

. f(x) ,
>0 >0, ,

0 < x - a <
f(x) - A < .

:
- < x < a + , x a, - < f(x) < A + .

f ( x) A
: lim
x a
f ( x) A1 . f(x) A1 x < a, xlim
a 0
f(x) = , f(x) A2
f ( x) A2 f(x) =
x > a, xlim
a 0
.

f(x)
2
1

, f(x)
= ,
.
1 2 f(x)
= . , f(x).

.
. f(x) ,
>0 >0, , >M

A f ( x)

, f(x) .
f ( x) A.
: lim
x

81

:
y

0
x

0
x

f ( x) A >M
xlim

lim f ( x) A <M.

C C , = const.
1. lim
xa
, f(x) g(x)
.

( f ( x) g ( x)) lim f ( x) lim g ( x)


2. lim
xa
x a
xa
.
[ f ( x) g ( x)] lim f ( x) lim g ( x )
3. lim
xa
xa
xa
C f ( x) C lim f ( x)
. lim
xa
x a

82

4. lim
xa

f ( x)
f ( x) lim
x a
g ( x) lim g ( x)

g ( x) 0
lim
xa

x a

f ( x) A , >0.
5. f(x)>0 = lim
x a
f(x) < 0, f(x) 0, f(x) 0.

g ( x) lim u ( x) A ,
6. g(x) f(x) u(x) = lim
xa
xa
A.
lim
xa
. f(x) = ,
>0, f(x) <M = .
7. f(x) ,
= .

f ( x) A , ..
. lim
x a

f ( x) A

f ( x ) f ( x ) A A f ( x) A A

f ( x) A

, ..
f ( x ) M , = +
.

.
.

f(x) ,
, + -, lim f ( x) 0 .
x a


.
.
. f(x) = xn 0
1, .. lim f ( x) 1 .
x 1

. , f(x) , ,
, =
f(x) = A + (x),
() (()0 ).
:

83

1)
.
2)
.
3) ,
= .
4) ,
.
,
, .
2. f(x) = A + (x), g(x) = B + (x),
A lim f ( x), B lim g ( x) ,
x a

x a

f(x) g(x) = (A + B) + (x) + (x)


A + B = const, () + () ,
lim( f ( x) g ( x)) A B lim f ( x) lim g ( x)
x a

x a

x a

.
3. f(x) = A + (x), g(x) = B + (x),
A lim f ( x), B lim g ( x) ,
x a

x a

f ( x ) g ( x ) A B A ( x ) ( x ) B ( x ) ( x )

AB = const, () () ,
lim[ f ( x) g ( x)] lim A B 0 A B lim f ( x) lim g ( x)
xa

xa

xa

x a

.

.
. f(x) , - ,
, >0 >0,

f(x) >M
,
0 < x - a <

f ( x) .
lim
xa
, f(x) >M
f(x)>M, :
lim f ( x) ,
xa

f(x)<M, :

lim f ( x ) .
x a

84

. ,
f ( x) A ,
, + -, lim
x a
, + -.

.
. f(x)0 ( ) ,
y

f ( x)

.
(), () () .
, .
, .. .
, f(x) = x10 , f(x) = x.
. lim
x a

0 ,

, .
.

lim
x a

A,

A 0,

A const ,

.
. lim
x a

1,

. ~ .
. 0 f(x) = x10 f(x) = x.
lim
xa

x 10
lim x 9 0
xa
x

.. f(x) = x , f(x) = x.
10

85

k , lim

xa k
.
,
. ,

x sin x

lim
. x sin x, x , 0 lim
x 0 2
x 0
x2
- 2 .

1
. x sin , x , 0 lim
x 0
x

1 , ..

, ..

.
.
1) ~ ,

lim
x a

lim

2) ~ ~ , ~ ,

x a

lim

1 1 1

lim lim 1 1
x a
x a

3) ~ , ~ ,
3

4) ~ 1 ~ 1 lim
xa

k , lim 1 k lim lim 1 .


x a
x a
x a

1
1

k , lim lim 1
: ) ~ 1 lim
xa
xa
xa

k , lim lim
) ~ 1 lim
x a
x a
xa
1
4 , .. ,

.
,
.

. lim
x 0

tg 5 x
sin 7 x

tg5x ~ 5x sin7x ~ 7x 0, ,
, :
tg 5 x
5x 5
lim

x 0 sin 7 x
x 0 7 x
7

lim

86

x3
.
x 0 1 cos x

. lim
1 cosx = 2 sin 2

x
x
~ 2
2
2

x3
x3
lim 2 lim 2 x 0
x 0
0, x 0 1 cos x x0 x
.
2
lim

tgx
x
lim 2 .
2
x 0 sin x
x 0 x

. lim

- , -
, , = + - , .

lim 1 1 .
lim
xa
xa

, - .
. 2 + 0,
. , = 2, = ,
lim
x 0

x2
x2 x
0, lim
lim( x 1) 1 .
x 0
x 0
x
x

.
P( x)
, P(x) = a0xn + a1xn-1 ++an,
x Q ( x)

lim

Q(x) = b0xm + b1xm-1 ++bm - .

a
a1
... nn )
P( x)
x
x x nm

b
b
Q( x)
x m (b0 1 .... mm )
x
x
a
a1
a0 ... nn
x
x
lim
x
b
b
b0 1 ... mm
x
x
x n (a 0

a
a1
... nn
x
x
b
b
b0 1 ... mm
x
x
a0

a0
b0

0, n m

P( x) a0
: lim
, n m
x Q ( x) b
0
, n m
lim

x 0

87

sin x
1
x

1
lim 1
x
x


,
.
, ,
:
ln(1 x)
1;
x 0
x

a x 1
ln a;
x 0
x

lim

lim

(1 x) m 1
m.
x 0
x

lim

. .
lim
x 0

tgmx
mx m
lim

0
sin nx
nx
n

. .
tgx tgx0
sin( x x0 )
sin( x x0 )
1
1
1
lim
lim
lim
1

2
x x0
x x0 ( x x ) cos x cos x
x x0
x x0 cos x cos x
x x0
x x0
cos x 0 cos 2 x0
0
0
0
. .
lim

sin x cos x
lim
lim
x / 4
x / 4
4x

sin( / 4 x )

lim

4x

x / 4

sin( / 4 x )
2 2 ( / 4 x )

1
2 2

. .

y /2 x

cos x
cos( / 2 y )
sin y 1

lim
x /2 y
lim
lim

x / 2 2 x
y 0
y 0 y
2
y
2
2x 2 y

. .

lim
x

x 3

x 1

x3

lim
x

x 1 4

x 1

y
1

z lim 1
4 z
z

4z

x3

lim
z

y x 1
y 4

x lim
y
y

1
1
z

. lim
x2

e4

x 2 6x 8
.
x 2 8 x 12

88

y4

4
4
lim 1 lim 1
y
y y
y


.
x2 6x + 8 = 0;
D = 36 32 = 4;
x1 = (6 + 2)/2 = 4;
x2 = (6 2)/2 = 2 ;
lim
x 2

x2 8x + 12 = 0;
D = 64 48 = 16;
x1 = (8 + 4)/2 = 6;
x2 = (8 4)/2 = 2;

( x 2)( x 4)
x4 2 1
lim

( x 2)( x 6) x 2 x 6 4 2

. .
lim
x 0

1 x x2 1 x x2
x2 x

: lim
x 0
=

1 x x2 1 x x2
x( x 1)( 1 x x 1 x x )
2

lim
x 0

2x
x( x 1)( 1 x x 2 1 x x 2 )

2
1 .
1 (1 1)

. .
lim
x 3

x 2 5x 6
( x 2)( x 3) 3 2 1
x 2 5 x 6 ( x 2)( x 3) lim

2
x

3
( x 3)( x 3) 3 3 6
x 9

. lim
x 1

x 3 6 x 2 11x 6
.
x 2 3x 2

.
x2 3x + 2 = (x 1)(x 2)
3
2
x 6x + 11x 6 = (x 1)(x 2)(x 3), ..
x3 6x2 + 11x 6
x3 x2
- 5x2 + 11x
- 5x2 + 5x
6x - 6
6x - 6
0

x-1
x2 5x + 6

x2 5x + 6 = (x 2)(x 3)

lim
x 1

( x 1)( x 2)( x 3)
2
( x 1)( x 2)

. .

89

2 sin

2a 2h
2h
cos
2 sin(a h)
2 sin( a h)(cosh 1)
2
2
lim

2
h

0
h
h2

sin( a 2h) 2 sin( a h) sin a


lim
h0
h2
2 sin 2 (h / 2)
2 lim sin(a h) lim
2 sin a ( 1 / 2) sin a
h 0
h0
4(h / 2) 2

lim
h 0

x3 2x 2 4x 8
( x 2 4)( x 2)
x2

lim
lim
- , ..
4
3
2
3
x 2 3 x 16 x 24 x 16
x 2 ( x 2) (3 x 2)
x 2 ( x 2)(3 x 2)

lim

2 - +.
.
. f(x), 0,
0,
, ..

lim f ( x) f ( x0 )

x x0

f ( x) f ( lim x)
: xlim
x0
x x0
. f(x) 0,
0, ,
0 .
:

y
f(x0)+
f(x0)
f(x0)-
0

x0- x0 x0+

:
y
f(x0)+
f(x0)
f(x0)-
x0
90

. f(x) 0,
>0 >0, ,

x x0

f ( x) f ( x0 )

. f(x) = 0,
0 .
f(x) = f(x0) + (x)
() 0.

.
1) , 0
, 0.
2)

f ( x)

g ( x)

, g(x) 0.
3) .
:
u = f(x), v = g(x) = 0, v = g(f(x))
.
,
.
.
1) f(x) = C, C = const
.
a 0 x n a1 x n 1 ... a n
2) f ( x )

b0 x m b1 x m 1 ... bm
, , . ,
.
3) sin cos
.
3 y = sinx.
y = sin(x + x) sinx, :
x
x

y 2 cos x
sin
2
2

91


x
x

lim y 2 lim cos x


0
sin
x 0
2
2

x 0

, cos x

0 cos x

x
1 , ..
2

sin
lim
x 0

sin

x
.
2

x
0 , 0.
2

,
, , .. .
, = sinx
= 0 , ..
.
.
f(x), 0,
.
, = 0 , ,
.
,
. .
f ( x) f ( x0 ) ,
(. ) xlim
x0
.

(. )
.

lim f ( x) f ( x 0 ) ,

x x 0

. 0 f(x), f(x)
0 .
. 0 1- ,
f(x) , .

lim f ( x) lim f ( x)

x x0 0

x x0 0

92

,
= 0, , .
, 1
. 1
,
.
. 0 2 ,
f(x)
.
. ( (1805-1859)
, - 1837)

1, x
f ( x)
0, x

0.
. f(x) =

lim f ( x) ;

x 0 0

1
0 = 0 2 , ..

lim f ( x) .

x 0 0

7.5
5
2.5
-10

-5

-2.5

10

-5
-7.5
Graphics

. f(x) =

sin x
x

f ( x) 1 , ..
= 0, lim
x 0
= 0 1 . ,
.. :

sin x
, x 0
f ( x) x
1, x 0
:

93

1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

20

10

10

20

0.2

. f(x) =

x
x

1, x 0
=
1, x 0
y
1
0

-1
sign(x) . = 0
. .. , 1
. = 0, f(0) = 1,
, f(0) = -1, ,
f(x) - , 1 1,
, ,
= 0 1 . 1
.
, , 1 ,
, ,
.
.
. f(x) (),
().
,
.

, .
94

1: ( ( (1815-1897) )). , , ,
.. [a, b] M f(x) M.
, ,
0, , [a, b]
, 0,
0.
2: , [a, b],
.
.. 1 2, f(x1) = m, f(x2) = M,
m f(x) M

( f(x) = sinx).

.
3: ( ). ,
[a, b],
.
4: f(x) = 0,
0, .
5: ( (1781-1848) ). f(x) [a, b]
, , f(x) = 0.
.. sign(f(a)) sign(f(b)), 0: f(x0) = 0.
. f(x)
[a, b], >0 >0 , 1[a,b]
x2[a,b] ,
2 1 <

f(x2) f(x1) <
,
, ,
.
6: ( (1845-1918)- ).
, , .
( ,
.)
. y sin

1
x

95

0.5

0.5

y sin

1
(0, ),
x

, .. >0 ,
1 2 , f(x1) f(x2) >, - , 1 2
.
7: f(x) ,
, = g(y) ,
.
.
, .

x 4, x 1

lim f ( x) 3

f ( x) x 2 2, 1 x 1
2 x, x 1

x 1 0

lim f ( x ) 3

x 1 0

lim f ( x ) 3

lim f ( x ) 2

x 1 0

x 1 0

= -1

= 1 1

3
2

-4

-1

.
, .

96

cos x, x 0

f ( x) x 2 1, 0 x 1
x, x 1

lim f ( x) 1

x 0 0

lim f ( x) 2

x 1 0

lim f ( x) 1

lim f ( x ) 1

x 0 0

x 1 0

= 0

= 1 1

2
1

-/2

.
. z z a ib , a
b , i , :
97

i 2 1;

1.

a z (a = Re z), b (b = Im z).
a =Re z =0, z , b = Im z = 0, z
.
.
.

z a ib

z a ib

. z1 a1 ib1 z 2 a 2 ib2
, :
a1 a 2 ;

b1 b2 ;

. ,
.
a b 0.
.

.
, . , , ,
, , ,
.

,
,
.
, - .

A(a, b)
r

, , Y
.

.
.
, a r cos ; b r sin .
:
z a ib r cos ir sin r (cos i sin )

98


.
r ,
- .
Arg z .

r z;

:
r a ib a 2 b 2 ; Arg z arctg

b
;
a

,
.
z z;

Arg z Arg z .

.

.
1) .
z z1 z 2 (a1 ib1 ) (a 2 ib2 ) (a1 a 2 ) i (b1 b2 )
z

( a1 a 2 ) 2 (b1 b2 ) 2

2) .
z z1 z 2 (a1 ib1 )(a 2 ib2 ) a1 a 2 ia1b2 ib1 a 2 i 2 b1b2
z z1 z 2 (a1 a 2 b1b2 ) i (a1b2 b1 a 2 )

:
z1 r1 (cos 1 i sin 1 ) , z 2 r2 (cos 2 i sin 2 ).
z z1 z 2 r1 r2 (cos(1 2 ) i sin(1 2 ))

:
zz ( a ib)(a ib) a 2 b 2 z

z .

3) .
z

z1 a1 ib1

x iy
z 2 a 2 ib2

(a1 ib1 )(a 2 ib2 ) (a1 a 2 b1b2 ) i (a 2 b1 a1b2 )

(a 2 ib2 )(a 2 ib2 )


a 22 b22
z

a1 a 2 b1b2
a b a b
i 2 21 12 2
2
2
a 2 b2
a 2 b2
99

:
z
r
z 1 1 (cos(1 2 ) i sin(1 2 ))
z 2 r2
4) .
,
z 2 zz r 2 (cos 2 i sin 2)

:
z n r n (cos n i sin n) ,

n .
.
( (1667 1754) )

, .. .
. sin2 cos2.
z r (cos i sin ).
z 2 r 2 (cos 2 2i cos sin sin 2 ) .
: z 2 r 2 (cos 2 i sin 2)
, cos 2 i sin 2 cos 2 sin 2 2i cos sin
.. , ,
cos 2 cos 2 sin 2
sin 2 2 sin cos

.
5) .
n

r (cos i sin ) (cos i sin )

, :
n (cos n i sin n ) r (cos i sin )

: n r ;

n 2k ;
n

k Z.

2k
2k

z n r (cos i sin ) n r cos


i sin

n
n

, n n
.
.
w e z ;

z x iy.

, w :
100

w e x iy e x (cos y i sin y )

.
. (. ).
:
1) e z1 z2 e z1 e z2 ;
2) e

z1 z 2

e z1
z2 ;
e

3) (e z ) m e mz ; m .

(=0), :
e iy cos y i sin y

:
e iy cos y i sin y

e iy e iy
cos y
2
e iy e iy
sin y
2i

:
z r (cos i sin )

: e i cos i sin
z re i

.
.
.
.

f(x) A0 x n A1 x n 1 ... An

. ( (1730 1783) )
f(x) x a , f(a).
. f(x) x a
f1(x) , f(x),
R.
101

f ( x) f 1 ( x)( x a) R

a, f(a) = R.
. , , .. f(a) = 0, f(x)
( ) .
. () = 0, ()
n, n.
. ( ) f(x)
, , , .
. n n
(x a) , xn.
. ,
.
,
:

f ( x) A0 ( x a1 ) k1 ( x a 2 ) k2 ...( x a m ) k m .
k1 k 2 ... k m n

ki - .
, n n
( ).
,
.
.
7
2

. z1 1 i; z 2 7 2i . )

z 2 2 3i

7
i
2

7 2i
1

, )

, z20,

w z 0.
3

a)

, :

7
i
2

7 2i
1

2 7i

14 4i

14 4i

2 7i

7 2i
16

2 7i

:
7 2i ( 7 2i )(2 7i ) 14 49i 4i 14 53i

i.
2 7i
(2 7i )(2 7i )
4 49
53
102

: 16(-i)4 = 16i4 =16.


)

z 2 2 3i

z r (cos i sin ) ,

r z 4 12 4;

arctg

b
arctg 3 60 0
a

z 4(cos 60 0 i sin 60 0 ) .
z 20 .
z 20 4 20 (cos1200 0 i sin 1200 0 ) 4 20 (cos(3 2 120 0 ) i sin(3 2 120 0 ))
1
3

i .
2
2

4 20 (cos 120 0 i sin 120 0 ) 4 20

w 3 z 0 , w 3 z
3

2k
2k
60 0 2k
60 0 2k

; k Z .
z 3 r cos
i sin
i sin
3 4 cos
3
3
3
3

.
.
.
, .

, ,
.
, , .
.
, , () .

103

. ,
, ,
.
, , .
A A; A A;
A B B C A C;
A B B C A C;


:
A B A B B A.

( ).
.
. ,
.
= .


.
. ,
.
= .

, :
= = ;

A B = B A;

(A B) C = A (B C);

A B = B A;

(A B) C = A (B C);

A (B C) = (A B) (A C);

A (B C) = (A B) (A C);

A (A B) = A;

A (A B) = A;
104

A = ;

A = ;

. ,
, .
= \ .

.
,
.
.
= (A \ B) (B \ A)
A

.
, C = \ A.

, :
A \ B A;

A \ A = ;

A B = B A;

A \ (A \ B) = A B;

A B = (A B) \ (A B);

A \ (B C) = (A \ B) (A \ C);

A \ (B C) = (A \ B) (A \ C);

(A B) \ C = (A \ C) (B \ C);

(A B) \ C = (A \ C) (B \ C);
105

A \ (B \ C) = (A \ B) (A C);
(A B) C = A (B C);
A CEA = E;

(A \ B) \ C = A \ (B C);
A (B C) = (A B) (A C);

A CEA = ;

CEE = ;

CE(A B) = CEA CEB;

CE = E;

CECEA = A;

CE(A B) = CEA CEB;

.
, .

A \ B A \ ( A B)

A\(AB) A A)\( A B)\( (A\ B)

=A\

AB

.
, .
A \ (B C) = (A \ B) (A \ C)
\ ( ), ,
, .
\ ,
.
\ ,
.
(A \ B) (A \ C) ,
, , .
, .

106

.
. (a, b) a b
{{a},{a, b}}.
a, b, c, d :
( a , b ) (c , d ) a c b d ;

.
(a, b), , bB.
A B {( a, b) a A;

b B}


n.
. n R
n. R n (1,2,
n)R, , R 1,2,n
R 12n. n = 2, .
Ra1a2 1Ra2.

.
. R S,
,

( x, y ) z ( z A) ( x, z ) R ( z , y ) S

.
. ()
, R-1, :

R,

R 1 ( x, y ) ( y , x ) R

R, S T ,
:
( R S ) T R ( S T );

( R S ) T ( R T ) ( S T );

( R S ) T ( R T ) ( S T );
( R S ) 1 R 1 S 1 ;

( R S ) 1 S 1 R 1 ;
( R S ) 1 R 1 S 1 ;

.
. ,
, ,

.
107


, , ,
, .
,
, .. ,
, .
.
(, ) , :
1) a, b, c A :
a (bc) ( ab)c

2) ,
c:

ae ea a

3)
,

aa a a e

-
.
.
. M N
,
N,
.
. M N ,
,
a, b M a, b N
= ab c = ab.
N .
. , , (..
a b ab=ba),
.
. R
, , ,
,
, .. a, b R :
a(b c ) ab ac;

(b c) a ba ca;

, ,
.
. ,
a 0 b
, ax = b.

108

.
.
, ,
, ,
.
:
1) .
. a1 , a 2 ,..., a m
, ,
.
m Pm
:
Pm m!

2) .
. n
, .
.
:
Amn m(m 1)(m 2)...(m ( n 1))

m!
( m n)!

, .
3) .
. ,
,
.
:
C mn

Pm
m!

Pn Pm n
n!( m n)!


.
1 , 2
..,
,
:
Pm
m!

Pm1 Pm2 ...Pmk


m1! m 2 !...mk !

109

. .
, 10 30 .
, 10 4
10.000.
30 302 30 29 870 .
, ,
30 ( ). ,
900.
30 ,
30 , .. 27.000 .
, ..
,
270.000.000.
. ( )

.
, (a + b)n
. :
n

(a b) n a n C n1 a n 1b C n2 a n 2 b 2 ... b n C ni a n i b i
i 0

C nk - k.
n!
C nk
k!( n k )!


, , .
,
,
. ( (1623 1662) ).
:
1
121
1331
14641
1 5 10 10 5 1
1 6 15 20 15 6 1
1 7 21 35 35 21 7 1
1 8 28 56 70 56 28 8 1

110

n!
a1n1 a 2n2 ...a knk
n1!n 2 !...n k !
n1 n2 ... n k n

(a1 a 2 ... a k ) n

, 0! 1.
. x k y p n , , k=3, p=2,
n=8, =9.

k
p
: x y

C x y
n

i 0

k n i

i
n

p i

C :

y2

C x
8

i 0

i
8

3( 8 i )

y 2i

, ,
,
( ), , , ..
, 9.
i 5.
i, : 3(8 i ) 9;
: 85 x 9 y 10

8! 9 10 8 7 6 9 10
x y
x y 56 x 9 y 10
5!3!
3 2

. ( x y z w) m , x. =9, =6.
:
( x y z w) 9

9!
x n1 y n2 z n3 w n4
n1! n 2 ! n3 ! n 4 !


ni, , . , ..
, 6, n1 = 6, 9.
, 2 + 3 + 4 = 3.
:
n2
n3
n4

0
0
3

0
3
0

3
0
0

1
2
0

1
0
2

0
1
2

2
1
0

0
2
1

:
84 x 6 w 3 ;
252 x 6 zw 2 ;

84 x 6 y 3 ;
252 x 6 y 2 z;

84 x 6 z 3 ;

252 x 6 yz 2 ;

252 x 6 z 2 w;

252 x 6 yw 2 ;

252 x 6 y 2 w;

504 x 6 yzw;


.
111

2
0
1

1
1
1

, .
. f(x) = 0
,
.
f ( x) lim

x 0

f ( x x ) f ( x )
x

f(x)
f(x0 +x)

P
f

f(x0)

x0

x0 + x

f(x) (a, b). tg


.

f

x

f
f ( x 0 ) tg ,
x 0 x

lim tg lim

x 0

- f(x) (x0, f(x0)).


,
- .
: y y 0 f ( x0 )( x x0 )
: y y 0

1
( x x0 ) .
f ( x 0 )


, .
f(t), t- , f(t)-
( ) .
, - , ..
.
.

112

. () f(x) = 0
()
.
f ( x0 ) lim

x 0

f
x

f
,
x

f ( x 0 ) lim

x 0

f
x

f(x) = 0,
. , . 0, - ,
0, .
: f(x) = x - = 0 ,
, , .
. ( ) f(x)
0, .
, .
.
f(x) = u, g(x) = v- , .
1) (u v) = u v
2) (uv) = uv + uv

3) u u v 2 v u , v 0
v

.
.
9) sin x cos x
10) cos x sin x
1

11) tgx
cos 2 x
1

12) ctgx 2
sin x

1) = 0;
2)(xm) = mxm-1;
3)

x 2 1 x

4) 1 12
x

5)

e e

6)

a a

13) arcsin x

7) ln x

1
x

1 x2
1

14) arccos x
1 x2

ln a

8) log a x

15) arctgx

1
1 x2

16) arcctgx

1
x ln a

113

1
1 x2

.
. y = f(x); u = g(x), u
f.
y f (u ) u

y y u

x u x
y
y
u
lim
lim
lim
x 0 x
u 0 u x 0 x

( , x0, u0, .. u = g(x) )

dy dy du

dx du dx

(ln x )=

ln x, x 0
.
y ln x
ln(x), x 0

( x) 1
1
1
.
, .. ln x ; (ln( x ))

x
x
x

f ( x)
, ln f ( x)
.
f ( x)
f ( x)

f(x).
f ( x)
,
,

f ( x ) (ln f ( x) ) f ( x)


, -
,
.
- .
,
, , .
114

,
.
u = f(x) v = g(x) , , f(x)>0.
y = uv. , :
lny = vlnu

y
u
v ln u v
y
u

y u v v v ln u
u

u vu
v

v 1

u u v v ln u

. f ( x ) ( x 2 3 x) x cos x .
v x cos x;
: u x 2 3x;

: u 2 x 3; v cos x x sin x;
:

f ( x ) x cos x ( x 2 3 x ) x cos x 1 ( 2 x 3) ( x 2 3 x) x cos x (cos x x sin x ) ln( x 2 3 x)

.
= f(x) ,
x = g(y) , .
x = g(y) :
1 g ( y ) y

.. g(y) 0

g ( y)

dy
1

dx
dx
dy

.. .
. arctg.
arctg , tg, ..
:
y tgx;
x arctgy ;
1
;
cos 2 x
:
1
y
;
d (arctgy ) / dx

, y (tgx )

d (arctgy )
1

dy
1 / cos 2 x

115

1
1 tg 2 x 1 y 2 ;
2
cos x
:

..


( arctgy )

1
;
1 y2

,
, .
.
y = f(x) :
y
f ( x)
x 0 x
lim

y
f (x) , 0, 0.
x

: y f ( x) x x .
x- , f(x)x, .. f(x)x .
. f(x)
.
dy df(x).
, dy = f(x)x
dy = f(x)dx.
: f ( x)

dy
dx

.
y
f(x)
K
dy
y

M
L

MKL: KL = dy = tgx = yx

116

x + x

, f(x)
.
.
u = f(x) v = g(x)- , ,
:
1) d(u v) = (u v)dx = udx vdx = du dv
2) d(uv) = (uv)dx = (uv + vu)dx = vdu + udv
3) d(Cu) = Cdu
vdu udv
u

v2
v

4) d

.
.
y = f(x), x = g(t), .. - .
dy = f(x)g(t)dt = f(x)dx.

, dy ,
- ,
.
, - ,
dx = x,
t,
dx.
, dy = f(x)x .
1
2

. y x cos x sin x cos 2 x .


1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
y sin 2 x x 2 cos 2 x 2 cos x( sin x) sin 2 x x cos 2 x sin x cos x x cos 2 x.
2
2
2
2

: y sin 2 x cos 2 x

x 2e x
. y 2
.
x 1
2

(2 xe x x 2 2 xe x )( x 2 1) ( 2 x) x 2 e x
2 x 3 e x 2 x 5 e x 2 xe x 2 x 3 e x 2 x 3 e x
y

( x 2 1) 2
( x 2 1) 2
2

2 xe x ( x 4 1 x 2 )

( x 2 1) 2

117

x
x

2 sin x

. y ln tg

1 sin x x cos x
1
sin x x cos x sin x sin x x cos x

2
x
x 2
x
x
sin x
sin 2 x
sin 2 x
tg
cos 2
2 sin cos
2
2
2
2
x cos x

sin 2 x
2x 4
. y arctg
1 x8
1

4x8
(1 x 8 ) 2

8 x 3 (1 x 8 ) (8 x 7 ) 2 x 4 (1 x 8 ) 2 (8 x 3 8 x11 16 x 11 ) 8 x 3 8 x 11

(1 x 8 ) 2
(1 x 8 ) 2 (1 x 8 ) 2
(1 x 8 ) 2

8 x (1 x )
8x 3

(1 x 8 ) 2
1 x8
3

. y x 2 e x ln x

y x 2e x

ln x x e
2

x2

2
2
2
2
2
1
2 xe x x 2 e x 2 x ln x xe x 2 xe x (1 x 2 ) ln x xe x
x

xe x (1 2 ln x 2 x 2 ln x)

.
(1685-1731)
. 1) f(x) =
(n+1) .{ ..
n
}.

118

2) - , .
, :
f ( x) f (a)
-

f ( a )
f ( a )
f ( n ) (a)
f ( n 1) ( )
( x a)
( x a ) 2 ...
( x a) n
( x a ) n 1
1!
2!
n!
( n 1)!

, :
f ( n 1) ( )
( x a ) n 1 Rn 1 ( x )
( n 1)!

.
. f(x) Pn(x),
= f(x),
= .
Pn (a ) f (a ); Pn (a ) f ( a); Pn( a) f ( a); ... Pn( n ) (a) f

(n)

(a )

(1)

Pn(x) f(x). n,
, .
:
Pn ( x) C 0 C1 ( x a ) C 2 ( x a ) 2 ... C n ( x a ) n

(2)

= :

Pn ( x) C1 2C 2 ( x a ) 3C 3 ( x a) 2 ... nC n ( x a ) n 1

n2
Pn( x) 2C 2 3 2C 3 ( x a) ... n( n 1)C n ( x a)

..........................................................................................

P ( n ) ( x) n( n 1)(n 2)...2 1C
n
n

= , :
f (a ) C 0

f ( a) C1
f (a ) 2 1C 2

f (a ) 3 2 1C 3
.
(n)
f (a ) n(n 1)( n 2)...2 1C n
Ci (2), :
Pn ( x ) f (a )

f (a )
f (a)
f ( n ) (a)
( x a)
( x a) 2 ...
( x a) n
1
2
n!
119

(3)

, f(x), ..
. Rn+1(x). :
f(x) = Pn(x) + Rn+1(x)
.
Rn+1(x).
y

,
= Rn+1(x)
.
, = .

f(x)
Pn(x)

Rn+1(x). .. (a, x),


0 < < 1, = a + (x a).
:
f ( n 1) [ a ( x a )]
n 1
Rn 1 ( x )

( n 1)!

( x a)

, a = x0, x a = x, x = x0 + x,
:
f ( n ) ( x0 )
f ( n 1) ( x 0 x)
f ( x)
f ( x)
2
n
f ( x0 x) f ( x 0 )
x
(x) ...
(x)
(x) n 1
1!
2!
n!
(n 1)!
0 < < 1
n =0, : f(x0 + x) f(x0) = f(x0 + x)x
. ( (1736-1813)
).

. ,
, ..

.
.
(1698-1746) .
= 0:
f ( x ) f ( 0)

f (0)
f (0) 2
f ( n ) ( 0) n
x
x ...
x Rn ( x )
1!
2!
n!
120

Rn ( x )

(x) n 1
x ;
(n 1)!
( n 1)

0 1


.
,
, , ..
, - ,
, , .
, .
, ,
, , ,
,
.

, .
.. ( )
.
, , Rn+1(x)
, , ( )m, ..
Rn 1 ( x) ([ x a ] n ) .

, .

.


.
,
. ,
,
.
,
.
,
(, , 10 20
, ) 4-10 .

,
.
f(x) = ex.
:

f(x) = ex, f(0) = 1


f(x) = ex, f(0) = 1

f(n)(x) = ex, f(n)(0) = 1


121

: e x 1

x x2 x3
xn
x n 1 x

...

e ,
1 2! 3!
n! (n 1)!

0 1

: .
= 1.
e 11

1 1 1
1
...
e
2 3! 4!
(n 1)!

8 : e = 2,71827876984127003
10 : e = 2,71828180114638451
100 : e = 2,71828182845904553

2.75
2.5
2.25
2
1.75
1.5
1.25
2

10


.
, ,
, 6-7 .
f(x) = sinx.
f(x) = sinx; f(0) = 0
f(x) = cosx = sin( x + /2); f(0) = 1;
f(x) = -sinx = sin(x + 2/2); f(0) = 0;
f(x) = -cosx = sin(x + 3/2); f(0)=-1;

f(n)(x) = sin(x + n/2);


f(n)(0) = sin(n/2);
f(n+1)(x) = sin(x + (n + 1)/2);
f(n+1)() = sin( + (n + 1)/2);
sin x x

:
R2 n ( x )

x3 x5
x 2 n 1

... ( 1) n 1
R2 n ( x )
3!
5!
(2n 1)!

f ( 2 n 1) ( ) 2 n 1
cos
x

x 2 n 1
(2n 1)!
(2n 1)!

f(x) = cosx.
122

cosx, , :
cos x 1

x2
x4
x 2n

... ( 1) n
R2 n 1 ( x)
2!
4!
( 2n)!

R2 n 1 ( x)

f ( 2 n 2 ) ( ) 2 n 2
cos
x

x 2n 2
( 2n 2)!
( 2n 2)!

f(x) = (1 + x).
( - )
f ( x) (1 x) 1 ;

f ( x ) ( 1)(1 x )

(n)

f (0) ;
f (0) ( 1);

..
f ( n ) (0) ( 1)( 2)...( n 1)

( x ) ( 1)( 2)...( ( n 1))(1 x) n ;

( 1) 2
( 1)...( n 1) n
x
x ...
x Rn 1 ( x)
1
2 1
n!
( 1)...( n)
Rn 1 ( x )
(1 x) ( n 1) ;
0 1

(1 x) 1

(n 1)!

= n, n- f(n+1)(x)=0,
Rn+1 = 0,
(1 x) n 1

n
n(n 1) 2
x
x ... x n
1!
2!

, .
:
.


.
4

10

5
2

. 1.

123

10

10

10

. 2.
4

10

10

. 3.
4

10

10

. 4.


, ,
.
sin200.
200 : 200 = /9.
,
:
sin 20 0 sin

9
9 3! 9

5! 9

0,348889 0,007078 0,000043 0,341854

0,3420.

124

0.348

0.346

0.344


. ,
, 0,0002.
, 0 sinx

. , , ,
, .. sinx x.
: sin2801315.
, ,
:
10 =

28
;
180
13
13
;
60 180
15
15
;
60 60 180

280

180

1
;
60 180

1
;
60 60 180
28 01315

28
13
15
28 60 60 60 13 15

0,492544
180 60 180 60 60 180 180
60 60

,
: sinx = x

x3
x5

0,492544 0,019915 0,000242 0,472871 .


6 120

,
sin 28 01315 = 0,472869017612759812,
, ,
0,000002, .
f(x) = ln(1 + x).
:

f(x) = ln(1 + x);

f(0) = 0;

1
;
1 x
1
f ( x )
;
(1 x ) 2

f (0) 1;

f(x) =

125

f (0) 1;

1 (2)
;
(1 x) 3

f ( x)

f (0) 2;

(n)

( x) ( 1) n 1

: ln(1 x) x

( n 1)!
;
(1 x) n

( n)

( x) ( 1) n 1 ( n 1)!;

1 2 1 2 3
( 1) n 1 ( n 1)! n
x
x ...
x Rn 1 ( x);
2
3!
n!
ln(1 x) x

x2 x3
( 1) n 1 n

...
x Rn 1 ( x)
2
3
n

Rn 1 ( x )

(1) n n!
x

( n 1)! 1

n 1

(
) .
ln1,5. ,
, .
0,0003.
ln1,5 = 0,405465108108164381
ln 1,5 ln(1 0,5) 0,5

0,5 2 0,5 3 0,5 4 0,5 5 0,5 6 0,5 7

0,4058035
2
3
4
5
6
7


, , ,

.

,
.

.
y = f(x)
.

dy f ( x)dx

y dy


y dy
dy


.
126

.
.
( (1652-1719)- )
f(x) [a, b],
(, b) f(a) = f(b), (, b)
, a < < b, f(x) ,
f() = 0.
,
(a, b) ,
y = f(x) .
,
.
. , f(x)
[a, b] .
m . = m M m.
M = m. f(x) [a, b]
.
.
= m. ,
m [a, b]. , a < < b
, f() = M. - , (
, + )
:
f() = f( + x) f() 0

f ( ) ,0 x 0

x ,0 x 0

,
f ( )
lim
.
x 0
x

f ( )
f ( )
0 lim
0 , :
.. lim
x 0 x
x 0 x
x 0
x 0
127

f ( )
0, ..
x 0
x
lim

f ( ) 0.

.
:
1) f(x) [a, b] ,
f(a) = f(b) = 0, , a < < b, , f() = 0.
.. ,
.
2) (, b) f(x) (n-1)-
n ,
, (n 1) .
.
( (1736-1813) )
f(x) [a, b]
(, b),
f (b ) f ( a )
f ( ) .
a < < b, ,
ba
, ,

.

.
f (b) f ( a)

.
ba

0
b
x
f(x) , (, b)
, y = f(x)
, . ,
.
.
F(x) = f(x) y
128

f (b) f (a )
( x a)
ba
f (b) f (a )
F ( x) f ( x) f (a )
( x a)
ba
y f (a )

F(x) . ,
[a, b] (, b).
, a < < b, F() = 0.
..

F ( x ) f ( x )

f (b) f ( a )
f (b) f (a)
0 ,
, F ( ) f ( )
ba
ba
f ( )

f (b) f (a )
ba

.
. f (b) f (a ) f ( )(b a )
.

.
:
y f ( x x)x ,
0 < < 1, x = b a, y = f(b) f(a).
.
( (1789-1857)- )
f(x) g(x) [a, b]
(a, b) g(x) 0 (a, b),
, a < < b, ,
f (b) f (a) f ( )

.
g (b) g (a ) g ( )
..
.

.
, . ,
, .. . ,

, - , ,
.
.
F ( x ) f ( x) f (a )

f (b) f (a )
( g ( x) g (a )) ,
g (b) g (a )

[a, b] . ,
= = b F(a) = F(b) = 0. ,
129

a < < b, , F() = 0. ..

f (b) f (a )
g ( x) ,
g (b) g ( a )
f (b) f (a )
F ( ) 0 f ( )
g ( )
g (b) g ( a )

F ( x) f ( x)

.. g ( ) 0 ,

f (b) f (a ) f ( x)

g (b) g (a) g ( x)
.

,
( g(x) = x) .
.

, .

.
.
( (1661-1704) )
:
0
; ; 0; 0 ; 1 ;
0

( ). f(x) g(x)
, , g(x) f(a) = g(a) = 0,
,
( ) .
f ( x)
f ( x)
lim
lim
xa g ( x)
x a g ( x )
. , :
f ( x) f ( a) f ( )

g ( x) g (a) g ( )
- , . , f(a) = g(a) = 0:
f ( x) f ( )

g ( x) g ( )

130

f ( x)
. ..
g ( x )
, ,
f ( )
. , :
g ( )
f ( x)
f ( x)
lim
lim
.
xa g ( x)
x a g ( x )

.
: lim
x 1

x 2 1 ln x
.
ex e

0
. ,
0

.
f(x) = 2x +

1
;

g(x) = ex;

lim
x 1

: lim
x

f ( x)

g ( x)

1
x 2 1 3 ;
x
e
e
e

2x

2arctgx
3
x

e 1
2
f ( x)
;
1 x2

.
3
x

g ( x) e

3
;
x2

2x 2
2
2


lim
.
3

x
(0 1) 1 ( 3) 3
(1 x 2 )e x ( 3)


,
, .. . ,
,
.
x
2
: lim xe .
x x e x
x

1
g ( x ) 1 e x ;
x) ;
2
x
x
x
x
1
1
x
1
g ( x) e x ;
f ( x) e 2 e 2 e 2 e 2 (4 x) ;
2
2
4
4
f ( x) e 2 (1

131

1 2
1
e (4 x)
(4 x)
4
4
lim
lim
x
x
x
ex
2
e
f ( x)

1
;
4

1
g ( x ) e 2 ;
2

lim
x

2e

x
2

0;

,
.
( , .).
e x ex 2x
.
x 0
x sin x

: lim
f ( x) e x e x 2 ;

g ( x) 1 cos x ;

e x ex 2 1 1 2 0

- .
x 0
1 cos x
11
0

lim

.
f ( x) e x e x ;
x

e e
x 0
sin x
x

lim

11 0
- .
0
0

f ( x ) e x e x ;
x

e e
x 0
cos x
x

lim

g ( x) sin x ;

g ( x) cos x ;

2
2;
1

0 0 ; 1 ; 0
.
y f ( x) g ( x ) , f(x)>0 .
lny = g(x)lnf(x).

x
lim
x
:
.
x 0
x 0

y = xx, lny = xlnx.

132

ln x 1/ x
limln y lim x ln x lim lim 2 lim x ;0
x0 x0 x0 1 x0 1/ x x0
x 0 x 0
x 0 x 0
x 0
x
x
lim ln y ln lim y 0; lim y lim x 1

x 0
x 0

x 0
x 0

x 0 x 0
x 0 x 0

x2
.
x e 2 x

: lim
f ( x ) 2 x;

g ( x ) 2e 2 x ;

lim
x

.
f ( x ) 2;

g ( x ) 4e 2 x ;

lim
x

x
e

2x

; - .

1
1
0;
2x

2e

.
f(x)- . ,
,
df ( x )
y f ( x)
dx
f(x),
f(x).
d 2 f ( x)
y f ( x )
dx 2
.. y = (y)

d2y
d dy

.
2
dx dx
dx
133

, n.
dny
d d n 1 y

dx dx n 1
dx n

.
u = f(x) v = g(x) ,
1) (u)(n) = Cu(n);
2) (u v)(n) = u(n) v(n);
3) (u v ) ( n ) vu ( n ) nu ( n 1) v

n( n 1) ( n 2)
n( n 1)...[n ( k 1)] ( n k ) ( k )
u
v ...
u
v ...
2!
k!

... uv ( n ) .
.

dny = f(n)(x)dxn n- .
.
.
. 1) f(x) [a, b]
, ,
.. f(x) 0.
2) f(x) [a, b]
(, b), f(x) > 0 a < x < b,
[a, b].
.
1) f(x) , f(x + x) > f(x) x>0 f(x + x) < f(x) <0,
:
f ( x x) f ( x)
f ( x x) f ( x)
0,
lim
0.
x 0
x
x
2) f(x)>0 1 2, [a, b], x1<x2.
: f(x2) f(x1) = f()(x2 x1), x1 < < x2
f()>0, , f(x2) f(x1) >0, .. f(x) .
.
, f(x)
[a, b], f(x)0 . f(x)<0 (a, b), f(x)
[a, b].
, , f(x)
[a, b] (a, b).
:
134

.
. f(x) 1 ,
, 1.
f(x) 2 , f(x2 +x) > f(x2) (
).
, ,
, .

.
.
.
. ( ) f(x)
= 1 1 ,
.
. , f(x) = 1 .
>0 :
f ( x1 x) f ( x1 ) , ..
f ( x1 x) f ( x1 ) 0

f ( x1 x) f ( x1 )
0
0
x
f ( x1 x) f ( x1 )
0
0
x
:
f ( x1 x) f ( x1 )
lim
f ( x1 )
x 0
x
.. 0, <0, f(x1) 0, 0, >0, f(x1) 0.
, 0 f(x1) = 0.
, f(x) 2
.
135

.
. .
, ,
. = 3,
= 0 , ,
.
. ,
.

, .
: f(x) = x

: f(x) =

x
= 0 ,
.

= 0
, , .

, f(x) ,
.
. ( )
f(x) (a, b),
1, (,
, 1).
1 f(x)
+ -, = 1 f(x) ,
- +- .
.

f ( x) 0 x x1

f ( x) 0 x x1
:

f(x) f(x1) = f()(x x1),

: 1) < x1, < x1;

f()>0;
136

x < < x1.

f()(x x1)<0,

f(x) f(x1)<0 f(x) < f(x1).


2) > x1, > x1 f()<0;

f()(x x1)<0,

f(x) f(x1)<0 f(x) < f(x1).


. . , , f(x) < f(x1) 1, ..
1 .
.
.

:
1)
2)
3)
4)

.
.
.
.

.

= 1 f(x1) = 0 f(x1)
1.
. f(x1) = 0, f(x) = 1 ,
f(x1)<0 , f(x1)>0.
.
f(x1) = 0 f(x1)<0. .. f(x) , f(x1)
1.
.. f(x) = (f(x)) < 0, f(x) , 1,
f(x1)=0, .. f(x) > 0 <x1 f(x) < 0 x>x1. ,
= 1 f(x) + -, .. f(x)
.
.
f(x) = 0, .
.

137

.
. (, b),
. ,
, , ,
.

x
.
1. (a, b)
f(x) , y = f(x) ().
. 0 (a, b). .
: y = f(x);
: y f ( x 0 ) f ( x 0 )( x x 0 ).
, y y f ( x) f ( x0 ) f ( x0 )( x x0 ) .
f(x) f(x0):

y y f (c)( x x0 ) f ( x0 )( x x0 ) , x0 < c < x.

y y ( x x 0 )[ f (c) f ( x0 )]

f (c) f ( x0 ) : y y f (c1 )(c x0 )( x x0 ),

x0 c1 c

> x0 x0 < c1 < c < x. .. x x0 > 0 c x0 > 0,


f (c1 ) 0 , , y y 0 .
x < x0 x < c < c1 < x0 x x0 < 0, c x0 < 0, .. f (c1 ) 0,
y y 0.
, f(x) > 0 (a, b), y=f(x)
(a, b).
.
. , ,
.
, .

138

2. y = f(x).
f(a) = 0 f(a) = f(x)
, = .
. 1) f(x) < 0 < a f(x) > 0 x > a.
x < a , x > a , .. = .
2) f(x) > 0 x < b f(x) < 0 x < b. x < b
, x > b . x = b .
.
.
,
.
. ,

.
, .
.

.
, , ,
, ,
x

y x e 3 sin x . = .

10
5
10

10

5
10
15
20

.
.

f ( x) lim f ( x)
, xlim
a 0
x a 0
f ( x) , = y = f(x).
lim
x a
139

, f ( x)
.

2
= 5
x5

.
, y = f(x) y = kx + b.
15
12.5
10
7.5
5
2.5
1

Q
,
.
. Q N.
MQ = y , NQ = y - N
.
MP 0 ,
: lim
x

NMP = ,

NM

MP
cos

- 900,
lim MP lim NM cos lim NM 0
x

NM MQ QN y y f ( x ) ( kx b)

[ f ( x) ( kx b)] 0 .
lim
x
, y = kx + b .
k b.
:
b
f ( x)
lim x
k 0
x
x
x
140

b
b
f ( x)
k 0 , .. b = const, lim 0; lim k k .
x x
x
x
x

.. , lim
x

lim
x

f ( x)
k 0 0 , ,
x
k lim
x

f ( x)
.
x

f ( x) (kx b) 0 , lim
f ( x) kx lim
b 0 , ,
.. lim
x
x
x
b lim f ( x) kx
x

,
k =0.
. y
1) : y+
.

x0-0:

y-

x 2 2x 1
.
x

x0+0, , = 0-

2) :
x 2 2x 1
2 1

k lim
lim 1 2 1
2
x
x

x x
x

x 2 2x 1

x 2 2x 1 x 2
x lim
x
x
x
x

b lim ( f ( x) x) lim
x

1
2x 1

lim
2 2
x

x
x

lim
x

, = + 2 .

1
2

141

. y

9x
.
9 x2

= 3 = -3 .
9
0
x 9 x 2

: k lim

9
9x
b lim
lim x 0
x 9 x 2
x 9
1
x2
y = 0 .
6
4
2

7.5

2.5

2.5

7.5

2
4
6

. y

x 2 2x 3
.
x2

= -2 .
.

k lim

x 2x 3

x 2x 3 x 2x

x lim
x

x2
x2

b lim
x

x 2x 3
x 2x 3
lim 2
lim
x

x
x ( x 2)
x 2x
2

3
4x 3
x 4
lim
lim
x
x

2
x2
1
x

, = 4 .

142

2 3

x x 2 1.
2
1
x

20
15
10
5
10

10

5
10
15
20


.

:
1) .
.
2) . ( ).
3) .
4) .
5) .
6) .
7) .( ).
8) .( ).
9) .
.
x3
.
x2 1

. y

. ,
(-; -1) (-1; 1) (1; ).
, , = 1, = -1
.
(-; ).
= 1, = -1.
.

y

3 x 2 ( x 2 1) 2 x x 3 3x 4 3 x 2 2 x 4 x 4 3x 2

2
( x 2 1) 2
( x 2 1) 2
( x 1) 2

: x = 0; x = -

;x=

; x = -1; x = 1.

(4 x 3 6 x )( x 2 1) 2 ( x 4 3 x 2 )4 x ( x 2 1)

( x 2 1) 4
143

( 4 x 3 6 x)( x 4 2 x 2 1) ( x 4 3x 2 )(4 x 3 4 x)

( x 2 1) 4

4 x 7 8 x 5 4 x 3 6 x 5 12 x 3 6 x 4 x 7 4 x 5 12 x 5 12 x 3

( x 2 1) 4

2 x 5 4 x 3 6 x 2 x ( x 4 2 x 2 3) 2 x( x 2 3)( x 2 1) 2 x( x 2 3)

.
( x 2 1) 4
( x 2 1) 4
( x 2 1) 4
( x 2 1) 3

.
- < x < - 3 ,
- 3 < x < -1,
-1 < x < 0,
0 < x < 1,
1<x< 3,
3 < x < ,

y < 0,
y < 0,
y > 0,
y < 0,
y > 0,
y > 0,

.
.
- < x < - 3 ,
- 3 < x < -1,
-1 < x < 0,
0 < x < 1,
1<x< 3,
3 < x < ,

y > 0,
y < 0,
y < 0,
y < 0,
y < 0,
y > 0,

, = - 3 , = 3
. -3 3 /2 3
3 /2.
.
.
x2
1
k lim 2
lim
1;
x x 1
x
1
1 2
x
1
x3

x3 x3 x
x
lim 2
b lim 2
x lim
lim x 0
2
x x 1
x
x x 1
x
1
x

1 2
x
,
:

144

y = x.

.
z
A(x, y, z)
r (t ) r0

r0

:
x = (t); y = (t);
z = f(t);

145

- : r xi yj zk (t )i (t ) j f (t )k .
, -
t. t

r .
t0:

r0

lim (t ) 0 ; lim (t ) 0 ; lim f (t ) f 0 ;


t t 0
t t 0
t t 0

0 i 0 j f 0 k - r (t). lim r (t ) r0 .
t t 0

2
2
2
lim r (t ) r0 lim (t ) 0 (t ) 0 f (t ) f 0 0 ,
t t 0

t t 0

lim r (t ) r0 .
t t 0
,
- t.

dr
dt

r (t )

r (t )

r (t t )

r (t t ) (t t )i (t t ) j f (t t ) k ;

r r (t t ) r (t ) ;

r ( (t t ) (t ))i ( (t t ) (t )) j ( f (t t ) f (t ))k

r (t t ) (t ) (t t ) (t ) f (t t ) f (t )

i
j
k
t
t
t
t

, (t), (t), f(t),

r
lim
(t )i (t ) j f (t )k r
t 0 t

r .

dr dx dy dz

i
j
k
dt
dt
dt
dt

dr

dt

(t ) 2 (t ) 2 f (t ) 2

:
x = (t); y = (t);
z = f(t);
(x, y, z) -

r xi yj zk (t )i (t ) j f (t ) k

x xA
y yA z zA

m
n
p
146

..

dr
- , ,
dt

x xA y yA z zA

dx A
dy A
dz A .
dt
dt
dt
.
1)
2)
3)
4)

dr1 dr2 dr3


d
( r1 r2 r3 )

dt
dt
dt
dt

d ( r )
dr

, = (t)
dt
dt

d ( r1 r2 ) dr1 dr2

r2 r1
dt
dt
dt

d (r1 r2 ) dr1 dr2

r2 r1
dt
dt
dt

:
dx A
dy
dz
(x xA ) A ( y y A ) A (z z A ) 0
dt
dt
dt
.
,


r i cos t j sin t 3tk t = /2.
, , :
x(t) = cost;
y(t) = sint;
z(t) = 3t ;
:
x(t) = -sint;
x(/2) = -1;
x(/2) = 0;

y(t) = cost;
y(/2) = 0;
y(/2) = 1;
x
y 1

1
0

z (t )

z(/2)=
z(/2)=

3
2
3

:
1 ( x 0) 0 3 ( z

x 3z

3
)0
2

3
0
2

.
147

3
3
3

/2

,
:

x (t )
,

y (t )

y = f(x).
:

dx
dt (t )

dy (t )
dt

dy (t )

. t,
dx (t )
(t) (t) .
t .
(t1, t2), (t2, t3), , (tk-1, tk)

(x1, x2), (x2, x3), , (xk-1, xk)

dy

dx

,
.
,
, .
t,
, t,
.
,
, .
,
, , t
.

.


.
.

,
:

148

x r cos t

y r sin t

0 t 3600

t, :
x2 + y2 = r2(cos2t + sin2t) = r2
.
:

x2 y2

1.
a2 b2

M(x, y)

(, )
:

x
y
a
b OCN, -
cos t
sin t

, b- , .
:

x a cos t

y b sin t

0 t 2
t .

149

. ,
, , .
.
: OB = = at;
PB = MK = asint;
MCB = t; y = MP = KB = CB CK = a acost = a(1 cost).
x = at asint = a(t sint).

x a(t sin t )

y a(1 cos t )

0 t 2 - .

, :
a y

x 2a a arccos
2ay y 2
a

a y
x a arccos
2ay y 2 ,
a

a x 2a
0 x a

,
, ,
.

.
a/4,
a.

a/4

, ,

150

x a cos 3 t

y a sin t
3

0 t 2,

, : x2/3 + y2/3 = a2/3(cos2t + sin2t) = a2/3


, .

x (t)

, t0 t T
y (t)

, x = (t)
t = ().
= (t) y = [()].
dy dy dt d (t ) d( x)

dx dt dx
dt
dx
d( x )
1

d(t )
.. () , dx
dt
d (t )
dy
(t )
dt
:
d(t )
dx
(t )
dt
,
.

x2 y2

1
a2 b2

1: y

b
a 2 x 2 ,
a

dy
b ( 2 x )
bx

2
2
dx
2a a x
a a2 x2

x a cos t
2: :
.
y b sin t
dy
b cos t
b

dx a sin t atgt

x2
cos t 2
a
2

x2 = a2cos2t;
151

1
a2 a2 x2
2
2

tg
t

tg
t

cos 2 t
x2
x2

tgt

dy
bx
a2 x2
; dx
a a2 x2
x

:
.
, ,
.
:

AB

AB .

AB

,
, .. ,
.
:

AB

0.

K A lim K lim

AB 0

A B

AB

AB

= S, , -

, S ,
KA

152

d
dS

: R K .
A
y = f(x).
y

A +
x

;
S
d
d
dx .
= (x) S = S(x),
dS
dS
dx

lim K cp

Kcp =

S 0

d2y
dy
dy
d
dx 2
dx tg; arctg dx dx
dy
1

dx
dS
dy
:
1

dx
dx

d
;
dS

d 2 y / dx 2
d
2
d dx
1 dy / dx
d 2 y / dx 2

2
2 3/ 2
dS dS

1 dy / dx
dy

1
dx
dx

.. K A dS

d2y
dx 2
dy

1
dx

3/ 2

: K A

, : y = f(x).

A
C(a, b)

153

1 ( y )

2 3/ 2

, ,
= R, R .
(a, b) .
R .
, .
,
:

y(1 y2 )
1 y2
a x
; b y ;
y
y
:
, .
.
,
.
.
1: .
2:
.

R2 R1 C1C 2

1
R1

R2

R3 R2 C 2 C 3

R3

M1
M1

M2
M2

M3
M3

, .
154

:
,
,
.
: , :

x a(cos t t sin t )

y a(sin t t cos t )
x a( sin t sin t t cos t ) at cos t

y a(cos t cos t t sin t ) at sin t


y
tgt ;
1 ( y ) 2 sec 2 t ,
x
d (tgt ) d (tgt ) dt
1 sec 3 t
y

sec 2 t
dx
dt
dx
x
at
y

at sec 2 t
p a(cos t t sin t ) 3 tgt a cos t
sec t
at sec 2 t
q a(sin t t cos t ) 3 a sin t
sec t

p a cos t
-

q a sin t

. .
.

155

15

10

10

10

10

15

.
z

A(x, y, z)

r r

x
, ,
S.
x = (S);

y = (S);

z = f(S);


r r ( S ) ( S )i ( S ) j f ( S ) k ;

156

:
,

r (S ) S, .

AB
dr
r
r

lim
,

- ,

dS S 0 S
S
AB
(x, y, z).

..

dr
lim 1 , a
A B
dS
AB
AB

- ,

r xi yj zk ,
2

dx
dy
dz


dS

dS

dS

dx dy dz
i
j
k.
dS
dS
dS

1.

d 2r
d dr
da

;

dS dS
dS
dS 2

da
: ,

dS

. n .

da
K n , .
dS


d 2r
n
;
2
R
dS

:
r r 2
K
3
r 2

(
):

d 2r

K
2
dS

d 2x
d 2r

2
dS 2
dS

d2y

2
dS

d 2z

2
dS

1
d 2r
.
2
K
dS
.

.
:


da
n
;
dS R

db
n
;
dS T

157


dn
a b
;
dS
R T

n b a;

.
:

n
- ,

b - ,

R R
.

1
,
K

: ,
.
: ,

, .

b .

db
1

;
dS
T

db
1

n;
dS
T

1
.
T

:
y 1 x 3 .
3

1. (-; ).
2. .
3. : c : x = 0; y = 1;
: y = 0; x = 1;
4. : .
: y = kx + b;
3
f ( x)
1 x3
1 x3
1
k lim
lim
lim 3
lim 3 3 1 1;
3
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
b lim ( f ( x ) kx) lim(3 1 x 3 x ) lim
x

(1 x 3 x 3 )
3

1 x

0;

x 1 x x
3

: = - .
5. , .
y

1
(1 x 3 ) 2 / 3 3 x 2 . , 0 0, ,
3

. = 0
,
, , = 0 .
, .
y

2x
3

(1 x 3 ) 5

y = 0 =0 y = = 1.

(0,1) (1,0) , .. y(1-h) < 0; y(1+h) >0; y(-h) > 0;


y(h) < 0 h > 0.
158

6. .
2

: y

x3 4
.
x2

1. , = 0.
2. .
3. : c : y = 0; x = 3 4
: x = 0; y .
y , , = 0
4. = 0 lim
x 0
.
: y = kx + b.
f ( x)
x3 4
4

k lim
lim
lim 1 3 1
3
x
x
x
x
x
x

x3 4

4
x lim 3 0.
2
x
x

x
x

b lim ( f ( x) kx) lim


x

= .
5. .
8
y 1 3 ; y = 0 = 2, = = 0.
x
y > 0 (-, 0) ,
y < 0 (0, 2) ,
> 0 (2, ) .
, (2, 3) .
/
.
24
y 4 > 0 0, , ,
x
.
6. .
159

: y x( x 1) 3 .
1. (-, ).
2. .
3. : : x = 0, y = 0;
: y = 0, x = 0, x = 1.
4. .
.
y = kx + b.
f ( x)
x( x 1) 3
k lim
lim
- .
x
x
x
x
5. .

y x( x 3 3x 2 3 x 1 x 4 3 x 3 3x 2 x 4 x 3 9 x 2 6 x 1

43 92 +6 1 = 0.
.
,
= 1. :
4x3 9x2 + 6x 1 x - 1
4x3 4x2
4x2 5x + 1
- 5x2 + 6x

- 5x2 + 5x
x-1

x-1
0
( 1)(42 5 + 1) = 0.
: x = 1 x = .
. ,
:

y x ( x 1) 3

( x 1)

3 x ( x 1) 2 ( x 1) 2 ( x 1 3 x ) ( x 1) 2 ( 4 x 1)
160

: 12x2 18x + 6. , :
x = 1, x = .
:

f(x)
f(x)
f(x)

(- ; )
+

1/4
+
0
min

( ; )
+
+

1/2
0
+

( ;1)
+

1
0
0

6. .

0.4

0.2

0.5

0.5

0.2

0.4

161

1.5

(1 ; )
+
+