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Supplemental Activities #1

Age

Description of language development

Birth to 1 month

Cries only because of discomfort or hunger

1 to 3 months

Makes cooing sounds

3 6 months

Babbling with sentence intonation

6 9 months
9 12 months

Products first word


Discriminates among similar language sounds

12 18 months

Understand a few words

18 24 months

Have vocabulary of about 50 words


Make some consonant-vowels sounds

24 36 months

3 4 years

Babbles repetitive consonant-vowel strings


Combines words to make telegraphic sentences
Starts to ask lots of why questions
Know cake the eat is silly but doesnt know why
Begins to use grammatical morphemes and
function words

4 6 years

Takes into account what listener know


Learns to use different voice with different
interluctous

6 8 years

Has a vocabulary of several thousand words


Show literacy-based metalinguistic awareness

8 10 years

Learns to use different language registers for


different social/academic situations

Supplemental Activity #2
Learner 1
1. Does a dog is black and white?
2. Where the dog is?
3. Does the boy throw a ball?
4. How many spot the dog has?
5. It is five questions?
Learner 2
6. Do you see a dog?
7. Do the dog has a shoe?
8. The boy throw a ball or a shoe?
9. The ball is on the air?
10. The dog has a little spot black?
Learner 3
11. What is the dog doing?
12. Are the children running?
13. Is the shoe on the grass?
14. How many spots does the dog have?
15. Did the dog catch the shoe?

Stage
1
2

3
x
x
x

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

That is pretty hard for me to figure out what stages. I know it is wrong grammatical but the stages
confuse me extremely. I am trying.

Supplemental Activity #3
A. is a willing and accurate guesser

B. tries to get a message across even if specific language


knowledge is lacking

4X

C. is willing to make mistakes

D. constantly looks for patterns in the language

E. practices as often as possible

F. analyses his or her own speech and the speech of others

G. attends to whether his or her performances meets the


standards he or she has learned

H. enjoys grammar exercises

I. begins learning in childhood


J. has an above-average IQ

X
X

K. has good academic skills

L. has a good self-image and lots of confidence

Supplemental Activity #4

A
F
F
E
C
T
I
V
E

SUPPLEMENTARY ACTIVITY 4.1: SLA THEORIES CROSSWORD


I N T E R A C T
I O N
Z P D
O
T
C
U D I O L
I N G U A L
O
C
C
F O R M
I
Q
R
N
U
L E O W
U G
L E A R N I N G
C
R
T
C O M P E T
I
T
I O N
U
S
V
T
E
P
E N C O U N T E R
T

C
O
M
P
E
T
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N
C
E

Supplemental Activity #5
TASL 501, Dr. Carlson
Kelly, Lisa, Sherilyn and Yvonne/Cheryl
November 22, 2014
Supplementary Activity 6.3:
Comparing teaching approaches
The following activity is adapted from one developed by Mela Sarkar. Each of the four
statements below represents the perspective of an imaginary teacher who is using one of the
approaches to teaching described in Chapter 6. After you have read the statements, answer the
following questions for each one:
1. What is this teaching approach called in Chapter 6?
2. What SLA perspective (from Chapter 4) is this teaching approach closely linked with?
3. List three things in the statement that helped you answer question 2.
4. Which features of this teaching approach would you use in your own classroom?
Why?
5. Are there features of this teaching approach that you would not use? Why not?

Teacher A (Kelly Leeper)


When I teach a second language, I work very hard on correct pronunciation from the beginning. I
am careful to provide a clear, accurate model for the students to follow, and I listen to them
carefully and correct mistakes as they occur, so the students dont form bad pronunciation habits.
That applies to grammar, too. We work with short dialogues that the students memorize and
practise in pairs. Then they perform them or the class. Of course, Im lavish with my praise for
correct L2 production. We also spend a lot of time on the careful sentence drill, so the students
can learn useful words and phrases in context. I dont talk much about grammar rules in class, although

the students can look those up in their books if they want to. I expect the students to figure out
the rules from the dialogues and other examples they hear from me or in the language lab. We
build up fluency and accuracy at the same time, step by step. Group or pair work is hard to
control, so I dont do it. I want to hear what the students are saying, so I can correct it. After all,
what am I paid for?
1.

Teaching Approach: Get It Right From the Beginning

2.

SLA perspective: Behaviourist Perspective

3.

List three things:


1. Mimicry (using a drill),
2. Memorization (students memorize)
3. Learned dialogues (practice in pairs)

4. Which features of teaching approach I will use: Work with short dialogues that the
students memorize and practice in pairs.
5.

Which features of teaching approach I will not use: To work on correct pronunciation

from the beginning. Why not? I believe the correction should be done in the middle of the
dialogue while they are doing the activity.

Teacher B-((Lisa Rutland)


My approach to second language teaching gives the learners a lot of freedom.
Perhaps it would be better to call them acquirers I dont want them to learn language, I want
them to acquire it! In other words, I want them to feel as natural and comfortable in their second
language as they do in their first. That wont happen if theyre always worrying about some rule
that they might be breaking. We never, never talk about grammar rules. I just make sure that the
students hear and read lots of interesting language material at a level they can understand and

relate to. When something gets too easy, we move on to something new and a bit more difficult.
I keep classroom activities fun and engagingI think people learn better if theyre relaxed and
having a good time. When the students are talking, they make mistakes, of coursethat cant be
helped. I NEVER correct them. That would just make them feel stressed and anxious; then
theyd stop feeling that practising was fun. But I do supply lots of examples of how to say things
right. And they really listen!
1. Teaching Approach: Just listen... and read
2 .SLA Perspective: Innatist
3. Three helpful things:
1. Universal Grammar would permit all learners to acquire the language of their ownnatural setting or emotion.
2. Krashens affective filter- if stressed, learners may not listen or read.
3. Monitor hypothesis-- allowing them to make minor changes.
4. Which features of teaching approach I will use:
a. Enhanced input chosen because I would try and draw learners attention.
b. Grammar plus communicative practice is what I like for the tests. It would measure the
fluency, understanding and the ability to understand as well as transit information in a
variety of activities/discussions with both peers and native user.
c. The dynamics of pair work as I believe interaction is essential and pairing is one of
those in supporting the acquisition.
5. Which features of teaching approach I will not use:
1. Audioloingual pattern drill because it may cause the boredom in learning.
2. Reading for words because it does not apply to my classroom.

3. ASL is a visual language.


Teacher C - (Sherilyn Stutzman)
It is not that hard to learn a second languagebut you have to work at it. And you have to work
at it with other people who are attacking the same task. So I think of myself as a facilitator rather
than a teacher. I set up activities that the students work on in pairs or groupsand please dont
think that its not a lot of work to come up with good activity ideas and to structure them
properly! I have to take the students age and level of proficiency into consideration; I have to
know about their interests, so I can make the material relevant to them. Although I use a lot of
authentic material, of course, its important to adapt what the students will hear and read so
theyll be able to understand it. And on the rare occasions when Im talking to the whole class,
Im careful to modify my language, so its not too difficult for them. I teach them how to do that
for each other, tooslow down, use short, simple sentences; use gestures and other non-verbal
cues; think of alternative ways to say things if youre not being understood. Its all in the
negotiating!
1. Teaching Approach: Lets Talk
2. SLA Perspective: Sociocultural Perspective
3. Three helpful things: (p165)
1. They argue when learners give the opportunity to engage in interaction; they are
compelled to negotiate for meaning.
2. Learners are working together to accomplish a particular goal.
3. Negotiation leads learners to acquire the language forms--the words and grammatical
structures.
4. Which features of teaching approach I will use:

I will use an approach with good activities that apply to the student's interests, age level at that
time. I will also use materials that are authentic to their learning.
5. Which features of teaching approach I will not use:
The focus would be on language learning NOT gestures and non-verbal cues, or the use of
alternative ways to understood.

Teacher D (Yvonne and Cheryl)


I think second language learners have to be aware of the structures and vocabulary of the second
language in order to be able to learn them. The thing is, though, they have to notice language
features because they are interested in what they are trying to understand or say. It wont do a
thing for them if Im always trying to hammer grammar rules into them. No, the best way for me
to help my students is to supply lots and lots of second language material for them to process on
their own. I can make the conditions optimalreduce stress, try not to make them anxious by
correcting them all the time, make the material interesting, and so forth. But ultimately second
language learners have to see for themselves which features of the new language are important.
Then, after they notice those features, learning will happen naturally when they see them or try to
use them again. Sometimes, if I see that students are having difficulty with something, I try to
help them figure it out by talking about how the language works. Or if they keep making a
mistake in using something that I know theyve already noticed, I might remind them by pointing
it out to them as they are speaking or writing. But I realize that learners cant be rushed. Learning
a new language takes time. So we do lots of different kinds of activities, using language that is
challenging, but not frustrating for them.
1.

Teaching Approach: Get two for one

2.

SLA Perspective: Cognitive perceptive, noticing hypothesis, used-based language,

3.

Three helpful things:


1. Aware of the structures and vocabulary of a second language.
2. Noticing language features.
3. Figure it out by talking about how the language works.
4. Interesting materials to do activities

4.

Which features of teaching approach I will use: Why?


a. Just listen and receptive
b. Practice learning signing
c. Signing right in the end
d. Take the time for them learning in timely paced.

The reason is these features, because ASL is a visual language. Let the students learn to use their
visual-spatial skill, and be able to copying the sign then they learn how to interaction easier.
5.

Which features of teaching approach I will not use: Why not?


Get it right from the beginning The reason is this feature I will not use Get it right from the

beginning. Those students will lose interested in learning second language and overwhelmed.

Supplemental Activity #6

Supplemental Activity Assignment #6 7.1 Who Said That

1. Roy Lyster (2007, p.3) initial conceptualizations of immersion and content-based


instruction underestimated the extent to which the target language needs to be attended to.
2. Jim Cummins (200, [.34) Research studies since the early 1980s have shown that immigrant
students can quickly acquire considerable fluency in the dominant language of the society when
they are exposed to it in the environment and at school.
3. Robert DeKeyser (1998, p.49) The crucial point in all thisis not whether one eventually
loses declarative knowledge, but how one moves from exclusively declarative knowledge to at
least partially procedural knowledge proceduralization is achieved by engaging in the target
behaviorprocedurewhile temporarily leaning on declarative crutches.
4. Stephen Krashen (1989, p.440) According to [the Input Hypothesis], when the Language
Acquisition Device is involved, language is subconsciously acquiredwhile you are acquiring,
you dont know you are acquiring; your conscious focus is on the message, not form. Thus, the
acquisition process is identical to what has been termed incidental learning. Also, acquired
knowledge is represented subconsciously in the brainit is what Chomsky has termed tacit
knowledge.
5. Merrill Swain (1988, p. 68) not all content teaching is necessarily good language teaching.
I hope to show, by way of examples from French immersion teaching, some way in which
typical content teaching is inadequate as a second language learning environment. And again, by
means of examples, I hope to suggest some ways in which content teaching can be manipulated
and complemented to enhance its language learning potential.
6. Manfred Pienermann (2003, p. 686) at any stage of development, the learner can produce
and comprehend only those L2 linguistic forms which the current state of the language processor
can manage, [Understanding the language processor] enables one to predict the course of
development of L2 linguistic forms in language production and comprehension across languages.
7. Nina Spada & Maria Frohlich (1995, p.7) we learn language through using languageve
linguistic competence emerges from learners piecemeal acquisition of the many thousands of
constructions experienced in communication, and from their frequency-biased abstraction of the
regularities in this history of usage.
8. Kelleen Toohey (2000, pg. 77) classrooms are organized to provide occasions upon which
some children look more and some less able, and judgements are made which become social
facts about individual children.
9. Nick Ellis (2009, p. 142) in the early 1980s when COLT was first developed the prevailing
view was simply that classrooms in which the focus was on meaning-based instruction, group
work, and creative language-use opportunities were good and teacher-centered classrooms with
a focus on form, correction and restricted language use were bad Later research using COLT
showed an advantage for a combination of form and meaning rather than an exclusive focus
on either one.

10. Carmen Munoz (2006, pp. 33-34) age differences in a foreign language context favour
older learners in the short term due to their superior cognitive development and probably to the
advantages provided by explicit learning mechanisms, which also develop with age.
Conversely, younger learners may be greatly deprived of their potential advantage when there is
not enough exposure and contact with the language for L2 to proceed in the same way as L1
learning.